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Optimal size and location of distributed generation unit for voltage stability
enhancement

Conference Paper · September 2011


DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2011.6063755

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Mamdouh Abdel-Akher Abdelfatah Ali


Qassim University South Valley University
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Optimal Size and Location of Distributed Generation
Unit for Voltage Stability Enhancement
M. Abdel-Akher1 A. A. Ali1 A. M. Eid1 H. El-Kishky2
1 2
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
Aswan Faculty of Engineering University of Texas at Tyler
South Valley University 3900 University Blvd.
81542 Aswan, Egypt Tyler, TX 75799, USA

Abstract— This paper presents the analysis of a distribution interior-point optimization procedure was employed to
system connected with distributed generation (DG) units. The identify the optimal location and size of DG units
developed technique is based on the steady state voltage introduced to the system.
stability index. The weakest branches in the distribution In [5], sensitivity analysis of power losses in terms of DG
system which are more likely go to the instability region are size, location and operating point has been performed to
selected for DG allocation. Two optimization methods are
find the optimal size and location of DG units. In [6],
utilized to find out the size of the DG corresponding to
minimum losses or minimum stability index. The Newton- authors proposed an analytical method to determine the
Raphson load-flow is used to find the steady-state solution of optimum location size pair of a DG unit in order to
the studied distribution system. The AMPL software package minimize only the line losses of the power system. In [7],
is utilized for evaluating the size of the DG units. The authors used an exhaustive search algorithm to optimally
developed methods are tested using a 90-bus distribution locate and size a single DG unit in a meshed system taking
system with a variety of case studies. into consideration the system losses and short circuit level.
In [8], the authors studied the impact of placing a DG unit of
certain size at each node of the system on the system indices
I. INTRODUCTION representing system losses, voltage profile, line loading
Distributed Generation (DG) has the potential to provide capacity and short circuit level. As for placing multiple DG
technical and economic benefits to the distribution system, units many researches were presented.
such as the reduction of power losses and power quality In [9], authors used a GA based algorithm to determine
improvement. On the other hand, it should be noted that, the optimum size and location of multiple DG units to
whether the DG is misused or misplaced, it may easily cause minimize the system losses and the power supplied by the
degradation of power quality, reliability, and control of the main grid taking into account the limits of the voltage at
system or it may increase losses and affect voltage each node of the system. In [10], authors placed DG units at
regulation. the most sensitive buses to voltage collapse. The units had
There are many approaches for deciding the optimum the same capacity and were placed one by one. In [11], a
sizing and sitting of distributed generation units in genetic algorithm based algorithm was presented to locate
distribution systems. In [1], the authors determined the multiple DG units to minimize a cost function including the
optimum locations of DG in the distribution network. The system losses and service interruption costs.
work aimed to study several factors related to the network The penetration of distributed generation resources is
and the DG unit itself such as the overall system efficiency, increasing in worldwide power distribution systems. This
system reliability, voltage profile, load variation, network leads to that the distribution system is no longer modeled as
losses and the DG loss adjustment factors. In [2], the passive networks receiving electric power from the high
authors aimed to determine the optimal sizing of a small voltage transmission networks and distributing it to
isolated power system that contains renewable and/or consumers. The installation of DG units to the distribution
conventional energy technologies to minimize the system’s system helps to reduce the line losses, improve the voltage
cost of energy. In [3], a genetic algorithm based technique stability and improve the power quality [12]. When the
along with optimal power flow (OPF) calculations were penetration of DG is high, the generated power of DG units
used to determine the optimum size and location of DG not only alters the power flow in the distribution system, but
units installed to the system in order to minimize the cost of in the transmission system as well. The location and size of
active and reactive power generation. In [4], the primal-dual DG units to enhance the voltage stability are different from

978-1-4577-0541-0/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE 104


that of loss reduction purpose. In the visible literature, there Pj2 + Q 2j
is no a specified direct formula to determine the size and Q j = Qi − X (6)
V j2
location of the DG units.
In this paper, an accurate and direct formula is derived to Where R, X are the resistance and the reactance of branch
determine the optimal size and location of DG units and to connecting nodes i and j.
study their effects on voltage stability enhancement of a Substitute (1), (5), and (6) in (2) yields:
2
radial 90-bus distribution system. The Newton-Raphson Pi + Qi2
load flow analysis is used to find the steady-state power =
Vi
solution of the system. The results of this work demonstrate (8)
⎡ 2
Pj2 + Q 2j ⎞ ⎛ Pj2 + Q 2j ⎞ ⎤
2
the effectiveness of the proposed developed technique on 1 ⎢⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
enhancing the voltage stability of the studied system using a Pj + R + Qj + X
V j2 ⎢⎜⎝ V j2 ⎟ ⎜ V j2 ⎟ ⎥
specified formula for DG allocation. ⎣ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦

Rearranging (8) gives an expression for the power-flow


equation at node j:
II. STEADY STATE VOLTAGE STABILITY INDEX
If we consider a distribution line segment connected aV j4 + bV j2 + c = 0 (10)
between two nodes as shown in Fig. 1. The static voltage
stability index at bus j, Lj, is derived as follows [13]: Where:
The current flows in the line segment calculated at nodes
i and j is calculated as follows: a =1 (11-1)
(
b = 2 Pj R + Q j X − Vi 2 ) (11-2)

2 P + Qi2
2 ( )(
c = Pj2 + Q 2j R 2 + X 2 ) (11-3)
Ii = i (1)
Vi The solution of the second order equation (10) can be
directly as follows:

− b ± b 2 − 4ac
V j2 = (12)
2a
The visible solution of the terminal voltage at node j is
obtained by applying this condition:
Fig. 1 Distribution line segment connected between two nodes

b 2 − 4ac ≥ 0 (13

2 Pj2 + Q 2j [2(P R + Q X ) − V ] − 4[(P


j j i
2 2
j
2
)( )]
+ Q 2j R 2 + X 2 ≥ 0 (13)
Ii = 2
(2)
V j
By some manipulation for (13):
Where Pi, Qi, Pj, and Qj are active and reactive power
injections at nodes i and j, Vi and Vj are the voltages of
nodes i and j respectively. 1 2
Vi 4
[ ( )
Vi Pj R + Q j X + (Pi X − Qi R ) ≤ 1
2
] (14)

The active and reactive power losses are expressed in


terms of the current flowing in the line as follows: The steady state voltage stability index at bus j is defined
Pj2 + Q 2j by:
Ploss = R (3)
V j2 1
[
L j = 4 (Pi X − Qi R ) + Vi 2 Pj R + Q j X
Vi
2
(15)( )]
2 2
P +Q j j
Qloss = X (4) This formula has an advantage that the effect of node
V j2 voltages is taken into account. The voltage stability index L,
Then, is defined by:
Pj2 + Q 2j
Pj = Pi − R (5)
V j2
L = max {L1 , L 2 , L 3 ,......... L N −1 } (16)

105
k ∂L j
=0 (19)
∂PDGj

Vj ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤
1 ⎢ 2 ⎜ N ⎟ ⎥
Vi .
.
PDGj =
2X 2 ⎢
2
RVi + 2 X ⎜ PLj + ∑
Pjk ⎟ − 2Q ji RX ⎥ (20)
Pij ⎢ ⎜ k∈ j ⎟ ⎥
Rij+jXij Pji . ⎣ ⎝ k ≠i , j ⎠ ⎦
i j .
.
Qij Qji C) Minimum system losses
.
. The minimum value for the losses of distribution feeder
PDGj can be calculated by forming the following objective
N
function:
DG
F = PDG + PGrid + PLoss = PLoad + 2PLoss (21)
PLj
The function F has minimum value at the minimum value
Fig. 2 Distribution system including DG unit connected at bus j
of the PLoss. The minimum value for the power losses and
the minimum value for the function F is at the same optimal
DG size. The mathematical formulation of objective
III. OPTIMAL SIZE AND LOCATION OF DG UNIT function is written as:
A) DG allocation Minimize:
The optimal location of the distributed generation unit is
determined based on the value of the stability index. The N DG N Load

j
stability index is calculated using (16) at every node in the F = K DG ∑ PDG
i
+ KL ∑P loss + K G Pgrid (22)
system. The DG is installed at the bus with the highest i =1 j =1
stability index. The size of the DG is determined using an K DG + K L + K G = 1 (23)
optimization technique which can be implemented for
stability index minimization or system losses minimization Subject to:
as given below.
B) Minimum stability index N Bus
The branch corresponding to the maximum value of the (
PGi − PDi − ∑ Vi V j Gij cos θ ij + Bij sin θ ij = 0 ) (24-a)
stability index L is called the weakest branch where the i =1
voltage collapse normally starts from it. The margin of N Bus

voltage stability can be obtained according to the deviation QGi − QDi − ∑V i (


V j Gij sin θ ij − Bij sin θ ij = 0 ) (24-b)
i =1
between 0.0 at no load and the critical value of 1.0 when the
system collapses. Considering the DG power, the total
power at bus j, see Fig. 2, is given as: Vi min ≤ Vi ≤ Vi max (25)

N
(P )
i
DG min
i
≤ PDG( ) ( )
i
≤ PDG max
(26)
Pji = PDGj − PLj − ∑P
k∈ j
jk
(17)
(PGrid )min ≤ (PGrid )min ≤ (PGrid )max (27)
k ≠i , j
Where KDG, KL and KG are the weighting factors of
The static stability index is given by (18). The optimal equality constraint. When the values of the three weighting
DG size at bus j, PDGj, is calculated from (20) after factors are equal, the minimum value of the function F is
differentiating and equating to zero as: minimum at the same DG size corresponds to minimum
total power losses.

⎡⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎞
2
⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎞⎤
1 ⎢⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ ⎟⎥
L j = 4 ⎢⎜ X ij ⎜ PDGj − PLj −
Vi ⎢⎜ ⎜
∑ Pjk ⎟ − Rij Q ji ⎟ + Vi 2 ⎜ X ij Q ji + Ri j ⎜ PDGj − PLj −
⎟ ⎜

Pjk ⎟ ⎟⎥ (18)
k∈ j ⎟ ⎜ k∈ j ⎟ ⎟⎥
⎣⎢⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎦⎥
k ≠i , j k ≠i, j

106
TABLE I RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT CASE STUDIES OF THE 90 NODE DISTRIBUTION FEEDER

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4


Case description and DG
Location and size for Min. Location at weakest branch Location weakest branch
location and size Without DG
PLoss and size for min. L and size for min. PLoss
DG Bus - 10 42 42
Power loss (MW) 0.50 0.30 0.53 0.41
Grid Power PG (MW) 19.95 8.77 15.28 17.75
DG Power PDG (MW) - 10.98 4.70 2.11
Weakest Branch 42 42 43 43
Stability Index L 0.24 0.23 0.11 0.11
% Normalized to case 1
0.00 54.59 23.56 10.58
PDG = PDG/PG-Case 1

Fig. 4 The 90 distribution test system

bus comprises of 90 buses and 89 branches with a radial


structure [13]. The total load of 19.45 MW and 9.72
MVAR. The optimization problem described in chapter III
section C is solved by using the student version of the
AMPL solver [14]. The following different cases are
simulated and studied:
Case 1: This is the base case study. The 90 feeder is solved
without DG.
Case 2: The DG located and sized such that the total losses
in the system is minimum.
Fig. 3 DG allocation and sizing for stability enhancement Case 3: Connecting a DG at the weakest branch and
calculating the DG size which corresponds to
minimum stability index.
Case 4: Connecting a DG at the weakest branch and
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS calculating the DG size which corresponds to
minimum system losses.
The 90 node distribution feeder is used to validate the The power losses, grid power, DG power, weakest
proposed DG allocation and sizing methodology with branch, and the stability index are calculated for different
distribution system voltage stability enhancement. The 90 studied cases and summarized in Table I. The results of

107
Case study 2 show that if the DG is sized and located for the stability problem should be considered prior to
minimum power losses, the best location of the DG is at bus optimizing the distribution systems losses.
10. The losses are 40 % less than the base case study
without DG, i.e. Case 1. The stability indices for Cases 1
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
and 2 are similar. This shows the installation of the DG at
bus 10 has no effect on the distribution system steady state The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of
voltage stability. the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF) and
the US Egypt Joint Science and Technolgy Fund Under the
project no. 839 for providing research funding to the work
0.25
reported in this paper.
0.2
Stability Index

Min Ploss Min L


0.15
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