Luzon

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

Luzon

© All Rights Reserved

- RGGVY & APDRP
- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
- 9781464810541
- Bus Bar Schemes
- Templeton Municipal Light & Water Plant Electric Rates
- ZV210393400.pdf
- Reference No 1
- CEB Net Metering Manual _3
- Energy Efficient Power Systems Using DC Microgrids
- IRR9136.pdf
- AEP's GridSMART Grid Management Interoperability Unlocks Additional Utility Benefits
- OS-D201.pdf
- Electrical Power Transmission
- Ref.13
- Canalis BB
- ED-EDM-P1 G2 Guidelines For Works in the Vicinity of OHL.pdf
- Gainesville Regional Utilities, 2012 Storm Hardening Report
- elc_chapter_6
- Rt 41029112016
- 1 2012 Ali Aref 13-node data EPE20120200004_16904854

You are on page 1of 6

net/publication/235932727

Optimal size and location of distributed generation unit for voltage stability

enhancement

DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2011.6063755

CITATIONS READS

14 734

4 authors:

Qassim University South Valley University

120 PUBLICATIONS 667 CITATIONS 21 PUBLICATIONS 53 CITATIONS

Aswan University University of Texas at Tyler

79 PUBLICATIONS 419 CITATIONS 46 PUBLICATIONS 479 CITATIONS

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Investigation and mitigation of PEVs impacts on the distribution system View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Ahmad Eid on 01 June 2014.

Optimal Size and Location of Distributed Generation

Unit for Voltage Stability Enhancement

M. Abdel-Akher1 A. A. Ali1 A. M. Eid1 H. El-Kishky2

1 2

Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering

Aswan Faculty of Engineering University of Texas at Tyler

South Valley University 3900 University Blvd.

81542 Aswan, Egypt Tyler, TX 75799, USA

Abstract— This paper presents the analysis of a distribution interior-point optimization procedure was employed to

system connected with distributed generation (DG) units. The identify the optimal location and size of DG units

developed technique is based on the steady state voltage introduced to the system.

stability index. The weakest branches in the distribution In [5], sensitivity analysis of power losses in terms of DG

system which are more likely go to the instability region are size, location and operating point has been performed to

selected for DG allocation. Two optimization methods are

find the optimal size and location of DG units. In [6],

utilized to find out the size of the DG corresponding to

minimum losses or minimum stability index. The Newton- authors proposed an analytical method to determine the

Raphson load-flow is used to find the steady-state solution of optimum location size pair of a DG unit in order to

the studied distribution system. The AMPL software package minimize only the line losses of the power system. In [7],

is utilized for evaluating the size of the DG units. The authors used an exhaustive search algorithm to optimally

developed methods are tested using a 90-bus distribution locate and size a single DG unit in a meshed system taking

system with a variety of case studies. into consideration the system losses and short circuit level.

In [8], the authors studied the impact of placing a DG unit of

certain size at each node of the system on the system indices

I. INTRODUCTION representing system losses, voltage profile, line loading

Distributed Generation (DG) has the potential to provide capacity and short circuit level. As for placing multiple DG

technical and economic benefits to the distribution system, units many researches were presented.

such as the reduction of power losses and power quality In [9], authors used a GA based algorithm to determine

improvement. On the other hand, it should be noted that, the optimum size and location of multiple DG units to

whether the DG is misused or misplaced, it may easily cause minimize the system losses and the power supplied by the

degradation of power quality, reliability, and control of the main grid taking into account the limits of the voltage at

system or it may increase losses and affect voltage each node of the system. In [10], authors placed DG units at

regulation. the most sensitive buses to voltage collapse. The units had

There are many approaches for deciding the optimum the same capacity and were placed one by one. In [11], a

sizing and sitting of distributed generation units in genetic algorithm based algorithm was presented to locate

distribution systems. In [1], the authors determined the multiple DG units to minimize a cost function including the

optimum locations of DG in the distribution network. The system losses and service interruption costs.

work aimed to study several factors related to the network The penetration of distributed generation resources is

and the DG unit itself such as the overall system efficiency, increasing in worldwide power distribution systems. This

system reliability, voltage profile, load variation, network leads to that the distribution system is no longer modeled as

losses and the DG loss adjustment factors. In [2], the passive networks receiving electric power from the high

authors aimed to determine the optimal sizing of a small voltage transmission networks and distributing it to

isolated power system that contains renewable and/or consumers. The installation of DG units to the distribution

conventional energy technologies to minimize the system’s system helps to reduce the line losses, improve the voltage

cost of energy. In [3], a genetic algorithm based technique stability and improve the power quality [12]. When the

along with optimal power flow (OPF) calculations were penetration of DG is high, the generated power of DG units

used to determine the optimum size and location of DG not only alters the power flow in the distribution system, but

units installed to the system in order to minimize the cost of in the transmission system as well. The location and size of

active and reactive power generation. In [4], the primal-dual DG units to enhance the voltage stability are different from

that of loss reduction purpose. In the visible literature, there Pj2 + Q 2j

is no a specified direct formula to determine the size and Q j = Qi − X (6)

V j2

location of the DG units.

In this paper, an accurate and direct formula is derived to Where R, X are the resistance and the reactance of branch

determine the optimal size and location of DG units and to connecting nodes i and j.

study their effects on voltage stability enhancement of a Substitute (1), (5), and (6) in (2) yields:

2

radial 90-bus distribution system. The Newton-Raphson Pi + Qi2

load flow analysis is used to find the steady-state power =

Vi

solution of the system. The results of this work demonstrate (8)

⎡ 2

Pj2 + Q 2j ⎞ ⎛ Pj2 + Q 2j ⎞ ⎤

2

the effectiveness of the proposed developed technique on 1 ⎢⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

enhancing the voltage stability of the studied system using a Pj + R + Qj + X

V j2 ⎢⎜⎝ V j2 ⎟ ⎜ V j2 ⎟ ⎥

specified formula for DG allocation. ⎣ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦

equation at node j:

II. STEADY STATE VOLTAGE STABILITY INDEX

If we consider a distribution line segment connected aV j4 + bV j2 + c = 0 (10)

between two nodes as shown in Fig. 1. The static voltage

stability index at bus j, Lj, is derived as follows [13]: Where:

The current flows in the line segment calculated at nodes

i and j is calculated as follows: a =1 (11-1)

(

b = 2 Pj R + Q j X − Vi 2 ) (11-2)

2 P + Qi2

2 ( )(

c = Pj2 + Q 2j R 2 + X 2 ) (11-3)

Ii = i (1)

Vi The solution of the second order equation (10) can be

directly as follows:

− b ± b 2 − 4ac

V j2 = (12)

2a

The visible solution of the terminal voltage at node j is

obtained by applying this condition:

Fig. 1 Distribution line segment connected between two nodes

b 2 − 4ac ≥ 0 (13

j j i

2 2

j

2

)( )]

+ Q 2j R 2 + X 2 ≥ 0 (13)

Ii = 2

(2)

V j

By some manipulation for (13):

Where Pi, Qi, Pj, and Qj are active and reactive power

injections at nodes i and j, Vi and Vj are the voltages of

nodes i and j respectively. 1 2

Vi 4

[ ( )

Vi Pj R + Q j X + (Pi X − Qi R ) ≤ 1

2

] (14)

terms of the current flowing in the line as follows: The steady state voltage stability index at bus j is defined

Pj2 + Q 2j by:

Ploss = R (3)

V j2 1

[

L j = 4 (Pi X − Qi R ) + Vi 2 Pj R + Q j X

Vi

2

(15)( )]

2 2

P +Q j j

Qloss = X (4) This formula has an advantage that the effect of node

V j2 voltages is taken into account. The voltage stability index L,

Then, is defined by:

Pj2 + Q 2j

Pj = Pi − R (5)

V j2

L = max {L1 , L 2 , L 3 ,......... L N −1 } (16)

105

k ∂L j

=0 (19)

∂PDGj

Vj ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤

1 ⎢ 2 ⎜ N ⎟ ⎥

Vi .

.

PDGj =

2X 2 ⎢

2

RVi + 2 X ⎜ PLj + ∑

Pjk ⎟ − 2Q ji RX ⎥ (20)

Pij ⎢ ⎜ k∈ j ⎟ ⎥

Rij+jXij Pji . ⎣ ⎝ k ≠i , j ⎠ ⎦

i j .

.

Qij Qji C) Minimum system losses

.

. The minimum value for the losses of distribution feeder

PDGj can be calculated by forming the following objective

N

function:

DG

F = PDG + PGrid + PLoss = PLoad + 2PLoss (21)

PLj

The function F has minimum value at the minimum value

Fig. 2 Distribution system including DG unit connected at bus j

of the PLoss. The minimum value for the power losses and

the minimum value for the function F is at the same optimal

DG size. The mathematical formulation of objective

III. OPTIMAL SIZE AND LOCATION OF DG UNIT function is written as:

A) DG allocation Minimize:

The optimal location of the distributed generation unit is

determined based on the value of the stability index. The N DG N Load

j

stability index is calculated using (16) at every node in the F = K DG ∑ PDG

i

+ KL ∑P loss + K G Pgrid (22)

system. The DG is installed at the bus with the highest i =1 j =1

stability index. The size of the DG is determined using an K DG + K L + K G = 1 (23)

optimization technique which can be implemented for

stability index minimization or system losses minimization Subject to:

as given below.

B) Minimum stability index N Bus

The branch corresponding to the maximum value of the (

PGi − PDi − ∑ Vi V j Gij cos θ ij + Bij sin θ ij = 0 ) (24-a)

stability index L is called the weakest branch where the i =1

voltage collapse normally starts from it. The margin of N Bus

V j Gij sin θ ij − Bij sin θ ij = 0 ) (24-b)

i =1

between 0.0 at no load and the critical value of 1.0 when the

system collapses. Considering the DG power, the total

power at bus j, see Fig. 2, is given as: Vi min ≤ Vi ≤ Vi max (25)

N

(P )

i

DG min

i

≤ PDG( ) ( )

i

≤ PDG max

(26)

Pji = PDGj − PLj − ∑P

k∈ j

jk

(17)

(PGrid )min ≤ (PGrid )min ≤ (PGrid )max (27)

k ≠i , j

Where KDG, KL and KG are the weighting factors of

The static stability index is given by (18). The optimal equality constraint. When the values of the three weighting

DG size at bus j, PDGj, is calculated from (20) after factors are equal, the minimum value of the function F is

differentiating and equating to zero as: minimum at the same DG size corresponds to minimum

total power losses.

⎡⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎞

2

⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎞⎤

1 ⎢⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ ⎟⎥

L j = 4 ⎢⎜ X ij ⎜ PDGj − PLj −

Vi ⎢⎜ ⎜

∑ Pjk ⎟ − Rij Q ji ⎟ + Vi 2 ⎜ X ij Q ji + Ri j ⎜ PDGj − PLj −

⎟ ⎜

∑

Pjk ⎟ ⎟⎥ (18)

k∈ j ⎟ ⎜ k∈ j ⎟ ⎟⎥

⎣⎢⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎦⎥

k ≠i , j k ≠i, j

106

TABLE I RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT CASE STUDIES OF THE 90 NODE DISTRIBUTION FEEDER

Case description and DG

Location and size for Min. Location at weakest branch Location weakest branch

location and size Without DG

PLoss and size for min. L and size for min. PLoss

DG Bus - 10 42 42

Power loss (MW) 0.50 0.30 0.53 0.41

Grid Power PG (MW) 19.95 8.77 15.28 17.75

DG Power PDG (MW) - 10.98 4.70 2.11

Weakest Branch 42 42 43 43

Stability Index L 0.24 0.23 0.11 0.11

% Normalized to case 1

0.00 54.59 23.56 10.58

PDG = PDG/PG-Case 1

structure [13]. The total load of 19.45 MW and 9.72

MVAR. The optimization problem described in chapter III

section C is solved by using the student version of the

AMPL solver [14]. The following different cases are

simulated and studied:

Case 1: This is the base case study. The 90 feeder is solved

without DG.

Case 2: The DG located and sized such that the total losses

in the system is minimum.

Fig. 3 DG allocation and sizing for stability enhancement Case 3: Connecting a DG at the weakest branch and

calculating the DG size which corresponds to

minimum stability index.

Case 4: Connecting a DG at the weakest branch and

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS calculating the DG size which corresponds to

minimum system losses.

The 90 node distribution feeder is used to validate the The power losses, grid power, DG power, weakest

proposed DG allocation and sizing methodology with branch, and the stability index are calculated for different

distribution system voltage stability enhancement. The 90 studied cases and summarized in Table I. The results of

107

Case study 2 show that if the DG is sized and located for the stability problem should be considered prior to

minimum power losses, the best location of the DG is at bus optimizing the distribution systems losses.

10. The losses are 40 % less than the base case study

without DG, i.e. Case 1. The stability indices for Cases 1

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

and 2 are similar. This shows the installation of the DG at

bus 10 has no effect on the distribution system steady state The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of

voltage stability. the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF) and

the US Egypt Joint Science and Technolgy Fund Under the

project no. 839 for providing research funding to the work

0.25

reported in this paper.

0.2

Stability Index

0.15

REFERENCES

0.1 [1] A. keane and M. O’Malley, “Optimal distributed generation plant mix

with novel loss adjustment factors,” IEEE Power Engineering Society

0.05

General Meeting, Montreal, pp. 1-6, July 2006.

0 [2] M. F. AlHajri, M. R. AlRashidi and M. E. El-Hawary, “Hybrid

particle swarm optimization approach for optimal distribution

0.0 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 generation sizing and allocation in distribution systems,” Proceedings

of Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DG size Vancouver, Canada, pp. 1290-1293, April 2007.

[3] M. Mardaneh and G. B. Gharehpetian, “Siting and sizing of DG units

Fig. 5: Stability index as a function of DG size for the DG located at the

using GA and OPF based technique,” IEEE Region 10 Conference,

weakest branch, i.e. bus 42.

Vol. 3, pp. 331-334, 2004.

[4] H. lyer, S. Ray and R. Ramakumar, “Voltage profile improvement

According to the proposed methodology exhibited in Fig. with distributed generation,” IEEE Power Engineering Society

3, the DG is located at the weakest branch. The weakest General Meeting, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 2977-2984, June 2005.

branch corresponds to bus 42. Consequently, the DG is [5] M. A. Kashem, D. T. Le, M. Negnevitsky and G. Ledwich,

allocated at bus 42 in Cases 3 and 4. The DG size is “Distributed generation for minimization of power losses in

calculated for minimum stability index in Case 3 whereas distribution systems,” IEEE Power Engineering Society General

Meeting, Montreal, pp. 1-8, June 2006.

calculated for minimum power losses in Case 4. The results

[6] T. Gozel and M. H. Hocaoglu, “An analytical method for the sizing

show that stability index is similar in both cases. The losses and siting of distributed generators in radial systems,” International

in Case 4 are less than that of Case 3. Journal of Electric Power System Research, Vol. 79, No. 6, pp. 912-

It is worth to note that, from Fig. 5, the stability index for 918, June 2009.

minimum power loss case study, Case 4, and stability index [7] M. M. Elnashar, R. El-Shatshat and M. A. Salama, “Optimum siting

and sizing of a large distributed generators in a mesh connected

case study, Case 3, are almost equal. This is for the reason system,” International Journal of Electric Power System Research,

that the stability index has a minimum value for a certain Vol. 80, pp. 690-697, June 2010.

DG size and after that it saturates for any value of the DG [8] L. F. Ochoa, A. Padilha-Feltrin and G. P. harrison, “Evaluating

size. In the minimum power loss case, there will be no distributed generation impacts with a multiobjective index,” IEEE

information available about the stability of the distribution Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 1452-1458, July

2006.

system. However, for stability index method, there is a

[9] R. K. Singh and S. K. Goswami, “Optimum allocation of distributed

direct measure of the system stability by the index itself. By generations based on nodal pricing for profit, loss reduction and

using the proposed technique, the stability of the voltage improvement including voltage rise issue,” International

distribution system is enhanced and at the same time, the Journal of Electric Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.

total losses of the system are reduced. 637-644, July 2010.

[10] H. Hedayati, S. A. Nabaviniaki and A. Akbarimajd, “A method for

placement of dg units in distribution networks,” IEEE Transactions

on Power Delivery, Vol. 23, No. 3, July 2008, pp. 1620-1628.

V. CONCLUSION

[11] G. Celli, E. Ghiani, S. Mocci and F. Pilo, “A multiobjective

The paper has presented an efficient method to allocate evolutionary algorithm for the sizing and siting of distributed

and size distributed generation units in electrical distribution generation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 2,

pp. 750-757, May 2005.

systems. The steady state stability index has been used to

[12] P. Chiradeja and R. Ramakumar, “An approach to quantify the

determine the location of the DG. The DG is located at the technical benefits of distributed generation”, IEEE Trans. Energy

bus with maximum stability index. The DG is sized for Conversion, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec. 2004.

minimizing the stability index or the network losses. In both [13] H. Chen, J. Chen, D. Shi, and X. Duan, “Power flow study and

cases, the maximum stability index is quite similar. Both voltage stability analysis for distribution systems with distributed

cases cause a reduction in the stability index about 50 % generation”, in Proc. IEEE PES General Meeting, pp. 1-8, 2006.

compared to allocation and sizing based on losses without [14] A Modeling Language for Mathematical Programming, the website

can be : http://www.ampl.com/

considering the voltage stability problem. The results show

108

- RGGVY & APDRPUploaded byVikas Razdan
- ELECTRICAL SYSTEMUploaded byS Bharadwaj Reddy
- 9781464810541Uploaded byJohn Bihag
- Bus Bar SchemesUploaded byPratik
- Templeton Municipal Light & Water Plant Electric RatesUploaded byGenability
- ZV210393400.pdfUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- Reference No 1Uploaded byBasnet Bidur
- CEB Net Metering Manual _3Uploaded byTharaka Methsara
- Energy Efficient Power Systems Using DC MicrogridsUploaded byJack Travis
- IRR9136.pdfUploaded byAngela Canares
- AEP's GridSMART Grid Management Interoperability Unlocks Additional Utility BenefitsUploaded byThong Phouminh
- OS-D201.pdfUploaded byEsapermana Riyan
- Electrical Power TransmissionUploaded byBaihaqi Bahrin
- Ref.13Uploaded byperapk
- Canalis BBUploaded bygfhtrvdg
- ED-EDM-P1 G2 Guidelines For Works in the Vicinity of OHL.pdfUploaded byMohammed Zubair
- Gainesville Regional Utilities, 2012 Storm Hardening ReportUploaded bybfevena
- elc_chapter_6Uploaded bybk03htd
- Rt 41029112016Uploaded bySrinivas Acharya
- 1 2012 Ali Aref 13-node data EPE20120200004_16904854Uploaded bysreddy4svu
- fathima2015Uploaded byHoàngNguyễn
- Electric Vehicle Charging Using Photovoltaic based Microgrid for Remote IslandsUploaded byEngEzequiel
- Blokset_Brochure.pdfUploaded byYuri Rodrigues
- microgrid_intelligent.pdfUploaded byJoshua Ingram
- Introduction Into Power QualityUploaded byStedroy Roache
- Transmission Pricing Advisory Group Summary of Submissions SRCUploaded bydabs_orangejuice
- 13_chapter4Uploaded byMuk
- Power TransformerUploaded byAtul Wadhai
- SysUploaded byAmmar Hassan
- Dskk Mpl Inc 2014Uploaded byLava Kumar

- Machine Exercise 7Uploaded byBea Ducao
- How to Top the EE Board Exam 2015Uploaded byBenjack Mejor Alo
- 4-18notesperiod8Uploaded byGloria Taylor
- ACAD CAL 2017-2018n2Uploaded byBea Ducao
- Human WeaponUploaded byBea Ducao
- Lecture 8(1)Uploaded byBea Ducao
- Lecture 5.pdfUploaded byBea Ducao
- Lecture 5 v2Uploaded byBea Ducao
- lecture 1.pdfUploaded byBea Ducao
- ACAD CAL 2017-2018.pdfUploaded byPortia Placino
- Nd20lite ManualUploaded byBea Ducao
- 07530210Uploaded byBea Ducao
- MicroPMU Data Sheet 3.0Uploaded byBea Ducao
- Lighting InteriorUploaded byBea Ducao
- Problem Set Quantum Dead 19Uploaded byTidal Surges
- Arkiyoloji ReportUploaded byBea Ducao
- Cagayan HandoutUploaded byBea Ducao
- Lecture 19 - Sample PlansUploaded byBea Ducao
- 1 FDAS BasicsUploaded byBea Ducao
- SM_01_2008Uploaded byBea Ducao
- Practice Problems - Synch_MachinesUploaded byBea Ducao
- DC2 Ducao Batad ClementeUploaded byBea Ducao
- Rectifier ProblemsUploaded byBea Ducao
- thestatusofarcheologyinthephilippines-120916051042-phpapp02Uploaded byBea Ducao
- 2016JLSSAppForm.pdfUploaded byAbigail Saballe
- 6- Auxiliary ViewUploaded byapi-3815216
- Homework 20160712224505321Uploaded byBea Ducao

- Little Logic GatesUploaded byReuben Seno Tsey
- WellheadNodalGas-SonicFlowUploaded bythe_soldier_15_1
- Site Analysis FinalUploaded byHailley Denson
- An Algorithm Faster Than Negascout and SSS in PraticeUploaded byskanskan
- RIMS User Manual E1.0.3Uploaded byKyaw Kyaw
- NASA FISO Presentation: The SmallSat Revolution: Your World Now!Uploaded bySpaceRef
- Sword Art Online - Volume 17 - Alicization Awakening [L1][Defan752][SAO Archive]Uploaded byKraxus
- Enzymes NpUploaded byBharatSheth
- TechRef 2 W Transformer 3PhaseUploaded byRicardo Hernandez Morales
- Mx200 Sales Readiness PartnersUploaded bydaouhelius
- AX 50 AxonInstallationGuide EnUploaded byHarish Malhotra
- Regenerative Braking of Bldc MotorsUploaded byalthaf hussain
- PLC Appl ProgramUploaded byMeshok_666
- Analysis of Carbon-Jute Hybrid Reinforced Polyester Composite under Flexural LoadingUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- plugin-Desman04Uploaded bystressfree123
- Avi-BP MoM 2016-10-25-1Uploaded bySankhya
- FINAL EXAM Fall 2009 PracticeUploaded byCole Page
- 33.Poka Yoke Mistake Proofing ManufacturingUploaded byeddiekuang
- QuantumX-System MANUALUploaded byclaudiotech76
- Slips MotorsUploaded byAngel Gutierrez
- Eero SaarinenUploaded bySaunok
- 17891_Polyphase system (1).pptUploaded byRajesh
- 6F.03-fact-sheet-2016.pdfUploaded byashok
- UTS BSIUploaded byMiftachul JMS
- Maximum Shear Stress in a Rectangular Cross SectionUploaded bybmsschlotterbeck
- Stainless Steel Grade Comparision System Diagram of Stainless Steel - Corrosion &Heat Resistance Strength, Machinability WiseUploaded bySatyamEng
- Cisco Small Business SwitchesUploaded byamirophobia
- Manual Leibinger Jet3 Release r1-05eUploaded byfelipetuti
- Silver TitrationUploaded byminerales&materiales
- Weller CatalogueUploaded byRadio Parts