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University of Santo Tomas CHE 514L:

Faculty of Engineering Chemical Engineering Laboratory II


Department of Chemical Engineering Design of Experiment (DOE)
Name of Members:
1. Bacani, Paula Angeline A.
Date: September 5, 2018
2. Bautista, Cristian Paolo C.
3. Castro, Francis Alfred P.
Section: 5 ChE C Group No: 1 Instructor: Engr. Jhulimar C. Castro

Experiment A1: Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

1. OBJECTIVES
a. To verify the assumed order of the reaction
b. To calculate for the reactant conversion in steady state
c. To determine the effect of flow rate on the rate constant of the reaction
d. To determine the effect of temperature on the rate constant of the reaction

2. REFERENCE/S
Schmidt, Lanny D. (1998). The Engineering of Chemical Reactions. New York: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-510588-5.

3. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Apparatus
- Reactor
- Stirrer
- Feed Tanks
- Heater
 Computer
 Sodium Hydroxide (s)
 Ethyl Acetate (aq)
 Beaker

4. SAFETY
Check all the respective switch and make sure that all switches are off before powering up the
equipment. Take caution while operating the heating vessel tank, along with the hot rubber
tubings. When draining the equipment, make sure that the drainage tube is properly placed on the
waste tank.

5. PRELIMINARY
Preparation of 4.5 L (volume may be varied as needed) of each 0.2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
and 0.3 M ethyl acetate (C4H8O2) were placed in the reagent vessels. Connect the vessels to the
pumps via the rubber tubings.

6. THEORY
The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), also known as backmix reactor, is one of the common
types of reactors used to conduct different chemical reactions. It is normally run with continuous
flow of feed and products in steady-state. The feed maintains a uniform composition throughout
the reactor while the exit stream has the same composition as the one in the tank.

Given the general mole balance equation:


Experiment A1: Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 2

𝑑𝑁𝑎
= 𝐹𝑎𝑜 − 𝐹𝑎 + 𝑟𝑎
𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑁𝑎
And with the assumption of steady state, as stated above, then: 𝑑𝑡
=0

Rearranging the equation, we get


𝐹𝑎𝑜 − 𝐹𝑎
𝑉=
−𝑟𝑎

Where: V = Volume of the Reactor


Fao = Inlet stream of reactant A
Fa = Outlet stream of reactant A
-ra = Rate of reaction

7. OPERATING PROCEDURE AND CONDITIONS

7.1 Start-up
7.1.1. Clean the hot water vessel by continuously pouring distilled water while draining.
After
the vessel is free of residue, prime the vessel by filling it with distilled water
approximately
20 mm from the top.
7.1.2. Switch on the unit using the switch at the front of the unit. The main switch and
circuit breakers located at the back must also be turned on.
7.1.3. Connect the equipment to the PC using the USB lead supplied.
7.1.4. Run the Armfield CEM MkII Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) software. Before
operating the software, the USB virtual serial COM port must be enabled. Start the
COM
session by clicking the Start COM Session icon at the top right end of the menu bar.
7.1.5. View the Mimic Diagram by clicking the View Diagram icon from the main toolbar. Data
samples and other information can also be found from the indicated icons.

7.2 Experimental Procedure


7.2.1. Open the temperature control settings and set operation mode to automatic.
7.2.2. Input the required settings for temperature and pump speed control
7.2.3. Set the stirrer speed controller to 100
7.2.4. Start data sampling and switch on the feed pumps, agitator motor and hot water
circulator
to start the experiment. The Power On button switches the pump motor on (1) or off
(0).
The green LED marked Watchdog Enabled will blink continuously when the software
and
hardware are functioning correctly together.
7.2.5. Collection of conductivity data will be until a steady state condition is reached in
the
reactor and when 10 consecutive conductivity readings are constant. Collect the
data

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT BACANI, BAUTISTA, CASTRO


Experiment A1: Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 3

sampled by the program (logged in tabular form).

7.2.6. Repeat all steps but do the other settings given to you, whether it is another flow rate
or
a different temperature.

7.3 Shutdown
7.3.1. Stop the COM session.
7.3.2. Disconnect the USB cable from the equipment and proceed shutdown of the software
and PC.
7.3.3. Switch off the front switch and the main switch at the back of the equipment.
7.3.4. Drain the tank reactor and hot water vessel.
7.3.5. Clean the hot water vessel by continuously pouring distilled water while draining (step
1
in preliminary procedure).

8. TREATMENT OF RESULTS
The flowrates and temperatures are variables to determine the rate constant, and the relation of
temperature and flowrate to the rate constant. Each group will have different sets of temperatures
and flowrates to determine different results from other groups. From the data gathered,
conductivity curve is formed.

9. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


The relationship of temperature & flowrate and conductance will be used to determine the rate
constant.

10. PRACTICAL QUESTIONS


1. How does flow rate affect the rate law of the system?
2. What other factors can be controlled in order to achieve a desired order?
3. What is the relationship between conductance in comparison to flowrate and temperature?

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT BACANI, BAUTISTA, CASTRO


Experiment A1: Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 4

4. Describe the trend of the graph.

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT BACANI, BAUTISTA, CASTRO