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On job Training and Its Effectiveness: An Employee Perspective

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On job Training and Its Effectiveness:
An Employee Perspective
Ahmad Timsal, Mustabsar Awais, Omer Shoaib*
Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
*Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom
Corresponding Author Email Address: ahmad.timsal@bzu.edu.pk

Abstract

Purpose – The endeavour of this study is to understand the factors associated


with on job training and its effectiveness. The purpose is to explore elements of
successful on job training and its effect on employee motivation, commitment and
skills development.
Design /Methodology / Approach – This is a qualitative research study, which
utilizes a semi-structured interview conducted on selective employees of two of
the world’s largest fast food chains located in United Kingdom i.e. McDonalds
and Domino’s Pizza. The questions in the interview are related to the
responsibilities of the employees, the kind and type of trainings involved during
their jobs.
Findings – Both the organizations under question, have training programs which
are very systematic and organized, and they are designed purely based on
company requirements and employee needs. Another important aspect of
effective training programs is that they are employee friendly and give due
importance to the actual participants
Practical Implications – The research study enables us to explore the
employee perspective for the effectiveness of on-job training programs in an
international context.
Originality Value – Only a few qualitative research studies have been conducted
in this subject area, which tend to evaluate job effectiveness from an employee’s
perspective.

Keywords training, development, on-job trainings, off-job trainings

Research type Research Paper

_____________________________________________
The current issue of this journal is available on
the official website of Institute: http://www.ibfbzu.edu.pk/sajbs

South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences


Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The modern era is witnessing rapid changes in the domain of Information Technology.
This change is eventually responsible for evolving economic and political structures which
define the trends in modern global environment. Consequently, this leads in promoting the
concept of “Globalization” and also aids in restructuring the businesses. Top level management
and practitioners are responding to these changes by focusing more on organizational and
human resource performance and consider it as a vital tool for achieving both long-term and
short-term organizational aims and objectives. For any modern enterprise, Human Resources
(HR) are considered one of the most valuable company assets, since there is a very strong
nexus between effective human resource management (HRM) practices and subsequent
organizational performance (Purcell et al., 2003) cited in (Bouris & Sahinidis, 2007).

In recent times, Organizations throughout the world have begun to realize the potential
benefits associated with effective HR strategies and have thus started to shift their focus
towards them. Impact of HR practices on organizational performance is a central question for
current research, as some of practices have had very positive effect on organizational growth.
Resource based view of firm suggests that only idiosyncratic mix of firms corporate resources
can ensure firm’s superior performance (Guest, 1997). In many companies, the HR practices
are sometimes so unique and ambiguous that they tend to play a vital role in sustaining
competitive advantage.

Training is generally considered as tool which is used to enhance individual skills,


knowledge and abilities of a resource, and to enable that person to understand certain aspects
of business. Training and Resource Development, when combined together with other practices
directly affect the quality of HR outcomes, which eventually results in firm’s higher performance
(Guest, 1997). Need for a training program arises whenever there is a gap between the desired
and actual performance of the employees. Usually the senior management of a company tries
to fill this skill gap by opting for ‘On-job training’ (Swart et al., 2005). Training is defined as
‘Planned intervention that is designed to enhance the determinants of individual job
performance’ (Chiaburu and Takleab, 2005). Training sessions help employees in reducing
frustration and anxiety which is created by heavy workloads and also enables them to handle
this effectively (Chen et al., 2004). Modern organizations have realized the importance of
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
Human Resource Development (HRD), and have begun to use on-job training as a tool for
increasing employee satisfaction (Bouris & Sahinidis, 2007).

It is indeed the responsibility of the senior management of any company to understand


not only the apparent but also the ‘hidden’ needs of their employees. Generally speaking of
modern Organization, there are two major types of trainings:

 On-Job training
 Off-Job Training

The primary difference between both the types is that, in case of on-job training,
employee learning takes place at his actual place and while doing his actual job. Whereas the
off-job training is conducted at a remote location which is away from employee’s normal working
environment. On job training becomes more important when objective is to build economies
around high productivity (Jacobs et al, 1996). On job trainings are usually more common in
larger firms due to their large internal structures i.e. in case of large firms, probability of
employee-mobility within the internal boundaries of the firm (Black et al., 1999), increases to
some extent, and on-job training plays its vital part by developing the required level of skills for
the employees.

A training program could never be effective until the actual participants i.e. the
employees are fully motivated to attend it. Research has shown that employee’s motivation is
directly linked with management actions. Employees will only take training programs seriously if
the management is able to effectively communicate the importance of these programs to them
(Tai, 2004). If the employee understands the true value and importance of the trainings, he/she
would be self-motivated to attend and seek knowledge out of them (Hicks, 1987). A training
program can be called effective only when its ultimate objectives are achieved. Kirkpatrick’s
(1976) model for measuring effectiveness of training justifies that training can be effective only
when employees are motivated, acquired knowledge and skills are being used within the
workplace and organizational objectives are being achieved (Tai, 2004). Effectiveness of
training programs is more dependent on attitude and motivation of employees as compared to
content of training.

Another important aspect in designing an effective on job training program is to carry out
a thorough assessment of the training program. Such type of assessment is known as “Training-
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
need assessment”, and it helps an organization in understanding the kind of professional
knowledge and skills lacking in their employees, and to devise a comprehensive plan which
consists of logical steps, the employees need to know in their effort to acquire those skills.

The focus of this research endeavor is to analyze effectiveness of training practices in


two of the leading fast-food chains of the world, McDonald’s and Domino’s Pizza. The primary
aims and objectives of this research are as follows:

1. To analyze the impact of on-job training, in both these organizations, on employee


performance with respect to factors like skills development, job satisfaction,
commitment to organization and level of motivation.
2. To investigate the ‘actual’ effectiveness of such training programs for the employees
and to check if there are any other factors which play their part in making such
training sessions successful.
3. To examine how employees perceive these training sessions and how these
programs affect their overall job performance.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

It becomes very difficult to decide which Human Resource (HR) practices have positive
impact on organizational performance but it is quite certain that corporate resources always play
vital role in organizational performance. Among these resources, HR practices are definitely the
most fundamental since they not only lead to improved Organizational Performance but also
help organizations seek competitive market advantage. In last few decades focus has been
shifted from bottom lining HR practices towards using them as a frontline tool.

Numerous research studies have indicated a ‘positive relationship’ between HRM


practices and organizational growth and success (Bartel, 2000; Cheatham and Knott, 1993)
cited in (Eerde, 2008). However, empirical evidences also suggest that it is very difficult to list
down ‘Best HRM Practices which directly affect organizational performance (Vlachos, 2008).
The review of literature conducted during this study suggests that the HRM practices
proposed by Jeffery Pfeffer (1998) can have direct influence on firm’s performance. These
practices include:

1. Employment Security
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
2. Self-managed teams and decentralization of decision making
3. High Compensation
4. Sharing of performance and financial information
5. Selective hiring
6. Reduced status distinctions and barriers
7. Extensive trainings

The above mentioned practices of HRM surely constitute an integral part of a successful
HRM strategy. It can be deduced that amongst this list of best practices, “Extensive Trainings”
hold significant importance. This implies that focus on employee training and development can
help organizations acquire that extra edge over its competitors and contemporaries. For
example, findings of Ahmad & Schroeder (2003) on operations management across different
sectors have supported Pfeffer’s (1998) HR practices (Vlachos, 2008).

Approaches for Effective Training

Rapid changes in the domain of information technology would tend to accelerate in


future (Adler, 1991) and this has led to a changed thinking in organizations towards labor laws,
and human resource development. This has also led to development of several theoretical
perspectives which include structure oriented approach, system oriented approach and actor
oriented approach. All these approaches deal with qualification issues in a unique manner
(Kroght & Warmerdam, 1997).

Structure oriented approach to training and qualification emphasizes on structural


aspects of training systems and analyzing those programs which have contributed in effective
functioning of organization.

In System oriented approach, qualification problems such as learning and training are
not considered as different processes because they are supposed to be part of organizational
environment. (Bertrand et al., 1994) findings suggest that system approach considers training
deficiencies as dysfunctional issues which restrict members of organization to perform up to
their maximum level (Kroght & Warmerdam, 1997).

Unlike both system and structural approaches Actor approach concentrates on part of
organization or to be more specific on actors within the organization. This approach focuses on
interests, activities, policies of organizations and how people in organization interact with each
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
other. Key question that still arises with this approach is how to control qualification issues of
organizational politics in order to maintain internal and external cohesion. (Kroght &
Warmerdam, 1997).

Defining the concept of “On-Job Training”

On the job training (OJT) is frequently used by employers to educate their personnel.
Kirkpatrick’s (1976) measures four criteria’s for measuring effectiveness of training programs.
These are Reaction, Learning, Behavior and Result. In his model, ‘Reaction’ is the feeling and
assumptions that trainees have about training program. ‘Learning’ is the acquired skills and
knowledge, which helps employees in performing their jobs more effectively. Behavior refers to
the ability of employees to use that knowledge in practical issues and finally, ‘Results’ are
factors like increased productivity, minimized cost and target achievement (Tai, 2004).

Though current literature has tried to identify relationships between HR practices and job
satisfaction and then job satisfaction with employee performance (Bowling, 2007) but very few
studies have addressed the relationship between On job training and employee commitment,
motivation, employee cooperation, skills and job satisfaction (Bouris & Sahinidis, 2007).

Tsai and Tai (2003) have found that for effectiveness of training outcomes, employee
motivation plays a key role. Usually such training programs which are assigned by
management, leads to greater employee motivation than those where attendance is optional.
Employees take only those trainings seriously, where they are clear about the content,
objectives and outcomes (Tai, 2004).

It is not necessary that every investment in training leads to productivity as Lynch and
Black (1995) have found that not all trained employees have substantial impact on
organizational productivity (Eerde at al., 2008).

Most important issues in creation of comprehensive management program are


processes in which competent employees are promoted to a level where they have the ability to
manage/supervise the frontline workforce. Solution to that problem is training need assessment
(TNA) which requires in depth understanding of organizational needs for that role of competent
managers and individuals who can fulfil that role (Patton & Pratt, 2002).
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
Determining the Actual need for trainings

Before starting a training program it is very crucial to carry out an assessment on need
of training (TNA). Thus, the objectives of a training program must be very clear and should be
communicated before the actual start, because this is a heavy investment and the employer
should try to minimize the risks associated with it (Sels, 2002). Beside cost other reasons for
this assessment are:

1) Identification of problem
Management and HR should know specific problems in particular areas of organization.
2) Support from senior management
Senior management should be taken in confidence on issues of training program as
eventually they have to approve/disapprove the budget. Benefits of training program
should be communicated to them in order to get support from them.
3) Collection of facts/data before training (in order to calculate effectiveness of training)
Prior to conducting training it is very essential to get the facts/data so that after
conducting the training, these facts can be compared with post training facts to measure
training effectiveness.
4) Cost and benefit analysis Cost and benefit analysis should be done i.e. costs with and
without training should be calculated and compared.

The purpose of TNA is that beneficial outcomes to organizational performance can only
be realized when exact match between training needs and training content exists (Eerde et al.,
2008).

Measuring the effectiveness of Training Programs

There should be a proper check and balance on training programs and training need
should be examined on Organizational, individual and task level. In literature it has been found
that the size of the firm size also affects training practices. Bigger organizations are usually
more organized and have tendency to take more risk in organization development and in
employee investment and thus can offer more frequent training sessions for its employees
whereas small firms might not have resources to offer training to its employees on regular basis
(Bartel, 1994). But it depends on business sector and type of training as well.
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
In this environment two trends are increasing rapidly and can become source of trouble
for corporate management. First is the increasing age of workforce and second is rapid change
in technologies (Tai, 2004).

In theory, training is most important factor that increases individual performance but in
reality evidence for such claim is scant. As in Ahmad and Bakar (2003) findings there was no
relationship between training and organizational commitment however in their findings various
aspects of training had impact on the three types of commitment i.e. affective, normative and
continuance. So, training has indirect impact on commitment. Lang (1992) suggests that training
programs should be designed to achieve organizational commitment. Employees can only show
commitment to organization only when they have feeling that organization is taking interest in
their career prospects (Carnevale, 1988).

In 2004 Customer care program implemented in McDonalds were the example of such
training program which was very effective in terms of skills enhancement as 98 per cent of staff
that attended workshop responded that workshop was really helpful for them. Around 86 per
cent of managers responded that staff knowledge has increased due to that training and it has
positive effect on customer care. Effectiveness of that training program was measured from
‘Fast Track’ a telephone based customer opinion. Fast track has shown that customers have
agreed that McDonald’s friendly and fast service had risen by about 9 – 10 per cent (David,
2007).

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this research study is to find the factors that lead towards effective on job
training programs in two of the world’s largest fast food chains. Through this study, the author
wishes to highlight the significant role of on job training, in terms of skill development, and what
are some of the factors considered by the employers while designing effective employee
development training programs. Another important question, which has been thoroughly
discussed in this study, is that ‘Why an Organization gives importance to certain practices of on-
job trainings programs and what are the primary factors which motivate the employees in
working more efficiently for the organization’.

The final part of this study investigates as how do various employers conduct training
need assessments in order to conduct an effective training session and what are some of the
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
elements of successful employee trainings and do employers motivate the employees to
participate actively in proposed programs. In the end, the researcher has highlighted some of
the best training practices being followed by the organizations under question (i.e. McDonalds
and Domino’s Pizza), and undermine the factors which make these trainings effective for their
organizational growth and success.

Human belief, Motives and Reasons are some of the factors which have to studies in
this research, because of which “Qualitative paradigm” has been used as the research method.
According to Creswell & Miller (2000) “Qualitative research is an inquiry process of
understanding social or human problem based on building a complex, holistic picture formed
with words reporting detailed views of informants and conducted in natural setting”.

Every research is generally based on some assumptions, which are then proven
by the researchers through arguments, literature review, statistics etc. In order to conduct
qualitative research it is very essential to know the underlying assumptions (Crawford et al.,
2000).

The aims and objectives of this research, highlighted in the first section, makes it evident
that the actual information required for this research shall be acquired by using ‘Social
Construction’. This implies that “Interpretive Phenomenology” must be used as a philosophical
base. Interpretive approach focuses on human behavior and logics given by it. Basic
assumption of interpretive study is that people create their own subjective meanings and ways
of interaction with outside world (Orlikowski and Baroudi, 1991) cited in (Guba and Lincoln,
1994). Researchers have tried to understand this phenomenon by using the information which
has been provided to them by the actual participants. As Saunders et al. (2007) stated that
when area of research is human resource management and organizational behavior,
interpretive perspective is most suitable for research. Data which has been gathered by them is
solely based on their own constructions of other constructions.

When intangible factors like job satisfaction, motivation, employee commitment need to
be calculated qualitative methodology is most appropriate choice. Explanatory interviews will
also help in understanding the organizational factors which helps in formalizing a successful
training program. As purpose of research is to find out impact of on job training on employees
performance and what constitutes an effective on job training so interpretive approach will be
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
most suitable as it will give deep insight into complex world of lived experiences of those who
actually lived it (Schwandt, 1994, p. 118).

Semi structured interviews have been conducted to study how training affects an
employee performance and how factors like employee commitment, satisfaction and motivation
are altered by such on job training programs. Semi structured interviews are very useful when
topics are predefined (Kvale, 1995) and they are considered one of the most useful tool in an
intervention context.

Many debates have been conducted by the literary circles of Social Sciences, on the
qualitative data analysis techniques. Most common of these techniques are reflexive and
interpretive. ‘Reflexive’ approach focuses on researcher and their role in generating and
analyzing data whereas ‘Interpretive’ approach tries to interpret the meanings provided by
respondents (Mason, 1996: 55). Although another kind of technique, known as ‘Literal’ is also
used sometimes. This technique emphasizes on actual use of information. Generally,
researchers tend to use the combination of these approaches and computer aided tools assist
them in gathering, organizing and analyzing the data.

In qualitative research word validity and reliability should not be used as they are not
appropriate instead quality and trustworthiness should be used to categorize the research
(Lincoln and Guba, 1985). Speaking strictly in context of this research, the respondents will
record their answers related to On-job training and its impact on commitment, satisfaction and
motivation, in a descriptive form. Thus, there is no apparent need to analyze this data using
technology aided tools.

4.0 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

For McDonald’s

McDonalds is world largest fast food service provider with annual sales of $56.9 billion.
From business perspective, McDonalds has two pronged agenda. It not only operates its own
restaurants (in some countries) but also franchises them to third parties (local businesses/
individuals). Two third of its restaurants are outside of US, as it has targeted fast food market in
UK, India, Russia and China. Currently it has one and a half a million workforce with 23,500
stores worldwide (McDonald’s, 2009).
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
Employee structure in McDonalds is very simple and three tier. One salaried store
manager with two/three assisting managers are at top of salaried management. Second tier
consists of hourly paid management, consisting of floor and area leaders and the bottom tier
comprises of hourly paid crew trainers and crew members constitutes. This bottom tier
constitutes 88% of workforce of McDonalds. Majority of employees start as ‘crew member’ and
throughout the day rotate their jobs (ibid). It is responsibility of crew trainers to make sure that
normal crew performs their duty without any hindrance or obstacle.

In McDonalds UK, three main levels of recruitment structures are followed which
includes business management trainees, hourly paid workers and junior business managers.
Management development program is designed for those adults who have some management
experience and they go through intense training courses in order to understand the basics of
restaurant operations. After that initial phase they attend various communication and leadership
courses. In order to become manager these courses are compulsory to attend. The ‘junior
business manager’ courses are designed for students (A-Levels) to gain some practical
experience and management insight. The same training pattern is followed by the management
all over UK and employees are encouraged to enhance their skills by attending these training
programs.

For Domino’s Pizza

Domino’s pizza is eighth largest privately held restaurant chain in the world and is
considered as No. 1 in ‘Pizza Delivery Company’. According to an estimate they sell around 1
million pizzas per day around the globe. In 2009, the company generated $1.4 billion as pure
revenue. They have business in over 9000 locations and like McDonald’s the business model is
vertically integrated from front end franchises to suppliers. Master franchises in UK were bought
in 1993 and now publicly known as Domino’s Pizza UK and IRL. Domino’s pizza has four tier
hierarchical structures in their frontend stores (Domino’s, 2009). The top of this structure is
occupied by Store Managers, who are then followed by Assistant Store Managers. Third level
comprises of Shift in-charge and at the bottom are the pie makers. Usually employees enter as
pie maker and go through number of training sessions and after getting some experience, they
are promoted to shift in-charge.

In both the organizations qualitative interviews were conducted to analyze the


effectiveness of training programs from employee’s perspective. All respondents were
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
employees working in front end franchises of these two chains. Six employees were interviewed
in McDonald’s and seven in Domino’s. Most of findings about training effectiveness gathered
through extensive research in these two organizations were quite similar to the ones present in
existing literature related to on-job trainings programs. However, there are some different
responses which eventually led to findings which are both interesting and helpful.

In order to explore the benefits of training programs, each employee of the respective
organization was asked questions on different aspects of trainings. Next, each of these aspects
was further drilled down (sub-questions) in order explore the topic a little more deeply. Findings
which have been presented below have helped the researcher in finding out answers to the
following questions:

1. Understanding the role of on job training and its effectiveness from perspective of
employee.
2. Which structure of training is followed in both organizations?
3. What are the elements of successful of on job training?
4. How training programs affect employee’s motivation, commitment and skills
development?
5. Finally, does a training program ‘actually’ affect organizational performance?

1. Structure of on job training

In both the organizations, recruitment procedure is quite simple and all employees
undergo the same procedures and are provided with equal opportunities to excel.

In McDonald’s, employees enter the organization as crew members and then according
to their roles and responsibilities they have to go through extensive training. They also have to
perform different duties across the store and their roles keep changing all the time. In order to
make employees understand all the business operations, practically, the management asks
them to perform these tasks. For crew members no on request training session is organized. As
soon as a person gets the job he is briefed about his tasks and duties. Crew trainers supervise
all the crew members and also assist them in performing their tasks. With respect to the
interview conducted by the researcher, almost all the respondents were very satisfied with the
existing training structure offered by the management. They actually found it very friendly and
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
cooperative. Employees remarked that job rotation helps them in making their job, more
interesting but sometimes it becomes really difficult to focus on any specific part of employment,
as their roles keep changing regularly. Overall all respondents acknowledged the fact, that
training structure is employee friendly as it helps them in understanding their tasks and duties.

Recruitment structure followed in Domino’s pizza is quite similar to the one in


McDonald’s. Every new member recruited enters as a pie maker or bike driver and then goes
through a pre job training for one week. They claimed that generally, the new employees learn
the business processes by observing their seniors. In both organizations all the employees
were of the view that in order to move up in hierarchy these training sessions are very
important. Training structures in both organizations are very simple and helpful for employees
but the concept of ‘on-request’ training was not very popular in both the organizations.

2. Elements for successful training

Training is normally conducted only when management feels that there is room for
improvement. In McDonald’s need analysis is done before conducting any training session. It is
responsibility of senior managers to assess whether there is need for training or not. In
Domino’s make line in-charge is responsible for managing the training sessions of staff. Make
line in-charge usually observe employees and time to time assist them in performing their tasks.

3. Skills development
One aspect which was common in almost all the reviewed literature was the emphasis
on skill development of employees. The same emphasis was found in both the organizations but
with a little different perspective. In McDonald’s 80% of workforce comprises of crew members
who manage most activities of restaurant, thus management has to focus a lot on their skills
development. All respondents from McDonald’s were very assertive that their skills and
knowledge level increases after such sessions.
On the other hand, in Domino’s, the employees do not need to rotate their jobs, thus
they generally acquire skills much quickly. Employees in Domino’s feel that only trainings can
help them learn skills which are necessary in order to cope with fast paced environment.
In both organizations employees strongly believed that chances of going up in the
hierarchy depends upon the skill level, which again increases the importance of this clause.
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
4. Motivating employees for training

In any organizations, the major risk faced by any employer is to motivate their
employees so that they can perform effectively. McDonald’s management also tries to motivate
their employees by giving them incentives like good pay rates, trainings for skill development
and better career prospects. In Domino’s as well, the management is responsible for informing
the employees about a training program and its potential benefits. Pre-briefing about training
sessions is provided to employees to ensure that they are well aware of training content in both
of the organizations.

5. Job satisfaction and commitment

Employees can only perform well when they take interest in job. Happier they are the
more satisfied they will feel. Job Descriptions in McDonald’s is very organized due to which
employees find their jobs interesting, and the on job training sessions helps in maintain that
interest. However in Domino’s employees usually do not have formal training session so
employees have no such feelings. Though acquiring the required skills creates interest for them,
but they do not consider training sessions as a method of developing that interest.

Employees in both organizations have responded that on job training gives them
confidence and increases their morale. In McDonald’s whenever an employee goes through
formal training he/she gets a certificate for that training which gives confidence and satisfaction.
However in Domino’s no such practice is followed which affects employee’s level of satisfaction.

6. Learning at work

One of the most effective ways of learning in organizations is through training. Training
has been one of core HR practice in McDonalds. Management realized the fact, that employee
learning can take place through efficient and effective trainings programs.

In Domino’s pizza, the training sessions are not that formal as compared to McDonald’s
but as the in-charge closely supervises the trainees, so learning aspect is present. In both work
places employee learning takes place through training sessions but in Domino’s regular and
close supervision of employees also plays its part.
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
7. Effect on organizational performance

In empirical literature, there is strong relationship between employee’s performance and


organizational productivity. Training and development helps employees in enhancing their skills
and abilities and enables them to contribute in organizational productivity.

McDonald’s owe its success to its crew members, who play a vital role in its growth.
Managers have responded that skilled labor has always contributed in McDonald’s
performance. Domino’s pizza commits with its customers that pizza will be delivered in less than
30 minutes, thus boosting the customer expectations. Assistant manager states that ‘Skilled and
trained employees have very positive effect on store profits because if employees are trained
they will handle fast paced orders in minimum time while ensuring quality.

Over all senior management in both organizations considers that if employees are well
trained and highly skilled only then they can help in enhancing organizational performance. But
as certain other factors are also involved in organizational productivity so it becomes very
difficult to quantify which factors have affected more than others.

5.0 CONCLUSION

This research study takes into account two of the leading fast food chains of the world
i.e. McDonald’s and Domino’s Pizza. The researcher collected actual data from these two
organizations and the results were thoroughly analyzed to draw certain conclusions and
recommendations. One of the basic conclusion, which can be drawn from this research is that
both McDonald’s and Domino’s Pizza consider employee training as one of the most important
activity which helps the employees in learning and developing their skills.

Both the organizations under question, have training programs which are very
systematic and organized, and they are designed purely based on company requirements and
employee needs. Another important aspect of effective training programs is that they are
employee friendly and give due importance to the actual participants i.e. the employees. Both
McDonald’s and Domino’s Pizza had employee friendly training programs which created a
favorable situation for both the employer and the employees.

One unexpected finding of this research was the ‘discriminatory behavior of


management towards some employees’ i.e. one of the employee at Domino’s revealed during
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
the interview session that the management sometimes takes biased decisions while selecting
the attendees of a particular training session. The focus always revolved around the full-time
employees, and those with British nationality or a valid work permit.

Apart from all this discussion, there still are certain factors such as seasonal sales,
weekend rush and festivities which make it difficult to accurately analyze the impact of
employee training

This research endeavor has focused on a specific sector (food-chains) and surely the
results tend to vary from sector to sector. Secondly, the number of people who participate in
interviews was also limited to the working class and some senior management professionals.
These two factors induces the need of further improvement in this research as if more diverse
respondents could have been interviewed or participants from outside of London could have
been invited for interviews, then the result might have been different. Since this research
focuses on the actual topic from the employee’s perspective, issues related to employees have
been discussed only. A similar study should be conducted but with respect to employer’s
perspective. A combined result of both the studies would surely present a better picture of the
whole story. It would have the store owners or senior management’s point of view.
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan

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South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan

APPENDICES

Interview Design

Explanatory semi-structured interviews are conducted with employees working in both fast food chains
(McDonald’s and Domino’s Pizza). The aim was to understand the structure of on job training in both
organizations and to analyze the impact of training on employee skills development and satisfaction.
The interviews will be recorded to ensure accurate analysis of data. Each interview is estimated to last for
one hour and employee confidentiality will be ensured by not mentioning his/her name or organization’s
name. It will make sure that interview will be comfortable for employee and only relevant and necessary
questions will be asked.

The themes and the questions of the interview are presented below:

Brief Introduction, work history, Role and Responsibility:


1- Can you please introduce yourself and tell me about your role and responsibility?
2- How long have you been working?
3- How many on job training sessions approximately you have attended?

Determining the structure of on-job training programs and to identify elements of successful
training:
1- Tell me about structure of on job training process?
2- Is this procedure consistent throughout the organization?
3- Did management ever organized on request training?
4- What sort of actions management has taken to organize need based training?
5- How would you define a successful training session?
a. What are the factors that lead towards successful training?
b. How management organizes training?
c. Did they take feedback from you before designing training program?
6- Anything else you want to tell about training procedure?
7- How much time usually individual take to learn all operations?

To understand the role of training in terms of employee skills development, job satisfaction and
commitment. What is the level of motivation before and after training sessions?
1. What different methods are in practice in your organization for skills development of employees?
2. Is training necessary for skills development? Why?
3. How do you think training help in skills development?
4. What makes you satisfied at work?
5. After attending training session do you feel satisfied? Explain?
6. Do these training sessions give you confidence?
7. Do these training sessions boost your morale?
8. Do you feel more committed to your organization after attending training sessions?
9. Before attending training do management motivate you to attend?
10. Do they give any incentives before starting training?
11. Do these incentives motivate you?
12. After attending training do you feel motivated and committed?
South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences,
Vol. 02, No.01 (2016), ISSN: 2410-2067
© Institute of Banking & Finance, BZU Multan
To examine the how learning at work takes place, how training affects organizational
performance?

1- What learning techniques are used by management?


2- Which method is most productive?
3- Is training very important learning technique?
4- Does training affect organizational performance?
5- How do you measure its impact?
6- Is there any drawback of training?
7- How training help in organizational productivity?
8- How training impacts organizational performance?

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