FLUIDMECHANICS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT NO 04 Minor LOSSES IN PIPE FITTINGS

OMKARAM .K 0800335

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sump tank acts as reservoir for water . Diameter of larger pipe. Apparatus: Figure 1. Here we are provided with nine fittings called pipe bend. Cross sectional area of smaller diameter pipe. enlargement. Given data: Area of measuring tank . contraction.measuring tank is used for calculating volumetric flow rate of water.0165 m = 0. Elbow.  = = =  = 0. Water flow is controlled by two valves called control valve and By-pass valve. Pressure tapings are provided at inlet and outlet of these fittings at appropriate locations. union-2. ball valve. gate valve.027 m =  2 . union-1. A manometer is fitted to the pipeline to measure pipe loss due to installation of pipe fitting.1 In the above shown diagram there are two tanks called sump tank and measuring tank . Specific gravity of mercury Acceleration due to gravity Diameter of small pipe.AIM: to find out frictional losses associated with pipe fittings such as valves and bends installed in a piping system. long radius bend.

acceleration due to gravity f. pressure drop h. height of mercury in manometer . =5. kinematic viscosity of fluid . head loss . equivalent length . friction factor . Cross sectional area of smaller diameter pipe . Cross sectional area of larger diameter pipe . average time taken to fill measuring tank . density of mercury . velocity in larger diameter pipe g .Cross sectional area of larger diameter pipe. density of water t.73  Nomenclature: . Roughness 3 . Diameter of larger pipe . Diameter of small pipe . pipe fitting loss coefficient . velocity in smaller diameter pipe .

  is defined as number of velocity heads lost due to the valve or fitting.bends. ball valves etc are forming secondary flows due to which the separation of flow f rom the boundary also formation of eddies occur. gate valve . But due to abrupt changes in cross section of pipe. 4 . This results in minor head losses. Head loss due to presence of a bend or elbow or a valve or a union in a pipe line is given by  (1) Head loss due to sudden enlargement in pipeline is given by  (2) In terms of area of cross section above equation can also be written in the form of  =  (3) Headloss due to sudden contraction in t he pipe line is given by  (4) The viscous head loss associated with flow in straight circular pipeof length L and diameter D is given as (5) Friction factor depends on pipe friction which depends on reynolds number of the pipe flow. Compare 4 & 5    (6)   is considered to be independent of both fric tion factor and reynolds number and is treated as constant for a fiven fitting or valve under any type of flow condition.Theory and Formulae: As the fluid flows along a long pipe there are losses due to friction . presence of fittings such as elbow. it is a measure of the following losses in a valve or f itting.but in the short pipes friction doesn t play much role for losses.

 =  Following table shows pressure drop across various pi pe fittings Pipe fitting Pressure drop h(in mm of Hg) 48 13 48 26 23 51 35 24 34 Head loss Pipe fitting loss coefficient(exper imental) 2.6528 0.152 0.25 1.6528 0.033 1.1949 1.5063 1.9898 2.y y y y Pipe friction in the inlet and outlet straight portions of the valve or fitting Changes in direction of flow path Obstructions in the flow path Sudden or gradual changes in the cross -section and shape of the flow path The ratio is also constant for a fitting or valve at the same type of flow condition.6936 0.3128 0. =  =2.4633 Pipe fitting loss coefficient (theoretical ) 0.3536 0.26 2. The ratio L/D is defined as the equivalent length of the valve or fitting in pipe diameters and L is the equivalent length itself.4624 Table 1.065 0.1768 0.9296 Velocity ion the larger diameter pipe.77 s Velocity in the smaller diameter pipe.57 0.476 0.38 Elbow(threade d) Expansion Contraction Union-1 Ball valve Bend (90) Gate valve Union -2 Long radius bend 0.489 =0.118 0.85 0. Head loss in the pipe due to fitting can also be written as    (7) Results: For height 10 cm Average time= Volumetric flow rate= = = =18.36 0.95 0.3264 0.1 5 .559 0.

6248 0.272 0.187 0.5024* is 0.1793 for commercial steel is 0.9372 2.  =  Following table shows pressure drop across various pipe fittings Pipe fitting Pressure drop h(in mm of Hg) 21 6 20 10 9 23 16 10 14 Head loss Pipe fitting loss coefficient (experimental) 2.045 and diameter of pipe is 16.72* ) =4.1072 Total Pipe fitting loss coefficient (experimental) =11.40 1.0816 0.57 is pipe fitting loss coefficient. So for elbow 0. =  =1.5mm therefore From the intersection point of Reynolds number and is 2.1224 0.04 1.455 Pipe fitting loss coefficient (theoretical) 0.41* Velocity in the smaller diameter pipe.6 =0.36 0.Reynolds numbers are For smaller diameter pipe ( For larger diameter pipe ( Total head loss= 4.04 0.2856 0.16 0.136 0.595 Velocity ion the larger diameter pipe.3128 0.28 3 1 0.019*30=0.019 which is friction factor. Second time: For height 10 cm Average time = Volumetric flow rate = =3.136 0.6 0.26 1.66 1.4 Elbow Expansion Contraction Union-1 Ball valve Bend (90) Gate valve Union -2 Long radius bend 0.2176 0.2 6 . From the multiplication of friction factor with e quivalent length gives us pipe fitting loss coefficient.19 Table 1.1068* ) = 2.

9450* 7 .0816 0.208 1.0272 0.0952 0.Reynolds numbers are For smaller diameter pipe ( For larger diameter pipe ( Total head loss = 1.6065* Third time: For height 10 cm Average time= Volumetric flow rate= = =2.068 Table 1.  =  0.51 Pipe fitting loss coefficient (theoretical) 0.944 ) =2.417 0.60 1.0544 0.9392 =0.6 0.38 0.0408 0.51 0.0272 0.16 0.36 0.28 3 1 0. = Velocity ion the larger diameter pipe.754 Total Pipe fitting loss coefficient (experimental) = 9.813 0.1088 0.01 =49.29 1.35  Following table shows pressure drop across various pipe fittings Pipe fitting Pressure drop h(in mm of Hg) 8 2 7 5 3 4 6 2 5 Head loss Pipe fitting loss coefficient(exper imental) 2.906 1.3 Reynolds numbers are For smaller diameter pipe ( For larger diameter pipe ( ) =1.5496* ) = 0.4 Elbow Expansion Contraction Union-1 Ball valve Bend (90) Gate valve Union -2 Long radius bend 0.068 0.64* ) = 1.67 s Velocity in the smaller diameter pipe.

5712 Total Pipe fitting loss coefficient (experimental) = 10.Total head loss = 0.47 1.4 Elbow Expansion Contraction Union-1 Ball valve Bend (90) Gate valve Union -2 Long radius bend 0.14 Reynolds numbers are For smaller diameter pipe ( For larger diameter pipe ( ) = 2.2312 0.1224 0.068 0.60 Pipe fitting loss coefficient (theoretical) 0.236 1.44* ) = 1.49 s Velocity in the smaller diameter pipe.  =  Following table shows pressure drop across various pipe fittings Pipe fitting Pressure drop h(in mm of Hg) 19 5 17 10 9 20 13 9 13 Head loss Pipe fitting loss coefficient(exper imental) 2.1768 0.272 0.564 Total Pipe fitting loss coefficient (experimental) = 12.136 0.36 0.112 1.5357 Velocity ion the larger diameter pipe.29 1.1224 0.07 =32.4 Total head loss = 1.634 Fourth time: For height 10 cm Average time= Volumetric flow rate= = =3.16 0.28 3 1 0.1768 Table 1.60 1.34 0. =  =1.112 2.2584 0.4463* 8 .6 0.38 0.47897 =0.

45 2.05 2 reynolds number vs pipe fitting loss coefficient 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1.2 2.25 2.1 2.5 2 1.3 2.reynolds number vs pipe fitting loss coefficient 2.5 1 0.2 Reynolds number Vs pipe fitting loss coefficient for bend 9 .5 0 reynolds number Vs pipe fitting loss coefficient 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1.1 Reynolds number Vs pipe fitting loss coefficient for elbow reynolds number Vs pipe fitting loss coefficient 3 2.15 2.4 2.35 2.

5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1.4 10   ¡ ¡ .3 2.3 theoretical and experimental pipe fitting loss coefficient comparisons 14 12 10 8 6 reynolds number s total pipe fitting loss coefficient reynolds number s total head loss 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1.5 2 reynolds number vs pipe fitting loss coefficient reynolds number s pipe fitting loss coefficient (theoretical) 1.5 1 0.

3 0. High difference between theoretical and experimental value is due to frictional losses that exist in addition to the minor losses. As the Reynolds number increases pipe fitting loss coefficient increases for any valve or fitting. It is also observed in figure 1.7 l s er Vs ea l ss f r el w 0.6 0. 11 .1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 reynolds number Vs head loss for elbow Figure 1.4 0.5 0.3 shows the comparison of experimental value and theoretical value. It merely depends on valve or fitting under any flow co ndition. 2.5 DISCUSSIONS: 1. Figure 1. The reason may be tendency of fluid to behave like turbulent flow.rey 0.2 variation of pipe fitting loss coefficient is high which may be due to experimental error 4. Obviously total pipe fitting loss coefficient also increases with the Reynolds number.2 0.1 where variation of pipe fitting loss coefficient is almost negligible. In figure 1. 3. If we look at the values of   in the all tables value of   is constant for a fitting or valve which proves that value of  doesn t depend on velocity or Reynolds number.

2005. Narosa.co.. Tata McGraw Hill. and Gupta S.. Fluid Mechanics. But interestingly as Reynolds number increases head loss is decreasing. Gupta V..5. References: 1. Fox R. 3. Fluid Mechanics.K.scribd. but here we have to agree with the fact that in this experiment as the Reynolds number increased velocity is decreased. 2005 Internet resources: 1. John Wiley Intern ational. 2. M. A Pipeline Sizing Program at http://www.T.uk/Related/Fluids/Fluids_Pipe. Fluid Mechanics. So total head loss is also decreasing with Reynolds number. An e-book on the application to sizing piping systems http://www. White F.roymech. and McDonald A.com/doc/6205083/Pipe-Selection-Friction-Loss 12 .html 2. 2008.W.