Review of Related Literature

This part of the paper consists of various related literature about hacking. It includes internet sources. There is a plethora of literature in foreign texts than in local scene. But it does not undermine the possibility of the development of hacking in the country. Related Literature 1. Foreign

Hackers ± Wanted The Briton facing 60 years in US prison after hacking into Pentagon When he wakes up this morning, Gary McKinnon will be 72 hours from learning whether he is on the fast track to a 60-year prison sentence, thanks to his obsession with aliens. McKinnon, 42, from Enfield in north London, is accused by American prosecutors of illegally accessing top-secret computer systems in what they claimed in one legal document was 'the biggest military computer hack of all time'. The self-taught IT expert insists he was simply looking for information the US government had on UFOs and is adamant that he never damaged any of its computer systems. This argument, however, cuts little ice with the Americans, who are trying to extradite him. Five years after being told by British police that he would probably get a six-month community service order for his exploits, McKinnon finds himself still wanted by the US authorities. A 2006 High Court ruling granted the extradition request, and on Wednesday the House of Lords will decide on McKinnon's appeal against that ruling. That it should come to this is little short of outrageous, say his supporters. Soon after he was arrested in 2002, US prosecutors appeared to offer McKinnon a deal: if he agreed to extradition and admitted his guilt, he would get a sentence of three to four years, most of which could be served in the UK. When McKinnon rejected the offer - made in confidential meetings at the US embassy - his lawyers were told 'all bets were off'. They claim the US prosecutors upped the stakes, suggesting he would be 'treated like a terrorist' if he did not agree to face trial and plead guilty in the US. McKinnon claims that at one stage there were suggestions that he would face a military tribunal, possibly at Guantánamo Bay. 'They said they wanted to see me fry,' he said. McKinnon's lawyers claim that attempts to force him to accept a plea bargain constituted 'an unlawful abuse of the court process'. A Lords ruling in favour of McKinnon, who has become a cause célèbre for UFO enthusiasts, computer users and civil liberties groups, would force US prosecutors to restart their extradition process in the magistrates' courts, a major setback that could have ramifications for other Britons resisting removal to the US. A ruling against him would mean an appeal to the European Court of Human Rights and leave him in legal

some from people who have served in the US military .' he said. On every system he hacked. it has emerged that a crucial file containing details of the early meetings with the US prosecutors. McKinnon linked a number of computer systems to search for US databases that were not protected by a password.that 'confirm' that extra-terrestrials exist.' One message has come back to haunt him. 'I was always leaving messages on the desktop saying. consecutive government reports have confirmed that the US military's computer systems remain poorly protected. the Pentagon and Nasa. Using a computer language called Perl and a cheap PC. 'I said US foreign policy was akin to government-sponsored terrorism and I believed 9/11 was an inside job. 'I could scan 65. has gone missing from the office of McKinnon's solicitor. at which the offers were apparently made. Nasa tracked back my IP address. 'It was frightening because they had little or no security.000 machines in less than nine minutes. he left messages. Not only that but. who fear that events have taken a sinister turn. McKinnon unearthed unprotected computer systems operated by the US army. The revelations have prompted febrile speculation among McKinnon's supporters. many with Chinese and Russian internet addresses.' he said. Intrigued.' he admitted. the ease with which he could hack the systems became his undoing. 'I think it's bloody ridiculous.limbo. Since his exploits were exposed. 'They should employ me to bust paedophile rings or credit card frauds rather than stick me in jail for the rest of my life. mainly weaponry and free energy'. McKinnon believes his phone has been bugged and claims to have been followed. banned from travelling abroad. "your security is really crap". The group had collected more than 200 testimonies . I went to places directly rather than jump through systems. some of the testimonies offered proof that 'certain parts of Western intelligence had acquired and reverse-engineered their technology.' McKinnon said. 'I felt if it existed it should be publicly available.' he said. In the end. In a further twist. and barred from accessing the internet. As a result of his exploits. according to McKinnon.' McKinnon's interest in aliens was started by an internet-based group of UFO enthusiasts called The Disclosure Project. It seems a mundane job for a man who between 1999 and 2002 broke into the most secure computer systems in the world from his north London flat. He says he came across many other hackers in the supposedly secure systems. McKinnon used the testimonies to help him search top-secret US databases for information about free energy. A laptop holding details of the same meetings was stolen from the car of one of his barristers. 'I got sloppy. It was a political diatribe. . the navy. no IT company will now offer McKinnon a job. forced to report to police every Friday.' These days he earns a living driving a fork-lift truck.

' The greatest hackers Jonathan James At 16 he was the first juvenile to be jailed (for six months) for hacking in Space is the next frontier and it's already being weaponised. earning himself a Porsche.7m worth of software. but two years later. I'm living in a surreal. apparently taking McKinnon's hard drive. he found that downloading the huge volume of documents was too time-consuming. Adrian Lamo Broke into organisations such as the New York Times and Microsoft between 2002-2003 using internet connections at coffee shops and libraries. With only a 56k modem. nutter's film.' McKinnon said. the US government began extradition proceedings. He says he came across a document written by a Nasa official who claimed the agency has to airbrush UFOs out of satellite photos because 'there are so many of them'. stealing more than $1.' His hacking career came to an abrupt end one morning in March 2002. But McKinnon claims that he managed to capture almost two-thirds of an image of what he believes was either a UFO or a top-secret US craft operating in space. The material included an Excel spreadsheet entitled 'non-terrestrial officers' and a list of names. He targeted high-profile organisations including Nasa. The National High Tech Crime Unit searched his flat and arrested McKinnon and his then girlfriend. along with all the other material McKinnon downloaded.hacking . Kevin Poulsen Known as Dark' McKinnon claimed. Kevin Mitnick The Department of Justice called him 'the most wanted computer criminal in United States history' for his hacking activities between 1982 and 1992. 'Maybe it was the secret development of a space force.McKinnon was caught before he could find any confidential information on 'free energy'. serve six months of home confinement and two years' probation. He had to pay $65. 'Now I'm facing 60 years in prison. he hacked into LA radio's KIIS-FM phone lines. Source: http://www. 'They said "you'll probably get six months' community service". 'I believe my case is being treated so seriously because they're scared of what I've seen. he served five years in prison. He served five years. Called 'Hannibal Lecter of computer crime' for his hacking activities between 1985 and 1991. In the end the Crown Prosecution Service decided not to prosecute. The picture was confiscated. 'It was a really weird phrase. but he saw enough to believe the US authorities are suppressing what they know about aliens.' McKinnon after crime unit officials visited Washington. eight months in solitary confinement.000.

2. was similar to the "I Love You" virus.The underground student organization being implicated in the "I Love You" virus case is notorious for spreading viruses and hacking local Internet service providers. Agents of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) have been investigating the group after computer experts discovered the word Grammersoft embedded in the code of the "I Love You" virus which affected computer systems worldwide and caused an estimated damage of $10 billion. The group. De Guzman was traced by investigators through user names provided by three local ISPs. a software program that was capable of capturing and sending passwords from an infected computer to a specified email address. several times in the past and have intentionally spread viruses to Moscom subscribers at least twice. admitted that he was a member of Grammersoft. Karim Bancola. of copies of a file using a single save command. surmised that the two software programs could produce the same effects as that of the "I Love You" virus if they were combined. In a press conference last week. . ImpactNet. He also said other members of the group had knowledge of a password-stealing program he created for his thesis project. which was used by the "I Love You" virus author to launch the virus. who graduated from AMACC early this month. Local Philippine student group notorious for hacking (IDG) -. said Willy Gan. Grammersoft had tried to hack into Moscom Internet. namely Sky Internet. Buen on Sunday denied any involvement in the creation of the virus and defended himself. Buen. De Guzman admitted that he might have accidentally sent a virus through the Internet. senior vice president of AMACC. The telephone number that was used to access the ISPs were also traced to the apartment of De Guzman. saying his thesis project was approved by AMACC officials. He is also not a member of Grammersoft. the company's president. Officials of AMACC told journalists earlier that De Guzman's thesis project. In the same event. was also identified as a possible suspect by investigators because of his thesis project. the 23-year old student of AMA Computer College (AMACC) suspected of writing the virus with his college buddy Michael Buen. a software program that could save multiple. Onel De Guzman. even hundreds. and Access Net. the country's largest ISP.

found a copy of a Microsoft Word macro virus allegedly authored by Buen in one of the diskettes seized from the apartment of de Guzman." Manuel Abad. He also listed President Estrada and other prominent persons under "Not my references" in his resume. "When we discovered it. The attachment was actually a virus which was also written in the Visual Basic programming language. claimed Gan. There were users who were affected but only a few because of the warning. "It's easy to . The virus contained Buen's resume and a threat that says: "If I don't get a stable job by the end of next month. The fake email was disguised to make it appear that it came from Moscom's network administrator. claimed Moscom's Gan. In Buen's resume. Shortly before the "I Love You" virus came out. executive vice president of the AMA Educational System. Abad said both students were members of Grammersoft. Buen was described as "an above-average programmer with proficiency in Word Macros and the Visual Basic programming language. Grammersoft members were engaged in hacking and creating viruses. members of the group sent a fake email with an attached virus program to subscribers of Moscom. however. Gan said it is not their practice to send attachments to subscribers or authorize their network administrator to send out such email messages to users. But far from being legitimate. said they found no similarities between the "I Love You" virus and the virus found in the diskette. I will release a third virus that will delete all folders in the primary disk. but only De Guzman confirmed that he was a member of the group." Nelson Bartolome. he listed De Guzman as one of his references. Recipients of the email were asked to open an attachment that was supposedly a patch to improve Internet access to Moscom's network. In a report by the NBI's technical team. assistant director of the NBI's anti-fraud and computer crimes division." said Gan. except for the fact that both were written using the Visual Basic programming language.Investigators. we quickly sent out a warning not to open it. confirmed that De Guzman and Buen were friends. "Grammersoft has been trying to hack into our systems for quite some time and sending fake emails to our subscribers." said Gan in an interview with Computerworld Philippines. which wrote software programs for small and medium-sized companies and sold thesis projects to students.

The group had tried to perform this trick at least twice already." Gan explained they traced the email to members of Grammersoft through the email's originating IP address. "How can you go to the NBI. ." He admitted Moscom is helpless in preventing people from sending such email messages because they can not filter all the email messages that go through their network everyday.recognize that it's a fake because of the header and we normally don't send email like that. "I don't like what they're doing because it's disrupting our operations. he said. Reporting the incident to the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) would not help much either. they don't know what to do with these types of crime?. he added." Gan stressed.

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