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Name : Ni Kadek Sagit Ari Warsani

1. Show the following conjugate pair in shear stress in three-dimensional stress state.

𝜎12 = 𝜎21

𝜎13 = 𝜎31

𝜎23 = 𝜎32

Solution :

−𝜎11 𝑑𝑥1 + 𝜎11 𝑑𝑥1 −𝜎22 +𝜎22

3 3 3 3

−𝜎12+𝜎21 =0

−𝜎12=−𝜎21

𝜎12 = 𝜎21

𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥3 𝑑𝑥3

−𝜎11 𝑑𝑥1 + 𝜎11 𝑑𝑥1 −𝜎33 +𝜎22

3 3 3 3

−𝜎13+𝜎31 =0

−𝜎13=−𝜎31

𝜎13 = 𝜎31

𝑑𝑥2 𝑑𝑥2 𝑑𝑥3 𝑑𝑥3

−𝜎22 𝑑𝑥2 + 𝜎22 𝑑𝑥2 −𝜎33 +𝜎22

3 3 3 3

−𝜎23+𝜎32 =0

−𝜎23=−𝜎32

𝜎23 = 𝜎32

1 1

𝜎11 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 + 𝜎22 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃+2𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 2 (𝜎11 + 𝜎22 ) + 2 (𝜎11 − 𝜎22 )𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 + 𝜎12 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

1

(−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 + 𝜎12(𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃) = (−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃 + 𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

2

𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 =1 (1)

𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 (2)

1

𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 = 2 (𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 +1) (3)

𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏.

By using the Eqs. (1) and (3), we find

𝜎11 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 + 𝜎22 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃 = 𝜎11 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 + 𝜎22 (1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃)

= 𝜎22 + (𝜎11 − 𝜎22 )𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃

1

= 𝜎22 + (𝜎11 − 𝜎22 )(𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 + 1)

2

1 1

= 2 (𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )+2 (𝜎11 − 𝜎22 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

2𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

1

(−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = (−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

2

By using Eq.(2), we find

𝜎12 (𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃) = 𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

From this equation, we deduce the first equation.

3. Show the following equation by using Theorems of trigonometric function.

𝜎 = 𝐶 + 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑠(2𝜃 − 2𝜙)

𝜏 = 𝑅𝑠𝑖𝑛(2𝜃 − 2𝜙)

2𝜎12

Where tan2𝜙= 𝜎

11 −𝜎22

𝑎 cos 𝜃 + 𝑏 sin 𝜃 = √𝑎2 − 𝑏 2 cos (𝜃 − 𝜙)

𝑏

Where tan 𝜙 = 𝑎

Solution.

From no.2 and above theorems, we find

1 1

𝜎 = 2 (𝜎11 + 𝜎22 ) + 2 (−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )

1

𝜏= (−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃 + 𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

2

𝜏 = 𝑅𝑠𝑖𝑛(2𝜃 − 2𝜙)

Homework #3

Course : Strength of Material

Name : I Putu Abdi Karya

1. Show the following conjugate pair in shear stress in three-dimensional stress state.

𝜎12 = 𝜎21

𝜎13 = 𝜎31

𝜎23 = 𝜎32

Solution :

−𝜎11 𝑑𝑥1 + 𝜎11 𝑑𝑥1 −𝜎22 +𝜎22

3 3 3 3

−𝜎12+𝜎21 =0

−𝜎12=−𝜎21

𝜎12 = 𝜎21

𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥3 𝑑𝑥3

−𝜎11 𝑑𝑥1 + 𝜎11 𝑑𝑥1 −𝜎33 +𝜎22

3 3 3 3

−𝜎13+𝜎31 =0

−𝜎13=−𝜎31

𝜎13 = 𝜎31

𝑑𝑥2 𝑑𝑥2 𝑑𝑥3 𝑑𝑥3

−𝜎22 𝑑𝑥2 + 𝜎22 𝑑𝑥2 −𝜎33 +𝜎22

3 3 3 3

−𝜎23+𝜎32 =0

−𝜎23=−𝜎32

𝜎23 = 𝜎32

1 1

𝜎11 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 + 𝜎22 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃+2𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 2 (𝜎11 + 𝜎22 ) + 2 (𝜎11 − 𝜎22 )𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 + 𝜎12 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

1

(−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 + 𝜎12(𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃) = (−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃 + 𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

2

𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 =1 (1)

𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 (2)

1

𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 = 2 (𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 +1) (3)

𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏.

By using the Eqs. (1) and (3), we find

𝜎11 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 + 𝜎22 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃 = 𝜎11 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 + 𝜎22 (1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃)

= 𝜎22 + (𝜎11 − 𝜎22 )𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃

1

= 𝜎22 + (𝜎11 − 𝜎22 )(𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 + 1)

2

1 1

= 2 (𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )+2 (𝜎11 − 𝜎22 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

2𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

1

(−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = (−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

2

By using Eq.(2), we find

𝜎12 (𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃) = 𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

From this equation, we deduce the first equation.

3. Show the following equation by using Theorems of trigonometric function.

𝜎 = 𝐶 + 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑠(2𝜃 − 2𝜙)

𝜏 = 𝑅𝑠𝑖𝑛(2𝜃 − 2𝜙)

2𝜎12

Where tan2𝜙= 𝜎

11 −𝜎22

𝑎 cos 𝜃 + 𝑏 sin 𝜃 = √𝑎2 − 𝑏 2 cos (𝜃 − 𝜙)

𝑏

Where tan 𝜙 = 𝑎

Solution.

From no.2 and above theorems, we find

1 1

𝜎 = 2 (𝜎11 + 𝜎22 ) + 2 (−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )

1

𝜏= (−𝜎11 + 𝜎22 )𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃 + 𝜎12 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

2

𝜏 = 𝑅𝑠𝑖𝑛(2𝜃 − 2𝜙)

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