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12 Chapter Assessment

Answer the following questions, showing your calculations.

7. A 4.0-kg iron ball at 2258C is placed in a container of liquid water at 48C. When the system reach-

13 Chapter Assessment Use with Chapter 13.

es thermal equilibrium, its temperature is 458C. What is the mass of water in the container? The States of Matter

specific heat of iron is 450 J/kg?K, and the specific heat of water is 4180 J/kg?K.

Understanding Concepts Part A

mwCwDTw 5 2miCiDTi

Write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

2m iC iDTi

mw 5 }} c

C wDTw 1. At sea level, if the area of a surface increases, the pressure of the atmosphere on the

2(4.0 kg)(450 J/kg?K)(225°C 2 45°C) surface .

5 }}}}} 5 1.9 kg

(4180 J/kg?K)(4°C 2 45°C) a. increases b. decreases c. stays the same

d

8. A 2.0-kg cube of iron at 300.08C is placed on a 5-kg block of ice at 0.08C. How much ice will 2. Pressure is equal to .

change to liquid water at 0.08C? The specific heat of iron is 450 J/kg?K, and the heat of fusion of a. force plus area c. force minus area

ice is 3.34 3 105 J/kg. b. force times area d. force divided by area

The heat given off by the iron, which goes from 300.0°C to 0.0°C, is a

3. The SI unit of pressure is the .

Q 5 mCDT 5 (2.0 kg)(450 J/kg ? K)(2300.0 8C) (1K/18C) a. pascal b. atmosphere c. millibar d. newton

d

5 22.7 3 105 J 4. According to Pascal’s principle, any change on a confined fluid .

a. is directly proportional to the volume of the fluid

This heat is taken up by the ice, which thus absorbs 2.7 3 105 J.

Q 2.7 3 105 J b. is inversely proportional to the volume of the fluid

Q 5 mHf m5} 5 }}

Hf 3.34 3 105 J/kg c. depends on the shape of the container

5 0.81 kg

d. is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid

9. How much heat is absorbed in changing 2.00 kg of ice at –5.08C to steam at 110.08C? The specific

b

heats of ice, liquid water, and steam are, respectively, 2060 J/kg?K, 4180 J/kg?K, and 2020 J/kg?K. The 5. The buoyant force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid is equal to the .

heat of fusion of ice is 3.34 3 105 J/kg. The heat of vaporization of water is 2.26 3 106 J/kg. a. volume of the displaced fluid c. weight of the immersed object

Q 5 mCDTice 1 mHf 1 mCDTwater 1 mHv 1 mCDTsteam b. weight of the displaced fluid d. mass of the immersed object

5 [(2.00 kg)(2060 J/kg ? K)(5.0 8C)(1K/18C)] 1 [(2.00 kg)(3.34 3 105 J/kg)] b

6. According to Bernoulli’s principle, as the velocity of a fluid increases, the .

1 [2.00 kg)(4180 J/kg ? K)(100.0 8C)(1K/18C)] 1 [(2.00 kg)(2.26 3 106 J/kg)] a. density of the fluid decreases

b. pressure exerted by the fluid decreases

1 [(2.00 kg)(2020 J/kg ? K)(10.0 8C)(1K/18C)]

c. mass of the fluid increases

5 6.1 3 106 J

d. buoyant force of the fluid decreases

Teacher Guide and Answers 29T

10. How much heat must be added to 1.5 kg of liquid water at 95.08C to change it to steam at

For each of the statements below, write true or rewrite the italicized part to make the statement true.

100.08C? The specific heat of liquid water is 4180 J/kg?K. The heat of vaporization of water is

true As heat is applied to a sample of liquid water at 18C, the volume of

2.26 3 106 J/kg. 7.

Q 5 mCDT + mH v the water decreases.

8. solids A crystal lattice is a characteristic of many gases.

5 [(1.5 kg)(4180 J/kg ? K)(5.0 8C)(1K/18C)] + [(1.5 kg)(2.26 3 106 J/kg)]

9. true An object that is deformed by a force and returns to its original form

5 3.4 3 106 J when the force is removed is exhibiting the property of elasticity.

10. plasma The liquid state is the state of matter in which electrons have been

torn away from the atoms.

11. cohesive The adhesive forces within a liquid account for surface tension.

58 Chapter Assessment Physics: Principles and Problems Physics: Principles and Problems Chapter Assessment 59

30T

Name Name

Teacher Guide and Answers

Understanding Concepts Part B 5. A cube of lead that is 10.0 cm on each edge is suspended from a line and immersed in water. How

much force is exerted on the line holding the lead cube? The density of lead is 11.3 3 103 kg/m3.

Answer the following questions, showing your calculations.

Vwater 5 l lead3

1. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 1.0 3 105 Pa. How much force does the atmosphere

exert on a driveway that is 18.0 m long and 5.0 m wide? 5 (0.100 m)3 5 1.00 3 1023 m3

F F buoyant 5 r waterVwaterg

P5}

A 5 (1.00 3 103 kg/m3)(1.00 3 1023 m3)(9.80 m/s2)

F 5 PA

5 9.80 N

5 (1.0 3 105 Pa)(18.0 m)(5.0 m)

Fg 5 r leadVleadg

5 9.0 3 106 N

5 (11.3 3 103 kg/m3)(1.00 3 1023 m3)(9.80 m/s2)

5 111 N

Fapparent 5 F g 2 F buoyant

2. Find the total force exerted by Earth’s atmosphere on the top and sides of a rectangular can. The 5 111 N 2 9.80 N

base of the can is 10.0 cm wide and 15.0 cm long, and the can is 12.0 cm high.

5 101 N

total area of top and sides 5 2lh 1 2wh 1 wl

5 (2)(15.0 cm)(12.0 cm) 1 (2)(10.0 cm)(12.0 cm) 1 (10.0 cm)(15.0 cm)

5 7.50 3 102 cm2

F 5 PA 6. An iron bar 1.6 m long at room temperature (208C) is heated uniformly along its entire length

until its temperature reaches 12508C. How much longer is the bar at the higher temperature? The

5 (1.0 3 10 5 Pa)(7.50 3 10 2 cm2)

coefficient of linear expansion of iron is 1.2 3 1025 (8C)21.

7.5 3 10 7 N

DL 5 aLiDT

5 (1.2 3 1025 (8C)21)(1.6 m)(12308C)

3. A force of 400.0 N is exerted on a small piston that has an area of 8.0 cm2. How much weight can

be lifted on a large piston to which the force is transmitted, given that the large piston has an area 5 2.4 3 1022 m

of 20.0 cm2?

F1 F2 F1 A 2

} 5} F2 5 }

A1 A2 A1

(400.0 N)(20.0 cm2)

5 }}} 5 1.0 3 103 N

8.0 cm2

Physics: Principles and Problems

4. The area of a small piston is 4.0 cm2. A force of 150 N on the small piston will move a weight of

1200 N on a large piston. What is the area of the large piston?

F2 A1

A2 5 }

F1

(1200 N)(4.0 cm2)

5 }}}

150 N

5 32 cm2

60 Chapter Assessment Physics: Principles and Problems Physics: Principles and Problems Chapter Assessment 61

Physics: Principles and Problems

Name Name

Applying Concepts 4. What properties can be used to distinguish between gases and liquids? What properties do gases

and liquids have in common that allow them to be classified as fluids?

Answer the following questions, using complete sentences.

A liquid has a definite volume; a gas takes the volume of the container that holds it. The parti-

1. What does the kinetic-molecular theory of matter say about gases?

The particles that make up a gas are in constant, random, high-speed motion and are widely cles of a liquid are much closer together than those of a gas, so a liquid is much less com-

separated. All collisions among particles or between gas particles and the walls of the con- pressible than a gas. The properties that make liquids and gases fluids are the ability to flow

tainer that holds them are elastic and result in no loss of kinetic energy. and to change shape.

2. Most automobile brake systems are hydraulic systems. Explain how the relatively small force 5. How is matter in the plasma state similar to matter in the gas state? How is it different?

involved in pressing on a brake pedal can give the brakes enough force to stop the car. Both are fluid states. The particles of matter in both states are far apart and in rapid, random

The brake system of an automobile is a fluid-filled system. Pressure exerted on the brake

motion. However, the particles in a plasma are electrons and positively charged ions rather

pedal is transferred to a small piston inside the master cylinder and then throughout the

than neutral particles.

enclosed fluid of the brake system, which contains larger pistons that exert force against the

mechanical portions of the brakes. The larger area of these pistons results in an increase of

total force sufficient to create enough friction to slow and eventually stop a car.

3. An iron cube weighing 5 N is suspended from a string and lowered into a container of water until Different materials have different coefficients of thermal expansion. A temperature change

the cube is completely immersed. Describe what seems to happen to the weight of the cube. Give a

makes the different metals in a bimetallic strip expand by different amounts, causing bending

reason for your answer.

The weight of the cube seems to decrease. The cube is buoyed up by a force equal to the that can be used to break or complete an electric circuit.

Teacher Guide and Answers 31T

weight of the water it displaces. This buoyant force acts in the direction opposite to that of

62 Chapter Assessment Physics: Principles and Problems Physics: Principles and Problems Chapter Assessment 63

32T

Teacher Guide and Answers

13 Chapter Assessment

Answer the following questions, showing your calculations.

7. A cylindrical water tank 20.0 m high has a diameter of 14.0 m. The tank is full of water. What is

14 Chapter Assessment Use with Chapter 14.

the pressure at the bottom of the tank? Waves and Energy Transfer

P 5 rhg

Understanding Concepts Part A

5 (1.00 3 103 kg/m3)(20.0 m)(9.80 m/s2) 5 1.96 3 105 Pa

Write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

c

1. Which of the following usually transmits energy without transferring matter?

a. particle b. electron c. wave d. proton

c

2. The time interval during which wave motion repeats is the .

a. wave pulse b. frequency c. period d. wavelength

8. A rectangular solid measures 1.20 m by 0.80 m by 0.20 m. When the solid is standing on its small- b

3. The number of vibrations per second is the .

est face, it exerts a pressure of 5.2 3 103 Pa. How much does the solid weigh?

F a. amplitude b. frequency c. period d. wavelength

P 5 }} a

A 4. The speed of any mechanical wave depends on .

F 5 PA a. the medium through which it travels c. its angle of reflection

5 (5.2 3 103 N/m2)(0.80 m)(0.20 m) b. its amplitude d. its energy

5 8.3 3 102 N a

5. When light from the air enters a body of water, in what form does some of the energy

move back into the air?

a. reflected wave c. incident wave

9. What is the density of the solid in problem 8?

m F b. transmitted wave d. sound wave

r5} m5}

V g c

6. Which of the following may be produced during destructive interference of waves?

F a. a reflection c. a node

r5}

gV

b. a higher crest d. a lower trough

8.3 3 102 kg ? m/s2

}}}}} b

(9.8 m/s2)(1.20 m)(0.80 m)(0.20 m) 7. The change in wave direction at the boundary of two different media is .

a. incidence b. refraction c. reflection d. diffraction

5 4.4 3 102 kg/m3

d

8. The spreading of waves around the edge of a barrier is .

10. A volume of 200.0 cm3of water at a temperature of 48C is in a container with a1000-cm3 capacity. a. incidence b. refraction c. reflection d. diffraction

Physics: Principles and Problems

The container and its contents are heated to 958C. What is the final volume of water in the con- For each of the statements below, write true or rewrite the italicized part to make the statement true.

tainer? The coefficient of volume expansion of water is 210 3 10–6(8C)21.

9. increases Increasing the amplitude of a wave decreases the rate of energy

DV 5 bVDT

transfer.

5 (210 3 1026 (8C)21)(200.0 cm3)(918C) true

10. Frequency is inversely related to period.

5 3.8 cm3 meters

11. Wavelength is measured in hertz.

V f 5 200.0 cm3 1 3.8 cm3 true

12. Wave speed equals frequency times wavelength.

5 203.8 cm3 normal

13. The node is a line at a right angle to the barrier.

64 Chapter Assessment Physics: Principles and Problems Physics: Principles and Problems Chapter Assessment 65

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