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English
Grammar
in Use A self-study
reference
and practice
book for
intermediate
students of
English
with answers

THIRD
EDITION

Raymond Murphy
~ CAM B R ID G E
~ Ul\"IVERS ITY P R ESS

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C A M RRI I>G F. UNIVE RS ITY r RE S S
Camb ridge, New York, Melbo urne, Madrid, Cape Tow n. Singapore, SilO Paulo
Cambridge University Press
T he Ed inburgh Building. Cambridge C Bl l RU, UK
www.carob ridge.org
Information o n this tide: www.cambridge.o rg/978052 153289 1

o Ca mbridge University Press 2004


This publication is in copyright. Subiecr to statutory exception
and to the provi sion s of releva nt collective licensing agreements.
no reprod uction of an y part rna)' take place without the written
permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2004


7th printing 2005

Printed in Singapore by KHL Print ing Co Pte l td

A c<Jt<Jloglli! reco rd (or tbis publicJliotl is ovaitable from the Bntish UbrJ1)'

ISBN- 13 978 -0-52 1-53289-1 Edition with answers


ISBN- IO 0-52 1-53289-2 Edition with an swers
ISBN· 13 978-0-52 1-53290-7 Edition without answers
ISBN -I O 0-52 1-53290-6 Editio n without answers
ISBN- 13 978-0-52 1-$3762 -9 Edirion wit h C D-RO.\ 1
ISBN- to 0-52 1-53 762-2 Editio n with C D- RO~ I
ISBN- 13 978 -0-52 1-843 11-9 Hardback edition with C D· RO .\1
ISBN-I O 0-52 1-843 11- 1 Hardback edition with CD-RO .\t
ISBN· 13 97 8-3- 12-53 4086-2 Klett edition wit h CD-RO .\ I
ISBN· to 3- 12-53 4086- 1 Klett ed ition with C D- R O ~ t
ISBN- 13 978 -3- 12-53408 4 ·8 Kieft edition
ISBN- IO 3- 12-5 3408 4-5 Klett edition

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Contents
T h. mks \-ji
To the student viii
To rhe reac her x

Present .m d p,,1 $[
I Present con tin uous \1 am doing '
.l Present simple (I do :
3 Present continuou s and present simple 1 il am doin g an d I do l
4 Present conn nuo us and presen t simple J (I am doin g and J do l
5 P J, S[ simple II did)
6 Past co n rin uo u-, (I was doing I

Present perfe,-f ,,111,1 p.1St


- Pre-sen t perfect I II hav e do ne )
S Present pe t ie..:t .2 II have do ne}
9 Present perfect con tinu ou s II han: been doingl
10 Present perfect co ntinu ous an d simple II have been doin g and I have do ne)
11 How lon g ha ve ~ ou . been t ... :
11 For and since When ... ? and How long ... ? .
13 Present perfect JnJ r .hl I d hone done and I did ,
14 Present pe rfect and r .ht .! II have d on e an d I d id t
15 Past pe rfect U had done!
16 P.lSI perfect con tinuous il had been doing t

17 H ave gO I a nd have
t S Use d to (d o)

Futu re
19 Present tenses tl am doing I I do l fur the fut ure
20 rl'mt goi ng to (dol
11 " i ll/sha ll 1
" WilllshJ.1I 1
1 3 I will a nd I' m goi ng \0
1 ~ \\'ill be doing ,U1J wi ll ha ve do ne
2. 5 W hen I d o I When I' ve d o ne When an d if

.\lo.l.lls
2. 6 Can, co uld and rbet abl e 10
-r- Could (d ol an d co uld ha ve tdo net
2. 8 ." ust and ca n't
2 9 .\ 1.1 ~' a nd might I
30 ." .l ~' a nd rnig ht 1
3 1 Ha ve w a nd mu vt
31 .\ l ust mu stn't n...edn't
33 Should I
34 Sho uld 2.
3 5 Had bener It's time ,. ,
36 Would
J- Can'Could'Wo uld ~ou .. . ? esc. (Req uests. offers. permissio n and invirarionst

IF 'IOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS 'IOU NEED TO STUDY. USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326. iii
If ami wish
.l8 If I do •..•md If I did ...
39 If I knew,., I w ish I knew ...
40 If I had known ..• I wish I had kn own ...
4 1 \Vi"h

Passire
42 Passin ' I (is done I was done ]
43 Passin ' 2. (be done I been don e ! being don e)
44 Pas sive 3
45 It is sa id that •.• H e is said to •.• H e is suppo sed to ...
46 H ave som ething don e

Reported speech
47 Reported speech 1 j He said th at .••)
48 Reported speech 2.

Q ltestioflS •.md .1lIxiliJry ('n bs


4 9 Quest ions 1
50 Questions 2. (Do ) 'O U kn ow w here ... ? I He asked me wh ere •.•)
5 1 Auxili'lr}· verbs Iha ve/dozca n erc. j I think so I I hope so etc.
52 Q uest ion ta gs (do you ? isn't it ? ere.I

-bIg .md the i,,{illiti('e


53 Verb + -ing (en jo y doing ! stop doing ere.I
54 Verb + to ••. (decide to . .. ! forget to .•• ere. I
55 Verb (+ o bject) + to ... (I want ) 'O U to ••• etc. I
56 Verb + -in g or to 1 (remember/regret etc. ]
57 Verb + -ing o r to 2. (try/needlh e1p l
58 Verb + -ing or to 3 (like I wou ld like erc. l
59 Prefer a nd wou ld ra ther
60 Preposition (in/for/about ere. I + -ing
61 Be/get used to someth ing (I'm used to ... )
62 Verh + preposi tion + -ing (succeed in -ing I accuse somebod y o f -ing ctc.]
63 Exp ressio ns + -in g
64 To ••• • for .. . a nd so t hat •.. (pur pose )
65 Adjective + to .. .
66 To ••• (a fraid to do l a nd preposition + -ing (afraid of -ing t
67 See so mebody do a nd sec so mebody doin g
68 -ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed e;Hly. f

A rticles JIII/ nouns


69 Cou nta ble and uncountable 1
70 Co unta ble and uncountable 2
7 1 Counta ble nouns with ala n an d som e
72 Alan and the
73 The 1
74 The 2. (schoo l! t he school ere. I
75 The 3 (children I the children !
76 The 4 Ithe giraffe I the teleph on e ! th e piano etc.• the + ad iecnve t
77 Na mes with a nd wit ho ut the 1
78 Na mes with an d with out th e 2

iv IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

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79 S in ~u lJr and plur.ll
80 X oun ... no un (a tenni s ball f .l headache:
8 1 -\ rvour sisler\ nam e! and o f ... (rhe na me o f the book t

Pronouns .l lId det erminers


82. :\l y sdf/~' ours elfJth em seh' es ere.
83 .-\ friend of mine .\l y own home On my own f by myself
84 Ther e ... •1Od it .. .
S5 Some a nd .lny
86 X o/non c/a nv Xothing/nobodv etc.
87 :\I uch. man v.H n le. few. a lot. plentv
SS All / .1.11 o f m O\1 / movr o f no / non e of etc
89 Both f both o f neither f neither o f either f either of
90 :\ 11. every J.nJ whole
9 1 Each and c u'~

Relati re clauses
92. Relanve cla uses I: clauses with who/t hat/w hich
93 ReI.HiH' cla uses 2.: cla uses with an d without who/ tha t/which
94 Rela nve clauses 3: whose/wh om/wh er e
95 Relative clauses 4: exrra mformanon daus~ ( I I
96 Rela tive cla uses 5: e xtra info rmation clau ses l2.1
9 - -mg an d -ed cla uses rrhe woman talking 10 Tom. [he ~()y injured in the accident '

A J ;ecfU '('S JI1,I .I,/I"('rI'5


98 Adle..-nves endin,!: in -ing and -ed (bo ring/bo red ere-.1
99 Adj ective s: a nice new house. you loo k tired
100 Adiecnves and adve rbs I {quick/quickly}
10 1 Adiec rives .1OJ adve rbs 2. (\H·llJf,H tIl.1Cc. ha rd/hardly}
102. So an d such
10.3 Eno ugh and too
104 Q Uill". prcnv. ra ther .1nJ fa i rl ~"

105 Co m p.mson I (cheaper. more expensive etc. t


106 Com pa rison 2. tmc ch bcncr / a n j better / berrcr a nd better / Ihe sooner th e better)
10; Com pa rison 3 ' 0< •• • 0< I than !
10 8 Superlatives uh c longest. the mo st enjoy able erc.!
109 \'('ord o rder I: ver b + ubject: place and time
110 \X'ord order 2. : ad verbs with the verb

I I I Still. ~'e l an d alr eady .-\ny more f any lo nger I no longer


112. h en

COll lllll~· t i()ll$ .lIt.l prepositions


11.3 Althou gh I tho ugh I even though In spite of f despite
IH In C,1 ~e
115 Unless As lon g as Provided/p rovidi ng
116 As (:\ s I wall ed along the st reet .•. / As I wa s hungr y ... J
11- Like a nd a ~
118 .-\ ~ if / .1\ th ough / likc

IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHIOl UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326. v

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I 19 Fo r. during a nd whil e
120 By a nd unt il By th e time ...

Prepositione
12 1 Allon /in (ti me)
122 On time a nd in time At the end an d in th e end
123 In/a t/on (position) I
124 Inla llon [pos ition! 2
125 In/a llon (pos itio n! 3
126 ToI:nlinlinto
127 In/a llo n (o ther uses)
128 By
129 N oun + preposit io n (reaso n for . ca use of ere. I
130 Adjecnv e + pr eposit ion 1
13 1 Adjecrive + p repos itio n 2
132 Verh + prepo sition I to a nd a t
133 Verb + preposit io n 2 aboullfor/oflafter
134 Ver h + prepo sit io n 3 about a nd o f
135 Verb + preposition 4 ofI fo r/from/an
136 Verb + preposition 5 inli ntol withltolon

Pb rasal rerbs
137 Phra sal ve rb s 1 Int roduct ion
138 Phr a sal ve rb s 2 in/o ut
139 Phr a sal verbs 3 o ut
140 Phrasa l ver bs 4 on/off ( Il
14 1 Phr asal verbs 5 on/off (2l
142 Phrasal verbs 6 Up/do wn
143 Phrasa l ver bs 7 up ( I)
144 Phra sa l ver bs 8 up (2)
145 Phra sa l ve rbs 9 aw ay/back

Appendix 1 Regu lar a nd irregular verbs 292


Append ix 2 Present a nd past tenses 294
Appe ndix 3 T ht' futu re 29 5
Appe nd ix 4 Modal ve rbs (ca nJco uldJwillJwo uld erc.) 296
Append ix 5 Sho rr form s (I'm I yo u've J didn't etc. I 297
Append ix 6 Spelling 29 8
Append ix 7 Amer ican English 300

Addit io na l exerc ises 302

Study guide 326

Key to Exercises 33 6
Key to Additional e xercises 368
Key to Stud y gu ide 372

Inde x 373

IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY. USE THE STUOY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

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Thanks
I wrote the o riginal ed itio n o f English Grammar in Use when J was 3 reacher at the Swan
Schoo l o f English. O xford. I would like to repeat my tha nks to my co lleag ues an d students at
the school for their help. encou ragement and interest at tha t time.

.vt ore recentl y I woul d like to than k all the teachers and students I met and who o ffered their
thoughts on the previous edition. It was tun to meet you all and extremely helpful for me.
Rega rding t he prod uctio n of t his th ird edition . I am grate ful [ 0 Alison Sha rpe, Liz Driscoll.
jane \t.J irs and Kamae Design. I would also like to thank Cambridge University Press for
permission to access the Cambridge Intern ation al Co rpus.
Thank you also to the follow ing illustra tors: Paul Fellow s. Gillian \ b n io. Roger Penwill.
Lisa Smith and Simon \'('iIIiams.

vii
To the student
T his book is fo r students who want help with English gra mmar, It i~ wri tt en tor you to woe
without ,1 reacher,
T he hoo k will be useful for yo u if you are not sure of the answers to q uest ions like t hese:
o What is the difference between J did and I JJJI·c JOlle?
o When do we use u 'ill for the futu re:
o \"'hat is the str ucture after 1 wisb?
o "" hen do we S3 }' used to do a nd when do we say me.' to doing:
o When do we use the?
o What is the difference between like and .IS:
Th ese and many other poi nts o f English grammar are explained in the boo k and the re are
exercises on each po int .

l evel
Th e hook is intended mainly for intermediate students tsrudenrs wh o hav e alr ead y stu d ied t he
basic gram ma r of English), It concentrates on those str uctures wh ich inte rmedia te srudeo rs want
to use. bur whic h often cause difficuhv, Some advanced stude nts who have prob lems wit h
grammar will also find the boo k useful.
Th e hook is 1101 suitable fur elementary learn ers.

How th e book is organ ised


There are 145 units in the hook . Each unit concent rates on a particula r mint of gra mmar. Some
probl ems (for example, the present perfect or the usc of tbl'l arc covered in mo rt' than o ne unit.
For a list of units. sec the Co ntents at the beginning of rhe book .
Each unit con sists of two feeing pages. On rhe left there ar e explanat ion s and examples; on the
right there are exercises. At the back of the rook there is a l':ey for you to check yo ur answers
to t he exercises (page 33 6l .
There are also seven Appendices at the back of the hook tpagcs 191- 30 1I. These include
irregula r verbs. summaries of verb forms, spelling and America n English.
Finall y. there is a deta iled Index at rhe back o f rhe honk tpage 3731.

How to use the book


T he units arc not in ord er of d ifficulrv, so it is intended th at you wo rk th rou gh the book
/l 0 1

from beginnin g to end. Every learner h .1S different problems an d you shou ld usc th is hook TO
help rou with the gramm ar that )'011 find difficult.
It is suggested rha r you work in t his way:
a Use the Ccm /('lIts and/or index to find whic h unit deals with the point vonare interested in.
a If you arc not sure whic h units you need to study. usc the Sf/,.i)' gll ;.I.· on page 316.
o Study rhe ex plan anons an d exa mples on the.' Iefr-h.md p.lge (If rhe unit ~'nu h.r ve chosen.
a Do the exerci ses on the right -hand page.
D C heck you r an swers with the Key,
D If your an swers are not correct, study the left-ha nd page again to see what went wrong.
You can of co urse usc the book simply as a reference hook without doin g the exercises.

VIII

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• To the teacher
English Grammar in Use wa s writt en as a self-stu dy gra mmar book , hut teachers may also lind
it useful as additional course mat erial in cases where further work on grammar is nece ss<uy.
T he hook will probably be most useful at midd le- and uppe r- inter mediate levels (where all o r
nearly a ll of the material will be relevan n. and can serve borh as a ba sis for revisio n and as a
mean s fo r practising new sn ucrures. Ir w ill also he useful fo r some more ad vanced stu dents w ho
ha ve pro blems wit h gra mma r an d need a book for referen ce and pr.rcric-e. The book is nor
intended to he used by elementary lea rners.
Th e units arc orga nised in grammatical catego ries lPresm r .m d past, Articles .111.1 nOlllts.
Prepositions ere.I. They a re nor ordered according to level of difficulty, so (he hoo k should nor
be wor ked throu gh fro m beginning to end. Irsbo uld be used selecnvelv a nd tle xiblv in
acc ordance with the gra mmar sylla bus bei ng used and the d itticulries srude nrs are ha ving.
The book ca n be used for immediate con solidation o r for later revisio n or remedia l work . It
migh t be used by the whole class or by individ ual stu dents needing extr a help. The lett- han d
pagt"i (explanatio ns and exa mples) are written for the stu de nt to use indi vid uall y, nut they may
of cou rse be used by the teacher as a sou rce of ideas and informa tion on which to base a lesson.
The st udent then has rhe left-hand page as a record of whar has bee n taught an d can refer to it
in the futu re, The exe rcises ca n be done individuall y, in clJ SS or as homework. Ah e m anvelv
land additionally], individua l st udents can be directed to st udy cert ain units of the book b~"
themselves if t he)' have particular difficulti es nor shared ll)' o ther stude nts in their class. Don 't
forget the Additio"..,1exercises at t he hack o f the nook {see To the srcd en n.
The ht){)k is sold wit h or witho ut a C D Rom. Thi s co ntai ns furt her exercises on all t he units in
the noo k. as well as a bank o f 1.700 test qu estion s from which users ca n select to co mpi le their
own resrs. T he C D Ro m is also availabl e sepa ratel y.
An editi on o f r."glish Gramma r ill Use wit hout the 10:'-')' is also available. Some reach ers may
prefer this for use wit h their students,

English Grammar in Use Third Edition


T his is a new ed itio n o f b tglish Grammar ill USI'. The differences between this ed ition
and rhe seco nd edition are:
o Th ere Me eight new units on ph rasal verbs (Units 138- 145 1. There i.. a lso
new unit .1
on wish (Unit 41 ), Units 42-81 and 83- 137 all have different numbers from the
second edition.
o So me of the ma ter ial has been revised o r reor gani sed. and in mo..( u n irv there are
minor chang es in the exam ples, evplana nons an d exerci..e...
o T he Add itional exercises ha ve been extended . Th e new exerci-esa re 14- 16, 25. 30-3 1.
and .17- 4 1.
o T he book has been redesigned wit h new co lour illuvrranons.
o T here is a new CD Ro m with further exe rcises to accom pany the book.

x
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