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DevelopmentWiliandi

of Saputro
Detection Maturity Method in
and Irsyad Faisal Mutaqin

Carrot Varieties Cipanas using


Image Processing

the quality at harvest time is ripening carrot. Determination
Abstract—Carrot is one vegetable commodity which maturity carrot conducted by the producer, handling and
contributed to the national production (Indonesia). Productivity quality control should be simple, ready to use in the field or
carrots in 2006 on the island of west java as big as 21.71 garden and cheap. Determining of maturity should be done
tonnes/Ha with production level of 192.964 tonnes on land area with an objective and consistent related to the quality and
of 8.997 Ha. Post harvest activities carrots consists of sorting shelf life. This research develop carrot maturity detection
and grading, transportation and special checking, storage, method using image processing.
labeling and packaging. This research develop carrot maturity
detection method using image processing. The general objective
this research is to determine maturity of carrots in term of size, II.LITERATURE REVIEW
color, and sweetness using image processing techniques. While
specifically, the objective this research to study and determine A. Carrots
the parameters carrot maturity using image processing with Carrots (Daucus carota L.) are one of the most preferred
maturity parameter actual carrot covering the maturity vegetables, due to their versatility in culinary uses and its
characteristic object that is total dissolved solid (TDS) and enriched healthy composition, such as phytonutrients, dietary
hardness. Carrots used be learned parameter maturity using
actual observation that include characteristic of maturity
fibre and minerals. Carrots are one of the best sources of β-
(weight and dimensions), TDS and hardness. Then the result of carotene. The carotene content of carrots ranges from 60-120
the analysis of maturity be compared using quality parameter mg/100 gr, but some varietes can contain up to 300 mg/100
actually and image processing with a parameter value of the gr [2]. Carotens contain mainly β-carotene, i.c. abaout 80%
RGB (Red, Green, Blue) signal. [3]. The pigments are bound by proteins. Carots can provide a
significant amount of vitamin A, food matrices greatly affect
Keywords—carrot plant, image processing, ripeness level. the bioavailability of the plant carotenoids or their efficiency
of conversion to vitamin A, or both [4].
I. INTRODUCTION
B. Post Harvest Handling of Carrots
Carrot is one vegetable commodity which contributed to
the national production (Indonesia). Although the production Post harvest handling is gathering activities, sorting,
carrots not yet occupy the top position, carrot plant have an packaging and storage of carrots by size and quality standars
average growth rate of the biggest as big as 0.062 % followed have been determined [5].
by chili as big as 0.056 %, and cabbage as big as 0.01 %. C.Image Processing
Productivity carrots in Indonesia at 2009 – 2011 increase
from 358 014 tonnes to 526 917 tonnes [1]. Image processing is generally classified into two types of
Price fluctuation can be said stable, if demand for carrots activities, first is improve image quality according to the
continue to increase, especially in big cities like Jakarta, needs and second is process the information on image [6].
Surabaya, and Bandung. Price of carrots can be decreased in Processing and analysis image that invole a lot of visual
certain moments, especially during the harvest or perception is image processing. The process is characterized,
simultaneously harvest with fruit and other vegetables. In the data input output information is shaped image.
addition these factors, post harvest handling of carrots also
very determine price in market. Post harvest is a series of III. METHODS
activities which is conducted after harvested carrots. Mistake A. Reserarch Procedure
in post harvest handling will affect the quality or appearance
of carrot. Post harvest activities carrots consists of sorting and
grading, transportation and special checking, storage, Start
labeling and packaging. However, the most determining the
difference price of carrot is sorting and grading process. The
absence of physical damage like blister and bruise is essential Problem Identification
for quality parameters. Other important factors to determine


Wiliandi Saputro
Bogor Agricultural University
Indonesia
wiliandisnarta@gmail.com

Irsyad Faisal Mutaqin


Bogor Agricultural University
Indonesia
Irsyadfaisal94@gmail.com
B. Measurement used Image Processing
Make program framework After creating the main menu, submenu, and framework
use SharpDevelop
Force
Diameter (cm) TDS Hardness
Weight Long (kgf)
(gram) (cm) In (%
Make a menu and sub menu Center End (Kgf/cm2)
Pangkal Brix)
on tab tools, such as labels, 227 18,2 4,34 4,16 3,2 6,9 38,7927 7,62
text box, picture box, and 195,13 1 4,59 3,74 2 7 38,8436 7,63
strip menu. Then play with 200,16 18,1 4,91 4,94 1,6 7,1 38,8945 7,64
the click run. 167,79 9 4,18 3,53 2,2 7,6 38,9455 7,65
208,86 18 5,21 4,05 8 8 38,9964 7,66
181,98 18,5 4,44 3,5 2,0 8,4 39,0473 7,67
Make function in tfile 164,7 18,4 4,22 3,42 4 6,7 39,0982 7,68
menu. Such as save, open 211,96 5 4,91 4,13 2,9 7,1 39,1491 7,69
file, and exit. 161,38 19,1 4,47 3,39 6 7,2 39,2000 7,7
182,27 8 4,41 3,4 2,1 7 39,2509 7,71
191,23 19 4,54 3,82 6 7 39,3018 7,72
Make function of brightness
177,15 17,6 4,4 3,92 2,3 6,3 39,3527 7,73
and noise reduction.
169,87 8 4,71 3,62 6 6,6 39,4036 7,74
202,21 17,0 5 3,81 2,6 6,7 39,4545 7,75
Making a function for 174,94 2 4,34 3,37 8 6,3 39,5055 7,76
binerisasi menu, that is red 186,71 19,7 4,49 3,73 2,3 7,5 39,5564 7,77
thresholding, green 198,11 6 4,51 3,55 5 6,3 39,6073 7,78
thresholding, blue 195,14 17,8 4,49 3,4 2,2 6,4 39,6582 7,79
thresholding, greyscale 179,64 1 5 3,49 4 8,5 39,7091 7,8
thresholding, and invert 198,37 18,5 4,1 3,54 2,4 8,5 39,7600 7,81
binary image. 4 4
17,2 2,5
7 4
Making a function for The size 18,9 2,5
menu morphology. And and weight 1 2
creating a menu function of carrots 18,6 2,9
to the binary image 4 3,1
analysis. 19,4 2,6
5 1
17,3 2,5
Making a function to Model 3 3
analysis of color using the RGB Color 20,2 2,5
RGB color model (Red, and HSI 8 3
Green, Blue) and HSI color 18,8 2,4
color (Hue, Saturation, and 4 3
Intensity) 22,8 2,4
8 8

Finish
the next program will create a function for menu.
Fig. 1 : Flow chart of research Fig. 2: The display program and the main menu

IV. RESULTS

A. Measurement Object Data Carrots


This is data of testing for the object carrots in Lab. Teknik
Pengolahan Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian (TPPHP),
Department of Mechanical and Biosystem Engineering,
Bogor Agricultural University. The equipment used in the
measurement is ruller, digital scales, camera, knives, brix
meter, and carrots varieties Cipanas.

TABLE 1 THE PARAMETER DATA OF CARROTS

Fig. 3: Display submenu on the main menu


Function on the main menu and submenu, this is function
on sub menu to increase the brightness and noise reduction
and then the run, so that the results can be seen in fig. 4, 5,

Fig. 9 The object carrots with “ grayscale” operation

and 6.
Fig. 4 The object carrots with “increase brightness”operation

Fig. 10 A color image after the reversal of pixel value

Fig. 5 The object carrots with “ noise reduction”operation

Fig. 6 The object carrots with “ red thresholding”operation

Fig. 7 The object carrots with “ green thresholding”operation


Fig. 8 The object carrots with “ blue thresholding” operation
TABLE 2 THE PARAMETER DATA OF CARROTS WITH SHARPDEVELOP PROGRAM
R G B S I
Large Weight H
Area Height Width (pixels (pixels (pixels (pixels (pixels
Tools (gr) (pixels)
) ) ) ) )
40864 124 441 429,7802 0,6177 0,2439 0,1382 12,1228 0,5852 57
36876 116 433 386,7098 0,6075 0,2501 0,1422 12,8313 0,573 59
37887 122 430 397,6286 0,6177 0,2438 0,1383 12,0748 0,5848 60
33102 334 570 345,9506 0,6221 0,2429 0,1349 12,2213 0,5952 58
38657 124 444 405,9446 0,6237 0,2423 0,1339 12,1473 0,5981 59
36208 111 458 379,4954 0,6205 0,2432 0,2432 12,1353 0,5913 59
34009 101 450 355,7462 0,6185 0,2448 0,1365 12,3498 0,5902 59
39467 124 436 414,6926 0,6201 0,2445 0,1352 12,4357 0,5942 60
32647 109 409 341,0366 0,6174 0,2461 0,2461 12,6077 0,5905 57
36633 107 471 384,0854 0,6095 0,2491 0,1413 12,7977 0,576 57
35422 115 422 371,0066 0,6049 0,2513 0,1436 12,8978 0,5691 59
0,196429 36382 112 448 381,3746 0,6106 0,2512 0,1381 13,2362 0,5855 61
34363 111 414 359,5694 0,6165 0,2449 0,1385 12,2623 0,5844 60
37656 120 433 395,1338 0,6053 0,2524 0,1421 13,1837 0,5734 59
34771 104 441 363,9578 0,6158 0,2454 0,1386 12,3025 0,5839 57
36361 117 460 381,1478 0,6211 0,2431 0,1356 12,1535 0,593 57
39004 116 473 409,6922 0,6199 0,245 0,1349 12,4882 0,595 60
38316 109 478 402,2618 0,6116 0,2482 0,1401 12,6289 0,5795 58
35335 114 446 370,067 0,6195 0,2452 0,1352 12,5217 0,5943 59
40833 100 536 429,4454 0,6201 0,2437 0,136 12,2221 0,5917 57

On the table 2 we can see the RGB pixel data by the image
processing. Also we can see the area, height, width, weight,
and HSI the object.

Fig. 12 Graph relation color model R vs TDS

Fig. 11 Graph relation area vs weight the carrots


Fig. 13 Graph relation color model G vs TDS
Fig. 14 Graph relation color model B vs TDS In figure 4 the object was given increase brightness, with
operation increase brightness of object seen brighter at certain
points. In figure 5, “noise reduction” useful to decrease noise.
Operation the red thresholding on carrots provide the data
size of the area is larger than other thresholding of 38.787
pixel, while the green tresholding of 32.282 pixel, and blue
thresholding of 3.457 pixel. This is due carrot color
approached red so that red thresholding have the largest area
compared with other thresholding. From the test data
obtained graph relation area and carrots weight has a
correlation (R2) of 0.8279 %, this indicates the larger the area
of carrots then the resulting weight will be heavier.
Fig. 15 Graph relation area with length and diameter The next, relation TDS with color model R, G, and B be
obtained a correlation of 0.2423 %, 0,2349 %, and 0.0719 %.
It is indicated the color which is approximates the color red
affect the level of sweetness of carrots more than the model of
blue and green color. The relationship between the area with
length and diameter of object be obtained correlation of
0.1339 % and 0.3854 %. With the wider area object then
carrots will be longer but the possibility of the smaller
diameter. The correlation between hardness with R, G, and B
is 0.0036 %, 0.0231 %, and 0.0319 % this indicates that color
levels affect of carrot hardness level. Increasingly flushed
indicates level of maturity the higher the level of violence
carrots will be smaller.

Fig. 16 Graph relation color model R vs Hardness V. CONCLUSION


This research has succeed to create an image processing
program with carrots varieties Cipanas as object and using
SharpDevelop software we can determine area, weight, width,
height, and color models RGB and HSI. From the test result
be obtained relation between area and weight indicates the
wider area carrots be heavier. Furthermore the relation
between TDS with model color R, G, and B shows a color
model approximates the red color affects the level of
sweetness of the carrot more than the model of blue and
green. With the wider area object then carrots will be longer
but the possibility of the smaller diameter.

Fig. 17 Graph relation color model G vs Hardness

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors wish to thank International Academy of Arts,
Science, & Technology (IAAST) and Bogor Agricultural
University (BAU) for financial support, thank to Mechanical
and Biosystem Engineering Department and also for all
Fig. 18 Graph relation color model B vs Hardness
people who support this research.

REFERENCES
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www. wikipatents. com/6056962. html. Isolations and formulations of
nutrient-rich carotenoids. United States
Patent: 6056962.
[3] Jeszka W.J. (1997): Food Colorants. Chemical and Functional Properties
of Food Components. Technomic
Publishing Company, Lancaster: 293.
[4] Tang G.W., Qin J., Dolnikowski G.G., Russell R.M.,
Grusak M.A. (2005): Spinach or carrots can supply
significant amounts of vitamin A as assesssed by feeding with intrinsically
deuterated vegetables. American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82: 821–828.
[5] Lasarus. 2014. Penanganan pascapanen buah melon. [internet]. [diunduh
2014 Mei 10]. Tersedia pada:
http://cybex.deptan.go.id/penyuluhan/penanganan-pascapanen-melon.
[6] Fahmi. 2007. Perancangan algoritma pengolahan citra mata menjadi citra
polar iris sebagai bentuk antara sistem biometrik [skripsi]. Medan (ID):
Universitas Sumatra Utara.

About Author (s):

Wiliandi Saputro. Born in Sukoharjo, Indonesia July


26th , 1994. The author’s graduate from high school in
2012 from SMA Negeri 1 Langsa and in the same year
accpted at Bogor Agricultural University. The author
chose the course of Mechanical and Biosystem
Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and
Technology . During the lecture, the author actively
follows the official organization and one as commision
staff 1 of student representative council (DPM) Faculty
of Agricultural Engineering and Technology in 2014-
2015 and as a member of the Electronic and Robotic
Club (ERC) IPB in 2014-2015. Dueing the lecture, the author also actively
follow the paper competition at the national level as in the year 2015 sucsessfuly
became a finalist on the Tanoto Student Research Award. The author does a
practice field in PT KUBOTA Indonesia entiled “Learn engineering aspects of
the manufacturing process and testing of diesel engines”.

Irsyad Faisal Mutaqin. Born in Sumedang, Indonesia


July 20th, 1994. The author’s graduate from high school
in 2012 from SMA Negeri 2 Sumedang and in the same
year accepted at Bogor Agricultural University. The
author chose the course of Mechanical and Biosystem
Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and
Technology. During the lecture, the author actively
follows the member internal of WAPEMALA (Warga
Pelajar Mahasiswa Lingga) in 2013-2014, as a member
of HIMATETA (Himpunan Mahasiswa Teknik Pertanian) in 2013-2016, as a
member of the Electronic and Robotic Club (ERC) IPB in 2014-2015, and as
member of multimedia devision EDC (Engineering Design Club) IPB in 2014-
2015.
During lecture, the author also actively follow contest of PKM (Program
Kreativitas Mahasiswa) in 2014. And follow the paper competition at the
national level as in the year 2015 sucsessfuly became a finalist on the Tanoto
Student Research Award. The author does a practice field in PT PG RAJAWALI
II Unit PG JATITUJUH entiled “Operation and Service of Tool and Machine
Agriculture in the Cultivation Of Sugar cane”.