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1. Eat a variety of foods everyday to get the nutrients needed by the


2. Breastfeed infants exclusively from birth up to six months and

then give appropriate complementary foods while continuing
breastfeeding for two years and beyond for optimum growth and

3. Eat more vegetables and fruits to get the essential vitamins,

minerals, and fiber for regulation of body processes.

4. Consume fish, lean meat, poultry, egg, dried beans or nuts daily
for growth and repair of body tissues.

5. Consume milk, milk products, and other calcium-rich food such as

small fish and shellfish, everyday for healthy bones and teeth.

6. Consume safe foods and water to prevent diarrhea and other

food-and water-borne diseases.

7. Use iodized salt to prevent Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

8. Limit intake of salty, fried, fatty, and sugar-rich foods to prevent

cardiovascular diseases.

9. Attain normal body weight through proper diet and moderate

physical activity to maintain good health and help prevent obesity.

10. Be physically active, make healthy food choices, manage stress,

avoid alcoholic beverage, and do not smoke to help prevent
lifestyle-related non-communicable disease.
First Trimester Problems:
1. Vaginal Bleeding
"Some spotting is normal, but heavy bleeding could be a sign of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy," says Natali Aziz, MD.
2. Excessive Nausea and Vomiting
“Vomiting that interferes with your day-to-day activities can lead to weight loss, dizziness, dehydration, and an
imbalance of electrolytes,” Aziz says.
3. High Fever
A fever greater than 101 degrees Fahrenheit or 38 degrees Celsius during pregnancy may be serious.
What it may mean: It could be a sign of infection, which could affect the baby.
4. Vaginal Discharge and Itching
Some vaginal discharge is normal. But in some cases, "These may be signs of treatable infections or sexually transmitted
diseases that can have important consequences in pregnancy," Aziz says.
5. Pain or Burning During Urination
What this may mean: "These can be signs of bladder or urinary tract infections, and if left untreated, they can lead to
more serious illness, infection, pre-term labor, and pre-term birth," Aziz says.
6. Leg or Calf Pain, or Swelling on One Side/ Severe Headache
This won't happen in most pregnancies. But pregnancy does mean a greater chance of developing a blood clot.
A blood clot in the calf may lead to pain or swelling and can result in a blood clot that travels to the lung, which could be
fatal. A blood clot in the brain may be heralded by a severe headache. There are other possible causes of
bad headaches during pregnancy.
7. Flare-Ups of Chronic Diseases
Women who have certain pre-existing medical conditions -- such as thyroid disease, diabetes, high blood
pressure, asthma, and/or lupus -- should note any changes in their condition during pregnancy.

Second Trimester Complications

1. Bleeding
 uterine septum (a wall, or septum, inside the uterus that divides it into two separate parts)
 incompetent cervix (when the cervix opens too soon, causing early birth)
 autoimmune diseases, such as lupus or scleroderma (these diseases can occur when your immune system
attacks healthy cells)
 chromosomal abnormalities of the fetus (when something is wrong with the baby’s chromosomes, which are
cells that are made up of DNA)
Other causes of bleeding in the second trimester include:
 early labor
 problems with the placenta, such as placenta previa (placenta covering the cervix)
 placental abruption (placenta separating from the uterus)
2. Preterm Labor
When labor occurs before the ninth month or 37th week of pregnancy, it’s considered “preterm." Various
conditions may cause preterm labor such as bladder infection, smoking, or a long-term medical disease (like
diabetes or kidney disease). It’s more common in women who have experienced any of these conditions:
o a previous preterm birth
o twin pregnancies
o multiple pregnancies
o extra amniotic fluid (the fluid surrounding the fetus)
o infection of the amniotic fluid or amniotic membranes
The signs and symptoms of preterm labor may be subtle and can include:
 vaginal pressure
 low-back pain
 frequent urination
 diarrhea
 increased vaginal discharge
 tightness in the lower abdomen
3. Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM)
While your water is supposed to break when you go into labor, it can cause serious problems for your baby
when it happens too early. This is called preterm premature rupture of membranes, or PPROM. The exact cause
of PPROM isn’t clear, but in many cases, the source of the problem is an infection of the membranes.
PPROM in the second trimester is a big concern because it can lead to a preterm delivery. Infants born between
the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy are at the greatest risk for developing serious long-term medical
problems, particularly lung disease. The good news is that with the appropriate intensive care nursery services,
most preterm infants tend to do very well.
4. Cervical Incompetence (Cervical Insufficiency)
The opening and thinning of the cervix eventually leads to the rupture of membranes and delivery of a very
premature fetus. This usually occurs around the 20th week of pregnancy. Since the fetus is too premature to
survive outside the womb at that point, the pregnancy often cannot be saved.
Women are at a higher risk for cervical incompetence if they’ve had a previous cervical trauma (such as a tear
during delivery), cervical cone biopsy, or other operation on the cervix.
5. Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia occurs when a woman develops hypertension (high blood pressure), proteinuria (a large amount of
protein in the urine), or excessive edema (swelling). Preeclampsia affects every system in the body, including the
placenta. The placenta is responsible for providing nutrients to the baby. Though preeclampsia typically occurs during
the third trimester in women who are pregnant with their first baby, some women develop preeclampsia during the
second trimester.
Symptoms of preeclampsia include rapid swelling of your legs, hands, or face. Call your doctor right away if you
experience this type of swelling or any of the following symptoms:
 headache that doesn’t go away after taking an acetaminophen (such as Tylenol)
 loss of vision
 "floaters" in your eye (specks or spots in your vision)
 severe pain on your right side or in your stomach area
 easy bruising
6. Injury
Be safe during your pregnancy because you’re more prone to injury. Your center of gravity changes when you’re
pregnant, which means it's easier to lose your balance. In the bathroom, be careful when stepping into the shower or
tub. You may want to add nonskid surfaces to your shower so that you don’t slip. You should also check your house for
other hazards that could cause you to fall.
The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), the principal research arm of the government in food and nutrition, is
one of the research and develoopment institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). It was created
under Executive Order No. 128 signed on January 30, 1987. As such, the Institute is committed to pursue the goals and
objectives of the National Science and Technology Plan (NSTP) and the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN).
For sixty-one years, the Institute continues to provide relevant technologies and scientific information on food and
nutrition. Some of its major accomplishments include the development and commercialization of nutritional food
products; conduct of periodic nationwide nutrition surveys; development of analytical food quality and safety assurance
system; strategies and programs to address the malnutrition problem and tools, guidelines and standards to serve the
needs of nutrition and nutrition-related workers. All these technologies are transferred to health and nutrition program
implementors as well as the households and communities with the end view of improving the quality of life of Filipinos.
The Food and Nutrition Research Institute is one of the research and development institutes (RDIs) of the Department of
Science and Technology (DOST).
The chronology of the events to its present status follows:
1947 - Creation of the Institute of Nutrition (IN) under the Office of the President as the clearing-house of data and
information concerning nutrition (Exec. Order 94)
1948 - Creation of the IN Board for an integrated and multisectoral approach to malnutrition
1949 -Inclusion in the mandate of the IN to undertake research in the applied science of food and
nutrition (Administrative Order No. 81)
1950 - Transfer of the IN to the Department of Health (Executive Order 392)
1958 - Transfer of the newly created National Science Development Board (NSDB) as the Food and Nutrition Research
Center (FNRC) under the National Institute of Science and technology(NIST) (RA 2058)
1973 - Attainment of full agency status directly under the NSDB as a research and development institute
1975 - Renaming of the FNRC into Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) upon conversion of NSDB to the National
Science and Technology Authority (NSTA) under PD. 733.
1987 - Redefinition of the functions of FNRI upon reorganization of NSTA to DOST (Executive Order No. 128)
1993 - Transfer of the FNRI to its newly constructed building at the DOST Compound, Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila
1994 - Designation of FNRI as an Associated Institution of the United Nations University
1996 - Designation of the FNRI's national nutrition surveys and regional updating of the nutritional status of Filipino
children among the statistical activities that will generate critical data for decision-making of the government and
private sector
(E.O. 351)
2001 - Accreditation to ISO 17025 of the FNRI's Food Analytical Service Laboratory (FASL) under the Department of
Trade and Industry's Bureau of Product Standards Laboratory Accreditation Scheme