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BLOCK 1 : AERODYNAMICS AS A BRANCH OF FLUID MECHANICS AND FUNDAMENTAL GAS LAWS UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 : Aerodynamics and Gas laws : Fluid Statics and Dynamics : Lagrangian and other approaches to Air flow

BLOCK 2 : TWO-DIMENSIONAL IDEAL FLUID FLOW UNIT 4 UNIT 5 UNIT 6 UNIT 7 : Circulation and vorticity : Rotational and Irrotational flows and Mapping of fluid flows : Lift on rotating cylinder in uniform flow : Kutta-Joukowski theorem, Magnus Effect, Paradox of D¶Alembert : COMPLEX POTENTIAL : Properties and applications of various flows. : Conformal transformation, Joukowski traces for motion : General expression for lift and moments : 2- D INCOMPRESSIBLE THIN AEROFOIL THEORY : Lift and pitching moment coefficients : Effect of flap on aerodynamic coefficients : Experimental methods

BLOCK 3 UNIT 8 UNIT 9 UNIT 10 BLOCK 4

UNIT 11 UNIT 12 UNIT 13

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Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Engineering & Technology

BAS-009 AERODYNAMICS -I

BLOCK 1

AERODYNAMICS AS A BRANCH OF FLUID MECHANICS AND FUNDAMENTAL GAS LAWS 2

Education is ««««..

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Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Engineering & Technology

BAS-012 AERODYNAMICS -I

Block

1

AERODYNAMICS AS A BRANCH OF FLUID MECHANICS AND FUNDAMENTAL GAS LAWS

UNIT 1: Aerodynamics and Gas laws UNIT 2: Fluid Statics and Dynamics UNIT 3: Lagrangian and other approaches to Air Flow

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D G Shirke Prof. Muralidhar Patkar 5 .EXPERTS Air Cmde Sajjad Rahim VSM (Retd) Prof.

as well as the basic approaches and certain generalized equations. It provides the application of Fundamental gas laws. He will also be exposed to put up Joukowski theorem. 6 . Introduction to Aerodynamics as per which the students have been familiarized to fundamental terminologies and certain calculations related Air plane design and performance. BLOCK ± II This block deals with two-dimensional ideal fluid. This course exposes the students to the specific branch of Fluid Mechanics. The objective of the course is to prepare the students for further study in higher aerodynamics and understand how various laws are applied BLOCK ± I Block I familiarizes the students to Aerodynamics as branch of Fluid Mechanics and recapitulates the Fundamental gas laws in fluid statics and dynamics. Sink. The student will learn to map the flow fields and determine pressure & velocity distribution. this is the first step in understanding Aerodynamics. By studying this.Aerodynamic -I Consequent study of the basic course. its properties to various flows. it will also show how flats effects the aerodynamics coefficients. it helps the students to understand the different types of flows. Conformal Transformation and general expressions of Lift and Moment. The block also describes the various types of winds tunnels and the techniques to measure various parameters. BLOCK ± IV This block specifically deals with Two-dimensional in compressible thin aero foil theory. BLOCK ± III This block deals with Complex Potential. the behavior of fluid in both static and dynamic forms. Suggested Readings Fundamentals of Aerodynamics ± Aerodynamics for Engineering students Aerodynamics for Engineering students Introduction to flight John D Anderson Jr Houghton and Brook Houghton and Carpenter John D Anderson Jr. Vertex flow. the students will appreciate the lift and pitching moment coefficient variations on flat plate & curved plates as well as Aero foils. the importance of circulations and various terminologies such as Source. the Magnus effect and the Paradox of D¶Alembert.

I AERODYNAMICS AS A BRANCH OF FLUID MECHANICS AND FUNDAMENTAL GAS LAWS This block consists of 3 units Unit 1: The unit explains Aerodynamics as a branch of Fluid Mechanics and recapitulates the gas laws which are applied in the study of Aerodynamics. Unit 3: This unit gives the Lagrangian and Eularian approach. Unit 2: The unit deals with fluid behavior in both static and dynamics. it also gives the development of the Bernoullis generalized equation and provides Navier stokes exact solution.BLOCK . 7 .

bodies moving through a fluid which is generally air. track and moments on Aero foils.2 AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamics is an applied science with many practical applications in Engineering. engine nacelles as well as the whole aircraft configuration. It also helps to calculate the Aerodynamic heating of flight vehicles either supersonic aircraft or planetary probes while entering the atmosphere. such as generation of lift.3 Introduction Objectives Aerodynamics Recapitulation of fundamental gas laws 1. wings. fuselage.2 1. a. other surface vehicles.1 INTRODUCTION Objectives 1.1 1. It also aims at estimation of wind force on buildings. ships. 8 . The prediction of forces and moments on. heat transfer to.UNIT 1 AERODYNAMICS AND GAS LAWS Structure 1. All efforts in Aerodynamics are aimed at one or more of the following objectives.

volume V2 at a constant temperature. Suppose p is the intensity of pressure and V is the volume of a gas. Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics it is classified so because differences exist between the flow of liquids and the flow of gases.b. liquids and gases is at the atomic and molecular level. at a constant temperature the product of pressure and volume of gases remain constant. Therefore fluid dynamics is subdivided into three areas as follows i. In a solid the molecules are packed so closely that their nuclei and electrons form a rigid structure. In a gas the spacing between molecules is much larger hence the influence of intermolecular forces is much weaker. The motions of the molecules occurs freely throughout the gas. Different gases have different properties. In liquid the spacing between molecules is larger. To calculate and measure the flow properties inside rockets and air breathing Jet engines . the solid will experience a finied deformation. volume V1 is compressed or expanded to pressure P2. then. The expansion or compression of a gas taking place according to this law is known as isothermal process. since these deal with external flow over a body in contrast with flow internally within ducts. According to Boyl¶s Law pV = a constant If a gas having initial pressure P1. when a force is tangentially applied to the surface of a solid. Molecular for intermolecular forces though strong allow enough moment of the molecules to give the liquid its fluidity.The most fundamental distinction between solids. The basic difference between solid and fluid is. c. 1. p1 V1 = p2V2 = a constant 9 . The above applications come under external aerodynamics and internal Aerodynamics respectively. Determination of flows moving internally through depths. in contrast when a tangential force is applied to the surface of fluid. Hydrodynamics ± flow of liquids ii. the fluid will experience a continuously increasing deformation .3 RECAPTULATION OF FUNDAMENTAL GAS LAWS Gases can be compressed or expanded unlike liquids. As seen the word ³fluid´ is used to denote either a liquid or a gas. d. Aerodynamics ± flow of air e. Gas dynamics ± flow of gases iii.It may also be required to know the flow condition in the test section of a wind tunnel. The expansion and compression of gases take place in accordance with various laws of thermodynamics as follows: Boyl¶s law According to this law.

We know that pV = mRT = therefore R = constant. = a constant. This change in volume is constant and is the same for all perfect gases. Then from the Charle¶s law = a constant when pressure p is constant. If the mass of the gas is m we have. The product of molecular weight and gas constant. Suppose T = absolute temperature and V = volume. Avagadro law It states that all gases at the same temperature and pressure have the same number of molecules per unit volume. the change in volume varies directly with the temperature range. For one unit mass of gas.Charle¶s law According to this law if any gas heated at constant pressure. T is known as Universal gas constant. R = constant. This leads to the result that the product of molecular weight and gas constant R is the same for all gases. This leads to the result that the molecular weight of a gas is proportional to its density. = R. 10 . R is called the gas constant. The equation pV = mRT is known as the equation of state of a gas or characteristic equation of perfect gases. Combining both Boyl¶s law we get. or = mR pV = mRT. this constant is represented by R.

In this process pVk = constant where k is known as adiabatic constant and it is the ratio between the specific heats at constant pressure and constant volume. k =1. k= = p . Modulus of elasticity E. Henry¶s Law It states that amount of any given gas that will dissolve in a liquid at a given temperature is a function of the partial pressure of the gas that in the particular liquid will be equal to Vg = volume of the gas dissolved at standard temperature and pressure V = volume of liquid = Bunsen solubility co-efficient at specified temperature p = partial pressure in atmosphere of the gas above the liquid Adiabatic process In this process the change in volume takes place such that the total amount of heat in the system remains unchanged. It is also known as frictionless adiabatic. By Boyl¶s law pV = constant 11 . it is known as isentropic. this generally occurs when a system is in contact with an outside thermal reservoir and the change occurs slowly enough to allow the system to continuously adjust to the temperature of the reservoir through heat exchange. For air. Isothermic process An isothermic process is a change of a system in which the temperature remains constant i.Dalton¶s law According to Dalton the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of pressure that would be exerted by each of the gases if it alone were present and occupied the total volume.4 If the adiabatic process is reversible.e. t=0.

Vdp p= = E.505 0.03x109 0. as obtained earlier.22 13550 930 1260 0.118x10-6 1.624x109 1. For adiabatic process. Hot air balloon are a good example of Charles Law that gases expand when they are heated.09x109 ---26x109 1.1x10-6 Bulk Surface Modulus o f modulus of tension with elasticity E elasticity K air in in N/m2 in N/m2 N/m 2.000018 0.1 0.44x109 4. Differentiating kp Vk-1d?V + Vkdp = 0 kp Vk-1dV = . pVk = constant.4x109 4.P.001 0.013255 x 105 N/m2) Fluids Mass density kg/m3 Dynamic in viscosity in Ns/m2 Kinematic viscosity in m2/s 1x10-6 15x10-6 0. Table: Properties of a few common fluids at S. If finger is put over the end of bike pump and the pull ender is pushed the gas pressure of a gas increase and will try to push the finger out of the way.oil Glycerine 1000 1. A Bicycle pump illustrates Boyle¶s Law.06 1.T. (288.162x109 ---2.15K and 1.08x10-6 1.Vkdp kp = =E This holds good for isentropic process also.073 ----0. Vdp + pdV = 0 pdV = .0016 0. Pressure of a gas 12 . It is the same eqn.36x109 Water Air Mercury Lub.Differentiating.035 0.0015 Some of the practical applications of gas laws can be seen in our day to day life.

Blowing up a balloon involves Avogadro law the more gas molecules is blown into the balloon the larger the volume becomes.increases with temperature this is why one needs to change the amount of air in a vehicle tyre when it gets very hot or very cold. The behavior of gases is affected by three factors. 13 . The relationships among these three factors have been defined in what are called the gas laws. the temperature of gas. It is an example of Gay Luxxace Law. the pressure of the gas and the volume of the gas.

1. it also covers the concept of veracity rationality and ir. linear strain rate and shear strain rate. rate or rotation.3 FLUID STATICS Fluid statics is the science of fluid at rest .2 FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid dynamics deals with fluid flow subjected to forces energy laws and their variations. density and temperature as functions of space and time.1.3 Fluid Statics 2. determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipe lines. 2. The solution to fluid dynamics problems typically involves calculating various properties of fluid such as velocity. the forces acting on the fluid are in equilibrium. 2.1 Introduction Objective 2. 14 . The flow flied can be visualized.UNIT 2 FLUID STATICS AND DYNAMICS Structure 2. pressure. without necessarily considering the forces and the moments that cause the motion.1 Kinematics 2.1 INTRODUCTION Fluid mechanics is a science which deals with the behavior of fluids when subjected to a system of forces. The four fundamental kinematic properties of fluid motion and deformation are.e.rationality in the fluid flow. The subject is clarified into 2. under fluid statics the study involves conditions under which fluids are at rest in stable equilibrium i.1. time relationships of fluid flow. prediction weather patterns. It refers to the mathematical treatment of the subject. It has several sub disciplines which include aerodynamics and hydrodynamics.1.1.2 Fluid dynamics 2. It involves the study of behavior of fluids at rest or that in motion and development and testing of theories devised to explain the various phenomenon that occurs.1 KINEMATICS Kinematics deals with space. rate of translation.1. Further in this chapter various kinematic concept will be discussed. Fluid dynamics has wide range of applications including calculation of forces and moments on aircraft. The material derivative and its role in transforming the conservation equation from the Lagrangian description of fluid flow that is following a fluid particles to the Eularian description of fluid flow pertaining to a flow field will be discussed.

p. is shown acting upward on the bottom of the cylinder and a pressure p+(dp/dh)dh acting downward on the top where dp/dh is the gradient of the static pressure with increasing height. summing forces in the vertical direction results in an expression for the pressure gradient.2) The temperature in the atmosphere decreases at a nearly constant rate. Indeed. p. but it is a function of temperature. T. T. for gases. all of the forces acting on it must be in equilibrium. Since the liquid element is at rest. is the absolute temperature measured in degree Kelvin in the SI system and degrees Rankine in the English system.1 having a unit cross-sectional area and a differential height.g (2.000 ft). A normal pressure. A vertical cylinder of fluid is shown in figure 2. =. The weight of the fluid contained within the cylinder is given by ghd and is shown in the figure as a gravitational force acting downward. The mass per unit volume of a fluid is defined as the mass density. up to an altitude of approximately 11km (36. Figure 2.1 static forces acting on differential cylinder of air in the atmosphere. let us consider a fluid at rest in static equilibrium. The mass density is a constant for liquids. and T are related by the equation of state P = RT R is referred to as the universal gas constant. dh. and pressure. Thus. This region of the atmosphere is known as 15 .FLUID STATICS AND THE ATMOSPHERE Before treating the more difficult case of a fluid in motion. usually denoted by . known as the lapse rate. for a gas.

5) is the ratio of the pressure of any altitude to the pressure at sea level and is the corresponding ratio for the absolute temperature. in the lower part of the stratosphere.000ft) (2. From the equation of state and equation 2.5 are dimensionless and therefore are valid for either the SI or English system of units.500 ft). which relates the atmospheric temperature and static pressure. is easily obtained for a constant lapse rate.5 4. the following equation.510Kelvin per kilometer.it follows that the pressure and density can also be found for any altitude up to 11km or 36. Above this altitude.is obtained immediately as 16 . h.4) Integrating the above from sea level to h gives the pressure as a function of temperature.500ft). the temperature remains nearly constant up to an altitude of approximately 23km (75.000ft) up to approximately 23km (75. can be obtained immediately from the equation of state and equation 2. Equation 2. a sub c denotes conditions at 11km or 36. In this case. If this experimentally observed behavior for the temperature is utilized together with equation 2.2 integrates to become = cexp In this equation. Above 11km (36.the troposphere.3) The standard lapse rate is 6.2. Thus.256 h<11km(36. Up to 11km.4 & 2. Since is a function of the altitude.000ft. =- (2. = 5. the pressure and temperature are related by =- (2.7.000ft.256 h<11km(36.6) Equation 2. a set of equations can be formulated that model closely the standard atmosphere. the density ratio . The density ratio .000ft) (2.1 & 2. the temperature is nearly constant.

p is greater than P0. if y(x) defines the position of a streamline. is known. The mass flow accelerates around the body as the result of a continuous distribution of pressure exerted on the fluid by the body. relative to the static pressure. and the flow is threedimensional. in the fluid far removed from the body.4.4 and does not depend on the third coordinate. p0. the velocity vector is tangent to the line. If such surface is closed. the flow of wind around a tall. in addition to gravitational forces. is pictured on the lower half of the body in figure 2.4 might represent the flow around a long. In addition to the local static pressure. First. the fluid particles immediately in contact with the surface are brought to rest.( The term ³layers´ is used 17 . the wind goes over as well as around the stack. figure 2. In three-dimensional flow a surface swept by streamlines is known as a stream surface. acting normal to the surface. As another example. streamlined strut such as the one that supports the wing of a high-wing airplane. observe that the flow is illustrated by means of streamlines. cylinder smokestack is essentially two-dimensional except near the top.4 note that this figure is labeled ³two-dimensional flow´. successive layers of fluid are slowed by the shearing stresses produced by the inner layers. Thus in two-dimensional flow. A typical flow around a streamlined shape is pictured in figure 2. Near the nose. inertial and shearing forces must be considered. The three-dimensional counterpart of this shape might be the blimp. The small arrows represent the local static pressure. y(x)is related to the x and y components of the velocity. For example. Here. p. further after the pressure becomes negative relative to P0. Several features of flow around a body in general are noted in figure 2. this means simply that the flow field is a function only of two coordinates (x and y). forces on the body can be determined by integrating this pressure over its surface. As fluid passes over a solid surface.If this static pressure distribution. u(x) and v(x). by = Note that the body surface itself is a streamline. An equal and opposite reaction must occur on the body.FLUID DYNAMICS We will now treat a fluid that is moving so that. acting everywhere normal to the body¶s surface. it is known as a stream tube. A streamlines is an imaginary line characterizing the flow such that. Moving away from the surface. shearing stresses resulting from the fluid¶s viscosity also give to body forces. at every point along the line. This static pressure distribution. in the case of figure 2.4.

The boundary layers are pictured considerably thicker than they actually are for purpose of illustration. These flow regions are shown in figure 2..only as a convenience in describing the fluid behavior. from the surface roughnesses ) are no longer damped out. randomly fluctuating velocity components are superimposed. reverse flow will be found along the surface with the static pressure nearly constant and equal to that at the point of separation. Near the front of the body.g. Downstream of this separation point. The fluid shears in a continuous manner and not in discrete layers). the flow is referred to as laminar. the turbulent boundary layer continues to thicken toward the rear of the body. its thickness would be approximately 0. If the layer were still laminar at this point.4. adjacent to the surface. so that at some point the flow actually separates form the body surface. Here. For example. disturbances to flow (e. the fluid particles might be described as moving along in the layer on parallel planes.2 cm. or laminae. Over this portion of the surface the fluid is moving into a region of increasing static pressure that is tending to oppose the flow. this layer is very thin. and the laminar boundary layer undergoes transition to a turbulent boundary layer. The slower moving fluid in the boundary layer may be unable to overcome this adverse pressure gradient.0 back from the leading edge would ne only approximately 1. Returning to figure 2. and the flow within it is smooth without any random or turbulent fluctuations. The result is a thin layer of slower moving fluid.4.6 cm thick. This layer is considerably thicker than the laminar one and is characterized by a mean velocity profile on which small. These disturbance suddenly amplify. the turbulent boundary 1. known as the boundary layer. At some distance back from the nose of the body. hence. 18 . on the wing of an airplane flying at 100 m/s at low altitude.

a factor of ½ has been introduced. the lift coefficient. Variations in these parameters can eliminate transition or separation or both. l . the size of the body. the lift and drag forces. the coefficient CL and CD remain constant for a given geometric shape over a wide range of operating conditions or body size. a more rigorous application of dimensional analysis (see 19 .10) In order for the basic units of mass.12 is referred to as a coefficient and is modified by the name of the force. S. depending on the size and shape of the body. CL and CD are arbitrary at this point. and the properties of the fluid. For example two-dimensional airfoil at a 10 angle of attack will have a lift coefficient of more. the significance of which will be made clear shortly.11) Considering M. If we assume that any one force. the force on the body in the direction of the free-stream velocity). Thus. and c form which it is found that a = 1. b = 2 and c = 2. L and D. This decrement of momentum (more precisely. For many applications. it follows that Fx a = a b Lc (2.13a) D = V2SCD (2. CL will be almost independent of the size of the airfoil. One might reasonably assume that the forces on a body moving through a fluid depend in some way on the mass density of the fluid . for example. a velocity deficiency representing a momentum loss by the fluid is found near the center of the wake. The general flow pattern described thus far can vary. the magnitude of the free-stream velocity. Fx V2l2 (2. since the lift and drag coefficients.13b) 2 Note that the square of the characteristic length. This can be done. is proportional to the product of these parameters each raised to an unknown power. The quantity of V2/2 is referred to as the dynamic pressure. then V blc (2. Here. Hence. V. and time to be consistent. Also. length.12) For a particular force. the separated flow closes and a wake is formed. momentum flux) is a direct measure of the body drag (i.At some distance downstream of the body. can be expressed as L= V2SCL (2.L and T in order leads to three equation for the unknown exponents of a. In addition . l and the body¶s velocity. b. has been replaced by a reference area. However.e. F. the constant of proportionality in equation 2.

is the coefficient of viscosity. and a is the velocity of sound. 20 . at this point. The viscous shearing produces a shearing stress of w on the wall. Generally.3 as a fraction of the standard sea level value. M. The kinematic viscosity for the standard atmosphere is included in figure 2. is defined as the ratio of to v= v is defined as a matter of convenience. is not as well known and will be elaborated on by reference to figure 2.14) M= (2. defined by R = (2.14) Where l is a characteristic length. V is the free-stream velocity. the viscous shearing stress in the fluid in any plane parallel to the flow and away from the wall is given by the product of and the velocity gradient normal to the direction of flow. Here. The kinematic viscosity. it requires no further explanation.15 is applicable to calculating the shear stresses between fluid elements and is not restricted simply to the wall. The coefficient of viscosity. however. v. This force per unit area is related to the gradient of the velocity u(y) at the wall by w = y=0 (2.12 possibly being dependent on a number of dimensionless parameters.5. A physical significance can be given to the Reynolds number by multiplying numerator and denominator by v and dividing by l. Two of the most important of these are known as the Reynolds number. R and the Mach number.Buckingham¶s theorem) will result in the constant of proportionality in equation 2. Equation 2.15) Actually. since it is the ratio of to that governs the Reynolds number. the velocity profile is pictured in the boundary layer of a laminar. viscous flow over a surface. The velocity of sound is the speed at which a small pressure disturbance is propagated through the fluid.

The mass flux through a surface multiplied by the velocity vector at the surface is defined 21 must be is a constant. from equation 2.e. can cruise at Mach numbers up to approximately 0. Small corrections can then be made to the resulting solutions to account for these ³ real fluid´ effects. l about to cross a reference plane. V/l is proportional to the shearing stress. For incompressible flow. The volume of the slug is Al. Two flows are geometrically and dynamically similar if the Reynolds numbers are the same for both flows. flow is pictured along a stream tube of cross-sectional area A. Hence for a given flow the Reynolds number is proportional to the ratio of normal pressures ( inertia forces) to viscous shearing stresses. Obviously. Hence.28) the normal pressure will be shown to be proportional to V2 whereas. a 25m/s transition would occur at a distance of 4m from the leading edge.6. so that a mass of Al was transported across the reference plane during the time l/V. CD for a body 10m long at 100m/s will be the same as CD for a body 100 m long at 10m/s. Hence. for example. for a given shape. is given by m= = (2. is the mass flux. for example. At time t = 0. this entire slug will have passed through the reference plane. Current jet transports. This is easily seen by reference to figure 2. Then. picture a small slug of fluid of length. that the conservation of mass leads to the continuity principle AV = constant AV is the volume flow rate and is sometimes referred to as the flux. the pressure field around a shape can be calculated assuming the air to be inviscid and incompressible. CONSERVATION OF MASS Fluid passing through an area at a velocity of V has a mass flow rate equal to AV. Corrections for viscosity or compressibility will be considered as needed in the following chapters. the mass rate of flow. As another example. Here. the effects of R and M on dimensionless aerodynamic coefficient must be considered when interpreting test results obtained with the use of small models. Similarly. At low Mach number. m. relatively speaking. a flow is less viscous than another flow if its Reynolds number is higher than that of the second flow.8 before significant compressibility effects are encountered.R= In the following material (see Eq 2.15. The Mach number determines to what extent fluid compressibility can be neglected (i.16) Along a streamtube (which may be a conduit with solid walls) the quantity constant if mass is not to accumulate in the system. the variation of mass density with pressure). Thus. The Fluid velocity equal to V. so . For many cases of interest to aerodynamics. At a time l/V. suppose transition occurs 2 m back from the leading edge of a flat plate aligned with a flow having a velocity of 50 m/s.

n would be directed outward from the volume. respectively.n)V Reference Plane Here n is the unit vector normal to the surface and in the direction in which the flux is defined to be positive. a twodimensional flow will be treated. For simplicity. Consider the conservation of mass applied to a differential control surface. the mass flux out through the right face will be Writing similar expressions for the other three faces leads to the net mass flux out being 22 . Hence. The flow passing through this element has velocity components of u and v in the center of the element in x and y directions. A rectangular contour is shown in figure 2.as the momentum flux.n With the momentum flux written as ( . and the following integral would be evaluated over the entire surface. Generally. the mass flux will be . For example. if the velocity vector is not normal to the surface. The corresponding components on the right face of the element are found by expanding them in a Taylor series in x and y and dropping second-order and higher terms in x.7. if the surface encloses a volume and the net mass flux out of the volune is to be calculated.

in general.17 reduces to (2. del. defined by +j Any physically possible flow must satisfy equation 2. it follows that. the mass density is a constant.17 at every point in the flow.18) 23 .The net mass flux out of the differential element must equal the rate at which the mass of the fluid contained within the elements is decreasing. For an incompressible flow. given by Since x and y are arbitrary. so Equaiton 2.17) Where is the vector operator. =0 In three dimensions the preceding equation can be written in vector notation as (2.

V. Ref 2. n is the unit normal directed outward from the surface. which states that a force imposed on a system produces a rate of change in the momentum of the system.The above in known as the divergence of the velocity vector. div V. r is the radius vector to a fluid particle. For the angular momentum.1) and will not be repeated here. enclosing the volume. the momentum theorem states: The sum of external forces (or momentum) acting on control surface and internal forces (or moments) acting on the fluid within the control surface produces a change in flux of momentum (or angular momentum) through the surface and an instantaneous rate of change of momentum (or angular momentum) of the fluid particles within the control surface.19) In equation 2. Defining a control surface as an imaginary closed surface through which a flow is passing. The details of the derivation can be found in several texts (e. Euler¶s Equation of Motion 24 . Mathematically. which generally depends on position and time.. The theorem can be easily derived by treating the fluid particles and applying the second law. V is the velocity vector.g.19. B represents the vector sum of all body forces within the control surface acting on the fluid. is the mass density of the fluid defined as the mass per unit volume. the theorem can be expressed in vector notation by - (2. Q= Here Q is the vector sum all moments. for linear motion of an inviscid fluid. THE MOMENTUM THOEREM The momentum theorem in fluid mechanics is the counterpart of Newton¶s second law of motion in solid mechanics. both internal and external. acting on the control surface or the fluid within the surface. S.

17. the above force must equal the net momentum flux out plus the instantaneous change of fluid momentum contained within the element. the momentum theorem applied to the same element leads to another set of equations that must hold everywhere. Referring again to Figure 2. The momentum flux out of the right face in the x direction will be Out of the upper face the corresponding momentum flux will be Similar expressions can be written for the momentum flux in through the left and bottom faces. which must be satisfied everywhere in the flow. The instantaneous change of the fluid momentum contained within the element in the x direction is simply Thus. equating the net forces in the x direction to the change in momentum and momentum flux and using equation 2.17 leads to (2. 25 . if p is the static pressure at the center of the element.7. the static pressure will be P + This pressure and a similar pressure on the left face produce a net force in the x direction equal to Since there are no body forces present and the fluid is assumed inviscid. then.The principle of conservation of mass applied to an elemental control surface led to equation 2.21) Generalizing this to three dimensions results in a set equation known as Euler equation of motion. on the center of the right face. Similarly.

z . hence. it is zere everywhere. y. the left side equation 2. + is the curl of the velocity vector. It was first formulated by Euler in the middle 1700s.22c) Notice that if u is written as u( x. (2. Since. and is known as the vorticity.26) 26 .22 is the total derivative of u. far removed from a body. the vorticity is constant along a streamline.t). ( )/ t.25) One can conclude from equation 2.23) is taken with each term in equation 2.22a) (2. the vorticity at that location is Zero. (2. incompressible flow. Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli¶s equation is well known in fluid mechanics and relates the pressure to the velocity along a streamline in an inviscid. the flow id usually taken to be uniform. (2.24) x V.24 (2. for an inviscid fluid. is the local acceleration and exists only if the flow is unsteady. The operator.24 that. equation 2. (2. The derivation of this equation follows from Euler¶s equation using the fact that along a streamline the velocity vector is tangential to the streamline.22b) (2. In vector notation Euler¶s equation can be written + If the vector product of the operator results.23.

multiply equation 2.e. that is.For such a process. Similarly. The counterpart to equation 2. w dy and u dz. at this time only steady flow will be considered.29 for compressible flow is obtained by assuming pressure and density changes to follow an isentropic process. Adding the three equations results in perfect differentials for p and V2.28) If the flow is uniform at infinity.4 for air.22a through by dx and then substitute equation 2. Vx and px are the corresponding free-stream values. p/ = constant (2.27 and integrating leads to an equation sometimes referred to as the compressible Bernoulli¶s equation.26 for u dy.27 can be integrated immediately to give constant (2.30) is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume and is equal approximately to 1. Substituting equation 2.30 into equation 2. v dz respectively.26 for v dx and w dx. 27 . the first term of the equation will be set equal to zero. Equation 2. Also.27) If is not a function of p (i. the flow is incompressible). Equation 2.22b by dy. Euler¶s equation become V dV + (2. equation 2.28 becomes constant = (2. multiplying equation 2. V being the magnitude of the resultant velocity along the streamline. along a streamline.22c by dz and substitute equation 2. V is the magnitude of the local velocity and p is the local static pressure. equation 2.29) Here..First. This last term results from the fact that u = and V2 = u2 + v2 + w2 Thus.29 is known as Bernoulli¶s equation.

By the use of equiaton2. it is necessary to derive the acoustic velocity.9 assumes the possibility of a stationary disturbance in a steady flow across which the pressure. Figure 2. By definition. using the equation of state is 1/2 (2.31) This equation can be written in terms of the acoustic velocity.31 can be written constant (2.32. it follows that u.33) An alternate form.35) The acoustic velocity is also included in figure 2. which can be done by the use of the momentum theorem and continuity. is the acoustic velocity. In the absence of body forces and viscosity. the momentum theorem gives 2 - But from continuity Thus. given by equation 2.32) If the small disturbance is stationary in the steady flow having a velocity of u. = constant (2. then obliviously u is the velocity of the disturbance relative to the fluid. 28 . equation 2. First.2 for the standard atmosphere. density and velocity change by small increments. = or (2.30 the acoustic velocity is obtained as 1/2 (2.34) Thus.

who also conducted experimental research on drag and who was among the first to discover that drag was proportional to the square of the velocity. in Eulerian method. different single particles of a fluid in the low are pin-pointed and their flow characteristics such as velocity. only with the numerical power of modern high-speed digital computer are ³exact´ solutions of the NavierStokes equations finally being obtained for general flow fields. t) v = f (x. are closely observed and noted during their entire course of flow. I admit. It was not until a century later that the effect of friction was properly incorporated in the classical equation of motion by the work of M. t) U = f (x. He wrote: ³ I do not see then. Of the two approaches. size. Lgrangina approach and the Eulerian approach. z. t) w = f (x. z. z.The so-called Navier-Stokes equations stand today as the classical formulation of fluid dynamics. acceleration. the first 29 .´ That this theoretical result of zero drag is truly a paradox was clearly recognized by d¶ Alembert.Lagrangian approach and Eulerian approach The fluid flow is anlaysed by two different approaches. Also in the 19th century. the Eulerian approach is considered to be more useful in the analysis of the practical problems in the fluid mechanics because of its mathematical simplicity. shape. In 1768 d¶ Alembert applied the equations of motion for an incompressible. However. As such this method will be used in what follows. noted and analyzed at one section or points or section of the flow at one time. dealt with and studied with profound attention gives. indeed. In Lgrangian method. how one can exp[lain the resistance of fluids by the theory in a satisfactory manner. y. at least in most cases. t) Further attempts to understand fluid dynamic drag were made by the French mathematician Jena Le Rond d¶ Alembert. inviscid(frictionless) flow about a two-dimensional body in a moving fluid and found that no drag is obtained. It may be pointed out that motion of a fluid at each point or station of low. resistance absolutely zero: a singular paradox which I leave to geometricians to explain. D¶ Alembert¶s paradox arose due to the neglect of friction in the classical theory. y. On the contrary. is specified by velocity components expressed as functions of space and time as given below: u = f (x. z. y. y. form etc. the flow characteristics of all the particles are observed.Navier (1785-1836) and Sir George Stokes (1819-1903). who is noted for developing the calculus of partial differences (leading to the mathematics of partial differential equations). in general they are nonlinear equations and are extremely difficult to solve. It seems to me on the contrary that this theory.

Exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations Few physically realizable exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations exist.In his classic paper of 1883 entitled ³An Experimental Investigation of the Circumstances which Determine whether the Motion of Water in parallel channels shall be direct or sinuous and of the Law of resistance in parallel channels. This is important for calculating the flow around wings and bodies. Here we will present the two simplest solutions. so v = 0. It also illustrates a common and at first sight. so equation 30 . It corresponds to the flow field created between two infinite. This is because the essentials of the flow field can be represented in terms of one or two curves plotted on a single graph. plane. Therefore eqution =0 implies i. Even fewer are of much interest in Engineering. where D was the diameter of the pipe. There is no external pressure field. Namely.e.experiments on transition from laminar to turbulent flow were carried out by Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912).´ Reynolds observed a filament of colored dye in a pipe flow and noted that transition from laminar to turbulent flow always corresponded to approximately the same value of a dimensionless number VD/ .These are useful for engineering applications. that if the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations can be reduced to an ordinary differential equation. puzzling feature. this is regarded as tantamount to an exact solution. although not for the aerodynamics of wings and bodies. Since the flow is steady and two-dimensional. u is a function only of y. derivatives with respect to z and t are zero. The third exact solution represents the flow in the vicinity of a stagnation point. the upper one moving tangentially at speed UT . and w= 0. The streamlines are parallel to the x axis. Couette flow-simple shear flow This is the simplest exact solution. This was the origin of the Reynolds number. parallel surfaces. Also numerical solutions to ordinary differential equations can be obtained to any desired acciuracy. the lower one being stationary. namely Couette flow (simple shear flow) and plane Poiseuille flow (channel flow).

since the torque required to rotate the cylinder at constant speed is proportional to which is given by . plane. The only difference is that the pressure term in equation Is retained so that it simplifies to The no-slip condition implies that u = 0 at y = 0 and h. Unlike Couette flow.pressure-driven channel flow This also corresponds to the flow between two infinite. so equation =0 becomes u = UT = Where is the constant viscous shear stress. R. parallel surfaces in the figure. Reduces to =0 implying u = C1 y +C2 Where C1 and C2 are constants of integration u = 0 and UT when y= 0 and h respectively. Thus all the arguments to simplify the Navier. This solution approximates well the flow between two concentric cylinders with the inner one rotating at fixed speed. This is the basis of a viscometer ± an instrument for measuring viscosity.Stokes equations still hold. Thus if the torque and rotational speed are measured the viscosity can be determined. so the equation 31 . provided the clearance is small compared with the cylinder¶s radius. Plane Poiseuille flow. both surfaces are stationary and flow is produced by the application of pressure.

Poiseuille¶s law can be derived linking the flow rate .Becomes Thus the velocity profile is parabolic in shape. From this solution. His law is the basis of another type of viscometer whereby the flow rate driven through a capillary by a known pressure difference is measured. The value of viscosity can be determined from this measurement by using the equation Q= 32 . A very similar solution can be found for this case in a similar way to equation that again has a parabolic velocity profile. Q through a capillary of diameter d to the pressure gradient. namely Q= Poiseuille was a French Physicicna who derived his law in 1841 in the course od his studies on blood flow. The true poiseuille flow is found in capillaries with round section.

33 .

do not change with time in the direction of any of the three co-ordinates. Steady flows may be uniform or non-uniform. Un-steady flow Obviously. Steady flow ii. in unsteady flow the dependent variables at any one given point change with time in the direction of any of the three axes. Stated mathematically. under constant head. acceleration.Block -2 Two Dimensional Ideal Fluid flow Types of flow Fluid flows can be classified into different types as follows: i. the value of the dependent variable at any time should remain constant in space. orifices. Non-uniform flow Steady flow A flow is said to be steady if the fluid characteristics (also named as dependent fluid variables such as velocity. at any given time remain the same in space. Therefore in unsteady flow Uniform flow A flow is said to be uniform if the dependent fluid variables.means that in a uniform flow. for uniform flow 34 . This . This means that the time rate of change of dependent variables at any one given point is zero. in the direction of the flow at any section of the flow. Uniform flow iv. at different points in the direction of flow. mouth-pieces etc.steady flow iii. Un. Thus. pressure. temperature) at any one given point in the fluid. density. mathematically in a steady flow: Most practical engineering flow problems of liquid involve steady flow condition such as flow of liquid through pipes.

the uniform flow is referred to in terms of the velocity component rather than all dependent variables. Considering velocity only out of the five variable. Fluid displacements Fluid particles can under-go the following types of displacements: (a) pure translation (b) linear deformation (c) angular deformation (d) rotation 35 .e. However these values remain constant at different sections at corresponding different times. steady non-uniform. Generally. The variable change with space and time. Non. y. irrotational flow is called as potential flow. In steady uniform flow. y) u = f (x) ROTATIOANL AND IRROTATIONAL FLOW Rotational flow Fluid motion in which the fluid particles rotate about their own axes. t) Steady u = f (x. y. There could be cases where flows may be steady uniform. the dependent fluid variables. it is free for all. A steady. y. Lastly in case of unsteady and non-uniform flow. in non-uniform flow. particularly the velocity. is known as rotational flow. z. In unsteady uniform flow the dependent variable has different values in space at a given point at different times. In steady non-uniform flow. unsteady uniform and unsteady non-uniform. the steady and unsteady flows are related to dimensional flows as follows: Dimensional Three dimensional Two dimensional One dimensional Unsteady u = f (x. t) u = f ( x. where. the dependent variable have constant values in space and time i. the same values in space at different sections of the flow and would not change with time. z) u = f (x. have different values at different section at any point of time.as the variables at any point have the same value in space but these values change at different sections in the direction of flow.Uniform flow Obviously. at a point and have different values at different sections in the direction of the flow. Irrotational fow Fluid motion in which the fluid particles do not about their own axis is known as irrotational flow. it can be stated that uniform flow occurs when magnitude and direction of velocity do not change from point in the fluid. t) u = f (x. Thus.

Linear deformation takes place when liquid flows in a pipe of uniform cross-section. there will be 36 .These motions have been shown in the figure. Pure rotation is shown figure (c). Pure translation is shown in fig(a). the fluid particles is neither rotated. moves bodily from one position to another position in a given interval. If . only. If . The angular displacement is shown in figure (d). It. Here the centre lines undergo rotation. Thus forced vortex produced is an example of pure rotation as shown. the motion will be irrotational. when flow takes place in a tapered pipe. A Liquid in a rotating tank is an example of a rotating flow in whch the velocity of flow is directly proportional to the distance from the centre of rotation. nor deformed. In this type of motion. It is a combination of linear deformation and rotation. Linear deformation is shown in fig(b). as indicated. As may be seen the particle is elongated linearly such that the boundary lines or the central lines remain parallel as is the case. such that central lines ab and cd remain parallel.

Accordingly. Let the velocities at O be u and v in x and y axes as shown. because increase in linear velocity is . Since velocities at O and A in y-axis are different. OB will rotate in clockwise direction. obviously take place about z. of elementary lengths respectively as shown in figure . Similarly. with angular velocity of . Suppose the velocity u at O increases at B by . The rotation will. angular velocity: Similarly. Just as direction. In this let us consider two mutually perpendicular streams OA and OB. Therefore 37 . OA will rotate in anti-clockwise (+ve) . (.net rotation. velocity at b being more than at A. with angular velocity Both the above mentioned rotations are in x-y plane.The angular velocity about z-axis will be average rotation of OA and OB. Mathematical treatment of rotational and irroational flow Consider a two dimensional flow of a fluid in x-y plane.axis (polar axis). the velocity v at O increases at B by . . Angular displacement takes place in free vortex such as liquid flowing down in a sink.ve).

and In fluid flow if at every point . is in the direction of resultant velocity at that point and at that instant. the same point cannot belong to more than one stream line. the pattern of the stream line will remain the same. Therefore. Stream Line. Fluids like water and air having low viscosity will have irrotational flow. Therefore.Similarly. Since the resultant velocity of flow is tangential to each point on the stream line. In unsteady flow the pattern of stream line may or may not change. between or across the two adjacent stream lines there will be no flow. a flow may have a number of streamlines. liquids with higher viscosity have rotational flow. Shear stress is associated with viscosity. streak lines and stream tubes Stream lines Consider a fluid flow in x-y plane for simplicity and better understanding. The torque causes shear stress. path lines. there will be no normal component of velocity. as stream line represents a virtual solid surface in a steady flow. stream line is an imaginary line tangent to which at any point on it. condition for irrotaitonal flow are that: =0 =0 or or = 0 or It may be pointed out that rotation is caused by torque. since the velocity at each point remains constant at different instances of time. To that extent. Now let us consider a streamline flow in x-y plane as shown in the figure. It will not change if the magnitudes of velocity changes but the direction remains constant. It has two components: u and v. the flow will be irrotational. Since the instantaneous velocity at an instant is unique in magnitude and direction. suppose the horizontal and vertical displacement are dx and dy respectively. For infinitesimal displacement of P by ds. and are zero. 38 . Thus. In a flow. Similarly. Suppose the instantaneous velocity at P is .

t) or udy ± vdx = 0 and the velocity and displacement equation are = ui +vj Since From equation Ds = dxi + dyj is directed toward ds in a streamline . In a steady flow the velocity of an element of fluid at a point or at an instant does not change with time. Further = (s. Thus. Uniform or non-uniform. The above equations hold good for steady. That is to say that in a steady flow the velocity of flow of an element of fluid at 39 . It indicates the positions passed by a particular particle of fluid while moving in a flow over a period of time at different instances. unsteady. The eulerian approach deals with the study of the flow pattern at different stations in the flow. Euleran approach is concerned with stream line pattern of flow. The path lines are obtained by Lagrarian approach. Path lines Path line is a trace of motion of an identified fluid particle or element. viscous or inviscid compressible or incompressible flow. for two dimensional flow for three dimensional flow.

CIRCULATION Flow of fluid. stream lines. at different instances and then by observing their position (location) the steak lines are obtained by joining those positions. there is no flow from one stream line to another. Consider a closed curve C. Streak lines or filament lines When different particles of a fluid pass through a fixed point in the flow filed and their positions at certain instant is located in the flow field. The concept of circulation is used for determining the forces acting on bodies immersed in fluids. the locus of their respective position are known as a streak line or filament line. A group of closely space stream lines forming a stream surface of any shape is known as stream tube. It may be noted that path line is the trace of different positions of a particular element of fluid in the flow whereas the streak line is the locus of positions. Let it be subjected to a two dimensional fluid flow streams as shown in the figure. 40 . This means that in a steady flow the stream lines will be identical or coinciding. The equations of path lines will be: x = f1 (t) y = f2 (t) z = f3 (t) Simialarly. Several stream lines closely gouped together will generate a stream surface of any shape or curve. In unsteady flow. path lines and streak lines are different but these are identical in a steady flow. The streak line is obtained by inserting a dye to the fluid passing a particle point. around or along a closed curve or a body situated in the flow field. As such stream lines can be termed as stream surfaces synonymous with solid surfaces. Stream tube As explained in Stream lines.different point or instances shall remain unchanged with time though its value may different form position(or point) to position during its flow. of different elements of fluid after having passed through a fixed place or point. is known as circulation denoted by (gamma). at a particular instant.

with the curve be P as shown. Circulation along AB: Circulation along BC: Circulation along CD: Circulation along DA: =- = . Component of velocity along with = U Circulation on the elementary point : d = U Circulation on the entire curved surface: = As an illustration. Let U be the velocity of the stream at P and be the angle between U and as shown.Let point of intersection of a stream-say middle one. let us find out circulation around rectangular closed curve ABCD shown in the figure.(v) Total circulation along with ABCD = AB + = u BC + CD + = + DA -u - 41 . Let u and v be velocities of flow at A in x and y axes as shown which are increased to AB and = u BC = CD DA at D and B respectively. Consider an elementary surface of the curve.

However. in aerodynamics. it is a kinematic property depending only on the velocity field and the choice of the curve C. It does not necessarily mean 42 . circulation has a very precise technical meaning. according to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Line integrals. it is convenient to consider a positive circulation as being clockwise. Consider a closed curve C in a flow field. namely. The use of the word ³Circulation´ to label the integral in the equation may be somewhat misleading because it leaves a general impression of something moving around in a loop. However.Circulation per unit area Although in the above illustration. by mathematical convention the positive sense of the line integral is counterclockwise. The circulation. in aerodynamics. Equation. Hence. as sketched in the figure. The Purpose of this section is only to define circulation and relate it to vorticity. a minus sign appears in the definition given by the equation =to account for the positive-counterclockwise sense of the integral and the positive-clockwise sense of circulation. at a point on C. The important conclusion drawn is that the circulation per unit area is two times the rotation about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the area. is defined as =2 z =The circulation is simply the negative of the line integral of velocity around a closed curve in the flow. yet the equations hold good for any shape of the curve. Indeed. respectively. the first definition given to the word ³circulation´ is movement in a circle or circuit´. denoted by . Let V and ds be the velocity and directed line segment. a rectangular curve was chosen for simplicity.

Stated otherwise the flow is in the direction of decreasing . it simply means that the line integral in equation is finite.that the fluid elements are moving around in circles within this flow field. the equation of continuity for a steady flow is given by Substituting for u. For example. v and w from the equation 43 . when circulation exists in a flow. Actually. Rather. the circulation taken around a closed curve enclosing the airfoil will be finite. and The negative sign signifies that decreases with an increase in the values of x. y or z. It is denoted by (phi). Thus. if the airfoil in the figure is generating lift. the velocity potential is a mathematical form for irrotational flow. For incompressible fluid.a common early misconception of new students of aerodynamics. VELOCITY POTENTIAL It is scalar function of space and time and its negative derivative with respect to any axis gives the velocity in that axis.

We get. Further considering the conditions for irrotational flow and substituting for u. stream function is yet another function which in fluid is the function which describes the form or pattern of flow. Therefore. Whereas velocity potential has been defined for three dimensional flow. and w form equation We get. As given above stream function is defined as function of two dimensional flow 44 . Further. STREAM FUNCTIOM FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW Like the velocity potential. stream function. we come to the conclusion that any function of which satisfies the Laplace Equation is a irrotational flow. v. denoted by (psi) is defined for a two dimensional flow. - This equation is known as Laplace equation. Any function of that satisfies this equation will correspond to some case of fluid flow. stream function exists for irrotational as well as rotational flow. whereas velocity potential exists for irrotational flow. = Thus which is the conditional for irrotational flow.

the flow between stream 1 and 2 is due to increase in stream function .y plane as shown in the figure. As such the flow between two stream lines must remain unchanged. Where is the flow through 1 -3 is the flow through 2 -3 As such is the flow between 1 -2 . Let be the stream function of 1 and ( of stream 2. v. Density of fluid being constant. and As already explained no fluid can cross a stream line. Let be the stream function for stream 1 and 2 respectively. Similarly. The mass flows between streams 1 and 2 across A1A2 must be the same as across B1 B2 or A1A2. The flow between origin 0 and stream 1 is due to stream function . For illustration consider two streams 1 and 2 in x. Relationship between u. As given above. Consider two adjacent stream 1 and 2 as shown in the figure. But from equation Substituting above. the volumetric flow between them must also be constant. and and from the equation 45 .

axis this equation is known as Poisson¶s Equation . Equi Potential lines 46 . it is evident that velocity potential and stream function are mutually perpendicular. As such continuous function is a possible case of fluid flow which is rotational or irrotational because continuity equation is satisfied. function satisfies Laplace equation. it is a possible case of irrotational. = Angular rotation about z. From these. For irrotational motion which is Laplace equation for Now continuity equation for two dimensional flow is : From which This holds good if is a continuous function and its second derivative exists. Further. this equation is known as Cauchy ± Riemann equation for irrotational flow. Is But from equation Therefore Form this.

consider a two dimensional. Similarly.2. Let us consider a line AB where being constant. Similarly. exists. the above equation can be written as - and - i. = constant gives a series of equi-potential lines. steady and irrotational flow patter The line along which is constant are known as and their property is that the flow is always at right angles to such lines. can be drawn as shown. gives a series of stream lines. Since is constant along with this line.. Angle between stream lines and equi-potential lines at their intersection is 900. lines with = constant. there is no flow at right angles to constant line.We have seen previously that: =u and - In terms of tangential and normal direction. can be drawn as shown in the figure. is the With a view to apply the above concepts.3 etc. 47 . However. Consider such a line CD. Therefore. The lines of = constant say 0.1.e velocity tangential of this line is zero. normal velocity to such a line. Therefore.e. Hence = constant. = = 0 i. But is varying along with s. the flow is always tangential to constant lines.

48 . combination of equi-potential and stream lines is known as flow net.For any given problem.

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