MBA INTERNSHIP REPORT

NAME OF ORGANIZATION
PAKISTAN TELECOMMUNICATION LIMITED

Situated at:- Sector G-8/4 center Islamabad. Specialization: Human Resource Management (HRM)

Presented to:-Chairman
Department of Business Administration

Submitted by:Name; Mohammad Awais S/O Mohammad Ejaz Roll No:- T-518592 Registration #: 02-PCL-2471 Mailing Address:Mohammad.Awais.7122@yahoo .com

Contact #:- 0332-5947822 Date of Submission:-

(Department of Business Administration)

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

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MBA INTENSHIP REPORT FORMAT
(HRM) Specialization)
Title page (format attached) Internship completion certificate(From the organization) Acknowledgement. List of Table and content Executive Summary. 1) Objective of Studying the Organization 2) Introduction to the Organization 3) Overview of the Organization. 3.1 Organizational Structure. 4) Org- Structure of the Human Resource Management Dep. 5) Human Resource Management process in the Organization 5.1 Human Resource Planning (HRM) & Forecasting. 5.1.1 HRM Process 5.1.2 Forecasting HR Requirements. 5.1.3 Methods to forecast HR needs. 5.2 Employee recruitment and selection: 5.2.1 Sources of candidates; 5.2.1.1 Internal Sources 5.2.1.1 External Sources 5.2.1.2 Employment Selection Process 5.3 Training and development. 5.3.1 Training need Assessment 5.3.2 Employee development 5.4 Performance Management; 5.4.1 Performance Standards and expectations 5.4.2 How performance reports are written 5.5 Employee compensation and benefits. 5.5.1 Types of compensation and benefits 5.6 Organizational Career management; 5.6.1 Employee job changes 5.7 Job changes within the organization: 5.7.1 Promotion. 5.7.2 Transfer. 5.7.3 Demotion. 5.7.4 Separation 5.7.4.1 Layoff 5.7.4.2 Termination 5.7.4.3 Resignation 5.7.4.4 Retirement 6) Labor Management Relations. 7) Critical analysis ( relate the theoretical concepts with your practical experience during your internship in the organization.) 8) Weaknesses of the organization ( main focus on human resource management) 9) Conclusions & Recommendations 10) References & Sources used 11) Annexes/ Appendices.

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Dedicated
I dedicate all my efforts to my beloved Mother & Brother whose pregnable me to complete this burden some task within stipulated period

PREFACE
It is no doubt that practice without theory is blind and theory with practice is sterile. It gives me great pleasure to present the research report on Human Resource Management Strategy of “Optical Fiber System” (OFSR) Sector, G-8/4 Islamabad and Region office S/Town Rawalpindi. The main aim is to enlighten the HRM operations/ Functions of the organization that is under study.
I have applied my best to meet the requirements of Internship report, what so Ever knowledge gained from various subjects of MBA Programme and provided to me by my esteemed Tutors as well as practically knowledge gain from the most experience persons of (OFSR)and that are the flair of their professions. I hope that by the blessing of almighty Allah this report will fulfill the requirements of the readers and certainly it will provide very helpful guidelines to other junior surveyors.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
He gave us a world full of challenges And gave us ambitions to try……. A world that holds marvelous secrets And minds that would ask why All praises and thanks are far Allah Almighty who bestowed upon me the ability to complete this tiresome task and is always there to list in every crucial phase of my life and an other invokes peace for Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who is forever a touch of audience for humility as whole.

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I am indebted to mentioned the names of those people without whom this report could not possibly be written. mental exercises and moral supports that they forwarded voluntarily. Nasir Iqbal & his assistant Mr. I am also very grateful to the helpful Officers/staff of the optical fibre System Region a organization for providing necessary assistance according to my educational requirements and with the deepest sense of gratitude. energies. I am extremely thankful to my beloved parents and brother who provided me all facilities and amenities of life during my education in the shape of Finance & moral. I must acknowledge their valuable continuations in the form of time. I appreciate the help extended to me as well as my other Honorable Tutor Dr Advocate Mr.Ibrar Hussain professor of Business & Labor Law by the AIOU to achieve the desired objectives of said degree Programme accordingly. Mohammad Iqbal & Mr. Muddasar who helped me a lot in collection of data and also given me comprehensive feedback in each and every stage in completion of this report. I would like to mention Manager (Admin) Mr. 4 . I owe my greatest gratitude to my esteem able tutors for their continuous support and guidance through out the whole semester of MBA Programme as well as in completion of this internship report. certainly they are great people who are playing vital role in the personality development of new generation of my sweet homeland. Lastly.

Conclusions/ Recommendations Reference & Sources used. 8. Region  Nature of the Organization  Business Volume of (OFSR)  Profile of employees of (OFSR) Organizational structure  Main Offices of Optical Fiber System Region  HRM Operation of Optical Fiber System. of employees working in Department. Annexes/ Appendices. 2. Objectives of studying the organization Introduction to the Organization Over view of the Organization  History of Optical Fiber System. weaknesses of the organization ( main focus on human resource management). Human Resource Management Process in the Organization.  Major Functions  Support to the other department Labor Management Relations Critical analysis of the theoretical concepts relating to the Practical experiences during your internship in the organization. 16-21 5. 7. 7-11 11-16 4. 10.No Topic Dedicated. 9. 11.Sr. 78-79 79-81 82-83 83-84 85 86-93 5 . Preface & Acknowledgement Page 3-4 6-7 1. Org-Structure of the HRM Department  Number. 13. 3. 22-24 HRM 25-28 28-78 6. Functions of the Human Resource Management Department. 12.

OBJECTIVE OF STUDYING THE ORGANIZATION: MBA Programme is a bookish study but the reality is that where to implement that bookish based knowledge to know the results comprises of factual data rather than facilitates data. which has practical utilization. It is global truth that knowledge is imperative in every sphere of life and importance of knowledge in business organization is greater than other activities of life. It is only object. which is 6 .EXECTIVE SUMMARY: 1. So that. knowledge is only vital. However.

with following objectives: To analyze the bookish based knowledge.  To identify the hurdles. theories are useless.  To study the importance of functional strategy of HRM department.  To study about the structure of the organization as well as the functional study of each department to obtain the desired objectives.  To enhance my knowledge in regard to Human Resource Management by studying practical situation. In scholastic sagacity. In the light of above. Likewise.  To check the utilization of human resource in an organization. which helps to implement the theoretical knowledge in an organization. which is a department of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. theoretical knowledge is rubbish if this cannot be implied in practical situation.  To identify the factors. it is embedded that ideas provides basis for formulation of theories. Main objective of study is to understand that how they are dealing with functions of the HRM. Therefore.  To study about the compensation strategy of the organization. those have no practical utility.  To know the business of the organization. however. I selected the Optical Fibre System for study. How they are dealing with staffing. it is evident that practical study is prerequisite for grooming my theoretical knowledge and abilities by studying any organization.  To check the usefulness of theoretical knowledge in practical. how they are managing the all changes in the operation of organization especially in regard to human resource.  To know about the strength and weaknesses and suggested solutions to overcome on these deficiencies. academic knowledge is worthless without its practical efficacy.increased by its utilization and become ineffective if not utilized in appropriate manner. Therefore. 7 .  Comparison of theoretical knowledge with practical situation. retention of the employees. developing. Therefore. which caused failure of theoretical knowledge in practical situation.

transportation. stationary. Administration Manager is the heads of the Administration department. Administration and management are used interchangeably and have no distinction. ADMINSTRATION DEPARTMENT AT REGION(OFSR) The Administration section at Islamabad region of (OFSR) is headed by the Administration Manager comprises of an Administration officer and three Admin. maintain and ultimately separate employees. execution and evaluation of these policies. train. filling and record keeping. motivate. an attempt to maximize one’s goals by relating means to ends. rules and procedure of that organization. strategies. The Administration Manager is directly under the control of GM of the respective region. The Optical Fibre System Region has an Administration department. while management is the determination. Administration is one of the most complex and challenging fields of endeavor.2). Supervisors. In the strict sense. Thus administration is defined as determination. The activities of Administration department include the personnel and human relations. INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANIZATION: Every organization has to perform certain personnel functions in its own capacity. Administration is the collective activity directed towards the attainment of a specific goal. Every organization has its peculiar administrative structure. security arrangement. discipline in the organization. Society at large proclaimed its human resources to have vital needs that move beyond a “work force” status. which suits the function. development and maintenance of support system for the successful operations and the coordination of activities of various 8 . execution and evaluation of policies. The administrator may participate in the formulation as well as execution of organizational policies. pay. which involves the organization and management of man and material in order to accomplish its goals. objectives. Administration is execution of pre-determined policies. where as the head of the overall Administration is GM Administration of the region. It is rationale action. Administration manager for that matter must be greatly concerned with the expectations of both employees and society in general. Every organization must hire.

in the form of organization of rules.  The structuring of individuals and functions in productive relationship is carried out by the Administration department. 9 . The communication of various decisions.departments. functions and human resources. plans and strategies to the various departments is the responsibility of the Administration department. The Administration department of (OFSR) ADIMN MANAGER PA ADMIN LEAVE & PASSAGE LEGAL & ATTENDA NCE BUDGET MED INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS FUNCTIONS DEPARTMENT OF THE ADMINISTRATION The Administration department in (OFSR) is concerned with the following functions. policies.  The Administration department of (OFSR) manages the personnel and is concerned wit the direction of these individuals and functions to achieve ends previously determined. procedures.

Prof. air-conditioner etc. papers. 10 . furniture. The Administration of (OFSR) through the maintenance of security staff ensures the security of the office. THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE The Administration is required to follow a specific procedure. internal reporting.  The arrangements for infrastructure like offices support services and the Administration department maintains physical facilities for the human resources. files. “the prescribed or customary way of working together with the conduct of an organization’s business. between one organization’s units and another. Waldo defines procedure as. furniture. indiscipline and misuse of his/her authority etc. between one process and another and between all combinations and permutations of these. management. cabin. rules. This includes pens.  The uninterrupted communication and the maintenance of the means of communication is the responsibility of the Administration department. The techniques and process of working and the interrelationship of various functions are The Administration Dept: in (OFSR) provides the tools and material with the help of determined by the Administration dept: in (OFSR). computers. Institutional Procedure Working Procedure Institutional Procedure The institutional procedure pertains to staff service and auxiliary functions. ink. procedures and functions of different departments.  The Administration dept: in (OFSR) also carry out the investigations and inquiries of any office employee violating the rules and regulations. 2. The Administrative procedure in (OFSR) is classified as follows. It ensures the proper co-ordination among the employees. The institutional procedure in (OFSR) includes mails and communication. building.  which the operational work is carried out. fixture and supplies etc.” It is the procedure that governs the internal and external relationship between one individual and another. 1.

 All the admin Orders.  Admin. Manager is directly responsible to the G. appointment of the members. Specific Duties/Responsibilities of Administration Manager  For his administrative function.  He does granting leave to employees. eligibility for the membership.preparation. 11 .  He does all local transfers.M.  He helps the G. procurement and fiscal administration. All the matters of Administrative nature are routed through the Admin Manager for onward submission to the head office and top management. meetings and recommendations.M to perform his administrative functions too.  He deals with all legal cases on behalf of (OFSR) including accidental claims cases from (OFSR). the Admin.  He also deals with all those parties who have hired the (OFSR) buildings or from whom OFSR has hired their building.  The Admin Manager issues tickets to the Military personnel and recover payments from their concerned departments.. space library services. officer orders came through him and are implemented accordingly. Working Procedure The working procedure in (OFSR) includes matters like general functions and powers of the committees. MANAGER ADMINISTRATION The Administration Manager.  He takes all the disciplinary actions against the employees and has the power to demote any employee according to the prescribed rules. Manager makes all the contracts with hotels and restaurants and sanction of bills for their payments. issuance and distribution of documents. who is responsible to implement all the instructions of G.  Approvals of medical bills of the employees are done by the Admin Manager according to the medical rules and are then sent to finance section for payment. files and records. circulars.M. committee officers and finance.

On the technical front. the Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Ordinance paved the way for the establishment of an independent regulatory regime. 10/. Optical Fiber System was established in 1992.500 cities. PTCL has been working vigorously to met the dual challenge of telecom development and socio-economic uplift of the country. announced its plans to privatize PTC. a milestone was crossed in 1996 as the Pakistan telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) was formed and formally listed on all Stock Exchanges of Pakistan. worth US$ 525 million. OVERVIEW OF THE ORGANIZATION: History of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited: Having its origin in the post & telegraph Department established in 1947.per share. In keeping with the convergence of technologies in the telecom sector PTCL’s mobile and internet subsidiaries were created in 1998. with the advent of first long distance digital transmission system in the country. By mid-2008 the two major expansions will give Ufone coverage in over 4.3. The Government of Pakistan in 1991. the Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation(PTC) was established in December 1990. and all major highways in the country. and in 1994 issued six million vouchers exchangeable into 600 million shares of the would be PTCL in two separate Placements. PTCL has laid an optical Fibre Access Network in the major metropolitan centers of Pakistan and local loop services have started to be modernized and upgraded from copper to an optical network. boosted its operations by rolling out the country’s largest ever expansion of its network. 12 . as well as providing high speed cellular mobile and wireless data services. Ufone. Each had a par value of Rs. taking over operations and functions from the Pakistan telephone and telegraph department under the Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Act 1991.the country’s second largest mobile service provider. In 1995. The new investment aims to expand capacity and coverage in existing and new cities. Since then. towns and villages.

Gujranwala. The duration of the billing cycle has been shortened. Further expansion and structural alterations to cope with the future demand are also underway. has been entrusted to maintain 10.000 KM long National Distance Optical Fibre Cable laid along the Main and Alternate routes including a number of spur and subsidiary Link. To improve efficiency. Electronic Mail. The facility of duplicate bills has been streamlined. NWFP and Punjab.  At present.  Balochistan is also being connected to this network through the Shikarpur-Quetta Optical Fibre System link. Free Phone Service (0800). Inquiry (17) of Lahore has been switched on to computerized version.) on National Distance Fibre Cable Network including almost all the DTE’s of Sindh. As a part of this programme. NATURE OF THE ORGANZATION: In 1995 Introduction of value added services also made headway Universal Access Number (UAN Service). 3000 E-Mail subscribers are already online and the Internet too is now accessible in Pakistan. Presently more than 800 cities of the country have been connected through the O-ring (Annex. These services will be conducive to boost the business activity in Pakistan. Operations and Maintenance Centers have been established to oversee the digital exchanges. 13 . Peshawar and Quetta and the existing billing centers are being expanded to cope with the additional subscribers and generation of MIS reports. new computerized billing centers have been established at Multan. now a subscriber receives bill on average within 15-days after the end of the billing cycle. Optical Fibre System Region. Audiotex Service and up-gradation of Public Data Network with backbone were introduced. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) service. In order to facilitate our valued customers.

PTCL is launching a three-phased project for IT and Internet to expand the service to take care of 300. In 1997. PTML incorporated on 18th July. 1995 PTC was converted into a limited company as Pakistan Telecommunications Company Limited. the Directors with much pleasure presenting the first report to the shareholders on the results of PTCL for the six month’s period ended 30 June.New Optical Fibre System has been laid between Karachi and Islamabad. Internet and Information Technology (IT) Services are now very popular in the market and a number of new entrants are competing. which is growing at a much faster rate internationally under the brand name “UFone”. 1996. providing PTCL an opportunity to lease capacity and load its available IT and Internet infrastructure both for private sector license operators and PTCL’s own customers. It maintains and runs a state of–the-art international subscriber dialing system comprising of digital gateway exchanges operating through satellite earth stations and submarine cables. PTCL successfully obtained a Cellular Mobile License for its subsidiary Pak Telecom Mobile Limited (PTML) and selected the GSM 900 state of-the-art technology. namely Telephone Industries in Pakistan (TIP) and Carrier Telephone Industries (CTI). the company achieved a digitalization ratio of almost 80% of total. 14 . PTCL shares have been sold in domestic and foreign markets in the form of vouchers (convertible into shares) and then converted into a Joint Stock Company under the Companies Ordinance 1984 as per provisions of the Government of Pakistan. In 1996. 1998 was established to run this new business independent of PTCL with full financial and management separation thus creating a level playing field for industry competitors. on 31 December. In 1998. Business Volume Of the Organization: About 180. which is one of the highest in the Region It also manufactures and markets telecommunication equipment through its subsidiaries. PTCL also launched Private Sector data and Internet Service Providers (ISP) (brand name Paknet) operating these services under license and revenue share arrangements. Under privatization policy of the Government of Pakistan.000 mobile telephones were then in operation and the market had potential to grow faster.000 customers including the needs of private licenses for infrastructure.

In 2003. In view of developing technologies. 2005. PTCL has decisively positioned itself as a customer-centered organization by adding new services in its portfolio. The formal launch of V wireless phone was inaugurated by Honorable Prime Minister of Pakistan Shaukat Aziz at Sukkur on January 04. PTCL following business-oriented policy to optimally exploit its infrastructure potential associated private entrepreneurs for overall development of telecom sector. 2002. while guarding its revenue streams in the face of forthcoming competition. WLL network connect subscribers to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) using radio signals as a substitute for copper lines for all or part of the connection between the subscriber and the switch. Telecom De-regulation Policy of the Government envisages a broad-based open competition immediately after the exclusivity of PTCL ending December. and the sector is moving towards liberalization. the company is ready to face this challenge and maintain its dominating position. some new projects like Tele-Housing. In 2002.In 2000. In 2005. the monopoly of the company was technically over. Voice over Internet Protocols have also been initiated. PTCL has also launched its own Pre-paid Calling Card Service (domestic and International) to provide better service to the customers. providing substantial market power to the incumbent operator (like 15 . many new services and technologies were successfully introduced and a new Marketing and Customer Care Department headed by a senior executive created to expand existing business and strengthen customer care. At the same time a New HR structure was installed to administer “Change” using modern concepts. In 2004. PTCL would then adopt multi-pronged strategies irrespective of the number of competitors. The recent addition to its diverse portfolio is the V wireless service that was launched with the purpose of empowering all the areas of the country by providing them with instant connectivity. In 2001. Boradband and Multimedia Networks are introduced for customers. The customer response to this service is encouraging. New Generation Networks (NGN). there has been a record reduction in tariff. The various innovative moves have got tremendous response from the corporate and the individual customer sector of Pakistan. new services like Wireless Local Loop (WLL). Service provisioning of telecom facilities has been under monopoly control everywhere for almost a century.

which comprises on engineers. Maintenance of 10. the entry of competitors raised issues that are generally not encountered in other sectors of the country. Banks and other corporate clients 16 . 775 Officers and staff are serving in Optical Fibre System against various posts. due to these and other related factors. which made the Optical Fibre System as backbone of PTCL:I. their entire efforts are mainly responsible for the following. Executive Development Center is providing training opportunities not only to its employees but also to outside professionals to assist them to meet with their personal and professional challenges Profile of Employees: At present.PTCL). however. skilled and technical staff and non-technical supporting staff are mentioned below: Engineers…………………… 325  Skilled & Technical Staff……………………300  Non Technical supporting staff………………150 All employees of (OFSR) are well qualified. Internet Service Providers (ISPs).000 km OF Cable and Systems laid through out Pakistan. According to the nature of the job and running upon round the clock in three shapes to maximize the production levels of the organization according to the current situations and demands The employees are responsible for performing different activities. Recently programs on “Communication and Presentation Skill” and “Leadership Skills” have been successfully completed and which the Executive Vice Presidents and General Managers attended. A series of development programs has been offered for management staff at executive development center. Provision of communication media to Cellular Mobile Operators (CMOs). II. thus ensuring a flawless and interruption free communication system.

Wahid Irshad  Senior Executive Vice President Mr.  PTCL is managed by a Board of Directors.  The President PTCL is responsible for running the day-to-day affairs of the company. EVP’s.Management Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (HQs) Sector G-8/4 Islamabad. SyedMazhar Hussain  Senior Executive Vice President(Operations) 17 .  President is assisted by the well organized team of SEVP’s.Organization: Situated at: Region office: . Chief Engineers/General Managers and other staff members who are qualified and trained in their respective disciplines  President & Chief Executive Officer Mr. S/Town Rawalpindi. Muhammad Nehmatullah Toor  Acting Senor Executive Vice President(HR& Admin) Mr.

I. Naveed Saeed  Senior Executive Vice President(Business Zone South) Mr. Pervaiz Mahtab  Senior Executive Vice President(Corporate Ddvelopment) Mr. Dr.O) Mr.Mr. Sikandar Nawaz  Senior Executive Vice President(Commercial) Mr. Jassim Abdalla  Senior Executive Vice President(Business Zone North) Mr. Farah Qamar 18 . Adel Rashid Soufah  Company Secretary Mrs. Sadiq Al-Jabir  Senior Executive Vice President(Technical) Mr. Faisal Badar El-Kathiri  Chief Information Officer (C.

E. PUBLIC AFAIRS SVP Coordina tion SVP Works SVP Finance SVP I.President& Chief Executive Officer S. P (Corporate Development) S. P (Commercial S. P (Business Zone South) G. V. P (Operation) S. V. E.M.V. E. V. E. V. V. P (Technical) S.T. P (Finance) S. E. V. V. SVP Marketing SVP HR & Admin SVP Financial Monitoring & Appraisal SVP Precision Engineering SVP Engineering SVP Corporate Planning SVP Quality Assurance 19 . P (HR & Admin) S. E. E. E. P (Business Zone North) Chief Information System S.

H a m Q a yu m id ) S E T ran s m is s ion P esh aw ar ( T ariq A li) S E R a d io T ra n s Is la m a b a d (A s im u lh a q ) S E O .F S ys te m Is la m a b a d ( M u h a m m a d Irs h a d) SM OFS P esh aw ar (S h a h id A li K h a n ) S E O . A s im aid Jv ) S E T ran s m is s io n Jh e lu m L A H a b ibu lla h S E T ran s m is s io n A b b o tta b a d (K h alid N a w a z) S E T ran s m is s ion D .O R G A N O G R A M O F T R A N S M IS S IO N N E T W O R K R E G IO N IS L A M G e ne ra l M a na g e r T ra n sm is s io n N e tw o rk R e g io n Is la m a b a d (N a s ir Iq b a l) S E (C o o rd ) T N R Is lam a b a d ( F ay y a-u r-R e h m a n ) z M an a g e r (H R & A ) T N R Is la m a b a d (H A R O O N ) SM O FS Is la m a b a d ( B e h r am S h ah ro k h A s la m ) S E O .F S ys t em P e s h aw a r ( S h a h n aw a z K h a n ) S M T r a n s m is s ion Is la m a b a d (S a le em K h a lid) S M T ra n s m is s io n P esh aw ar (M .F C a b le B annu (M u h am m ad ra) Im n SE Trans O F A N Is la m a b a d (M u h a m m a d z Ija ) S E T ran s m is s io n R a w a lp in d i (Z a re en K h a n ) S E T ran s m is s ion M in g ora (S .F C a b le Is la m a b a d (F a iz A h m e d) S E O .F C a b le P e s h aw a r (K h a lid S h ah z a d) S E O .I. B an g as h ) S E O . K h a n (K h a d im u s s a in w a ) H A n S E ( O . 20 . Id re esf rid) i A P le a s e re fe r th e a tta c h e d file s fo r a m o re d e ta ile d o v e rv ie w Socially Responsible. S a d iq S h ah ) S E T ran s m is s ion T im er g a ra ( M N a w a z K h an ) S E (D X X O ps ) Is la m a b a d (L A M . C a b le J h elu m (A fta b H .F .F r a n s ) –T Is la m a b a d ( M .

Vision Statement To achieve our Vision by having:  Any organizational environment that fosters professionalism..D (Fiber fabrication Department)  T.  PTCL is socially responsible company and it is active in supporting different community projects. D (Transmission department) 21 . citizens’ organizations and telemedicine initiatives to make it possible for poor patients to get improved medical care.  PTCL has set aside Rs. motivation and quality  An environment that is cost effective and quality conscious  Services that are based on the most optimum technology  “Quality” and “Time” conscious customer service  Sustained growth in earnings and profitability Mission Statement “To be the leading ICT service provider in the region by achieving Customers’ satisfaction and maximizing shareholders’ value” Quality “Customer satisfaction.M.F.  TCS (Telecommunication solution department)  HRM/Administration  Finance Department  M. PTCL is working with number of hospitals.D (Material Management Department)  F. 300 million to support Pakistani students to achieve their dreams of higher education. team work and Company Loyalty”  Main Department of the (Optical Feber System) These are the main departments of Optical Feber System.

(QWL) Quality of work life refers to employees perception of their physical and psychological well being at work. management plays very prominent role i. Training and development Compensation 22 . These are the main operations of HRM. It involves giving workers the opportunity to make decisions about their jobs. i) ii) iii) iv) . Once HR objectives are set it then becomes useful to compare the numbers. HRM can be defined as “it is a process consists on the activities necessary for staffing the organization and sustaining high employee performance” In this regard. and working smarter not harder. These activities comes in the range of HRM Operation. M. It focus on employees and management operating a business together and the main objective they always keep in mind is earning handsome profit.e refers to the wisest possible use of people with respect to the strategic needs of the organization according to the skills. the design of their work places and what they need to make products or to deliver services most effectively. In this whole process. One of the most pressing demands we face today is for productivity improvement getting more out of what is input in doing better with what we have. In fact we use the term strategic HRM i. S (International Switching Maintenance Department)  Human Resource Management Operation of (OFSR) There are number of activities performed in the hiring and firing of employees. HRM operations are playing very vital and effective role. Efficiency is the relationship between inputs and outputs seeks to minimize resource costs and effectiveness is goal attainment. It is also the specialized responsibility of the HR Department. skills and experiences of the current workforce with those desire at some future time period. knowledge and competency of employees.e a process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively within through other people. It means that people are major components and the management of human being are Human Resource Management is a major part of every Manager’s job. An Organization is a systematic arrangements of the people to accomplish some specific objectives. Similarly. Job Analysis Recruitment /staffing.

23 .v) Performance appraisal. Organizational chart of OFSR is as under. 1. Optical Fibre System Region is headed by General Manager with Deputy Genera Manager and six Zonal directors.

H A u m s s A S a i s s u n n i s p e R e t t a r i n s o n D d u r c l c t ( A e a n ( A t a s G n t e e r a M t o d i r e e n r m ( W t e n n e A s s is t a K U L N a D ib P D C Q O C n A t s( E s i s s t t t a ) A n K U L D t s ( s S i s t t a a f nf ) t K U L D P D C O C P D C O C a s N i da i b Q a s i dN a i b Q a s i d Assistant General Manager (Staff & Estt) is responsible to control the all activities of human resource and liable to report Director as well as Deputy General Manager. Presently 775 employees at all levels are working at Optical Fibre System.& Rawalpindi Out 24 . Islamabad.

e.  Make proposals for welfare of employees.of 775.  Process cases for nominating employees for different training courses both at local institutions as well as foreign institution (111) Assistant (Welfare)  Process cases for welfare of employees.  Number of Employees Working in (HRM) Department Human Resource Management Profile of Employees. (11) Assistant (Staff)  Make transfer/posting of all levels of levels. Their main duties are as under: (1) Assistant (Estt)  Determination of requirements of new human resource.  Collection of welfare fund from employees. Senior General Manager(HR&Admn)-------------------1 General Manager(HR&Admn) ---------------------------1 Manager(HR&Admn)--------------------------------------2 Assistant Manager(Admn)---------------------------------1 Assistant Superintendent (Admn)-----------------------.  Maintenance of Seniority of all employees.  Process promotion cases of different levels of employees. Functions of human resource are further categorized into three parts i.1 Assistant (Staff)-------------------------------------------------------8 Assistant (Welfare)---------------------------------------------------8 Assistant (Estt)--------------------------------------------------------8 25 . 30 are assigned the work of human resource department. son/daughter marriages etc.  Maintenance of record of recruitment of staff. and Assistant (Welfare). Assistant (Estt). by giving welfare fund.  Helps the employees on special functions like self-marriage. Assistant (Staff).

Unless the recruitment policy is strongly conceived. 1. Recruitment policy The recruitment policy gives the following conditions for recruitment:  The age limit of the candidate should be between 18-35  The educational qualification of the employee. securing the right people for particular job and it may take the form of advertising for large groups of employees or tracking out a highly skilled individual for a special work. Recruitment is the discovery of the potential applicants for actual or anticipated positions. The (PTCL) recruitment and selection procedure involves the following steps. The vacancies are created after the approval of the finance department.  Officers (Executive Category) Masters Degree MBA/MPA. It is the corner stone of whole personnel structure. matriculation to B. All the personnel and human relations process are assigned to the Administration department in (OFS).A/B. Efficiency is the relationship between inputs and outputs seeks to minimize resource costs and effectiveness is goal attainment. Recruitment and Selection Process The recruitment process has always been the central point of interest in a public personnel program. there can be a little hope of building a first rate staff.  Assistant Officers/below category.Total Employees-----------------------------------------------------30 5).Human Resource Management Process in Organization: HRM can be defined as “it is a process consists on the activities necessary for staffing the organization and sustaining high employee performance” In this regard.Sc 26 . management plays very prominent role i. Recruitment simply means.e a process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively within through other people. The Administration department performs the following personnel functions with the consultation of head office. The principles governing the building up of an Administrative structure is very important for carrying out the personnel functions of an organization in smooth fashion.

The selection process is concerned with the securing relevant information regarding the applicant. educational qualifications and experience etc. Selection Procedure Selection is also called personnel selection or employees selection program. those applicants who best meet an organization’s needs in particular job. The application form has to be filled by the applicant in his own writing and submitted to the admin Department before a specific date. The selection procedure of (OFSR) is based on following three principles: 123Competence Equality of opportunities Neutralit The following screening devices are used in “Optical Fiber System” during the selection process. The selection procedure uses the screening devices so that the most efficient and professional employees should be available to the organization. Application Blank Each applicant is required to fill an application form provided by the Administration department. 1. In application farm personal data. 2. I. A board from the head office conducts the test with the assistance of the administration department at the concerned station 27 . Its objective is to choose for employment. Techniques of Recruitment used The vacant posts are advertised through the local and national newspapers and applications are invited with job specification send description showing the job requirements and eligibility. of the applicant is sleeked out 2. Engineering category DAE Telecommunication diploma. It is important to note that all executives should know about techniques of selection to which they may help in making decisions. Test These applications are scrutinized and the candidates passing through the scrutiny are called for a written test.

For MBA/MPA as executives the period is 5 weeks and for employees of under-office class. Offer for Appointment After the approval. Another requirement is the submission of a formal medical fitness certificate from an authentic doctor. Approval By The Competent Authority After going through the whole process of selection. (OFS) has its own training center known as PTC located 28 . probation. the list of recommended applicants is sent to the competent authority for approval. 5. the employees go through an orientation period i. Training is actually an application of knowledge. the period is 3-6 months. presence of mind. appearance and initiative. Physical Examination There is usually a formal physical examination of the candidates qualifying interview. 7. Interview Procedure There are some qualities that can be judged only in interviewmanner. Training Training is acquiring skills and increasing the knowledge to do a specific job. 6. neatness. 4. Orientation Period After appointment.e.3. ability to meet other people pleasantly and to make a good impression at once are very important factors for job. 8. It is continuous process and brings about changes in the behavior of the trained employees resulting ultimately increase in the performance and improvement in quality. the employees apply for confirmation to competent authority. those qualifying the written test are called for an interview administered by the selection board assisted by the Administration department to judge some of many qualities mentioned above. In (PTCL). 9. the administration department notifies the decision to the candidates through a “letter of appointment”. Confirmation After the successful completion of the orientation period.

For example. while a rejected shortfall in the supply of college graduate electrical engineer relative to the demand for them by employers is an external constraint.1). such as the age distribution of the workforce. What can be done in the short run to prepare for long term strategic needs. demand forecasts are subject to many uncertainties in domestic or worldwide economic conditions. and in consumer behavior. What kinds of internal and external constraints will we face. Unlike internal and external supply forecasts. on the other hand. retirements. projected sales. Human Resource Planning (HRP) and Forecasting  HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING: Human resource planning is the plan for the business as a whole. terminations. Internal supply forecasts relate to conditions inside the organization. depend primarily on the behavior of some business factor. in technology. compensation practices.. student enrollments. training and development. the external and internal supply of labor and The aggregate external and internal demand for labor. and managements succession. both internal and external demand forecasts. HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING: `The purpose of human resource forecasting is to estimate labor requirements at some future time period. restrictive work rules in a collective bargaining contract are an internal constraint. Functions of the (HRM) Department Major Functions: 5. product volume to which HR need can be related. and new hires within job classes. What are the implications for staffing. Such forecasts are of two types.in Karachi. to name just a few  Human Resource Main power planning Forecasting strategy The Management of (PTCL). HRP focuses on questions such as these: What do the proposed business strategies imply with respect to human resources. It offers training in different capacities. It works under the supervision of Administration department.Knows that recruitment and selection is one of the most critical and important process upon which the structure and success of any organization 29 .

strategic HR Planning is the mobilizing the human resources an organization towards accomplishment of overall organizational goals. Political. The plans may be short term or they may be long term in nature. and Legal  Technology (Introduction of computing machines caused reorganizing or downsizing)  Competitors (To suppress the costs of labor competitors do reduce number of employees)  Organizational Decisions  Strategic Plans (The strategic plans commit an organization to long range objectives such as growth rates and new products.111. based on types of knowledge.depends. Main Power Planning is a first stair towards success. Here we can also add that one important objective of the HR Planning is to optimize the usefulness of the workers for their line manger so that line manager can manage the work and employees effectively. HR Planning is always inline with the vision of the organization and every step taken in this regard is towards the fulfillment of the organizational goals (long term as well as short term). but to have a meaningful impact on future operations. Model of Human resource planning is at Annex. business plans and human resource plans must be integrally related to each other. The Demand for Human Resource  Causes of Demand  External Challenges  Economics  Inflation  Unemployment  Change in Workforce Patterns  Social. market. Actually. or services)  Budgets (In the short run strategic plans become operational In the form of budget)  Sales and Production Forecasts  New Ventures (Business enterprise) these become in case of merger or acquisition 30 . skills abilities and other characteristics that an organization need. Optical Fibre System Region is following this strategy that recruitment begins with a clear statement of objectives and goals.

1 Human Resource Planning Process: Human Resource Main planning Process are 1) Issues Analysis  Business needs  External factors  Internal supply analysis  Management implications 2) Forecasting Requirements  Staffing levels  Staffing mix (qualitative)  Organization and job design  Available/projected resources  Net requirements 3) Action Plans  Staffing authorizations  Recruitment  Promotions and transfers  Organizational changes  Training and development  Compensation and benefits 31 . acquisitions. Organizations and Job Design (jobs are reorganized or redesigned due to mergers. or spinning off divisions) Workforce Factors (demand of HR is modified due to following factors)  Retirements  Resignations  Terminations  Deaths  Leaves of Absence 5.1.

 Time period within which such needs must be met.1. the skills mix required.(qualitative)  Organization and job design  Available/projected resources  Net requirements  Skill mix (i. . Forecasting HR Requirement A human resource forecast to predict future human resource requirements the number of workers needed. 5. The actual process begins with a specification of HR requirements that can be :- Total number of individuals required to be inducted. Expert Forecasts  Informal and Instant Decisions (Normally organizations made casual decisions) Formal Expert Survey (Large organizations conduct formal surveys)  Nominal Group Techniques (NGT) 32 . Methods to Forecast HR needs  Budget and Planning Analysis  New Venture Analysis (Holding a comparison of HR needs with the firms running similar operations)  Computer Models (By use of Mathematical formulas. education/qualification.2). Labor relations 5. indexation.3). survey results etc. In main power planning. the number expected to be available based on labor market characteristics. extrapolations. PTCL HR Department is utilizing very transparent strategy to meet the requirement of manpower accordingly. the grades and pay scale of the required individuals.  Staffing Levels  Staffing mix. experience. internal versus external labor supply.e.1.e.) 1. age)  Levels (i.

Index Numbers)  Statistical Analysis 5. Recruitment simply means. The vacancies are created after the approval of the finance department.g. It is the corner stone of whole personnel structure. The PTCL recruitment and selection procedure involves the following steps. Trend Projection Forecasts  Extrapolations (It involves extending past rates of change into the future e. Group of five to fifteen managers is formed  They are given a problem in form of a statement  They write down answers as many as possible  After 10 to 15 minutes theses ideas are shared in round-robin fashion until all ideas are recorded  These ideas are screened and ranked  Ideas having majority of votes are chosen for decision making  Delphi Techniques  If same process is run in form surveys instead of their interface. Employee Recruitment and Selection The recruitment process has always been the central point of interest in a public personnel program. applying past average to future projections)  Indexation (It is a method of estimating future employment needs by matching employment growth with an index e. Recruitment policy The recruitment policy gives the following conditions for recruitment: 33 .2).g. Unless the recruitment policy is strongly conceived. there can be a little hope of building a first rate staff. securing the right people for particular job and it may take the form of advertising for large groups of employees or tracking out a highly skilled individual for a special work. Recruitment is the discovery of the potential applicants for actual or anticipated positions.  HR planners play role of intermediary to collect ideas and to give feedback to managers  Four to five surveys are enough to make decision 2.

4. The candidate must be the citizen of Pakistan. Assistant Officers/below category.1. matriculation to B. 5. The age limit of the candidate should be between 18-26 3.Sc. The educational qualification of the employee. 2.  Techniques of Recruitment used The vacant posts are advertised through the local and national newspapers and applications are invited with job specification send description showing the job requirements and eligibility  Recruitment Process: Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment Human Resource Planning Job Job Analysis Information Affirmative Action Plan Opening Managers’ comments Job Requirements Methods of Recruitment Satisfactory Pool of Recruits Specific Request of Managers Identified Recruitment: Constraints and Challenges/Limitations:  Strategic and HR Plans ■ It suggests types of jobs or tasks ■ Job filling internally and externally ■ Laws and orders ■ Equal Opportunity Employment ■ Affirmative action plans are detailed plans developed by the employer to undo the results of past employment discrimination or ensure equal opportunity in the future  Environmental Conditions ■ Unemployment rate 34 . Officers (Executive Category) Masters Degree MBA/MPA.A/B.

Internal Recruitment  Job Posting Programs  Job openings (These are displayed on notice board so that interested employees are given opportunities to be promoted)  Self Nominations (Employees or their immediate super ordinates nominate for vacant post)  Departing Employees 35 . which may affect recruitment plans)  Predicted Vs Actual volume of business (difference between them make an impact on recruitment)  Want ads index (increase in this index leads to tough competition among applicants)  Organizational Policies ■ Compensation policies ■ Employment status policies (part time jobs instead of permanent) ■ International hiring policies (Local staffing in foreign jobs) ■ Promote-from-within policies (recruitment out of existing employees)  Recruiters’ Habits ■ Time consuming decisions ■ Biases ■ Influenced from someone  Job Requirements (recruits should posses the relevant skills)  Costs  Incentives Recruitment channel 1.■ Shortage in specific skills ■ Labor laws ■ Economic changes  Leading Economic Indicators (These economic indexes suggest the future course of the national economy.

MBBS house jobs etc.org)  Private Agencies  Search Firms (who charge some fee and communicate openings)  Other Institutions  Educational Institutions (Like IBA and LUMS)  Professional Associations (PEC. weekly or fortnightly)  Websites (like www. carpenters. Buyback (it takes place when an employee resign to take another job and the original employer outbids the new job offer) a) Extensions (Contractual appointment of an old employee after retirement) 2. willing.)  Labor Organizations (of plumbers. and able to work but their skills do not match the jobs available)  Miscellaneous  Temporary Help Agencies (they provide supplemented/additional workers)  Leased Employees (agencies and some organizations provide skilled employees on lease) 36 . electricians.g. who send written inquiry)  Employee Referrals (employees who refer their friends)  Advertising □ Blind ads (in which name of employer is not mentioned) □ Want ads (in which name of employer is mentioned)  Referral Sources  State agencies (Like unemployment offices etc. security guards)  Military Operations (Askari Welfare Trust – AWT )  Government Programs (e.)  Job Bank (HR department notifies every job opening. External Recruitment  Employee Sources  Walk-Ins & Write-Ins (Walk-Ins are job seekers who arrive at the HR department & Write-Ins.pkjobs. Iqra Pilot Project) □ Structural Unemployment (it occurs when people are ready.

 Open House (To invite people on refreshment and to tell them about one’s organization so that they are attracted)  International Recruiting (cultural aspect be considered). Applciations received against advertisement are then send to the concerned department for scrutiny and short listing the eligible candidates.  Receipt of applications.e a candidates shall not normally be less than 18-years and more than 35-years. Issuance of call letter 37 . Awards.  Job Application Blanks/Forms  Application form  Employment Status  Education and Skills  Work History  Military Background  Memberships.  Publication of advertisement. and Hobbies  References  Signature Line  Recruitment/ Staffing Strategy.1V. Educational requirement for the said post along with experience with clear statement of salary package. Optical Fibre System Region HR Department begins with the requirement proposed by various departments than HR department planned to fulfill the requirements in a stipulated period and following steps are being carried on in this whole process. Model of Recruitment Channel is at Annex. financial incentives. last date for submission of applications with a complete address of the organization send to the various national newspaper for publication. Advertisement for hiring manpower according to the required criteria i.

required for the job. evidence indicates that.1 Internal Sources 5.  Informal contacts are used widely and effectively at all occupational level.1.2. All eligible candidates are called for test/interviews on due dates. In PTCL test normally comprises on 100 to 150 marks in which subject related.2.2. 38 . the selected candidates against the approved number of vacancies are asked to fill bio-data forms for security clearance.  Final selection/ security clearance.After proper scrutiny. a list of short listed candidates along with their complete bio-data is sent to the HR Department for further issuance of call letters for test/interviews.1. The candidates scored maximum marks according to the criteria are selected for interview. by a selection board and obtaining formal approval through minutes by a competent authority. Finally. English essay types questions are being asked. the candidates who have qualified the written tests are called for interview and selection board which consists on most experienced and senior officers interviewed the candidates and finally prepared merit list by calculating the marks obtained by the candidate in written as well as in interview. The concerned department is also responsible to prepare a question paper as per its own requirements and further submitted to HR department for conducting tests on due dates. personality tests are also being utilized accordingly. general intelligence test. the appointment letters are issued only after the security clearance received by a concerned agency. “ which sources are most popular with employers and job applicants. 5. Selection Board is formulated by the competent authority to recruit the competent personnel according to the requirement.2 External Sources The most popular sources for internal and external recruiting. Among employers.  Test/ Interviews. general knowledge. current affairs. In this regard. After final selection. Tests are normally prepared keeping in view the skills knowledge abilities. it seems reasonable task.1 Sources of Candidates: 5. the candidate’s scored maximum marks declared successful.

and none of the variation in commissions.  Larger firms are the most frequent users of walk-ins. agency fees advertising expenses  Cost per hire. promotion from within is most effective. unskilled. that is. regardless of the recruitment sources used generate applicants. one percent of the variation in the survival of new hires. Formal recruitment sources( employment agencies. According to a survey firms. Use of public employment services declines as required skills levels increase  The internal market is a major recruitment source except for entry. Recruiting source explained only five percent of the variation in applicant quality. labor costs of company recruitment staff. Which recruitment sources are most effective.down( rank order from best to least qualified) selection strategy) Various sources of information ( on campus interviewer-recruiter. and commissioned sales workers. advertising ) rather than informal ones ( walk-ins. job incumbent . If sources do not differ appreciably on these important characteristics. and the internal market. professional/technical. organizations can maximize the economic returns of selection by ignoring recruitment sources and using a top. and semiskilled workers.professor) about a jab opportunity The various recruitment sources. write-ins. Walk-ins are the most popular method for recruiting production/service workers. operational costs ( recruiting staffs travel and living expensed.level. followed by newspaper ads. newspaper advertisements are the most effective sources for recruiting office/clerical. employee referrals). by source  Number and quality of resumes by source 39 . once a final applicant pool has been assembled. are  Cost of operations. write-ins. organizations probably should rely on those that are less costly ( newspaper ads) and produce higher-quality applicants ( informal sources ) than more expensive sources ( employment agencies) Thus. friend. For recruiting managers.

who send written inquiry)  Employee Referrals (employees who refer their friends)  Advertising  Blind ads (in which name of employer is not mentioned)  Want ads (in which name of employer is mentioned) 2) Referral Sources  State agencies (Like unemployment offices etc.)  Job Bank (HR department notifies every job opening.External Sources: 1) Employee Sources  Walk-Ins & Write-Ins (Walk-Ins are job seekers who arrive at the HR department & Write-Ins.org)  Private Agencies 40 . Acceptance-to-offer ratio  Analysis of post visit and refection questionnaires  Salary offered 1.pkjobs.Internal Sources Following are the main internal sources are  Candidates  Database  Requisitions  Optical character recognition  Information/Skills extraction  Automatic categorization  Scan  Fax  E-mail  Resumes 2. weekly or fortnightly)  Websites (like www.

security guards)  Military Operations (Askari Welfare Trust – AWT )  Government Programs (e. Its objective is to choose for employment. carpenters. those applicants who best meet an organization’s needs 41 . MBBS house jobs etc.2.3. willing.g. and able to work but their skills do not match the jobs available) 4) Miscellaneous  Temporary Help Agencies (they provide supplemented/additional workers)  Leased Employees (agencies and some organizations provide skilled employees on lease)  Open House (To invite people on refreshment and to tell them about one’s organization so that they are attracted)  International Recruiting (cultural aspect be considered)  External Needs  Labor Market Analysis (It is a market where organizations recruit from)  Guest workers (Foreigners who are granted work visas but not citizenship)  Community Attitudes  Demographics  Trends in jobs  Immigration 5.)  Labor Organizations (of plumbers. Iqra Pilot Project)  Structural Unemployment (it occurs when people are ready. Search Firms (who charge some fee and communicate openings) 3) Other Institutions  Educational Institutions (Like IBA and LUMS)  Professional Associations (PEC. Selection Procedure Selection is also called personnel selection or employees selection program.3) Employment Selection Process. electricians.

which shows low quality of recruits Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection: To reduce discrimination in selection. Recruiting and selection are combined and called the employment function Selection: An Overview Internal Selection: Succession planning identifies potential internal candidates. It is important to note that all executives should know about techniques of selection to which they may help in making decisions. the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has created the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection  Four-Fifths Rule or Bottom Line Test (a disparate impact is assumed when the proportion of protected class applicants who are actually hired is less than 80 percent – four-fifths – of the proportion for the majority group applicants selected) S(PCM) A(PCM) = S(MAJ) A(MAJ) Where A(PCM) = Total Number of applicants from protected class S(PCM) = Number of applicants selected from protected class members A(MAJ) = Total Number of applicants from the majority class S(MAJ) = Number of applicants who are members of the majority group Types of Errors  False-Negative Error (People are not hired who performed well)  False-Positive Error (People are hired who failed to perform) 42 .in particular job. which shorten the selection process Selection Ratio: It is a relationship between the number of applicants hired and the total number of applicants available Selection Ratio = Number of Applicants Hired Total Numb er of Appl icants  High Ratio is 1:25  Low Ratio is 1:2. The Selection process is series of specific steps used to decide which recruits should be hired.

SAT. minorities  Reliability: It means that the test should yield (give in) consistent results each time an individual takes it Testing Tools and Cautions:  Psychological Tests: (To measure personality and temperament)  Knowledge Tests: (They determine information and knowledge)  Performance Tests: (Job related e.Step – 1: Preliminary Reception Of Applications Two Way Street  Organization selects employees  Applicants select organization Courtesy Interview (before formal interview an introductory meeting for public relation) Step – 2: Employment Tests Paper and Pencil tests (like GMAT. typing test for post of typist) 43 . The criterion exhibits the correlation from 0 to 1  Predictive Validity Test Score ≅ Performance  Concurrent Validity Test Score = Performance  Rational Validation  Content Validity: Related to job only  Construct Validity: Related to substitute jobs also  Differential Validation: To test validity for subgroups like women. BCAT. GRE.g. CCAT.) Research (84% employers include testing in their employment decision making process) Test Validation:  Validity: It means that test scores relate significantly to job performance or to another job relevant criterion Types of Validation  Empirical Validation (Experiential): It relates to performance. etc.

The interviewer seeks to answer three questions  Can the applicant do the job?  Will the applicant do the job?  How does the applicant compare with others who are being considered for the job? Interviews can be:  One to one  Two or more to one  One to two or more  Two or more to two or more Types of Interviews:  Unstructured Interviews (Interviewers develop the questions as the interview proceeds)  Structured/Directive Interviews (predetermined set of question are asked)  Mixed Interviews (Blend of structured and unstructured questions)  Behavioral Interviews (focus on a problem or hypothetical situation that the applicant is asked to solve)  Stress Interviews (attempt to learn how applicant will respond to job pressures) The Interview Process/ Stages in an Employment Interview:  Interviewer Preparation  Job application should be reviewed  Should be informed about Job description  Creation of rapport (relationship)  Information Exchange  Termination (wrapping up) 44 . Graphic Response Tests: (polygraph – lie detector)  Attitude and Honesty Tests: (Honesty)  Medical Tests: (drug test.) Step – 3: Selection Interview Selection Interview: This is a formal in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate an applicant’s acceptability. HIV etc. AIDS.

 Evaluation Interviewer Errors:  Halo Effect (If rater allows an information to disproportionately prejudice the final evaluation)  Leading Questions  Personal Biases  Interviewer Domination Interviewee Errors:  Job Related Weaknesses  Nervousness  Playing Games  Talking Too Much  Boasting (Boldness)  Not Listening  Being Unprepared Step – 4: References And Background Checks Reference:  Personal Reference (One that attests applicant’s sound character)  Employment Reference (It discusses the applicant’s work history) Background Checks:  Bonding and Security Checks (criminal records and credit ratings)  Immigration and Naturalization Rules Step – 5: Medical Evaluation To Test Disabilities and serious diseases Step – 6: Supervisory Interview Supervisor can evaluate job related abilities of the applicant If hiring decision is made by the supervisor. level of commitment will be heighten Step – 7: Realistic Job Preview 45 .

It involves showing the candidate the type of work, equipment, and working conditions

Step – 8: Hiring Decision
Final Decision is normally made by supervisor or otherwise

The selection process is concerned with the securing relevant information regarding the applicant. The selection procedure uses the screening devices so that the most efficient and professional employees should be available to the organization. The selection procedure of PIAC is based on following three principles: 123Competence Equality of opportunities Neutrality

The following screening devices are used in (ptcl) during the selection process . Application Blank Each applicant is required to fill an application form provided by the Administration department. The application form has to be filled by the applicant in his own writing and submitted to the admin Department before a specific date. In application farm personal data, educational qualifications and experience etc. of the applicant is sleeked out.

Test
These applications are scrutinized and the candidates passing through the scrutiny are called for a written test. A board from the head office conducts the test with the assistance of the administration department at the concerned station.

Interview
and initiative, presence There are some qualities that can be judged only in interview-manner, neatness, appearance of mind, ability to meet other people pleasantly and to make a good impression at once are very important factors for job. In (OFSR), those qualifying the written test are called for an interview administered by the selection board assisted by the Administration department to judge some of many qualities mentioned above.

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Physical Examination
There is usually a formal physical examination of the candidates qualifying interview. Another requirement is the submission of a formal medical fitness certificate from an authentic doctor.

Approval By The Competent Authority
After going through the whole process of selection, the list of recommended applicants is sent to the competent authority for approval.

Offer for Appointment
After the approval, the administration department notifies the decision to the candidates through a “letter of appointment”.

Orientation Period
After appointment, the employees go through an orientation period i.e. probation. For Telecom Eng/ MBA/MPA as executives the period is 5 weeks and for employees of under-office class, the period is 3-6 months.

Confirmation
After the successful completion of the orientation period, the employees apply for confirmation to competent authority.

5.3 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:
Training: Training helps employees do their current jobs (Now)
Development: Development helps the individual handle future responsibilities (Future)
Training & Development Strategy is very important functions of (PTCL) HRM Department. Proper training and development of the employees with respect to their jobs plays very vital roles to accomplish the organizational goals e.g. orientation training programme is the basic requirement of each and every organization and it is the responsibility of HRM Department to manage such type of programmes for new comers employees. Main objectives of HRD is to satisfy the existing employees of the institute because these employees are the best source of their marketing in capturing prospective motivated, professionals. Best way of satisfying is time reward to eligible ones. It means that training and

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development are interrelated with each other. Training is the best way for polishing of existing as well as desired knowledge of employees on every stage. HRD is following this strategy to capture the maximum market shares with the support of train manpower. It shows that (PTCL) is given emphasize on the training and development programe of all its employees. This training includes on job training, in house training and in form of workshops enhanced for the fulfillment of the organizational goals. , Training is acquiring skills and increasing the knowledge to do a specific job. It is continuous process and brings about changes in the behavior of the trained employees resulting ultimately increase in the performance and improvement in quality. Training is actually an application of knowledge. PTCL has its own training center known as PTC located in Karachi& Rawalpindi. It works under the supervision of Administration department. It offers training in different capacities.

on the Job Training
On the job training is given to employees already working in PTCL. It is give opportunity to the employees to update their knowledge of various procedures, methods, rules and regulations and to keep them in touch with modern knowledge and technology.

Pre- Job Training
The pre-job training is important to the various categories of employees before they join the organization and are likely to assume responsibilities in future. New Employee Capabilities And Job Demands
New Employ ee Capabil ities Orientat ion & Trainin g Job Deman ds

5.3.10)

TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT

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if a training need does surface at the organizational level.(knowledge. interviews. and customer complaints) all provide important inputs to the analysis of training needs. However. If you cannot make that connection. that the competencies necessary for effective task performance. at this level. it is important to analyze training needs against the backdrop of organizational objectives and strategies. an operations analysis is the next step. Organization Analysis: focuses on identifying where within the organization training is needed. Individual Analysis: determines how well each employee is performing the tasks that make up his or her job. a systematical collection of information that describes how work is done. or customers. so that standards of performance for that work can be determined. and higher management). At the general level. In summary the critical first steps to relate training needs to the achievement of organizational goals. Individual performance data. the training is probably unnecessary. It involves. training needs may be defined in terms of the following general idea. Individual analysis. A gap between actual and desired performance may be filled by training. downtime reports. It is also essential to analyze the organization external environment and internal climate. Job analyses. performance appraisals. identified in the operations analysis phase. the difference between desired performance and actual performance is the individuals training need. or situational) cancroids information on actual performance against which each employee can be compared with regard to desired performance standards. descriptions of how tasks are to be performed to meet the standards. Operations analysis requires a careful examination of the work to be performed after training. Performance standards. interviews ( wit jobholders. Operations Analysis: attempts to identify the content of training – what an employee must do in order to perform competently. Skills. objectives . diagnostic ratings of employees by their supervisors. and Attitudes).resources.Need Assessment: Needs assessment diagnoses current problems and future challenges to be met through training and development There are her levels of analysis for determining the needs that training can fulfill. constitute desired performance. work sample. and third. supervisors. 49 . second. peers. Allocation of resources. and analysis of operating problems ( quality control. or tests ( job knowledge.

2 Employee Development Training and Development Objectives: Needs result in training and development objectives. senior managers who set the organization goals should analyze needs. The individual level. At the organizational level. repetition. the managers and workers who do the work to achieve those goals should analyze needs. keeping in mind that performance is a function both of ability (hence. apparently etches (engrave) a pattern into one’s memory  Relevance: Learning is helped when the material to be learned is meaningful  Transference: The more closely the demands of training program match the demands of the job.3. At the operations level. the faster a person learns to master the job  Feedback: Feedback gives learners information on their progress Training And Development Approaches Trade-offs (exchanges): No single technique is the best. training ) and motivation the desire to perform well. or try to influence attitudes Learning Principles: Learning principles are guidelines to the ways in which people learn most effectively  Participation: Learning usually is quicker and longer-lasting when the learner participates actively  Repetition: Although seldom fun. provide needed knowledge. It is important to analyze needs regularly and at al three levels in order to evaluate the results of training and to assess what training is needed in the future. the managers ( teams ) hospecify how the organizations goals are going to be achieved should analyze needs. 5. The objectives here may be to teach specific skills. assessing the needs for training does not end here. which should state the desired behavior and the conditions under which it is to occur Program Content: The program’s content is shaped by the needs assessment and the learning objectives. therefore trade-off among following should be made  Cost Effectiveness 50 .However.

and existing patterns can be altered  Vicarious process: Modeling is a vicarious (explicit) process which implies sharing in the experience of another person through imagination or sympathetic participation 51 . and participation Role Playing and Behavioral Modeling:  Role Playing: Role playing is a device that forces trainees to assume different identities  Diversity Training: It aims to create a work environment conducive to a diverse workforce  Behavioral Modeling: Modeling is one of the fundamental psychological processes by which new patterns of behavior can be acquired. films. repetition. some trainers move a trainee from job to job. and so it is often called “on-thejob” training (OJT) Job rotation: To cross train employees in a variety of jobs. absences. or resignations occur Apprenticeships and Coaching:  Apprenticeships: Apprenticeships involve learning from a more experienced employee or employees. slides. and filmstrip presentations are similar to lectures Vestibule Training: Separate areas or vestibules (Entrance hall) are set up with equipment similar to that used on the job. Cross training helps the organization when vacations. Desired Program Content  Learning Principles  Appropriateness of the Facilities  Trainee Preferences and Capabilities  Trainer Preferences and Capabilities Job Instruction Training: It is received directly on the job. This arrangement allows transference. downsizing. though it may be supplemented with off-the-job classroom training. Assistantships and internships are similar to apprenticeships  Coaching: Coaching is similar to apprenticeships because the coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy Lecture and Video Presentations: Television.

Like games leading towards decision making Self-Study and Programmed Learning:  Self-Study: Self-study techniques range from manuals to prerecorded cassettes or videotapes. and reactions that result Action Learning: Action learning takes place in small groups that seek a solution to real problem confronting the organization. This involves sharing experiences and examining the feelings. Trainers are particularly concerned about: Reaction: The reactions by trainees to the training content and process Knowledge: The knowledge or learning acquired through the training experience Behavior: Charges in behavior that result from the training Results or Improvements: measurable results and improvements in the individuals or the organization. Several learning principles are included in this type of training  Programmed Learning: Programmed learning materials are another form of self-study. such as lower turnover. or less absenteeism Steps In The Evaluation Of Training And Development 52 . perceptions. Participants seek to improve their human relation skills by better understanding themselves and others. Usually these are computer programs or printed booklets that contain a series of questions and answers Laboratory Training: Laboratory training is designed to enhance interpersonal skills. behavior.Case Study: By studying a case situation. aided by a facilitator who is either and outside consultant or a member of the firm’s in-house staff Evaluation Of Training And Development Effective criteria used to evaluate training focus on outcomes. trainees learn about real or hypothetical circumstances and the actions others take under those circumstances Simulation (Mock-up or Recreation): simulation exercises come in two forms  one involve a mechanical simulator that replicates the major features of the work situation. fewer accidents. Like driving simulators for divers’ training  Computer simulators are the other form.

and Affirmative Action:  Employee Turnover: The willingness of employees to leave one organization for another 5. EEO. Performance Management Process is directly dependent on the performance appraisal system. Performance appraisal is carried out normally on yearly basis. Performance Appraisal is a process of evaluating individuals in order to arrive at objective human resource decisions. In (PTCL) this strategy is also in practice and functioning accordingly. a proper section is functioning where performance appraisal record of all employees are in the safe custody.Evaluation Criteria Pretest Trained Or Developed Workers Posttest Transfer Of The Job Follow-Up Studies Development Of Human Resources Employee Obsolescence: Obsolescence (obsolete) results when an employee no longer possesses the knowledge or abilities needed to perform successfully  Career plateau: It occurs when an employee does well enough not to be demoted or fired but not so well that he or she is likely to be promoted  International and Domestic Workforce Diversity:  Technological Change:  Development. the better would be the management process of the organization resulting in the better performance of the people towards the achievement of the organizational objectives.e. IN this connection. The better performance appraisal system any organization has. Performance appraisal strategy is also playing valuable role in further promotion/ development of employees PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT/APPRAISAL  Performance appraisal strategy.4) PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance management process is successfully carried out by the help of performance appraisal system in other words we can say that PMP i. 53 .

Uses of Performance Appraisal:  Performance Improvement  Compensation adjustment  Placement decisions  Training and development needs  Career planning and development  Staffing process deficiencies  Informational inaccuracies  Job-design errors  Equal employment opportunities  External challenges  Feedback to human resources Elements of Performance Appraisal System 54 . all the employees are provided the chance to have a close interaction and communication with the upper management A model of .  It provides feed back to the employees thus serving as a vehicle for the personal and career development of the employees.In order to improve the process.  It helps in improving the employees work performance by realizing them their current status of work in relation to achieve the organizational objectives.e after every module/ break up of the project. In this way. their learning curve.  It provides timely information to the employees and managers for further utilization to make work related decisions. it can help to establish objectives of the training Programme. the employees are assessed in terms of their contribution in the project. Performance appraisal is at Annex. their technical skills etc. an d productivity a great need is being felt for more frequent appraisal system for that matter a decision regarding quarterly review on performance appraisal system is under active consideration on the other hand.V1.  On development needs are assessed. the departments in which work is being carried out the performance appraisal are carried out in more frequent intervals depending upon the modules and break up of the projects i.

time. performance standards. 360-Degree Evaluations: An employee is being evaluated from all directions – immediate super-ordinates.g.4.g.1 Performance Standards and Expectation: Performance standards translate job requirements into levels of acceptable or unacceptable employee behavior.. Jo analysis identifies what is to be done. Performance standards specify how well work is to be done. say. They play a critical role in the job analysis performance appraisal linkage. 55 . Should the system be challenged in court. This requirement implies that there are clear links between the performance standards for a particular job and an organization’s goals and between the critical job elements identified through a job analysis and the dimensions to be rated on an appraisal form. Relevance also implies the periodic maintenance and updating of job analyses. peers and even subordinates Practical System: A practical system is understood by evaluators and employees Standardized System: A standardized system within the organization is helpful because it allows the establishment of uniform practices Performance Standards: Appraisal system requires performance standard. market research data or a machine malfunction).. ability to analyze. relevance is determined by answering the question What really makes the difference between success and failure on a particular job. In short. which serve as benchmarks against which performance is measured Performance Measures: Performance evaluation also requires dependable performance measures the ratings used to evaluate performance  Objective measures: These are indications of job performance that are verifiable by others and are usually quantitative  Subjective measures: These are rating that are based on the personal standards or opinions of those doing the evaluation and are not verifiable by others 5. relevance will be a fundamental consideration in the arguments presented by both sides.Following are key elements of performance appraisal. quality of work. Such standards may be quantitative( e. and according to whom. errors) or qualitative(e. and appraisal systems.

In addition. Following two approaches are well known:  Behavioral Expectation Scales (BES): BES use specific named behaviors as benchmarks to help the rater  Behavioral Observational Scales (BOS): BOS use specific named behaviors as benchmarks and require the rater to report the frequency of those behaviors 56 . The next section of the appraisal instrument includes behavioral instrument and trait related performance dimensions. This section of the appraisal instrument carries 60% weight. the appraisee’s target related performance would be assessed against these objectives. These are employee-produced listings of accomplishments such as publications. speeches. The objective and behavioral performance indicators. For the overall eight of the Executive group. At the end of the relevant performance period. supervisory officer/appraiser will plan the yearly performance objectives for the appraise. objectives are given more weight due to the nature of the work of (PTCL) Past-Oriented Appraisal Methods Following are past-oriented appraisal approaches Rating Scales: Rating scales requires the rater to provide a subjective evaluation of an individual’s performance along a scale from low to high Checklists: The checklist method requires the rater to select words or statements that describe the employee’s performance and characteristics Weighted Checklist: The result is called weighted checklist Forced Choice Method: The forced choice method requires the rater to choose the most descriptive statement in each pair of statements about the employee being rated Critical Incident Method: The critical incident method requires the rater to record statements that describe extremely good or bad behavior related to job performance Accomplishment Records: Primarily professionals use these.The beginning of the performance year. The Appraise will participate in this process of planning objective sad setting performance standards. dimensions carry different weights. assessment and deadlines will be established at this stage. leadership roles. and other professionally related activities Behaviorally Anchored (Attached) Rating Scales: These are family of evaluation approaches that identify and evaluate relevant job-related behaviors. standards for performance measurement. these performance.

changes. they assess and individual’s future potential. Usually comparative appraisals are conducted by the supervisor  Ranking Method: The ranking method requires the rater to place each employee in order from best to worst  Forced Distribution: It requires raters to sort employees into different classifications. usually with specified proportions in each category  Roll-Up Meetings: Adjustments are made through “roll-up” meetings. which allow supervisors to meet with their common manager to explain why their evaluations should be allowed to deviate form the expected distribution  Point Allocation Method: It requires the rater to allocate a fixed number of points among employees in the group  Paired Comparison: It forces raters to compare each employee with all the other employees in the same group who are being rated Future-Oriented Appraisals Future-oriented appraisals focus on future performance by evaluating an employee’s potential or setting future performance goals Self-Appraisal: It is the employee’s involvement in and commitment to the improvement process Management By Objectives (MBO): Participation of staff and managers for goal setting Psychological Appraisals: When psychologists are used for evaluations. not that individual’s past performance 57 . and discussion with the employee who was rated Performance Tests and Observations:  Pay-for-knowledge  Pay-for-skills Comparative Evaluation Approaches: These are collection of different methods that compare one person’s performance with that of coworkers. skilled representative of the HR department goes into the “field” and assists supervisors with their ratings. The HR specialist solicits from the immediate supervisor specific information about the employee’s performance.Field Review Method: In this method. approval. Then the expert prepares an evaluation that is based on this information. The evaluation is sent to the supervisor for review.

not personality characteristics Stay calm and do not argue with the person being evaluated Identify specific actions the employee can take to improve performance Emphasize the evaluator’s willingness to assist the employee’s efforts and to improve performance End the evaluation sessions by stressing the positive aspects of the employee’s performance 5. not general and vague Focus criticism on performance.2 How performance Report are Written:  Annual performance report. Due to this employees will feel sense of responsibility and raise their working standards.  Monthly Performance report. Emphasize positive aspects of employee performance Tell each employee that the evaluation session is to improve performance.Assessment Centers: Assessment centers are a form of standardization employee appraisal that relies on multiple types of evaluation and multiple raters Implications of the Appraisal Process Training Raters and Evaluators:  Definition of key terms  Use of Video tapes  Mock (Role playing) sessions Evaluation Interviews: Evaluation interviews are performance review sessions that give employees essential feedback about their past performance or future potential.  Annual performance report. 58 . Employees are the true assets and they should be awarded according to their annual performance and the evaluation process should be transparent and carried out under the kind supervision of a well qualified Supervisors . not to discipline Conduct the performance review session in private with minimum interruptions Review performance formally at least annually and more frequently for new employees or those who are performing poorly Make criticisms specific.4.

In this way. and devotion to duty The assessment of these traits may vary across appraisers thus making their evaluation both difficult and subjective. The undue emphasis on provide quality services of transmission away from customer focus problem solving and performance excellence. The employees performance report are assessed in terms of their contribution in the project. all the employees are provided the chance to have a close interaction and communication with the upper management. Monthly performance and the evaluation process should be transparent and carried out under the supervision of a well qualified Supervisors & manager. Moreover. & overall (PTCL)  Monthly Performance report. 59 . it is susceptible to individual manipulation since officers may exaggerate their achievements to get undue credit. the section on personal traits comprises parameters such as intelligence. The concept of pen picture is very vague and not properly understood. For example.Annual confidential report is highly subjective and various personality traits with no mechanism to quantify or assess individual characteristics. the report does not take into Transmission performance parameters such as cases of transmission services created. Performance dimensions used are also ambiguous. their technical skills etc. But the Monthly Performance report is very lengthy and cumbersome. some of the questions are irrelevant to performance of a job. Being a self-generated report. Report that are being assessed in the organization that under maximum point & points to achieved. perseverance. Due to this employees will feel sense of responsibility and raise their working standards and expectation. their learning curve.

How does he/she gets along with his/her colleague and team mates? His he /she cherry and optimistic or temperament? Integrity Is he/she honest fair and straight forward? Maximum Points points achieved 10 2 3 10 10 4 5 10 10 6 10 7 8 9 1 0 10 Reliability 10 Can he/she be trusted to carry out the assigned task without fear of mishandling ? Communication skills 10 Does he/she speaks and write effectively Discipline 10 Punctuality.S.No 1 Factors assessed Technical experience:Do he/she have sufficient knowledge of his/her work? Is he /she knowledge about the current development in relevant field. neatness and organization 60 . Productivity What is the quality of his/her work? Is out put reasonable Management skills How does the individual mange the work and personnel ? does he/she effectively delegate the responsibility? Does he/she effective supervise the work Creativity Does he/she show innovativeness in approaching and solving the problem? Initiative and drive How does he/she take necessary action without being told? Does he/she do more than assigned ? does he/she functions independently with guidance Interpersonal skills.

the probation period can be extended for next six months.EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS Compensation: Compensation is what employees receive in exchange for their contribution to the organization. Each employee who has appointed against contract vacancy. the “P” Files (Personal files) of the candidates are sent to personnel branch. where necessary office order for their induction is issued along with all compensation detail according to prevailing rules and regulations. Personal strategy of(PTCL) is also updating the personal data of all employees on 61 . is on probation for a period of one year. after that afresh order is issued for further attention in service. The terms and conditions of the appointment is also mentioned in the office order and finally this office order is dispatched to Finance Department for disbursement of salary per month accordingly. If the performance of the employee is not satisfactory. Personnel /compensation strategy As soon as the inductions formalities are completed.

external and individual equity and in return to achieve the organizational goals Pay Dissatisfaction: It harms productivity and affect the quality of work life. not rules  Acquire qualified personnel  Retain current employees  Ensure equity  Reward desired behavior  Control costs  Comply with legal regulations  Facilitate understanding  Further (Broaden) administrative efficiency Major Phases Of Compensation Management Phase – 1: Evaluate every job. to have an upto date information of each employee. The objective of a successful compensation system is to attract. Employees are expected to inform HR department regarding any change in their academic records. Objectives Of Compensation Management Equity: Internal Equity: It ensures that more demanding. positions or better qualified people within the organization are paid more External Equity: It assures that jobs are fairly compensated in comparison with similar jobs in the labor market Objectives Sought Through Effective Compensation Management: Compensation Objectives are guidelines. addresses. marriage status etc.. effective compensation design is to assign a minority value to each job or skill and to establish an orderly procedure for increasing the base rate. In any organization. retain and motivate employees to achieve internal. A model of the consequences of pay dissatisfaction is at Annex. using job analysis information to ensure internal equity based on each job’s relative worth Phase – 2: Conduct wage and salary surveys to determine external equity based on the rates paid in the labor market 62 .computer.V11. and complete history of each employee is entered in the HRM Programme.

such as responsibility. Model of these three phase is at Annex. mental effort. This method involves following five steps: (Step – 1) Determine the critical factor: (Step – 2) Determine Key Jobs (Step – 3) Apportion current wages for key jobs (Step – 4) Place key jobs on a factor comparison chart (Step – 5) Evaluate other jobs Point System: This system evaluates the compensable factors of each job.V111 Job Analysis And Evaluations (Phase – 1): Job Analysis Position Description: Job Description: Job Standard: Job Evaluation Job Ranking: Specialists review the job analysis information and then rank each job subjectively according to its relative importance in comparison with other jobs in the firm Job Grading or Job Classification: It is slightly more sophisticated than job ranking but still not very precise. it uses points This system involves following six steps: (Step – 1) Determine critical factors: (Step – 2) Determine the levels of factors (Step – 3) Allocate points to sub-factors (Step – 4) Allocate points to levels (Step – 5) Develop the point manual (Step – 6) Apply the point system 63 . skill. but instead of using wages as the factor comparison method does.Phase – 3: Price each job to determine the rate of pay based on internal and external equity. physical effort. It works by having each job assigned to a grade by matching standard description with each job’s description Factor Comparison: These compensable factors are the job elements common to all jobs being evaluated. and working conditions.

the internal rankings and the survey wage rates are combined through the use of graph called Scattergram. Job Evaluation Worth Match Labor Market Worth Pay Levels: To set the right pay level. The Compensation Structure:  Setting a framework:  Job classes: Jobs are grouped in predetermined categories  Merit increase: A rise in pay for performance  Rate ranges: These are the pay ranges for each job class.Wage And Salary Surveys (Phase – 2): These surveys discover what other employers in the same labor market are paying for specific key jobs. Following are the sources of compensation data State Unemployment Offices: Employer Associations: Professional Associations: Self-Conducted Surveys: Pricing Jobs (Phase – 3): In pricing jobs. they may be able to obtain wage rates that are out of proportion to the relative worth of the jobs 64 . The vertical axis represents pay rates and horizontal axis is used for points. the job evaluation worth is marched with the labor markets worth. Wage and salary survey data are benchmarks against which analysts compare compensation levels.  Broad banding or career bands: Pay levels are grouped into small numbers of wide ranges of bands Challenges Affecting Compensation  Strategic Objectives: If some organizations are having same objectives  Prevailing Wage Rates: Market Wage Rates  Red-Circle Rate: The term “red-circle rate” arises from the practice of marking outof-line rates with a red circle on the chart. Using statistical technique called as least squares method of regression can draw wage-trend line. Pay raises for red-circle rate jobs are often frozen when the supply of talent catches up with the demand  Union Power: When unions represent a portion of the workforce.

1 Types of Compensation and Benefits: INCENTIVES AND GAINSHARING Incentive Systems: These link performance and compensation by rewarding performance instead of seniority or hours worked Gain sharing: It matches and improvement (gain) in performance with a distribution (sharing) of the benefits with employees Incentive System Piecework/Per-Unit Payments: Piecework is and incentive system that compensates the worker for each unit of output Production Bonuses: These are incentives paid to workers for exceeding output goals Commissions: In sales jobs.5. Employees are rated on productivity and experience 65 . the seller may be paid a percentage of the selling price or a flat amount for each unit sold Maturity Curves: These are adjustments to the top of the rate range for selected jobs. employers give bonuses  Fringe Benefits: Like medical facility 5. Comparison Strategies and Adjustments: International Compensation Challenges:  Globalization: Means greater movement of employees among countries  Productivity and Costs:  Two-tiered wages: Two wage structures one for current employees and other for future recruits  Compensation Innovations: Instead of increments that raise the wage permanently. Government Constraints:  Wage Compression: It occurs when the starting salaries of newly hired workers rise faster then do those of incumbent (current) employees  Child labor laws  Equal Pay Act Comparable Worth and Equal Pay: “Equal pay for equal work” is the idea of “Comparable Pay for Comparable Work” called “Comparable Worth”.

These raises are usually decided by the employee’s immediate supervisor Pay-for-Knowledge/Pay-for-Skills Compensation: Pay levels are based not on what an employee does but on the range of jobs the employee can do Non-Monitory Incentives/Non-cash Rewards: Recognition programs: In which employees receive plaque (like shield). and noncash incentives BENEFITS AND SERVICES 66 . cash. thus “owning” a fractional part of the firm and sharing in its success Production Sharing Plans: Production Sharing Plans allows groups of workers to receive bonuses for exceeding predetermined levels of output Profit-Sharing Plans: Profit-sharing plans share profits with the employees Cost Reduction Plans: Cutting costs by sharing saving Scanlon Plan: Giving bonuses to improve labor costs and/or quality Rucker Plan: Giving bonuses to improve labor and/or material costs Improshare Plan: It reduces labor hours Incentive Matrix Summary: It comprises of all kind of Individual. group. novelty (unique) items (from key chain to baseball caps) Certificates Time off Vacations Executive Incentives: Stock Options: The right to purchase the company’s stock at a predetermined price Weighted Incentive System: It reward executives on the basis of improvements in multiple areas of business performance Deferred Stock Incentive System: These award stock to executives gradually over several years International Incentives: Foreign Allowances: These are incentives for international employees Gain sharing Approaches Employee Ownership: Many companies have stock purchase plans that allow workers to buy shares in the company.Merit Raises: These are pay increases given after an evaluation of performance.

A n d a n d a t e d B D e a l t e n e f it e n e f i t s A n d S S e e r c v ui c r ie t sy .Indirect compensation: Benefits and Services are sometimes called indirect compensation and “fringe” benefits Elements of Compensation: C o m p e n s a t i o n D ir e c t o m p e n s a t io n M n ac ne an gt i ev m s e A tn d G a i n s h a r i n g I e n A n ( d a S y a . M ) The Role Of Indirect Compensation Following objectives are sought through indirect compensation 5) Societal Objectives: Following societal objectives are likely to be attained by employees 6) Tax breaks reduce 7) Health care 8) Disability life insurance 9) Retirement benefits 10) Organizational Objectives: Indirect compensation may 11)Reduce fatigue 12)Discourage labor unrest 13)Satisfy employee objectives 14)Aid recruitment 15)Reduce turnover 16)Minimize overtime costs Employee Objectives: The real advantages to employee of employer-provided benefits are lower cost and availability casual leave: 67 .Fl a o r ir e.Ps )e r f o r m a n c e ) P C C o m p e n s a t i o n ( B a s e W a g e s C B I n d ir e c t o m p e n s a t io n a f e t y . S ( " F r i n g e " B e n ( eL f e i t gs a l l y .

and leave without pay respective. Leave on full pay. duty periods of 15 days are less in a calendar month being ignored however. Service record of employees are also being up to dated for their further adjustement. promotion within prescribed time frame. EOL may be granted retrospective in lieu of absence without leave. 68 . Ex-Pakistan Leave Ex-Pakistan leave be regulated and be subject to the same limits and conditions as prescribed in the rules i. more than 15 days being treated as a full calendar month for the purpose. At the option of civil servant. leave on half pay. Study leave should not ordinary be granted to government servant of less than 5 years service or to govt. the maximum period of leave on full pay that may be granted at one shall be as follows:Without medical certificateWith medical certificate 120 days 180 days Extra Ordinary leave. Overtime shift allowances record of each employee is being processed for further payment by Finance Department regularly. leave granted has been in continuous service for a period of not less than 10 years and in case civil servant has not completed ten years of continuous service. Study Leave Study leave is admissible to permanent employees to the Officers of Grade-16 & above for the study of scientific technical and similar purpose. servant within three years of the date at which they have the option of retiring or to the servant retiring on proportionate pension. EOL are leave without pay may be granted on any ground up to a maximum period of five years at a time provided that the civil servants to whom such.(Total number of casual advisable during calendar year to all employees 20 days and maximum casual leave can be granted ten days at a time) Earned Leave: (Each employee is entitled for four days of earned leave on full pay for every calendar month. extra EOL for a maximum period of two years may be granted at the discretion of the head of his office. be converted on leave on half pay but is depends upon the balance of earned leave of concerned employee who has applied for leave on half pay. leave on full pay. In Optical Fibre System Region HRM Departments all such leaves record of all employees is being up to dated to compensate the individuals.e.

In any organization. called a co-payment  Vision Insurance  Dental Care  Mental Health Insurance Life Insurance: Disability Insurance: Other Insurance Benefits:  Legal insurance Employee Security Benefits Employment Income Security:  Severance Pay: Severance pay benefits entitle the worker to a lump-sum payment at the time of separation from the company. Limit (as fixed by the companies)  Managed Care:  Well Care: Such as free or “low cost” physical examinations and usually have a small charge for office visits. effective compensation design is to assign a minority value to each job or skill and to establish an orderly procedure for increasing the base rate. Insurance Benefits Health-Related Insurance:  Medical Insurance: It pays for sickness. transfer of employees issuance of NOCs as per requirements is also being up to dated day to day in the light of business laws. The payment is either a flat amount equal to a few weeks pay or a graduated amount based on salary and length of service with the employer Retirement Security:  Developing a retirement plan:  Noncontributory plans: The employer pays the entire amount 69 . external and individual equity and in return to achieve the organizational goals. and hospitalization expenses up to a Rs.Issuance of warning letters. The objective of a successful compensation system is to attract. accident. retain and motivate employees to achieve internal.

and wash-up time Sick Days And Well Pays:  Well Pay: Payments for unused sick leave is sometimes called well pay  Personal leave days: It allows an employee to skip work for any reasons and get paid up to a specified number of days per year 70 . prayer breaks. Often this amount is a percentage of employee’s pay. meal breaks. Contributory plans: The employer and employee both contribute to pay the entire amount  Un-funded plans: Some companies pay pensions out of current income when employees retire. the pension moneys are used to buy employee annuities from an insurer. This is called an un-funded plan  Funded plans: Funded plans require the employer to accumulate moneys in advance so that the employer’s contribution plus interest will cover the pension obligation  Defined contribution: Defined contribution plans occur when the employer agrees to contribute a specific amount into an account. Each annuity represents an insurance company’s pledge to pay the worker a given amount per month upon retirement  Portability: It allows the pension credits earned in one employer’s retirement plan to be transferred into another retirement plan when the worker changes companies  Early retirement:  Retirement Counseling:  Preretirement Counseling: The purpose of Preretirement Counseling is to encourage an employee to plan for retirement emotionally and financially  Postretirement Counseling: It is designed to ease the transition from worker to retiree Time-Off Benefits On-The-Job Breaks: Like rest breaks. usually a bank  Insured plans: With an insured plan.  Defined benefit plans: It obligates the employer to pay the retiree a specific amount at retirement  Trusted plans: a trusted plan calls for all moneys to be deposited into a trust fund.

extended illness. this benefit includes payment for moving expenses  Social service leave programs: These give fully paid leaves to employees who wish to work full-time in a community program 71 .g. the borrowed days are repaid to the sick leave bank Holidays And Vacations:  Stretched holidays: Accumulation of holidays e.M. 8 days continuously instead of 2days + 2days + 2days + 2days = 8days  Working holidays: That pay employees to visit vendors as a bonus for long service  Contingent Time off: It is in the form of paid “holidays” to workers who meet productivity or other goals Leaves Of Absence: Often granted for pregnancy. when they earn additional days.  Core Hours: Core hours of 9 A. Stock purchase programs Social Services:  Child care:  Elder care:  Relocation programs: These consist of the support in rupees or services that a company provides to transferred or new employees. funeral services etc. days. Work Scheduling Benefits Shorter Work Times: A shorter workweek compresses forty hours of work into less than five full days Flextime: The introduction of flextime from Europe apparently resulted in slower growth of four-day workweeks. military reserve call-ups. or even weeks Employee Services Educational Assistance: These programs partially or completely reimburse employees expenses borne for education Financial Services: Like. Sick leave banks: Sick leave banks allow employees to borrow extra days above the specified number when they use up their individual allocation. Then.M. At a minimum. Job Sharing: Job sharing involves one or more employees doing the same job but working different hours. to 3P. jury duty. accidents.

These goals serve as benchmarks along one’s career path CAREER PLANNING Career planning is the process by which one selects career goals and paths to those goals and career development consists of the personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a personal career plan Career Planning And Employee Needs What organization Wants:  Internal Staffing Needs: HR experts see career planning as a way to meet their internal staffing needs What Employees Want:  Career Equity: Employees want equity in the promotion system with respect to opportunities for career development  Supervisory Concern: Employees want their supervisors to play an active role in career development and provide timely feedback on performance  Awareness of Opportunities: Employees want knowledge of opportunities for career advancement  Employment Interest: Employees need different amounts of information and have different degrees of interest in career advancement. Career goals are the future positions one strives (struggles) to reach as part of a career.6 ORGANIZATIONAL CAREER MANAGEMEN A career consists of all jobs held during one’s working life and career path is the sequential pattern of jobs that forms one’s career. These are called career-planning benefits 72 . have different levels of career satisfaction Human Resource Departments And Career Planning: Due to following benefits HR department’s involvement is increasing.Cafeteria/Flexible Benefits: These programs allow employees to select benefits and services that match their needs 5. depending on their age and occupation. depending on a variety of factors  Career Satisfaction: Employees.

Career Planning Benefits:  Aligns strategy and internal staffing requirements  Develops promotable employees  Facilitates international placements  Assists with workforce diversity  Lower turnover b) Taps (Regulator) employee potential  Further personal growth  Reduces hoarding (It is about selfish managers/supervisors who hoard key subordinates)  Satisfies employee needs  Assist affirmative action plans Career Education: Employee should be aware of career planning through  Speeches  Memorandums  Position papers from top executives  Workshops  Seminars Information About Career Planning:  Job Families: When different jobs require similar skills. they form job families  Job Progression Ladder: Job Progression Ladder is a partial career path where some jobs have prerequisites as: 73 .

and personal goals that each person carries through life  Self-Inventory: It gives a detail of personal profile to an employee so that he/she can plan his/her career  Environmental assessment: A career plan that matches employee interests with likely career paths actually may do a disservice to the employee if environmental factors are overlooked  Career counseling process: Stalled (Slowed down) Careers: A particularly difficult issue in career planning assistance is addressing stalled careers  Burnout: Burnout is a condition of mental. dreams. and sometimes physical exhaustion that results form substantial and prolonged stress Career Development  Career Development: Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan Individual Career Development: Following personal career development actions are useful for Individual Career development  Job Performance: Career progress rests largely on performance 74 . emotional.S u p e r in t e n d e n t Partial Career Path U L D C A D s s is t a n t C Job Progression Ladder Career Counseling: The career counselor provides the specific job related information  Employee self-assessment: Career is simply a part of one’s life plan  Life plan: life plan is the often ill defined series of hopes.

 Growth Opportunities: When employee expand their abilities. Exposure (Being Known): Exposure means becoming known (and. usually an immediate supervisor used to be sponsor  Key subordinates / Crucial Subordinates: Subordinates who aid performance of their immediate supervisors  Shelf sitters: Immobile supervisors who are not able to be promoted and blocks opportunities of their subordinates too. held in high regard) by those who decide on promotions. Personal and professional contacts  Resignations: When greater opportunities exist outside the organization.g. a resignation may be the only way to meet one’s career goals  Leveraging: Resignations to further one’s career with another employer has been called leveraging  Job Hoppers: Astute (Shrewd) managers and professionals use this technique sparingly (carefully) because too many moves can lead to the label of “Job Hoppers”. In Japan  Mentors and Sponsors:  Mentor: A mentor is someone who offers informal career advice  Sponsor: a sponsor is someone in the organization who can create career development opportunities. it is hoped. Organizations take remedial actions like:  To buy the employees by offering high pay  Filling Bonds or contracts with employees  Lifetime employments are provided e. Normally fresh graduates do the same. Those who leave seldom (not often) benefit the previous organization because they almost never return with their new experiences  Organizational Loyalty: In some organizations people put loyalty to career. transfers. they complement the organization’s objectives 75 . above loyalty to the organization. and other career opportunities  Networking: Networking means gaining exposure outside the firm.

up.Experience 4. a file of his/her maintained containing the following particulars. For this matter a personal number (P. This feedback have three objectives:  TO ASSURE by passed employees that they are still valued and will be considered for future promotions if they are qualified  TO EXPLAIN why they were not selected  TO INDICATE what specific career development actions they should undertake 5. international experience is becoming an increasingly important growth opportunity Human Resource Supported Career Development:  Management Support: Firms are showing support for career development activities is by monitoring the progress of fast trackers  Fast Trackers: Those who seem destined to make rapid career progress  Feedback: Without feedback about their career development efforts. and resignations (out).Pay 6.No) is issued to each employee. dismissals 76 .Personal data 2. down. demotions (down). 1. These moves correspond to promotions (up).6. Old-Boy Networks: only such people who are members of clubs and so do not rely on organizational growth because they can get growth through their social contacts  Glass Ceiling: In this syndrome women or minorities have less opportunities to grow  International Experience: For those who aspire (desire) to senior operating or staff positions. retirements. it is difficult for employees to sustain the years of preparation sometimes needed to reach career goals. From the organization’s point of view. there are four broad types of internal moves. over. and out.1 Employee job Changes: The Administration department is also required to maintain an up-to-date record of all the employees of Ptcl. transfers and relocations (over).Any other information. and layoffs.Qualifications 3.Promotions 5. Technically.

7.7.2 TRANSFERS Transfers to different jobs either to fill definite vacancies or to perform assignments to develop individuals are made. Every effort is made to remove and eliminate the element of favoritism and nepotism in career advancement of employees.7 Job Change Within the Organization.also fall into the last category. Briefly. It could be a disciplinary action. Promotions and transfers to all categories and grades are made by the head office in accordance with promotion and transfer policies of(OFSR).3 DEMOTIONS If any violation of rules and regulations. technical specialists. 5. The Administration dept: would ask for show cause and explanation through the show cause notice. The Administration department helps the head office in coordinating these activities. Promotions are important organizational decisions that should receive the same careful attention as an other employment decision. 5. 5. let’s consider each of these patterns of change. which commands high opportunities. penalties are given in the form of: 1. Demotions project leaders. better service conditions and a higher rank.7. such as promoting the employee with the greatest seniority if ability and experience are equal. If found unsatisfactory. inquiry is carried out and if found guilty.Discharge 77 . or internal consultants. status. procedures and misuse of authority and functions on the part of an employee takes place.1 PROMOTION: Promotion is an upward advancement in an organization to a position. Employee demotions usually involve a cut in pay.Decrease in pay 2. All the promotions in (PTCL) are made on the basis of merit. Although organization which promotions are determined by a formula. greater authority. belonging. inability employee to handle the requirements of a higher-level job. and personal growth. promotions help satisfy employees needs for security. but we will consider them in the context of disciplinary actions and procedural justice. or opportunity. 5. or changing interests. health problems. privilege.

including the employees side of the story.7. managers should conduct a detailed review of all relevant facts. and resignation.Dismissal 5. Although layoffs are intended to reduce costs. terminations.7. and management policies must consider the impacts on those who leave. on those who stay on the company.4.7.Suspension 4. some costs may in fact increase. Sometimes termination is done for disciplinary reasons. retirements. Involuntary layoffs are never pleasant.2 TERMINATION: Termination is one of the most difficult tasks a manager has to perform.4. Before deciding to dismiss an employee.  Recruiting and employment cast of new hires  Training and retraining  Increase n unemployment tax rate  Potential charges of unfair discrimination  Low morale among remaining employees  Administrative processing costs 5. Once the decision to terminate has been made. Terms of Termination:  Resignation  Transfer to special assignment 78 . which layoffs. To ensure consistent treatment.4 SEPARATIONS: Separation is an outward advancement in an organization to a position.3. the termination interview should minimize the trauma for the affected employee. the supervisor should also examine how similar cases have been handled in the past. in addition to the impact of the layoff on the local economy and social service agencies. as noted in the following. These are all involve employees moving out of the organization. sometimes for economic reasons. Layoff policies should consider the company’s reputation and image within the community.1 LAYOFF Layoff involve employees moving out of the organization. 5.

Early retirement programs take many forms. has been increasing steadily over the organization. If the people remain under valued. therefore. support of HR Department to all departments is key for achieving the desired objectives. which after the retirement of employee is sealed and stored.7.7. but many organizations find it advantageous to establish a specialist division to provide an expert service dedicated to ensuring that the human resource functions are efficiently. leaving anger and resentment in their wake instead.4. then HR Department cannot support the other departments for their effective and efficient operations. particularly professional workers. 5. Early retirement  Outright termination 5.4 RETIREMENTS/PENSION: The age of retirement in (PTCL)is the completion of 25 years of service or attaining the age of sixty unless they are otherwise not fit for work and an employee can opt for pension. Early retirement programs are intended to provide incentives to terminate they are not intended to replace regular retirement benefits. they should leave gracefully and responsibly. Human Resource Department of System is facilitating the operation in the following ways:Optical Fibre performed 79 . For selected employees.  Support to other Departments Human resource (or personnel) management.3 RESIGNATIONS: Resignation. Employees who resign should avoid burning their bridges behind them. "People are most valuable asset" is a cliché. but typically they involve partial pay stretched over several years. early retirement is a possible alternative to being laid off.4. which no member of any senior management team would disagree because Human Resource Department not only involve in the affairs of other departments but other departments are dependent on Human Resource Department. stressing the value of their experience in the organization. or voluntary worker turnover. is an essential part of every manager's responsibilities. under trained and under utilized. The Administration Dept maintains the record of each and every employee of its home station. in the sense of getting things done through people. along with extended benefits.

 The rate of change facing organizations has never been greater and organizations order to capable of must absorb and manage change at a much faster rate than in the past. stimulate discussion. therefore. LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS It is important for people in general to know about labour management relations because these relations are significant factors affecting the economic. which leads to success of other departments.  Human Resource Department tries to ensure that at all times. social and political 80 . diagnose the organizational environment and develop a sound human resource management strategy for an organization. 7. they cannot focus on their real tasks. that is. can and probably will lead to failures in the business process itself.  Without Human Resource. Activities of all other departments are directly or indirectly reliant on human hands. HR department is also engaged in training their employees through their own Training Institute as well as external. efficient support of Human Resource Department helps them to concentrate on the goals. extent of involvement of human resource in different activities can be different. In case of human resource problems. Human Resource is prerequisite for all operations.  to the business needs. Human Resource The market place for talented.  implement a successful business strategy to face this challenge. skilled people is competitive and expensive. all other resources cannot be utilized in effective manner.  Set of resources are offered to promote thought.  Different Wings of Optical Fibre System are assigned different tasks. all other number of people with the skills relevant departments are correctly staffed by the right any one discipline or work grade. who are delivering the desired strategy. however. neither overstaffed nor understaffed in total or in respect of Failure in not having a carefully crafted human resources management strategy. In Department ensures that they have the right people for right jobs. Taking on new staff can be disruptive to existing employees.

Finally in labour management cooperation each side not only respect other but looks to the other to help. Bargaining is part of our daily lives both at work and at home. The important characteristic of bargaining is that it is a dynamic not a static process. Labour Management relations are key to the success of each and every well known organization little bit or ignorance in this regard can demolish the whole productivity process. legally binding agreement that the parties can live with for the duration of that agreement. However. These strategies primarily use to achieve a mutually acceptable. which pave the way for establishing and maintaining friendly relations between management and unions. in which both sides not cooperate with one another work activities are affected. increase productivity and improve quality of work life. HRM department solve it keeping in view all the compensation strategies of the respective organizations as well as in the light of labour and business laws within a limited span of time.institutions of our society. in armed truce. If any kind of conflict arises. There are so many types of labour management relations such as open conflict. An important part of achieving this objective is to come to the table 81 . Concept of Labour & Management Relations is entirely encircled around collective bargaining. labour and management should know about their main responsibilities accordingly and HRM department should also provide all necessary assistance according to the rules and regulations. according to the situation. In order for bargaining to work. For employees. In working harmony each sides respects the other and conflict is limited. resolve common problems. Similarly. affect the wages and conditions of their job and for managers it is very essential for to know about all the relevant relation of labour and management. management and labour can achieve two goals at once. Various strategies and tactics that can be used to achieve this goal are required to use. It is also one of the operation of HRM. both parties must believe in the process and have a mutual interest in reaching an acceptable agreement. however. HRM experts knows very well that if labour and management learn to accommodate one anotehr’s needs rather than repudiate them. two sides view each other as opponents and are prepared for open conflict. labour management relations. By doing so. Collective bargaining. is an institutionalized process that involves unions and employers and is designed to provide a means for determining the terms and conditions of employment for a specified period of time.

In the present competitive market scenario. However. social responsibility challenges. medical/food/housing. HRM is facing challenges like global competitiveness. HRM contributes to productivity in the following ways: Directly by finding better & more efficient ways to meet objectives. CRITICAL ANALYSIS It is globally accepted that organizations cannot exist without people and people also cannot demonstrate desired results without organizations. It is understood that collective bargaining process has laid the foundation for labormanagement relationships for many decades. Bargaining requires commitment. This does not mean.prepared to discuss all of the issues of concern to the parties. However. all small businesses must staff their operations. and innovation to produce workable and responsible results that the parties can live with and prosper. people and organizations are dependent upon each other. Entire human resource management accentuates on productivity. This involves bringing new people into the business and making sure they are productive additions to the enterprise. Effective Human Resource Management (HRM) matches and develops the abilities of job candidates and employees with the needs of the firm. role of human resource in the success or failure of any type of organization is imperative. workforce diversity. capital. and energy). quality of work life and profits. materials. time. Productivity means ratio of an organization’s outputs (good and services) to its inputs (people. unemployment. skill. this process is not self-sustaining. population growth. that a contract is expected to cover every situation that might occur in the workplace during its term since situations may arise that neither party could have anticipated. diligence. however. Existence of huge capital and other requirements for operation of business cannot underestimates the importance of human resource because all other functions of an organization are dependent on human resource. Union representatives must learn how to effectively use this process to provide members with the quality representation they deserve and that is essential for unions to succeed.  Indirectly by improving the quality of work life for employees 82 . Likewise. ethical. therefore.

It is impossible to find any time in the history of man and business. These parts are: Planning and Recruitment of human resources. however. Unfortunately importance of HRM was ignored in the past due to misunderstanding of the functions of management. Organizations want to gain higher profits. better management of human resource by the organizations is the only effective solution and better option. There is significant change in the thinking of Optical Fibre System’s management in regard to human resource management that they are trying to provide maximum opportunities for training to their employees through their own institutions as well as private. opportunities are also provided for foreign trainings to their employees. it has been divided into different parts. efficient people can only make this dream reality by making better use of other available resources as all other resources are directly or indirectly dependent on the human resource. extent of involvement can be diverse at different times. however. which helps to understand the problems of employees and benefits as well as of organizations in easy and better way. For handling this situation in effective manner. With the better understanding and utilization of improved ways and means of operation of businesses. Presently it is considered view of the successful managers of the multinational companies that HRM is key and prerequisite for achieving the long-term objectives as well as short-term. This dilemma has increased the importance of HRM as never in the past. importance of HRM has been realized. This situation warrants holistic approach for establishing collective objectives/goals of organizations and employees. employees want better reward for their efforts. Likewise. Presently there is sharp shift towards better management of human resource. Both have different objectives.  Compensation Management (How to attract and retain the employees) 83 . when human hands were not involved in the operation of any kind of business. This approach helps to achieve the desired objectives to both stakeholders. For making HRM more effective and manageable. It has been apprehended that no doubt that higher profit is main objective (financial or non-financial) and dream of all organizations. On the other hand. Generally it is considered that organizations and employees are two different things. (This must be started from the stage of idea generation of business/organization).

However. Following are some important aspects of good human resource management. which are being ignored in Optical Fibre System:- 84 . top management has only consideration of greater profit without considering the problems and requirements of human resource. practically this aspect of better of management of human resource is ignored. In the present scenario. Optical Fibre System’s management is cognizant about the significance of skilled and efficient human resource but this is still only at meetings and discussion levels. importance of time is ignored. on ground. However. Training & Development of Human Resource (How to utilize the employees in better way by improving their skills)  Labour Management Relations (How to establish and maintain friendly relations between management and employees). Analysis of theoretical study and practical situation helps to understand that in theoretically human resource is central and key element in any kind of organization. most of organizations in Pakistan including organization under study. in organization under study. SHORT-FALLS/ WEAKNESSES OF THE HRM DEPARTMENT In practical situation. the fact that better management of human resource is best way of enhancing the profit is ignored and employees are not compensated in an attractive manner and also little importance is paid for improving their skills. prefer reactive approach to proactive approach. ignoring the fact that proactive approach is best way of achieving the goal of zero-defect. which is actually true in real perspective.  Business & Labour Laws (How to settle the grievances of employees in amicable style both at internal and external levels). Conversely in practical situation especially in Fibre Optical System. Under the academic point view. which is entirely paradoxical to academic concepts of HRM. On the contrary. time is considered as money especially in regard to human resource activities. Skilled and professional human resource helps to achieve the goal of zero-defect. human resource is given secondary importance. better management of human resource is better management of entire activities of an organization. Presently. there is no progress for improving the skills of employees with appropriate training need analysis.

which is prerequisite for any kind of training program because without proper identification of training needs of employees. Effective HRM matches and develops the abilities of job candidates and employees with the needs of 85 .  Compensation package of employees is similar to Government organizations. the same are told/assigned at the time of joining of jobs.  Ignorance of real duties and responsibilities by the employees at the time of selection.  Recruitment without any proper planning. by bringing in new people and by training new and current employees. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT In the light of above. PTCL (Optical Fibre System) is operating in private sector under strong competition. Practice and use of Job Analysis is ignored.  There is no regular internal arbitrator in Optical Fibre System. which requires efficient and motivated HR and attractive compensation is key motivating factor. no training program cannot be succeeded to achieve desired objectives.  Assignment of wrong responsibilities to wrong people. it can be concluded that all organizations must staff their operations.  Activities in regard to human resource are performed without any proper planning and lack of coordination. However. government agencies like Federal Services Tribunal is playing role of arbitrator between management and employees after hearing the both parties.  There is job evaluation in the shape of Annual Confidential Report but lack of its use for future improvement of performance of the employees. Both are bound to comply with the decision and instructions of FST. 10. however.  There is no appropriate practice of Training Need Analysis.

in my opinion. A responsive personnel system helps to manage this process and is a key ingredient for business's growth. which is prerequisite for all activities of Human Resource Management. desired goals cannot be achieved and dreams still will remain dreams. During practical study of the Optical Fibre Human Resource Department and discussion with relevant employees. due some imposed restrictions of government rules/regulations. The decision of privatization of PTCL creates hope for a lot improvement in the HRM in PTCL as well as in Optical Fibre System.e. there is a need of turnaround strategy in respect of Human Resource Management in Optical Fibre System.the firm. Presently. HRM is a balancing act: hiring qualified personnel who are well suited to the firm's needs and training and developing employees to meet the firm's needs are the endpoints of the continuum. 86 . management of Optical Fibre System must consider to take following steps for making Human Resource Department more effective: Practice of Job Analysis must be ensured. There is strong need for adoption of holistic approach towards Human Resource Management by making the use of theories in practical operations of the entire organization especially in Human Resource Department because all other departments are dependent on Human Resource Department. In present situation. Most expanding small businesses fall in the middle of this continuum including Optical Fibre System i. I observed that the management of Optical Fibre System is thinking in the right direction for improvement of the human resource. they hire the best people they can afford. because all activities in regard to human resource are performed without any proper planning and lack of coordination. but they also recognize the need to train and develop current employees as the firm grows. however. Without skilled and professional hands. they cannot implement the new theories of HRM in their organization.

which is prerequisite for any kind of training program. BIBLIOGRAPHY 87 . Recruitment process must be planned in advance and right people must be hired for right jobs with requisite skilled. which make accountable both report writer and under report persons.  Proper assignment of responsibilities and duties to employees and make them accountable for the same.  Practice of Training Need Analysis must be ensured for training process.  System of evaluation of performance of employees in the shape of Annual Confidential Report must be replaced with form like Personal Development & Review.  There must be internal arbitrator in Optical Fibre System for solving the  minor/general nature disputes at initial stage.  Process of HRM must be performed with proper planning and coordination. 11.

Alameen Publications Press. Personnel Administration. MPA Student of Fatima Jinnah University.F. Assistant Manager (Admin & Personnel). Lahore. New Dehli. Robbins. Strategic Management.1 88 .Dr. Annex.Cascio  Management by Stiffen P. Mr. tata mcgrah-hill publishing company Ltd.  Miss Tanzeela Khalid.(2003)  Khan Sultan .  Stickland/Thompson. (2002)  Guidelines from various thesis / internship reports written by my esteem able superiors.  Mr. Najeeb Ullah Marwat. with special reference to Pakistan. Mohammad Iqbal Admin Officer (OFSR)  Human Resource Management by Wayne.

System Of Human Resource Management Output Input Information People Qualification Skills Cultural Attitude Workforce Diversity Transformation Process Inception Development Motivation Maintenance Organizational Skilled People Satisfaction Productivity Motivated People Minimum Turnover Rate Discipline Feedback Employees’ Relation Assessments Appraisal 89 .

Annex.11 E O M W W E r g e o o r g a c n l e m e n t s o f J o b D i z E a n t iv o i r n o a n l Bm E e el e h n ma t av e il o n E r t a sl t i p c l o A y Ap e p u e wd A v Va i a l c c t i i a c l e a Ts n a i c l t s u r a T l aE F e r t ooA an b c o i lh mi t a r bi e i tl i y t y ds k I d e s x k p eS c i g t e d b a c i n h a n E i sm r k F al on r k P S r ao o n o Cm u an k Techniques of Job Redesign J o U n W R d o e e r s p Oe b R e d e s i g n t cv ei a r l s i z p a e t ci o i an l i z a o p b l i Rf i o e b r i nE o b e u t o n c o a t at i gn l a n r i c o m r k S i Jm e n g i n J e J A ot i on n r g e m h m e o u s W 90 .

111 H D e C D E C O D W F T E T F O M R S T o e m a e a u m n s a u d e n n e n m a n R e s o u r c e P l a n n S f o u r p H p u l y m o Ia f m n H p Ru l e m e m s a o e n u n Rr t c a s fs t i m dI n t e r n a Eo a a t e Hs R o l S u p H R s g rm s m u e m o p f p l y n a t C r i e h s a i o R e n s f S u p l y S o u h r p l u x t e r h a l l r g a e c i s o r k l H u n g A e us i z a S t i uo i o n Ps l a f o r c Re e F a n r e c a s t i n g c h n i q uE e s s t E x t e m a n d i t s cn c a e l s n n i n p a l a c c t oe d S u i m r n a o r t a r c e t e s a l S x p e r t F o r e n d P r Eo o r e c a s t Ls t h e r F o Ar e t h o d s C A H R D e q u i r e m e t a a f f i n g b l e s / M r e c a s t s jx e t ce t r i n o a n l N e e d s a b o r M a r k e t e n c a a l ys s t i i n s g o m m u n i t y t t i t u d e s e m o g r a p h i c s n t s a n n i n g 91 .Annex.

Annex-1V R I n t e r n a l R J o b P e c r u it m o s t in g P e c r u it m e n t e n t C h a n n e ls e c r u it m S e n t C h a n n e ls C E h xa t n n n e a l sl R e r s E m r o g r a m p lo y e r o u r c e s J o b O p e n in g s D is p la y o n N o t ic e S e lfn o m in a t io n D e p a r t in g B E E m p lo y e e s B W a lk .I n s & W r it e .I n s o a r Ed m p l o y e e R e f e r r a l s A d v e r t is in g R S P S O e fe r r a l S t a t e A r iv a t e e a r c h t h e r E d u c P r o fe L a b o M ilit a G o v e M o u r c e s u y b a c k x t e n s io n in T e n u r e g e n c ie s A g e n c ie s F ir m s I n s t it u t io n a t io s s io r O r r y O r n m n a l n a l g a n p e r e n t I n A iz a P s t s s a t t io r o it u t io n o c ia t io n s io n s n s g r a m s is c e lla n e o u s m p a s e e n e r n o r d H a t a E o io r y H e lp F ir m s m p lo y e e s u s e n a l R e c r u it in g T e L e O p I n t S t e p S t e p S t e p S t e p S t e p S t e p S t e p S t e p - 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 H i r i n g D e c i s i o n R e a l is t i c J o b P r e v ie w s S u p e r v is o r y In t e r v i e w M e d i c a l E v a l u a t i o n R e f e r e n c e s A n d B a c k g r o u n d C h e c k s S e le c t i o n In t e r v i e w E P m p lo y m e n t R T e s t e c e p t i o n o f A p p li c a t i o n s r e l im in a r y 92 .

B I n r o o t e y r n v e a b l C P x p e t w e s ig r a r g e e n y h w a g n o o n a r e e r a e r e e r HD D Re a e v e l o p m e n t C t a r e S r s u e p v .S l uo pp pm o e r tn e t d e n M c ea n F a g e T b m r a e n r f o r m s u r e g a s t F e e d c k e r k i n a c k a t i o n H o a S in p s p l p L o e o n s r s y a lt y i Jn og b iz a t i o n a b o n d r d t o r s s u e l f t h N Ge a t i o s o r s a t e s i t t e r s O p p o r t u n il i n e it i e s g r i e n c e lt aw s o s r k C s e n a l E x p 93 .Annex.V C I n d i v id u J o E N R L e O M K S G O l d .

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Annex-VII

Performance

Strikes
Desire for more pay

Grievances Absenteeism
Search for a higher-paying job

Turnover

Psychological Withdrawal

Pay Dissatisfaction

Lower Attractiveness of job

Job dissatisfaction

Dispensary visits

Absenteeism

Poor mental health

95

96

97 .

7. 8. 3.Pages 1. 7. 6. 11. Introduction 1—2 2. 5. 9 10. Introduction of topic/Classification of Jobs Pay System Characteristics of Job Analysis Methods of Job Analysis Steps of Job Analysis History & Present Status of Unilever SWOT Analysis of Unilever Theoretical & Practical Situation SWOT Analysis in regard to Topic Conclusion Recommendations 3 4 5—6 7 7—9 10—11 12 13—14 14 15 15 98 . 4.

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