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2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT]

Overall System Performance Analysis with

Distributed Generation
Jacob Kurian Varaprasad Janamala
Dept. of Electrical Engineering Dept. of Electrical Engineering
PG Scholar Faculty of Engineering
Christ University, Bangalore, India Christ University, Bangalore, India

Abstract—Transmission system loadability enhancement using II. REVEW OF PREVIOUS WORKS ON DG

modern techniques are one of the interesting research areas
under power system planning studies. This paper address the There are various studies and researches made in the field
location of Distributed Generation (DG) in the network not only of DG. The application of DG in the distribution network will
loadability enhancement but also for transmission loss improve the reliability, loss reduction and economic benefits.
minimization and voltage stability enhancement. We have The location and size of DG have an important role in loss
proposed a novel strategic approach for DG location and size by reduction in power system. To find the optimum location,
considering (N-1) line contingency criterion. The approach is there have been a lot of studies performed. Some of the
analyzed with IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 30-bus test systems. The heuristic approaches on the suitable location of DG such as
results are validating the proposed approach for real-time Fuzzy- GA method [2], Optimal load flow with second order
algorithm method [3], Genetic algorithm and Hereford Ranch
Keywords—DG, CPF, Loadability, Voltage Stability algorithm [4], Tabu Search [5], Artificial bee colony algorithm
[6], Particle Swarm Optimization [7], Differential Evolution
I. INTRODUCTION algorithm [8].
Distributed generation (DG) is totally in contrast to Similarly we can find strategic approaches in literature
based on sensitivity factors considering voltage stability and
centralized generation. It is decentralized generation and
loss indices [9], power stability index [10], voltage stability
dispersed among the load centers. The distributed generation based approach [11, 12], real loss sensitivity based approach
concept is now a days very much relevant in present electricity [13].
scenario. There are so many definitions on DG [1]. It can be
defined as small scale generation, which is connected to the III. PROPOSED METHOD FOR DG LOCATION
distributor network. The DG generally refers to small-scale A strategic approach is proposed to determine DG location
(fraction of a kW to several MW) electric power generators in the network. By using CPF method, the most voltage
instable/critical bus is identified at base case as well as under
that produce electricity at a location nearer to customers or
(N-1) line contingency conditions. At every case, the critical
that are connected to an electric distribution system. Various bus is identified. The bus which is repeated commonly as a
forms of DGs can be defined as micro DG (1Watt < 5kW), critical bus among all cases is considered as optimal location
small DG (5kW < 5 MW), medium DG (5 MW < 50MW), for DG installation. In order to study the effect of DG
large DG (50MW< 300MW). penetration level on transmission losses, the DG size is
DGs consist of, but are not limited to micro turbines, increased in steps.
synchronous generators, reciprocating engines, induction A. Modeling of DG
generators, (combustion turbines that run on high-energy The DG can be model in two ways as per load flow theory.
conventional fuels such as oil, natural gas, propane, diesel or It can be both equivalent to only real power injection or real
gasoline), combustion gas turbines, solar photovoltaic cell, and reactive power injection at a specified bus. The primary
fuel cells and wind turbines. The DG has several benefits such model is suitable for photovoltaic, fuel cells and micro turbine
as power loss reduction, voltage profile improvement, system and the later model can be suitable for synchronous
generator.This paper is considered the second approach.
stability improvement, increasing overall system generation
capacity, pollution reduction…etc. This paper is focusing on B. Analysis of DG Effect on Voltage Stability
loss minimization, transmission system loadability In order to study the impact of DG on voltage stability, the
enhancement and voltage stability improvement by placing critical bus identified by CPF method is converted as PV bus.
DG at a suitable location. The voltage magnitude is specified as 1 p.u. and real and
reactive power injections made equal to a specified percentage

978-1-5090-1277-0/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE

2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT]
of total load of the system. Without and with DG, the critical Table 1. Critical loading factor (p.u)
loading level is determined under base case as well as under With DG at bus 4
(N-1) line contingency. Contingency Without DG
10% load 20% load
C. Analysis of DG Effect on Loadability Base case 2.056 2.665 2.932
1-2 0.410 0.601 0.865
The impact of DG on overall transmission system
1-5 2.056 2.449 2.781
loadability is also one of important considerable issue. Under 2-3 1.288 1.574 1.915
this analysis, the DG penetration level is made equivalent to 2-4 1.831 2.294 2.755
total system load increment. Without changing power factor of
2-5 1.910 2.328 2.721
any load bus in the network, the load is increased in steps and 3-4 2.169 2.601 2.936
at the same total system load increment is kept as DG size.
4-5 2.340 2.751 3.063
This procedure is carried until one of the transmission line 4-7 2.081 2.290 2.445
subjected to its MVA rating. 1-4 2.226 2.429 2.580
D. Analysis of DG Effect on Transmission Losses 5-6 0.957 1.040 1.122
Since DG is installed usually at distribution side and 6-11 1.862 2.045 2.231
immediate effect can be understood on transmission. As DG 6-12 2.265 2.537 2.754
penetration increases, the effect on transmission loss has to 6-13 1.576 1.658 1.730
understand. As long as the effect on loss is in decrement 7-9 1.318 1.387 1.445
manner, we can increase DG size at that location. 9-10 2.288 2.601 2.872
9-14 1.799 1.979 1.748
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 10-11 2.030 2.253 2.457
The IEEE 14-bus system is used in all simulation tests. 12-13 2.323 2.634 2.882
All the possible contingency analysis is carried out to find out 13-14 1.638 1.763 1.910
the most critical bus in the system. The observation is shown
in the Table. 1. By observing PV curves, bus 4 is the major
limiting factor for voltage instability point of view. Hence the
optimal location in IEEE 14-bus system is bus 4.
A. Analysis of DG Effect on Voltage Stability
Later, we have modeled bus 4 as PV bus and the procedure
is carried out for 10% and 20% of total load as its penetration
level. The corresponding critical loading factor for base case
as well as under line contingencies are also given in Table.1.
The PV curves of critical bus for base case with three
scenarios are given in Figures 1, 2 and 3 respectivelly. From
this we can conclude that the voltage stability margin is
increased significantly by the presence of DG at bus critical
bus. Since line 7-8 is not a possible contingency due to its
configuration, we have not taken in to consideration for Fig.2. PV curve of critical bus with DG at bus 4 and 10%
continegncy analysis. of total load as penetration.

Fig.1. PV curve of critical bus without DG at bus 4.

Fig.3. PV curve of critical bus with DG at bus 4 and 20%
of total load as penetration.
2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT]
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This paper addresses the effect of DG at critical bus on voltage
stability margin, transmission system loadability and losses.
The proposed approach for DG location is validating its
application to real time scenario. The location is identified
using CPF method. Under the assumption of DG at critical
bus, the enhanced values of voltage stability margin as well as
transmission loadability and decrement in transmission losses
measured in IEEE 14-bus system.
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