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follows some logical relationship between the input and

output voltages. It is a digital circuit which either allows

a signal to pass through or stop it.

The logic gates are building blocks at digital

electronics. They are used in digital electronics to

change one voltage level into another according to some

logic statement relating to them.

one inputs, but it has only one output. The relationship

between the possible values of input and output

voltages are expressed in the form of a table called truth

table.

Truth table of a logic gate is a table that shows all

The inputs and outputs that are possible for the logic

gates.

binary nature of the logic gates.

which are followed by logical gates.

1|Page

PRINCIPLE

Any Boolean algebraic operation can be associated with the

input and output, which represents the statement of Boolean

algebra. Although these circuits may be complex, they may

all be constructed from three basic

Devices like a P-N junction diode, a resistance and an

N-P- N transistor.

We have three different type of logic gates and they

are the AND gate, the OR gate and the NOT gate.

LOGICAL STATEMENTS

1 0

High Low

Positive Negative

On Off

Close Open

Conducting Non-Conducting

Right Wrong

True False

Yes No

2|Page

BASIC GATES

The OR Gate: - It is a device that combines A and B to

give Y as the result. The OR gate has two or more inputs

and one output. In Boolean algebra, addition symbol (+),

is referred as the OR.

The Boolean expression: A+B=Y

This indicates that Y equals to A or B.

B to give Y as the result. The AND gate has two or more

inputs and one o utput. In Boolean algebra,

Multiplication sign is referred as the AND. The

Boolean expression: A.B=Y or A X B=Y This

indicates that Y equals to A and B.

3|Page

The NOT Gate: - It is a device that inverts the inputs.

The NOT has one input and has one output. In Boolean

algebra, bar symbol is referred as the NOT.

The Boolean expression:

binary numbers.

4|Page

The OR Gate

Aim:

To design and stimulate the OR gate circuit.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2).

An OR gate can be realized by the electronic circuit,

making use of two diodes D1 and D2.

corresponds to the 0 level, and the positive terminal of the

battery corresponds to level

1. The output Y is voltage at C with respect to

5|Page

The following conclusion can be drawn from the

above circuit:

(i) If the switch A and B are kept open

(A=1, B=0), then bulb does not glow,

hence Y=0

(ii) If switch A is kept closed and B is kept

open (A=1, B=0), then bulb does not

glow, hence Y=0

(iii) If switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1), then bulb does not

glow, hence Y=0

(iv) If switch A and B both are kept closed

(A=1, B=1), then bulb glows, hence Y=1

TRUTH TABLE:

Input A Input B OUTPUT

0 0 0

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

6|Page

The AND Gate

Aim:

To design and stimulate the and Gate circuit.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2) and resistance R.

An AND gate can be realized by the electronic

circuit, making use of two diodes D1 and D2.

The resistance R is connected to the positive

terminal of a 5V battery permanently.

grounded and corresponds to the 0 level, and the

positive terminal of the battery corresponds to the

level 1. The output Y is the voltage at C with

respect to earth.

7|Page

The following conclusion can b e easily drawn from

the workingof this circuit:

(i) If the switch A and B are kept open (A=0,

B=0), then bulb does not glow, hence Y=0.

(ii) If switch A is kept closed and B is kept

open (A=1, B=0), then bulb does not glow,

hence Y=0.

(iii) If switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1), then bulb does not

glow, hence Y=0.

(iv) If both switch A and B are kept closed

(A=1, B=1), then bulb glows, hence Y=1.

TRUTH TABLE:

Input A Input B OUTPUT

0 0 0

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

8|Page

The NOT Gate

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND STIMULATE THE NOT

GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

An ideal n-p-n transistor.

A NOT gate cannot be realized by using diodes.

However, an electronic circuit of NOT gate can be

realized by making use a n-p-n transistor.

through a resistance Rb and the emitter is earthed.

The collector is connected to 5V battery. The output

Y is voltage at C with respect to earth.

9|Page

The following inference can be easily drawn from

the workingof circuit:

(i) If the switch A is kept open (A=0) then

bulb glows, hence Y=1

(ii) If the switch A is kept closed (A=1)

then bulb does not glow, hence Y=0

TRUTH TABLE:

Input A OUTPUT Y

0 1

1 0

10 | P a g e

The NOR Gate

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND STIMULATE THE

NOR GATE CIRCUIT.

Component:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2).

An ideal n-p-n transistor

If we connect the output Y’ of OR gate to the

input of a NOT gate, then the gate obtained is the

NOR gate. The output Y is voltage at C with

respect to earth.

11 | P a g e

In Boolean expression, the NOR gate is expressed

as:

the workingof electrical circuit:

(i) If the switch A and B is kept open (A=0,

B=0) then bulb glows, hence Y=1.

(ii) If the switch A is kept closed and B is kept

open (A=1, B=0) then the bulb glows,

Hence Y=0.

(iii) If the switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1) then the bulb does not

glow, hence Y=0.

(iv) If the both switch A and B are kept closed

(A=1, B=1) then bulb does not glow, hence

Y=0.

TRUTH TABLE:

Input A Input B OUTPUT

0 0 1

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 0

12 | P a g e

Conclusion

Logic gates are used to develop many IC

circuits or microchips in today’s modern

world.

Gate are known as universal gates

because we can construct all the three

basic gates using NAND & NOR gates.

Would be nearly incomplete!

13 | P a g e

Bibliography

BOOKS :-

NCERT BOOK

PRADEEP

WEBSITES :-

www.wikipedia.com

14 | P a g e

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