You are on page 1of 35

Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

SUBPART B – FLIGHT

GENERAL maintained within acceptable tolerances of the
critical values during flight testing.
CS 25.20 Scope
(e) If compliance with the flight characteristics
(a) The requirements of this Subpart B apply to requirements is dependent upon a stability
aeroplanes powered with turbine engines – augmentation system or upon any other automatic or
power-operated system, compliance must be shown
(1) Without contingency thrust ratings,
with CS 25.671 and 25.672.
and
(f) In meeting the requirements of CS
(2) For which it is assumed that thrust is
25.105(d), 25.125, 25.233 and 25.237, the wind
not increased following engine failure during
velocity must be measured at a height of 10 metres
take-off except as specified in sub-paragraph (c).
above the surface, or corrected for the difference
between the height at which the wind velocity is
(b) In the absence of an appropriate
measured and the 10-metre height.
investigation of operational implications these
requirements do not necessarily cover – (g) The requirements of this subpart associated
with icing conditions apply only if the applicant is
(1) Automatic landings.
seeking certification for flight in icing conditions.
(2) Approaches and landings with
(1) Each requirement of this subpart,
decision heights of less than 60 m (200 ft).
except CS 25.121(a), 25.123(c), 25.143(b)(1) and
(3) Operations on unprepared runway (b)(2), 25.149, 25.201(c)(2), 25.207(c) and (d),
surfaces. and 25.251(b) through (e), must be met in icing
conditions. Compliance must be shown using the
(c) If the aeroplane is equipped with an engine
ice accretions defined in Appendix C, assuming
control system that automatically resets the power or
normal operation of the aeroplane and its ice
thrust on the operating engine(s) when any engine
protection system in accordance with the
fails during take-off, additional requirements
operating limitations and operating procedures
pertaining to aeroplane performance and limitations
established by the applicant and provided in the
and the functioning and reliability of the system,
Aeroplane Flight Manual.
contained in Appendix I, must be complied with.
(2) No changes in the load distribution
limits of CS 25.23, the weight limits of CS 25.25
CS 25.21 Proof of compliance
(except where limited by performance
(a) Each requirement of this Subpart must be requirements of this subpart), and the centre of
met at each appropriate combination of weight and gravity limits of CS 25.27, from those for non-
centre of gravity within the range of loading icing conditions, are allowed for flight in icing
conditions for which certification is requested. This conditions or with ice accretion.
must be shown –
[Amdt. No.:25/3]
(1) By tests upon an aeroplane of the type
for which certification is requested, or by
CS 25.23 Load distribution limits
calculations based on, and equal in accuracy to,
the results of testing; and (a) Ranges of weights and centres of gravity
within which the aeroplane may be safely operated
(2) By systematic investigation of each
must be established. If a weight and centre of gravity
probable combination of weight and centre of
combination is allowable only within certain load
gravity, if compliance cannot be reasonably
distribution limits (such as spanwise) that could be
inferred from combinations investigated.
inadvertently exceeded, these limits and the
(b) Reserved corresponding weight and centre of gravity
combinations must be established.
(c) The controllability, stability, trim, and
stalling characteristics of the aeroplane must be (b) The load distribution limits may not exceed
shown for each altitude up to the maximum expected –
in operation. (1) The selected limits;
(d) Parameters critical for the test being (2) The limits at which the structure is
conducted, such as weight, loading (centre of gravity proven; or
and inertia), airspeed, power, and wind, must be
Amendment 5

1-B-1
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(3) The limits at which compliance with CS 25.29 Empty weight and corres-
each applicable flight requirement of this Subpart ponding centre of gravity
is shown.
(a) The empty weight and corresponding centre
of gravity must be determined by weighing the
CS 25.25 Weight Limits aeroplane with –
(a) Maximum weights. Maximum weights (1) Fixed ballast;
corresponding to the aeroplane operating conditions
(2) Unusable fuel determined under CS
(such as ramp, ground taxi, take-off, en-route and
25.959; and
landing) environmental conditions (such as altitude
and temperature), and loading conditions (such as (3) Full operating fluids, including –
zero fuel weight, centre of gravity position and
(i) Oil;
weight distribution) must be established so that they
are not more than – (ii) Hydraulic fluid; and
(1) The highest weight selected by the (iii) Other fluids required for normal
applicant for the particular conditions; or operation of aeroplane systems, except
potable water, lavatory pre-charge water,
(2) The highest weight at which
and fluids intended for injection in the
compliance with each applicable structural
engine.
loading and flight requirement is shown.
(b) The condition of the aeroplane at the time of
(3) The highest weight at which
determining empty weight must be one that is well
compliance is shown with the noise certification
defined and can be easily repeated.
requirements .
(b) Minimum weight. The minimum weight (the
CS 25.31 Removable ballast
lowest weight at which compliance with each
applicable requirement of this CS–25 is shown) must Removable ballast may be used in showing
be established so that it is not less than – compliance with the flight requirements of this
Subpart.
(1) The lowest weight selected by the
applicant;
CS 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch
(2) The design minimum weight (the
limits
lowest weight at which compliance with each
structural loading condition of this CS–25 is (a) The propeller speed and pitch must be
shown); or limited to values that will ensure –
(3) The lowest weight at which (1) Safe operation under normal operating
compliance with each applicable flight conditions; and
requirement is shown.
(2) Compliance with the performance
requirements in CS 25.101 to 25.125.
CS 25.27 Centre of gravity limits
(b) There must be a propeller speed limiting
The extreme forward and the extreme aft centre of means at the governor. It must limit the maximum
gravity limitations must be established for each possible governed engine speed to a value not
practicably separable operating condition. No such exceeding the maximum allowable rpm.
limit may lie beyond –
(c) The means used to limit the low pitch
(a) The extremes selected by the applicant; position of the propeller blades must be set so that
the engine does not exceed 103% of the maximum
(b) The extremes within which the structure is
allowable engine rpm or 99% of an approved
proven; or
maximum overspeed, whichever is greater, with –
(c) The extremes within which compliance with
(1) The propeller blades at the low pitch
each applicable flight requirement is shown.
limit and governor inoperative;
(2) The aeroplane stationary under
standard atmospheric conditions with no wind;
and

Amendment 5

1-B-2
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(3) The engines operating at the conditions prescribed in CS 25.119 and 25.121(d)
maximum take-off torque limit for turbopropeller must be established.
engine-powered aeroplanes.
(h) The procedures established under sub-
paragraphs (f) and (g) of this paragraph must –
PERFORMANCE (1) Be able to be consistently executed in
service by crews of average skill,
CS 25.101 General (2) Use methods or devices that are safe
(See AMC 25.101) and reliable, and
(a) Unless otherwise prescribed, aeroplanes (3) Include allowance for any time delays
must meet the applicable performance requirements in the execution of the procedures, that may
of this Subpart for ambient atmospheric conditions reasonably be expected in service. (See AMC
and still air. 25.101(h)(3).)
(b) The performance, as affected by engine (i) The accelerate-stop and landing distances
power or thrust, must be based on the following prescribed in CS 25.109 and 25.125, respectively,
relative humidities: must be determined with all the aeroplane wheel
brake assemblies at the fully worn limit of their
(1) 80%, at and below standard
allowable wear range. (See AMC 25.101(i).)
temperatures; and
[Amdt. No.:25/2]
(2) 34%, at and above standard
temperatures plus 28ºC (50ºF).
CS 25.103 Stall speed
Between these two temperatures, the relative
humidity must vary linearly. (a) The reference stall speed VSR is a calibrated
airspeed defined by the applicant. VSR may not be
(c) The performance must correspond to the
less than a 1-g stall speed. VSR is expressed as:
propulsive thrust available under the particular
VCLMAX
ambient atmospheric conditions, the particular flight VSR
condition, and the relative humidity specified in sub- n zw
paragraph (b) of this paragraph. The available where –
propulsive thrust must correspond to engine power or
thrust, not exceeding the approved power or thrust, VCLMAX =Calibrated airspeed obtained when the
less – loadfactor-corrected lift coefficient
& n zw W #
(1) Installation losses; and $$ !! is first a maximum during the
% qS "
(2) The power or equivalent thrust manoeuvre prescribed in sub-paragraph
absorbed by the accessories and services (c) of this paragraph. In addition, when
appropriate to the particular ambient atmospheric the manoeuvre is limited by a device that
conditions and the particular flight condition. (See abruptly pushes the nose down at a
AMCs No 1 and No 2 to CS 25.101(c).) selected angle of attack (e.g. a stick
(d) Unless otherwise prescribed, the applicant pusher), VCLMAX may not be less than the
must select the take-off, en-route, approach, and speed existing at the instant the device
landing configuration for the aeroplane. operates;

(e) The aeroplane configurations may vary with nzw =Load factor normal to the flight path at
weight, altitude, and temperature, to the extent they VCLMAX;
are compatible with the operating procedures W =Aeroplane gross weight;
required by sub-paragraph (f) of this paragraph.
S =Aerodynamic reference wing area; and
(f) Unless otherwise prescribed, in determining
the accelerate-stop distances, take-off flight paths, q =Dynamic pressure.
take-off distances, and landing distances, changes in (b) VCLMAX is determined with:
the aeroplane’s configuration, speed, power, and
thrust, must be made in accordance with procedures (1) Engines idling, or, if that resultant
established by the applicant for operation in service. thrust causes an appreciable decrease in stall
speed, not more than zero thrust at the stall speed;
(g) Procedures for the execution of balked
landings and missed approaches associated with the (2) Propeller pitch controls (if applicable)
in the take-off position;
Amendment 5

1-B-3
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(3) The aeroplane in other respects (such CS 25.105 Take-off
as flaps, landing gear, and ice accretions) in the
(a) The take-off speeds prescribed by CS
condition existing in the test or performance
25.107, the accelerate-stop distance prescribed by CS
standard in which VSR is being used;
25.109, the take-off path prescribed by CS 25.111,
(4) The weight used when VSR is being the take-off distance and take-off run prescribed by
used as a factor to determine compliance with a CS 25.113, and the net take-off flight path prescribed
required performance standard; by CS 25.115, must be determined in the selected
configuration for take-off at each weight, altitude,
(5) The centre of gravity position that
and ambient temperature within the operational limits
results in the highest value of reference stall
selected by the applicant –
speed; and
(1) In non-icing conditions; and
(6) The aeroplane trimmed for straight
flight at a speed selected by the applicant, but not (2) In icing conditions, if in the
less than 1.13 VSR and not greater than 1.3 VSR. configuration of CS 25.121(b) with the “Take-off
Ice” accretion defined in Appendix C:
(c) Starting from the stabilised trim condition,
apply the longitudinal control to decelerate the (i) The stall speed at maximum
aeroplane so that the speed reduction does not exceed take-off weight exceeds that in non-icing
0.5 m/s2 (one knot per second). (See AMC 25.103(b) conditions by more than the greater of 5.6
and (c)). km/h (3 knots) CAS or 3% of VSR; or
(d) In addition to the requirements of sub- (ii) The degradation of the gradient
paragraph (a) of this paragraph, when a device that of climb determined in accordance with CS
abruptly pushes the nose down at a selected angle of 25.121(b) is greater than one-half of the
attack (e.g. a stick pusher) is installed, the reference applicable actual-to-net take-off flight path
stall speed, VSR, may not be less than 3,7 km/h (2 kt) gradient reduction defined in CS 25.115(b).
or 2%, whichever is greater, above the speed at
(b) No take-off made to determine the data
which the device operates.
required by this paragraph may require exceptional
[Amdt. No.:25/3] piloting skill or alertness.
(c)The take-off data must be based on:
(1) Smooth, dry and wet, hard-surfaced
runways; and
(2) At the option of the applicant,
grooved or porous friction course wet, hard-
surfaced runways.
(d) The take-off data must include, within the
established operational limits of the aeroplane, the
following operational correction factors:
(1) Not more than 50% of nominal wind
components along the take-off path opposite to
the direction of take-off, and not less than 150%
of nominal wind components along the take-off
path in the direction of take-off.
(2) Effective runway gradients.
[Amdt. No.:25/3]

CS 25.107 Take-off speeds
(a) V1 must be established in relation to VEF as
follows:
(1) VEF is the calibrated airspeed at which
the critical engine is assumed to fail. VEF must be
selected by the applicant, but may not be less than
VMCG determined under CS 25.149 (e).
Amendment 5

1-B-4
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) V1, in terms of calibrated airspeed, is (e) VR, in terms of calibrated air speed, must be
selected by the applicant; however, V1 may not be selected in accordance with the conditions of sub-
less than VEF plus the speed gained with the paragraphs (1) to (4) of this paragraph:
critical engine inoperative during the time interval
(1) VR may not be less than –
between the instant at which the critical engine is
failed, and the instant at which the pilot (i) V1;
recognises and reacts to the engine failure, as
(ii) 105% of VMC;
indicated by the pilot’s initiation of the first
action (e.g. applying brakes, reducing thrust, (iii) The speed (determined in
deploying speed brakes) to stop the aeroplane accordance with CS 25.111(c)(2)) that
during accelerate-stop tests. allows reaching V2 before reaching a height
of 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface;
(b) V2MIN, in terms of calibrated airspeed, may
or
not be less than –
(iv) A speed that, if the aeroplane is
(1) 1·13 VSR for –
rotated at its maximum practicable rate, will
(i) Two-engined and three-engined result in a VLOF of not less than-
turbo-propeller powered aeroplanes; and
(A) 110% of VMU in the all-
(ii) Turbojet powered aeroplanes engines-operating condition,
without provisions for obtaining a and 105% of VMU determined
significant reduction in the one-engine- at the thrust-to-weight ratio
inoperative power-on stall speed; corresponding to the one-
engine-inoperative condition;
(2) 1·08 VSR for –
or
(i) Turbo-propeller powered
(B) If the VMU attitude is limited
aeroplanes with more than three engines;
by the geometry of the
and
aeroplane (i.e., tail contact
(ii) Turbojet powered aeroplanes with the runway), 108% of
with provisions for obtaining a significant VMU in the all-engines-
reduction in the one-engine-inoperative operating condition and 104%
power-on stall speed: and of VMU determined at the
thrust-to-weight ratio
(3) 1·10 times VMC established under CS
corresponding to the one-
25.149.
engine-inoperative condition.
(c) V2, in terms of calibrated airspeed, must be (See AMC 25.107(e)(1)(iv).)
selected by the applicant to provide at least the
(2) For any given set of conditions (such
gradient of climb required by CS 25.121(b) but may
as weight, configuration, and temperature), a
not be less than –
single value of VR, obtained in accordance with
(1) V2MIN; this paragraph, must be used to show compliance
with both the one-engine-inoperative and the all-
(2) VR plus the speed increment attained
engines-operating take-off provisions.
(in accordance with CS 25.111(c)(2)) before
reaching a height of 11 m (35 ft) above the take- (3) It must be shown that the one-engine-
off surface; and inoperative take-off distance, using a rotation
speed of 9.3 km/h (5 knots) less than VR
(3) A speed that provides the
established in accordance with sub-paragraphs
manoeuvring capability specified in CS 25.143(h).
(e)(1) and (2) of this paragraph, does not exceed
(d) VMU is the calibrated airspeed at and above the corresponding one-engine-inoperative take-off
which the aeroplane can safely lift off the ground, distance using the established VR. The take-off
and continue the take-off. VMU speeds must be distances must be determined in accordance with
selected by the applicant throughout the range of CS 25.113(a)(1). (See AMC 25.107(e)(3).)
thrust-to-weight ratios to be certificated. These
(4) Reasonably expected variations in
speeds may be established from free air data if these
service from the established take-off procedures
data are verified by ground take-off tests. (See AMC
for the operation of the aeroplane (such as over-
25.107(d).)
rotation of the aeroplane and out-of-trim
conditions) may not result in unsafe flight
characteristics or in marked increases in the
Amendment 5

1-B-5
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

scheduled take-off distances established in (ii) With all engines still operating,
accordance with CS 25.113(a). (See AMC No. 1 come to a full stop on a dry runway from
to CS25.107 (e) (4) and AMC No. 2 to CS25.107 the speed reached as prescribed in sub-
(e) (4).) paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this paragraph; plus
(f) VLOF is the calibrated airspeed at which the (iii) A distance equivalent to
aeroplane first becomes airborne. 2 seconds at the V1 for take-off from a dry
runway.
(g) VFTO, in terms of calibrated airspeed, must
(b) (See AMC 25.109(a) and (b).) The
be selected by the applicant to provide at least the
accelerate-stop distance on a wet runway is the
gradient of climb required by CS 25.121(c), but may
greater of the following distances:
not less than –
(1) The accelerate-stop distance on a dry
(1) 1.18 VSR; and
runway determined in accordance with sub-
(2) A speed that provides the paragraph (a) of this paragraph; or
manoeuvring capability specified in CS 25.143(h).
(2) The accelerate-stop distance
(h) In determining the take-off speeds V1, VR, determined in accordance with sub-paragraph (a)
and V2 for flight in icing conditions, the values of of this paragraph, except that the runway is wet
VMCG, VMC, and VMU determined for non-icing and the corresponding wet runway values of VEF
conditions may be used. and V1 are used. In determining the wet runway
accelerate-stop distance, the stopping force from
[Amdt. No.:25/3]
the wheel brakes may never exceed:
(i) The wheel brakes stopping force
CS 25.109 Accelerate-stop distance
determined in meeting the requirements of
(a) (See AMC 25.109(a) and (b).) The CS 25.101(i) and sub-paragraph (a) of this
accelerate-stop distance on a dry runway is the paragraph; and
greater of the following distances:
(ii) The force resulting from the wet
(1) The sum of the distances necessary to – runway braking coefficient of friction
determined in accordance with sub-
(i) Accelerate the aeroplane from a
paragraphs (c) or (d) of this paragraph, as
standing start with all engines operating to
applicable, taking into account the
VEF for take-off from a dry runway;
distribution of the normal load between
(ii) Allow the aeroplane to braked and unbraked wheels at the most
accelerate from VEF to the highest speed adverse centre of gravity position approved
reached during the rejected take-off, for take-off.
assuming the critical engine fails at VEF and
(c) The wet runway braking coefficient of
the pilot takes the first action to reject the
friction for a smooth wet runway is defined as a
take-off at the V1 for take-off from a dry
curve of friction coefficient versus ground speed and
runway; and
must be computed as follows:
(iii) Come to a full stop on a dry
(1) The maximum tyre-to-ground wet
runway from the speed reached as
runway braking coefficient of friction is defined
prescribed in sub-paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this
as (see Figure 1):
paragraph; plus
where:
(iv) A distance equivalent to
2 seconds at the V1 for take-off from a dry Tyre Pressure = maximum aeroplane operating
runway. tyre pressure (psi)
(2) The sum of the distances necessary to – 't/gMAX = maximum tyre-to-ground braking
(i) Accelerate the aeroplane from a coefficient
standing start with all engines operating to
the highest speed reached during the V = aeroplane true ground speed (knots); and
rejected take-off, assuming the pilot takes
the first action to reject the take-off at the Linear interpolation may be used for tyre pressures
V1 for take-off from a dry runway; and other than those listed.

Amendment 5

1-B-6
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

Tyre Pressure (psi) Maximum Braking Coefficient (tyre-to-ground)

) * ) * ) *
3 2
50 V
' t /gMAX + ,0 ( 0350 100 V
- 0 ( 306 100 V - 0 ( 883
, 0 ( 851 100

+ ,0 ( 0437) 100 * - 0 ( 320) 100 * , 0 ( 805) 100 *
3 2
100 ' t /gMAX V V V - 0 ( 804

+ ,0 ( 0331) 100 * - 0 ( 252) 100 * , 0 ( 658) 100 *
3 2
200 ' t /gMAX V V V - 0 ( 692

+ ,0 ( 0401) 100 * - 0 ( 263) 100 * , 0 ( 611) 100 *
3 2
300 ' t /gMAX V V V - 0 ( 614

Figure 1

(2) (See AMC 25.109(c)(2) The treated with a porous friction course material. For
maximum tyre-to-ground wet runway braking grooved and porous friction course runways,
coefficient of friction must be adjusted to take
(1) 70% of the dry runway braking
into account the efficiency of the anti-skid system
coefficient of friction used to determine the dry
on a wet runway. Anti-skid system operation must
runway accelerate-stop distance; or
be demonstrated by flight testing on a smooth wet
runway and its efficiency must be determined.
(2) (See AMC 25.109(d)(2).) The wet
Unless a specific anti-skid system efficiency is
runway braking coefficient of friction defined in
determined from a quantitative analysis of the
sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph, except that a
flight testing on a smooth wet runway, the
specific anti-skid efficiency, if determined, is
maximum tyre-to-ground wet runway braking
appropriate for a grooved or porous friction
coefficient of friction determined in sub-
course wet runway and the maximum tyre-to-
paragraph (c)(1) of this paragraph must be
ground wet runway braking coefficient of friction
multiplied by the efficiency value associated with
is defined as (see Figure 2):
the type of anti-skid system installed on the
aeroplane: where:
Tyre Pressure = maximum aeroplane operating
Type of anti-skid system Efficiency value
tyre pressure (psi)
On-off 0(30 ' t/gMAX = maximum tyre-to-ground braking
Quasi-modulating 0(50 coefficient
Fully modulating 0(80 V = aeroplane true ground speed (knots); and
Linear interpolation may be used for tyre pressures
(d) At the option of the applicant, a higher wet other than those listed.
runway braking coefficient of friction may be used
for runway surfaces that have been grooved or

Tyre Pressure(psi) Maximum Braking Coefficient (tyre-to-ground)

) * , 1( 05) 100 * - 2 ( 673) 100 * , 2 ( 683) 100 * - 0 ( 403) 100 *
5 4 3 2
50 ' t /gMAX V
+ 0 ( 147 100 V V V V - 0 ( 859

+ 0 ( 1106) 100 * , 0 ( 813) 100 * - 2 ( 13) 100 * , 2 ( 20) 100 * - 0 ( 317) 100 *
5 4 3 2
100 ' t /gMAX V V V V V - 0 ( 807

+ 0 ( 0498) 100 * , 0 ( 398) 100 * - 1( 14) 100 * , 1( 285) 100 * - 0 ( 140) 100 *
5 4 3 2
200 ' t /gMAX V V V V V - 0.701

+ 0 ( 0314) 100 * , 0 ( 247) 100 * - 0 ( 703) 100 * , 0 ( 779) 100 * , 0 ( 00954) 100 *
5 4 3 2
300 ' t /gMAX V V V V V - 0 ( 614

Figure 2

Amendment 5

1-B-7
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(e) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (f)(1) (3) After reaching VEF, the aeroplane
of this paragraph, means other than wheel brakes must be accelerated to V2.
may be used to determine the accelerate-stop distance
(b) During the acceleration to speed V2, the
if that means –
nose gear may be raised off the ground at a speed not
(1) Is safe and reliable; less than VR. However, landing gear retraction may
not be begun until the aeroplane is airborne. (See
(2) Is used so that consistent results can
AMC 25.111(b).)
be expected under normal operating conditions;
and (c) During the take-off path determination in
accordance with sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) of this
(3) Is such that exceptional skill is not
paragraph –
required to control the aeroplane.
(1) The slope of the airborne part of the
(f) The effects of available reverse thrust –
take-off path must be positive at each point;
(1) Must not be included as an additional
(2) The aeroplane must reach V2 before it
means of deceleration when determining the
is 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface and
accelerate-stop distance on a dry runway; and
must continue at a speed as close as practical to,
(2) May be included as an additional but not less than V2 until it is 122 m (400 ft)
means of deceleration using recommended reverse above the take-off surface;
thrust procedures when determining the
(3) At each point along the take-off path,
accelerate-stop distance on a wet runway,
starting at the point at which the aeroplane
provided the requirements of sub-paragraph (e) of
reaches 122 m (400 ft) above the take-off surface,
this paragraph are met. (See AMC 25.109(f).)
the available gradient of climb may not be less
(g) The landing gear must remain extended than –
throughout the accelerate-stop distance.
(i) 1·2% for two-engined aero-
(h) If the accelerate-stop distance includes a planes;
stopway with surface characteristics substantially
(ii) 1·5% for three-engined aero-
different from those of the runway, the take-off data
planes; and
must include operational correction factors for the
accelerate-stop distance. The correction factors must (iii) 1·7% for four-engined aero-
account for the particular surface characteristics of planes,
the stopway and the variations in these characteristics
(4) The aeroplane configuration may not
with seasonal weather conditions (such as
be changed, except for gear retraction and
temperature, rain, snow and ice) within the
automatic propeller feathering, and no change in
established operational limits.
power or thrust that requires action by the pilot
(i) A flight test demonstration of the maximum may be made, until the aeroplane is 122 m (400 ft)
brake kinetic energy accelerate-stop distance must be above the take-off surface; and
conducted with not more than 10% of the allowable
(5) If CS 25.105(a)(2) requires the take-
brake wear range remaining on each of the aeroplane
off path to be determined for flight in icing
wheel brakes.
conditions, the airborne part of the take-off must
be based on the aeroplane drag:
CS 25.111 Take-off path
(i) With the “Take-off Ice”
(See AMC 25.111)
accretion defined in Appendix C, from a
(a) The take-off path extends from a standing height of 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off
start to a point in the take-off at which the aeroplane surface up to the point where the aeroplane
is 457 m (1500 ft) above the take-off surface, or at is 122 m (400 ft) above the take-off surface;
which the transition from the take-off to the en-route and
configuration is completed and VFTO is reached,
(ii) With the “Final Take-off Ice”
whichever point is higher. In addition –
accretion defined in Appendix C, from the
(1) The take-off path must be based on point where the aeroplane is 122 m (400 ft)
the procedures prescribed in CS 25.101(f); above the take-off surface to the end of the
take-off path.
(2) The aeroplane must be accelerated on
the ground to VEF, at which point the critical (d) The take-off path must be determined by a
engine must be made inoperative and remain continuous demonstrated take-off or by synthesis
inoperative for the rest of the take-off; and
Amendment 5

1-B-8
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

from segments. If the take-off path is determined by determined under CS 25.111 for a wet runway.
the segmental method – (See AMC 113(a)(2), (b)(2) and (c)(2).)
(1) The segments must be clearly defined (c) If the take-off distance does not include a
and must relate to the distinct changes in the clearway, the take-off run is equal to the take-off
configuration, power or thrust, and speed; distance. If the take-off distance includes a clearway

(2) The weight of the aeroplane, the
configuration, and the power or thrust must be (1) The take-off run on a dry runway is
constant throughout each segment and must the greater of –
correspond to the most critical condition
(i) The horizontal distance along
prevailing in the segment;
the take-off path from the start of the take-
(3) The flight path must be based on the off to a point equidistant between the point
aeroplane’s performance without ground effect; at which VLOF is reached and the point at
and which the aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above
the take-off surface, as determined under CS
(4) The take-off path data must be
25.111 for a dry runway; or
checked by continuous demonstrated take-offs up
to the point at which the aeroplane is out of (ii) 115% of the horizontal distance
ground effect and its speed is stabilised, to ensure along the take-off path, with all engines
that the path is conservative to the continuous operating, from the start of the take-off to a
path. point equidistant between the point at which
VLOF is reached and the point at which the
The aeroplane is considered to be out of the ground
aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off
effect when it reaches a height equal to its wing span.
surface, determined by a procedure
(e) Not required for CS–25. consistent with CS 25.111. (See AMC
25.113(a)(2), (b)(2) and (c)(2).)
[Amdt. No.:25/3]
(2) The take-off run on a wet runway is
the greater of –
CS 25.113 Take-off distance and take-
off run (i) The horizontal distance along
the take-off path from the start of the take-
(a) Take-off distance on a dry runway is the
off to the point at which the aeroplane is 4,6
greater of –
m (15 ft) above the take-off surface,
(1) The horizontal distance along the achieved in a manner consistent with the
take-off path from the start of the take-off to the achievement of V2 before reaching 11 m (35
point at which the aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above ft) above the take-off surface, determined
the take-off surface, determined under CS 25.111 under CS 25.111 for a wet runway; or
for a dry runway; or
(ii) 115% of the horizontal distance
(2) 115% of the horizontal distance along along the take-off path, with all engines
the take-off path, with all engines operating, from operating, from the start of the take-off to a
the start of the take-off to the point at which the point equidistant between the point at which
aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off VLOF is reached and the point at which the
surface, as determined by a procedure consistent aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off
with CS 25.111. (See AMC 25.113(a)(2), (b)(2) surface, determined by a procedure
and (c)(2).) consistent with CS 25.111. (See AMC
25.113(a)(2).)
(b) Take-off distance on a wet runway is the
greater of –
CS 25.115 Take-off flight path
(1) The take-off distance on a dry runway
determined in accordance with sub-paragraph (a) (a) The take-off flight path must be considered
of this paragraph; or to begin 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface at the
end of the take-off distance determined in accordance
(2) The horizontal distance along the
with CS 25.113 (a) or (b) as appropriate for the
take-off path from the start of the take-off to the
runway surface condition.
point at which the aeroplane is 4,6 m (15 ft) above
the take-off surface, achieved in a manner (b) The net take-off flight path data must be
consistent with the achievement of V2 before determined so that they represent the actual take-off
reaching 11 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface, flight paths (determined in accordance with
Amendment 5

1-B-9
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

CS25.111 and with sub-paragraph (a) of this (1) The critical engine inoperative and the
paragraph) reduced at each point by a gradient of remaining engines at the power or thrust available
climb equal to – when retraction of the landing gear is begun in
accordance with CS 25.111 unless there is a more
(1) 0·8% for two-engined aeroplanes;
critical power operating condition existing later
(2) 0·9% for three-engined aeroplanes; along the flight path but before the point at which
and the landing gear is fully retracted (see AMC
25.121(a)(1)); and
(3) 1·0% for four-engined aeroplanes.
(2) The weight equal to the weight
(c) The prescribed reduction in climb gradient
existing when retraction of the landing gear is
may be applied as an equivalent reduction in
begun determined under CS 25.111.
acceleration along that part of the take-off flight path
at which the aeroplane is accelerated in level flight. (b) Take-off; landing gear retracted. In the
take-off configuration existing at the point of the
flight path at which the landing gear is fully
CS 25.117 Climb: general
retracted, and in the configuration used in CS 25.111
Compliance with the requirements of CS 25.119 and but without ground effect,
25.121 must be shown at each weight, altitude, and
(1) The steady gradient of climb may not
ambient temperature within the operational limits
be less than 2·4% for two-engined aeroplanes,
established for the aeroplane and with the most
2·7% for three-engined aeroplanes and 3·0% for
unfavourable centre of gravity for each
four-engined aeroplanes, at V2 with –
configuration.
(i) The critical engine inoperative,
the remaining engines at the take-off power
CS 25.119 Landing climb: all-engines-
or thrust available at the time the landing
operating
gear is fully retracted, determined under CS
In the landing configuration, the steady gradient of 25.111, unless there is a more critical power
climb may not be less than 3·2%, with the engines at operating condition existing later along the
the power or thrust that is available 8 seconds after flight path but before the point where the
initiation of movement of the power or thrust aeroplane reaches a height of 122 m (400 ft)
controls from the minimum flight idle to the go- above the take-off surface (see AMC
around power or thrust setting (see AMC 25.119); 25.121(b)(1)(i)); and
and
(ii) The weight equal to the weight
(a) In non-icing conditions, with a climb existing when the aeroplane’s landing gear
speed of VREF determined in accordance with CS is fully retracted, determined under CS
25.125(b)(2)(i); and 25.111.
(b) In icing conditions with the “Landing Ice” (2) The requirements of sub-paragraph
accretion defined in Appendix C, and with a climb (b)(1) of this paragraph must be met:
speed of VREF determined in accordance with CS
25.125(b)(2)(ii). (i) In non-icing conditions; and
[Amdt. No.:25/3] (ii) In icing conditions with the
“Take-off Ice” accretion defined in
Appendix C, if in the configuration of CS
CS 25.121 Climb: one-engine-
25.121(b) with the “Take-off Ice” accretion:
inoperative
(See AMC 25.121) (A) The stall speed at
maximum take-off weight exceeds that
(a) Take-off; landing gear extended. (See AMC
in non-icing conditions by more than
25.121(a).) In the critical take-off configuration
the greater of 5.6 km/h (3 knots) CAS
existing along the flight path (between the points at
or 3% of VSR; or
which the aeroplane reaches VLOF and at which the
landing gear is fully retracted) and in the (B) The degradation of the
configuration used in CS 25.111 but without ground gradient of climb determined in
effect, the steady gradient of climb must be positive accordance with CS 25.121(b) is
for two-engined aeroplanes, and not less than 0·3% greater than one-half of the applicable
for three-engined aeroplanes or 0·5% for four- actual-to-net take-off flight path
engined aeroplanes, at VLOF and with – gradient reduction defined in CS
25.115(b).
Amendment 5

1-B-10
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(c) Final take-off. In the en-route configuration (i) In non-icing conditions; and
at the end of the take-off path determined in
(ii) In icing conditions with the
accordance with CS 25.111:
Approach Ice accretion defined in Appendix
(1) The steady gradient of climb may not C. The climb speed selected for non-icing
be less than 1·2% for two-engined aeroplanes, conditions may be used if the climb speed
1·5% for three-engined aeroplanes, and 1·7% for for icing conditions, computed in
four-engined aeroplanes, at VFTO and with – accordance with sub-paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of
this paragraph, does not exceed that for non-
(i) The critical engine inoperative
icing conditions by more than the greater of
and the remaining engines at the available
5.6 km/h (3 knots) CAS or 3%.
maximum continuous power or thrust; and
[Amdt. No.:25/3]
(ii) The weight equal to the weight
existing at the end of the take-off path,
determined under CS 25.111. CS 25.123 En-route flight paths
(See AMC 25.123)
(2) The requirements of sub-paragraph
(c)(1) of this paragraph must be met: (a) For the en-route configuration, the flight
paths prescribed in sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of this
(i) In non-icing conditions; and
paragraph must be determined at each weight,
(ii) In icing conditions with the altitude, and ambient temperature, within the
“Final Take-off Ice” accretion defined in operating limits established for the aeroplane. The
Appendix C, if in the configuration of CS variation of weight along the flight path, accounting
25.121(b) with the “Take-off Ice” accretion: for the progressive consumption of fuel and oil by
the operating engines, may be included in the
(A) The stall speed at
computation. The flight paths must be determined at
maximum take-off weight exceeds that
a selected speed not less than VFTO, with –
in non-icing conditions by more than
the greater of 5.6 km/h (3 knots) CAS (1) The most unfavourable centre of
or 3% of VSR; or gravity;
(B) The degradation of the (2) The critical engines inoperative;
gradient of climb determined in
(3) The remaining engines at the available
accordance with CS 25.121(b) is
maximum continuous power or thrust; and
greater than one-half of the applicable
actual-to-net take-off flight path (4) The means for controlling the engine-
gradient reduction defined in CS cooling air supply in the position that provides
25.115(b). adequate cooling in the hot-day condition.
(d) Approach. In a configuration corresponding (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path
to the normal all-engines-operating procedure in data must represent the actual climb performance
which VSR for this configuration does not exceed diminished by a gradient of climb of 1·1% for two-
110% of the VSR for the related all-engines-operating engined aeroplanes, 1·4% for three-engined
landing configuration: aeroplanes, and 1·6% for four-engined aeroplanes.
(1) The steady gradient of climb may not (1) In non-icing conditions; and
be less than 2·1% for two-engined aeroplanes,
(2) In icing conditions with the “En-route
2·4% for three-engined aeroplanes and 2·7% for
Ice” accretion defined in Appendix C, if:
four-engined aeroplanes, with –
(i) A speed of 1.18VSR with the
(i) The critical engine inoperative,
“En-route Ice ” accretion exceeds the en-
the remaining engines at the go-around
route speed selected in non-icing conditions
power or thrust setting;
by more than the greater of 5.6 km/h (3
(ii) The maximum landing weight; knots) CAS or 3% of VSR, or
(iii) A climb speed established in (ii) The degradation of the gradient
connection with normal landing procedures, of climb is greater than one-half of the
but not more than 1·4 VSR; and applicable actual-to-net flight path reduction
defined in sub-paragraph (b) of this
(iv) Landing gear retracted.
paragraph.
(2) The requirements of sub-paragraph
(d)(1) of this paragraph must be met:
Amendment 5

1-B-11
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(c) For three- or four-engined aeroplanes, the with the established procedures for service
two-engine-inoperative net flight path data must operation. (See AMC 25.125(b)(3).)
represent the actual climb performance diminished by
(4) The landing must be made without
a gradient climb of 0·3% for three-engined
excessive vertical acceleration, tendency to
aeroplanes and 0·5% for four-engined aeroplanes.
bounce, nose over or ground loop.
[Amdt. No.:25/3]
(5) The landings may not require
exceptional piloting skill or alertness.
CS 25.125 Landing
(c) The landing distance must be determined on
(a) The horizontal distance necessary to land a level, smooth, dry, hard-surfaced runway. (See
and to come to a complete stop from a point 15 m (50 AMC 25.125(c).) In addition –
ft) above the landing surface must be determined (for
(1) The pressures on the wheel braking
standard temperatures, at each weight, altitude and
systems may not exceed those specified by the
wind within the operational limits established by the
brake manufacturer;
applicant for the aeroplane):
(2) The brakes may not be used so as to
(1) In non-icing conditions; and
cause excessive wear of brakes or tyres (see AMC
(2) In icing conditions with the “Landing 25.125(c)(2)); and
Ice” accretion defined in Appendix C if VREF for
(3) Means other than wheel brakes may
icing conditions exceeds VREF for non-icing
be used if that means –
conditions by more than 9.3 km/h (5 knots) CAS
at the maximum landing weight. (i) Is safe and reliable;
(b) In determining the distance in (a): (ii) Is used so that consistent results
can be expected in service; and
(1) The aeroplane must be in the landing
configuration. (iii) Is such that exceptional skill is
not required to control the aeroplane.
(2) A stabilised approach, with a
calibrated airspeed of not less than VREF, must be (d) Reserved.
maintained down to the 15 m (50 ft) height.
(e) Reserved.
(i) In non-icing conditions, VREF
(f) The landing distance data must include
may not be less than:
correction factors for not more than 50% of the
(A) 1.23 VSR0; nominal wind components along the landing path
opposite to the direction of landing, and not less than
(B) VMCL established under
150% of the nominal wind components along the
CS25.149(f); and
landing path in the direction of landing.
(C) A speed that provides the
(g) If any device is used that depends on the
manoeuvring capability specified in
operation of any engine, and if the landing distance
CS25.143(h).
would be noticeably increased when a landing is
(ii) In icing conditions, VREF may made with that engine inoperative, the landing
not be less than: distance must be determined with that engine
inoperative unless the use of compensating means
(A) The speed determined in
will result in a landing distance not more than that
sub-paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this
with each engine operating.
paragraph;
[Amdt. No.:25/3]
(B) 1.23 VSR0 with the
"Landing Ice" accretion defined in
Appendix C if that speed exceeds VREF
CONTROLLABILITY AND
for non-icing conditions by more than
MANOEUVRABILITY
9.3 km/h (5 knots) CAS; and
(C) A speed that provides the
CS 25.143 General
manoeuvring capability specified in
CS 25.143(h) with the landing ice (a) (See AMC 25.143(a).) The aeroplane must
accretion defined in appendix C. be safely controllable and manoeuvrable during –
(3) Changes in configuration, power or (1) Take-off;
thrust, and speed, must be made in accordance
Amendment 5

1-B-12
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) Climb; when demonstrating compliance with the control
force limitations for short term application that are
(3) Level flight;
prescribed in sub-paragraph (d) of this paragraph.
(4) Descent; and The aeroplane must be in trim, or as near to being in
trim as practical, in the immediately preceding steady
(5) Landing.
flight condition. For the take-off condition, the
(b) (See AMC 25.143(b).) It must be possible to aeroplane must be trimmed according to the approved
make a smooth transition from one flight condition to operating procedures.
any other flight condition without exceptional
(f) When demonstrating compliance with the
piloting skill, alertness, or strength, and without
control force limitations for long term application
danger of exceeding the aeroplane limit-load factor
that are prescribed in sub-paragraph (d) of this
under any probable operating conditions, including –
paragraph, the aeroplane must be in trim, or as near
(1) The sudden failure of the critical to being in trim as practical.
engine. (See AMC 25.143(b)(1).)
(g) When manoeuvring at a constant airspeed or
(2) For aeroplanes with three or more Mach number (up to VFC/MFC), the stick forces and
engines, the sudden failure of the second critical the gradient of the stick force versus manoeuvring
engine when the aeroplane is in the en-route, load factor must lie within satisfactory limits. The
approach, or landing configuration and is trimmed stick forces must not be so great as to make excessive
with the critical engine inoperative; and demands on the pilot’s strength when manoeuvring
the aeroplane (see AMC No. 1 to CS 25.143 (g)), and
(3) Configuration changes, including
must not be so low that the aeroplane can easily be
deployment or retraction of deceleration devices.
overstressed inadvertently. Changes of gradient that
(c) The aeroplane must be shown to be safely occur with changes of load factor must not cause
controllable and manoeuvrable with the critical ice undue difficulty in maintaining control of the
accretion appropriate to the phase of flight defined in aeroplane, and local gradients must not be so low as
appendix C, and with the critical engine inoperative to result in a danger of over-controlling. (See AMC
and its propeller (if applicable) in the minimum drag No. 2 to CS 25.143 (g)).
position:
(h) (See AMC 25.143(h)). The manoeuvring
(1) At the minimum V2 for take-off; capabilities in a constant speed coordinated turn at
forward centre of gravity, as specified in the
(2) During an approach and go-around;
following table, must be free of stall warning or other
and
characteristics that might interfere with normal
(3) During an approach and landing. manoeuvring.
(d) The following table prescribes, for
conventional wheel type controls, the maximum
control forces permitted during the testing required
by sub-paragraphs (a) through (c) of this paragraph.
(See AMC 25.143(d)):

Force, in newton (pounds), Pitch Roll Yaw
applied to the control wheel or
rudder pedals

For short term application for 334 222 –
pitch and roll control – two (75) (50)
hands available for control

For short term application for 222 111 –
pitch and roll control – one (50) (25)
hand available for control

For short term application for – – 667
yaw control (150)

For long term application 44,5 22 (5) 89
(10) (20)

(e) Approved operating procedures or
conventional operating practices must be followed
Amendment 5

1-B-13
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

CONFIGURATION SPEED MANOEUVRING BANK THRUST/POWER
ANGLE IN A SETTING
COORDINATED TURN

TAKE-OFF V2 30. ASYMMETRIC WAT-LIMITED (1)
(2)
TAKE-OFF V2 + xx 40. ALL ENGINES OPERATING CLIMB (3)

EN-ROUTE VFTO 40. ASYMMETRIC WAT-LIMITED (1)

LANDING VREF 40. SYMMETRIC FOR –3. FLIGHT PATH
ANGLE

(1)
A combination of weight, altitude and
temperature (WAT) such that the thrust or power (1) If activating the ice protection system
setting produces the minimum climb gradient depends on the pilot seeing a specified ice
specified in CS 25.121 for the flight condition. accretion on a reference surface (not just the first
(2)
indication of icing), the requirements of CS
Airspeed approved for all-engines-
25.143 apply with the ice accretion defined in
operating initial climb.
appendix C, part II(e).
(3)
That thrust or power setting which, in
the event of failure of the critical engine and without (2) For other means of activating the ice
any crew action to adjust the thrust or power of the protection system, it must be demonstrated in
remaining engines, would result in the thrust or flight with the ice accretion defined in appendix
power specified for the take-off condition at V2, or C, part II(e) that:
any lesser thrust or power setting that is used for all-
(i) The aeroplane is controllable in
engines-operating initial climb procedures.
a pull-up manoeuvre up to 1.5 g load factor;
(i) When demonstrating compliance with CS and
25.143 in icing conditions -
(ii) There is no pitch control force
(1) Controllability must be demonstrated reversal during a pushover manoeuvre down
with the ice accretion described in Appendix C, to 0.5 g load factor.
that is most critical for the particular flight phase.
[Amdt. No.:25/3]
(2) It must be shown that a push force is
required throughout a pushover manoeuvre down
to a zero g load factor, or the lowest load factor CS 25.145 Longitudinal control
obtainable if limited by elevator power or other (a) (See AMC 25.145(a).) It must be possible
design characteristic of the flight control system. at any point between the trim speed prescribed in CS
It must be possible to promptly recover from the 25.103(b)(6) and stall identification (as defined in CS
manoeuvre without exceeding a pull control force 25.201(d)), to pitch the nose downward so that the
of 222 N. (50 lbf); and acceleration to this selected trim speed is prompt
(3) Any changes in force that the pilot with –
must apply to the pitch control to maintain speed (1) The aeroplane trimmed at the trim
with increasing sideslip angle must be steadily speed prescribed in CS 25.103(b)(6);
increasing with no force reversals, unless the
(2) The landing gear extended;
change in control force is gradual and easily
controllable by the pilot without using exceptional (3) The wing-flaps (i) retracted and (ii)
piloting skill, alertness, or strength. extended; and

(j) For flight in icing conditions before the ice (4) Power (i) off and (ii) at maximum
protection system has been activated and is continuous power on the engines.
performing its intended function, the following (b) With the landing gear extended, no change
requirements apply: in trim control, or exertion of more than 222 N (50
pounds) control force (representative of the
maximum short term force that can be applied readily
by one hand) may be required for the following
manoeuvres:
(1) With power off, wing-flaps retracted,
and the aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR1, extend the
Amendment 5

1-B-14
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

wing-flaps as rapidly as possible while maintaining require a separate and distinct motion of the control
the airspeed at approximately 30% above the to pass through the gated position and must have
reference stall speed existing at each instant features to prevent inadvertent movement of the
throughout the manoeuvre. (See AMC 25.145(b)(1), control through the gated position. It must only be
(b)(2) and (b)(3).) possible to make this separate and distinct motion
(2) Repeat sub-paragraph (b)(1) of this once the control has reached the gated position.
paragraph except initially extend the wing-flaps
and then retract them as rapidly as possible. (See
AMC 25.145(b)(2) and AMC 25.145(b)(1), (b)(2) CS 25.147 Directional and lateral
and (b)(3).) control

(3) Repeat sub-paragraph (b)(2) of this (a) Directional control; general. (See AMC
paragraph except at the go-around power or thrust 25.147(a).) It must be possible, with the wings level,
setting. (See AMC 25.145(b)(1), (b)(2) and to yaw into the operative engine and to safely make a
(b)(3).) reasonably sudden change in heading of up to 15º in
the direction of the critical inoperative engine. This
(4) With power off, wing-flaps retracted must be shown at 1·3 VSR1, for heading changes up to
and the aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR1, rapidly set
15º (except that the heading change at which the
go-around power or thrust while maintaining the
rudder pedal force is 667 N (150 lbf) need not be
same airspeed.
exceeded), and with –
(5) Repeat sub-paragraph (b)(4) of this
paragraph except with wing-flaps extended. (1) The critical engine inoperative and its
propeller in the minimum drag position;
(6) With power off, wing-flaps extended
and the aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR1 obtain and (2) The power required for level flight at
maintain airspeeds between VSW and either 1·6 1.3 VSR1, but not more than maximum continuous
VSR1, or VFE, whichever is the lower. power;

(c) It must be possible, without exceptional (3) The most unfavourable centre of
piloting skill, to prevent loss of altitude when gravity;
complete retraction of the high lift devices from any (4) Landing gear retracted;
position is begun during steady, straight, level flight
at 1·08 VSR1, for propeller powered aeroplanes or (5) Wing-flaps in the approach position;
1·13 VSR1, for turbo-jet powered aeroplanes, with – and

(1) Simultaneous movement of the power (6) Maximum landing weight.
or thrust controls to the go-around power or thrust
(b) Directional control; aeroplanes with four or
setting;
more engines. Aeroplanes with four or more engines
(2) The landing gear extended; and must meet the requirements of sub-paragraph (a) of
this paragraph except that –
(3) The critical combinations of landing
weights and altitudes. (1) The two critical engines must be
inoperative with their propellers (if applicable) in
(d) Revoked the minimum drag position;
(e) (See AMC 25.145(e).) If gated high-lift (2) Reserved; and
device control positions are provided, sub-paragraph
(c) of this paragraph applies to retractions of the (3) The wing-flaps must be in the most
high-lift devices from any position from the favourable climb position.
maximum landing position to the first gated position,
(c) Lateral control; general. It must be possible
between gated positions, and from the last gated
to make 20º banked turns, with and against the
position to the fully retracted position. The
inoperative engine, from steady flight at a speed
requirements of sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph
equal to 1·3 VSR1, with –
also apply to retractions from each approved landing
position to the control position(s) associated with the (1) The critical engine inoperative and its
high-lift device configuration(s) used to establish the propeller (if applicable) in the minimum drag
go-around procedure(s) from that landing position. In position;
addition, the first gated control position from the (2) The remaining engines at maximum
maximum landing position must correspond with a continuous power;
configuration of the high-lift devices used to
establish a go-around procedure from a landing (3) The most unfavourable centre of
configuration. Each gated control position must gravity;
Amendment 5

1-B-15
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(4) Landing gear both retracted and (4) The maximum sea-level take-off
extended; weight (or any lesser weight necessary to show
(5) Wing-flaps in the most favourable VMC);
climb position; and (5) The aeroplane in the most critical
(6) Maximum take-off weight; take-off configuration existing along the flight
path after the aeroplane becomes airborne, except
(d) Lateral control; roll capability. With the with the landing gear retracted;
critical engine inoperative, roll response must allow
normal manoeuvres. Lateral control must be (6) The aeroplane airborne and the
sufficient, at the speeds likely to be used with one ground effect negligible; and
engine inoperative, to provide a roll rate necessary (7) If applicable, the propeller of the
for safety without excessive control forces or travel.
inoperative engine –
(See AMC 25.147(d).)
(i) Windmilling;
(e) Lateral control; aeroplanes with four or
(ii) In the most probable position
more engines. Aeroplanes with four or more engines
for the specific design of the propeller
must be able to make 20º banked turns, with and
control; or
against the inoperative engines, from steady flight at
a speed equal to 1·3 VSR1, with maximum continuous (iii) Feathered, if the aeroplane has
power, and with the aeroplane in the configuration an automatic feathering device acceptable
prescribed by sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph. for showing compliance with the climb
requirements of CS 25.121.
(f) Lateral control; all engines operating. With
the engines operating, roll response must allow (d) The rudder forces required to maintain
normal manoeuvres (such as recovery from upsets control at VMC may not exceed 667 N (150 lbf) nor
produced by gusts and the initiation of evasive may it be necessary to reduce power or thrust of the
manoeuvres). There must be enough excess lateral operative engines. During recovery, the aeroplane
control in sideslips (up to sideslip angles that might may not assume any dangerous attitude or require
be required in normal operation), to allow a limited exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or strength to
amount of manoeuvring and to correct for gusts. prevent a heading change of more than 20º.
Lateral control must be enough at any speed up to
(e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the
VFC/MFC to provide a peak roll rate necessary for
ground, is the calibrated airspeed during the take-off
safety, without excessive control forces or travel.
run at which, when the critical engine is suddenly
(See AMC 25.147(f).)
made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of
the aeroplane using the rudder control alone (without
CS 25.149 Minimum control speed the use of nose-wheel steering), as limited by 667 N
(See AMC 25.149) of force (150 lbf), and the lateral control to the extent
of keeping the wings level to enable the take-off to
(a) In establishing the minimum control speeds
be safely continued using normal piloting skill. In the
required by this paragraph, the method used to
determination of VMCG, assuming that the path of the
simulate critical engine failure must represent the
aeroplane accelerating with all engines operating is
most critical mode of powerplant failure with respect
along the centreline of the runway, its path from the
to controllability expected in service.
point at which the critical engine is made inoperative
(b) VMC is the calibrated airspeed, at which, to the point at which recovery to a direction parallel
when the critical engine is suddenly made to the centreline is completed, may not deviate more
inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the than 9.1 m (30 ft) laterally from the centreline at any
aeroplane with that engine still inoperative, and point. VMCG must be established, with –
maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not
(1) The aeroplane in each take-off
more than 5º.
configuration or, at the option of the applicant, in
(c) VMC may not exceed 1·13 VSR with – the most critical take-off configuration;
(1) Maximum available take-off power or (2) Maximum available take-off power or
thrust on the engines; thrust on the operating engines;
(2) The most unfavourable centre of (3) The most unfavourable centre of
gravity; gravity;
(3) The aeroplane trimmed for take-off; The aeroplane trimmed for take-off; and

Amendment 5

1-B-16
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(5) The most unfavourable weight in the maintain a 3 degree approach path angle, and the
range of take-off weights. (See AMC 25.149(e).) propeller of the other inoperative engine
feathered;
(f) (See AMC 25.149 (f)) VMCL, the minimum
control speed during approach and landing with all (6) The power or thrust on the operating
engines operating, is the calibrated airspeed at which, engine(s) necessary to maintain an approach path
when the critical engine is suddenly made angle of 3º when one critical engine is
inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the inoperative; and
aeroplane with that engine still inoperative, and (7) The power or thrust on the operating
maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not engine(s) rapidly changed, immediately after the
more than 5º. VMCL must be established with – second critical engine is made inoperative, from
the power or thrust prescribed in sub-paragraph
(1) The aeroplane in the most critical
(g)(6) of this paragraph to –
configuration (or, at the option of the applicant,
each configuration) for approach and landing with (i) Minimum power or thrust; and
all engines operating;
(ii) Go-around power or thrust
(2) The most unfavourable centre of setting.
gravity;
(h) In demonstrations of VMCL and VMCL-2 –
(3) The aeroplane trimmed for approach (1) The rudder force may not exceed 667
with all engines operating; N (150 lbf);
(4) The most unfavourable weight, or, at (2) The aeroplane may not exhibit
the option of the applicant, as a function of hazardous flight characteristics or require
weight; exceptional piloting skill, alertness or strength;
(5) For propeller aeroplanes, the propeller (3) Lateral control must be sufficient to
of the inoperative engine in the position it roll the aeroplane, from an initial condition of
achieves without pilot action, assuming the engine steady straight flight, through an angle of 20º in
fails while at the power or thrust necessary to the direction necessary to initiate a turn away
maintain a 3 degree approach path angle; and from the inoperative engine(s), in not more than 5
seconds (see AMC 25.149(h)(3)); and
(6) Go-around power or thrust setting on
the operating engine(s). (4) For propeller aeroplanes, hazardous
flight characteristics must not be exhibited due to
(g) (See AMC 25.149(g)) For aeroplanes with any propeller position achieved when the engine
three or more engines, VMCL-2, the minimum control fails or during any likely subsequent movements
speed during approach and landing with one critical of the engine or propeller controls (see AMC
engine inoperative, is the calibrated airspeed at 25.149 (h)(4)).
which, when a second critical engine is suddenly
made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of
the aeroplane with both engines still inoperative, and TRIM
maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not
more than 5º. VMCL-2 must be established with –
CS 25.161 Trim
(1) The aeroplane in the most critical
configuration (or, at the option of the applicant, (a) General. Each aeroplane must meet the trim
each configuration) for approach and landing with requirements of this paragraph after being trimmed,
one critical engine inoperative; and without further pressure upon, or movement of,
either the primary controls or their corresponding
(2) The most unfavourable centre of trim controls by the pilot or the automatic pilot.
gravity;
(b) Lateral and directional trim. The aeroplane
(3) The aeroplane trimmed for approach must maintain lateral and directional trim with the
with one critical engine inoperative; most adverse lateral displacement of the centre of
(4) The most unfavourable weight, or, at gravity within the relevant operating limitations,
the option of the applicant, as a function of during normally expected conditions of operation
weight; (including operation at any speed from 1·3 VSR1, to
VMO/MMO).
(5) For propeller aeroplanes, the propeller
of the more critical engine in the position it (c) Longitudinal trim. The aeroplane must
achieves without pilot action, assuming the engine maintain longitudinal trim during –
fails while at the power or thrust necessary to
Amendment 5

1-B-17
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(1) A climb with maximum continuous (a) A pull must be required to obtain and
power at a speed not more than 1·3 VSR1, with the maintain speeds below the specified trim speed, and a
landing gear retracted, and the wing-flaps (i) push must be required to obtain and maintain speeds
retracted and (ii) in the take-off position; above the specified trim speed. This must be shown
at any speed that can be obtained except speeds
(2) Either a glide with power off at a
higher than the landing gear or wing flap operating
speed not more than 1·3 VSR1, or an approach
limit speeds or VFC/MFC, whichever is appropriate, or
within the normal range of approach speeds
lower than the minimum speed for steady unstalled
appropriate to the weight and configuration with
flight.
power settings corresponding to a 3º glidepath,
whichever is the most severe, with the landing (b) The airspeed must return to within 10% of
gear extended, the wing-flaps retracted and the original trim speed for the climb, approach and
extended, and with the most unfavourable landing conditions specified in CS 25.175 (a), (c) and
combination of centre of gravity position and (d), and must return to within 7·5% of the original
weight approved for landing; and trim speed for the cruising condition specified in CS
25.175 (b), when the control force is slowly released
(3) Level flight at any speed from
from any speed within the range specified in sub-
1·3 VSR1, to VMO/MMO, with the landing gear and
paragraph (a) of this paragraph.
wing-flaps retracted, and from 1·3 VSR1 to VLE
with the landing gear extended. (c) The average gradient of the stable slope of
the stick force versus speed curve may not be less
(d) Longitudinal, directional, and lateral trim.
than 4 N (1 pound) for each 11,2 km/h (6 kt). (See
The aeroplane must maintain longitudinal,
AMC 25.173(c).)
directional, and lateral trim (and for lateral trim, the
angle of bank may not exceed 5º) at 1·3 VSR1, during (d) Within the free return speed range specified
the climbing flight with – in sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph, it is
permissible for the aeroplane, without control forces,
(1) The critical engine inoperative;
to stabilise on speeds above or below the desired trim
(2) The remaining engines at maximum speeds if exceptional attention on the part of the pilot
continuous power; and is not required to return to and maintain the desired
trim speed and altitude.
(3) The landing gear and wing-flaps
retracted.
CS 25.175 Demonstration of static
(e) Aeroplanes with four or more engines. Each
longitudinal stability
aeroplane with four or more engines must also
maintain trim in rectilinear flight with the most Static longitudinal stability must be shown as
unfavourable centre of gravity and at the climb follows:
speed, configuration, and power required by CS
(a) Climb. The stick force curve must have a
25.123 (a) for the purpose of establishing the en-
stable slope at speeds between 85% and 115% of the
route flight path with two engines inoperative.
speed at which the aeroplane –
(1) Is trimmed with –
STABILITY
(i) Wing-flaps retracted;
(ii) Landing gear retracted;
CS 25.171 General
(iii) Maximum take-off weight; and
The aeroplane must be longitudinally, directionally
and laterally stable in accordance with the provisions (iv) The maximum power or thrust
of CS 25.173 to 25.177. In addition, suitable stability selected by the applicant as an operating
and control feel (static stability) is required in any limitation for use during climb; and
condition normally encountered in service, if flight
(2) Is trimmed at the speed for best rate-
tests show it is necessary for safe operation.
of-climb except that the speed need not be less
than 1·3 VSR1.
CS 25.173 Static longitudinal stability
(b) Cruise. Static longitudinal stability must be
Under the conditions specified in CS 25.175, the
shown in the cruise condition as follows:
characteristics of the elevator control forces
(including friction) must be as follows: (1) With the landing gear retracted at high
speed, the stick force curve must have a stable
slope at all speeds within a range which is the
Amendment 5

1-B-18
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

greater of 15% of the trim speed plus the resulting greater than VLE, nor speeds that require a stick
free return speed range, or 93 km/h (50 kt) plus force of more than 222 N (50 lbf)), with –
the resulting free return speed range, above and
(i) Wing-flap, centre of gravity
below the trim speed (except that the speed range
position, and weight as specified in sub-
need not include speeds less than 1·3 VSR1 nor
paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph;
speeds greater than VFC/MFC, nor speeds that
(ii) The maximum cruising power
require a stick force of more than 222 N (50 lbf)),
selected by the applicant as an operating
with –
limitation, except that the power need not
(i) The wing-flaps retracted; exceed that required for level flight at VLE;
(ii) The centre of gravity in the and
most adverse position (see CS 25.27);
(iii) The aeroplane trimmed for level
(iii) The most critical weight flight with the power required in sub-
between the maximum take-off and paragraph (ii) above.
maximum landing weights;
(c) Approach. The stick force curve must have
(iv) The maximum cruising power a stable slope at speeds between VSW, and 1·7 VSR1
selected by the applicant as an operating with –
limitation (see CS 25.1521), except that the
power need not exceed that required at (1) Wing-flaps in the approach position;
VMO/MMO; and (2) Landing gear retracted;
(v) The aeroplane trimmed for level (3) Maximum landing weight; and
flight with the power required in sub-
paragraph (iv) above. (4) The aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR1,
with enough power to maintain level flight at this
(2) With the landing gear retracted at low speed.
speed, the stick force curve must have a stable
slope at all speeds within a range which is the (d) Landing. The stick force curve must have a
greater of 15% of the trim speed plus the resulting stable slope and the stick force may not exceed 356
free return speed range, or 93 km/h (50 kt) plus N (80 lbf) at speeds between VSW, and 1·7 VSR0 with –
the resulting free return speed range, above and (1) Wing-flaps in the landing position;
below the trim speed (except that the speed range
need not include speeds less than 1·3 VSR1 nor (2) Landing gear extended;
speeds greater than the minimum speed of the (3) Maximum landing weight;
applicable speed range prescribed in sub-
paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph, nor speeds that (4) The aeroplane trimmed at 1·3 VSR0
require a stick force of more than 222 N (50 lbf)), with –
with – (i) Power or thrust off, and
(i) Wing-flaps, centre of gravity (ii) Power or thrust for level flight.
position, and weight as specified in sub-
paragraph (1) of this paragraph;
(ii) Power required for level flight CS 25.177 Static directional and
VMO - 1·3V lateral stability
SR1
at a speed equal to ; and (a) The static directional stability (as shown by
2
the tendency to recover from a skid with the rudder
(iii) The aeroplane trimmed for level free) must be positive for any landing gear and flap
flight with the power required in sub- position and symmetrical power condition, at speeds
paragraph (ii) above. from 1·13 VSR1, up to VFE, VLE, or VFC/MFC (as
appropriate).
(3) With the landing gear extended, the
stick force curve must have a stable slope at all (b) The static lateral stability (as shown by the
speeds within a range which is the greater of 15% tendency to raise the low wing in a sideslip with the
of the trim speed plus the resulting free return aileron controls free) for any landing gear and wing-
speed range or 93 km/h (50 kt) plus the resulting flap position and symmetric power condition, may
free return speed range, above and below the trim not be negative at any airspeed (except that speeds
speed (except that the speed range need not higher than VFE need not be considered for wing-
include speeds less than 1·3 VSR1, nor speeds flaps extended configurations nor speeds higher than

Amendment 5

1-B-19
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

VLE for landing gear extended configurations) in the damped with controls free, and must be controllable
following airspeed ranges (see AMC 25.177(b)): with normal use of the primary controls without
requiring exceptional pilot skill.
(1) From 1·13 VSR1 to VMO/MMO..
(2) From VMO/MMO to VFC/MFC, unless
the divergence is – STALLS
(i) Gradual;
(ii) Easily recognisable by the pilot; CS 25.201 Stall demonstration
and
(a) Stalls must be shown in straight flight and
(iii) Easily controllable by the pilot in 30º banked turns with –
(c) In straight, steady, sideslips over the range (1) Power off; and
of sideslip angles appropriate to the operation of the
(2) The power necessary to maintain level
aeroplane, but not less than those obtained with one-
flight at 1·5 VSR1 (where VSR1 corresponds to the
half of the available rudder control input or a rudder
reference stall speed at maximum landing weight
control force of 801 N (180 lbf) , the aileron and
with flaps in the approach position and the
rudder control movements and forces must be
landing gear retracted. (See AMC 25.201(a)(2).)
substantially proportional to the angle of sideslip in a
stable sense; and the factor of proportionality must (b) In each condition required by sub-paragraph
lie between limits found necessary for safe operation (a) of this paragraph, it must be possible to meet the
This requirement must be met for the configurations applicable requirements of CS25.203 with –
and speeds specified in sub-paragraph (a) of this (1) Flaps, landing gear and deceleration
paragraph. (See AMC 25.177(c).) devices in any likely combination of positions
approved for operation; (See AMC 25.201(b)(1).)
(d) For sideslip angles greater than those
prescribed by sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph, up (2) Representative weights within the
to the angle at which full rudder control is used or a range for which certification is requested;
rudder control force of 801 N (180 lbf) is obtained,
(3) The most adverse centre of gravity for
the rudder control forces may not reverse, and
recovery; and
increased rudder deflection must be needed for
increased angles of sideslip. Compliance with this (4) The aeroplane trimmed for straight
requirement must be shown using straight, steady flight at the speed prescribed in CS 25.103 (b)(6).
sideslips, unless full lateral control input is achieved
(c) The following procedures must be used to
before reaching either full rudder control input or a
show compliance with CS 25.203 :
rudder control force of 801 N (180 lbf) ; a straight,
steady sideslip need not be maintained after (1) Starting at a speed sufficiently above
achieving full lateral control input. This requirement the stalling speed to ensure that a steady rate of
must be met at all approved landing gear and wing- speed reduction can be established, apply the
flap positions for the range of operating speeds and longitudinal control so that the speed reduction
power conditions appropriate to each landing gear does not exceed 0.5 m/s2 (one knot per second)
and wing-flap position with all engines operating. until the aeroplane is stalled. (See AMC
(See AMC 25.177(d).) 25.103(c).)
(2) In addition, for turning flight stalls,
CS 25.181 Dynamic stability apply the longitudinal control to achieve airspeed
(See AMC 25.181) deceleration rates up to 5,6 km/h (3 kt) per
second. (See AMC 25.201(c)(2).)
(a) Any short period oscillation, not including
combined lateral-directional oscillations, occurring (3) As soon as the aeroplane is stalled,
between 1·13 VSR and maximum allowable speed recover by normal recovery techniques.
appropriate to the configuration of the aeroplane
(d) The aeroplane is considered stalled when
must be heavily damped with the primary controls –
the behaviour of the aeroplane gives the pilot a clear
(1) Free; and and distinctive indication of an acceptable nature that
the aeroplane is stalled. (See AMC 25.201 (d).)
(2) In a fixed position.
Acceptable indications of a stall, occurring either
(b) Any combined lateral-directional individually or in combination, are –
oscillations (‘Dutch roll’) occurring between 1·13 VSR
(1) A nose-down pitch that cannot be
and maximum allowable speed appropriate to the
readily arrested;
configuration of the aeroplane must be positively
Amendment 5

1-B-20
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(2) Buffeting, of a magnitude and severity the stall warning prescribed in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of
that is a strong and effective deterrent to further this section, the stall warning for flight in icing
speed reduction; or conditions prescribed in paragraph (e) of this section
must be provided by the same means as the stall
(3) The pitch control reaches the aft stop
warning for flight in non-icing conditions. (See AMC
and no further increase in pitch attitude occurs
25.207(b).)
when the control is held full aft for a short time
before recovery is initiated. (See AMC (c) When the speed is reduced at rates not
25.201(d)(3).) exceeding 0.5 m/s2 (one knot per second), stall
warning must begin, in each normal configuration, at
a speed, VSW, exceeding the speed at which the stall
CS 25.203 Stall characteristics is identified in accordance with CS 25.201 (d) by not
(See AMC 25.203.) less than 9.3 km/h (five knots) or five percent CAS,
whichever is greater. Once initiated, stall warning
(a) It must be possible to produce and to correct
must continue until the angle of attack is reduced to
roll and yaw by unreversed use of aileron and rudder
approximately that at which stall warning began.
controls, up to the time the aeroplane is stalled. No
(See AMC 25.207(c) and (d)).
abnormal nose-up pitching may occur. The
longitudinal control force must be positive up to and (d) In addition to the requirement of sub-
throughout the stall. In addition, it must be possible paragraph(c) of this paragraph, when the speed is
to promptly prevent stalling and to recover from a reduced at rates not exceeding 0.5 m/s2 (one knot per
stall by normal use of the controls. second), in straight flight with engines idling and at
the centre-of-gravity position specified in CS
(b) For level wing stalls, the roll occurring
25.103(b)(5), VSW, in each normal configuration,
between the stall and the completion of the recovery
must exceed VSR by not less than 5.6 km/h (three
may not exceed approximately 20º.
knots) or three percent CAS, whichever is greater.
(c) For turning flight stalls, the action of the (See AMC 25.207(c) and (d)).
aeroplane after the stall may not be so violent or
(e) In icing conditions, the stall warning margin
extreme as to make it difficult, with normal piloting
in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to
skill, to effect a prompt recovery and to regain
allow the pilot to prevent stalling (as defined in CS
control of the aeroplane. The maximum bank angle
25.201(d)) when the pilot starts a recovery
that occurs during the recovery may not exceed –
manoeuvre not less than three seconds after the onset
(1) Approximately 60º in the original of stall warning. When demonstrating compliance
direction of the turn, or 30º in the opposite with this paragraph, the pilot must perform the
direction, for deceleration rates up to 0.5 m/s2 (1 recovery manoeuvre in the same way as for the
knot per second); and airplane in non-icing conditions. Compliance with
this requirement must be demonstrated in flight with
(2) Approximately 90º in the original
the speed reduced at rates not exceeding 0.5 m/sec2
direction of the turn, or 60º in the opposite
(one knot per second), with –
direction, for deceleration rates in excess of 0.5
m/s2 (1 knot per second). (1) The more critical of the takeoff ice and
final takeoff ice accretions defined in appendix C
for each configuration used in the takeoff phase
CS 25.207 Stall warning
of flight;
(a) Stall warning with sufficient margin to
(2) The en route ice accretion defined in
prevent inadvertent stalling with the flaps and
appendix C for the en route configuration;
landing gear in any normal position must be clear and
distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (3) The holding ice accretion defined in
appendix C for the holding configuration(s);
(b) The warning must be furnished either
through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the (4) The approach ice accretion defined in
aeroplane or by a device that will give clearly appendix C for the approach configuration(s); and
distinguishable indications under expected conditions
(5) The landing ice accretion defined in
of flight. However, a visual stall warning device that
appendix C for the landing and go-around
requires the attention of the crew within the cockpit
configuration(s).
is not acceptable by itself. If a warning device is
used, it must provide a warning in each of the (f) The stall warning margin must be sufficient
aeroplane configurations prescribed in sub-paragraph in both non-icing and icing conditions to allow the
(a) of this paragraph at the speed prescribed in sub- pilot to prevent stalling when the pilot starts a
paragraphs (c) and (d) of this paragraph. Except for recovery manoeuvre not less than one second after
Amendment 5

1-B-21
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

the onset of stall warning in slow-down turns with at [Amdt. No.:25/3]
least 1.5g load factor normal to the flight path and
airspeed deceleration rates of at least 1 m/s2 (2 knots
per second). When demonstrating compliance with GROUND HANDLING CHARACTERISTICS
this paragraph for icing conditions, the pilot must
perform the recovery manoeuvre in the same way as
CS 25.231 Longitudinal stability and
for the airplane in non-icing conditions. Compliance
control
with this requirement must be demonstrated in flight
with – (a) Aeroplanes may have no uncontrollable
tendency to nose over in any reasonably expected
(1) The flaps and landing gear in any
operating condition or when rebound occurs during
normal position;
landing or take-off. In addition –
(2) The aeroplane trimmed for straight
(1) Wheel brakes must operate smoothly
flight at a speed of 1.3 VSR; and
and may not cause any undue tendency to nose
(3) The power or thrust necessary to over; and
maintain level flight at 1.3 VSR.
(2) If a tail-wheel landing gear is used, it
(g) Stall warning must also be provided in each must be possible, during the take-off ground run
abnormal configuration of the high lift devices that is on concrete, to maintain any attitude up to thrust
likely to be used in flight following system failures line level, at 75% of VSR1.
(including all configurations covered by Aeroplane
Flight Manual procedures).
CS 25.233 Directional stability and
(h) For flight in icing conditions before the ice
control
protection system has been activated and is
performing its intended function, the following (a) There may be no uncontrollable ground-
requirements apply, with the ice accretion defined in looping tendency in 90º cross winds, up to a wind
appendix C, part II(e): velocity of 37 km/h (20 kt) or 0·2 VSR0, whichever is
greater, except that the wind velocity need not
(1) If activating the ice protection system
exceed 46 km/h (25 kt) at any speed at which the
depends on the pilot seeing a specified ice
aeroplane may be expected to be operated on the
accretion on a reference surface (not just the first
ground. This may be shown while establishing the
indication of icing), the requirements of this
90º cross component of wind velocity required by CS
section apply, except for paragraphs (c) and (d).
25.237.
(2) For other means of activating the ice
(b) Aeroplanes must be satisfactorily
protection system, the stall warning margin in
controllable, without exceptional piloting skill or
straight and turning flight must be sufficient to
alertness, in power-off landings at normal landing
allow the pilot to prevent stalling without
speed, without using brakes or engine power to
encountering any adverse flight characteristics
maintain a straight path. This may be shown during
when the speed is reduced at rates not exceeding
power-off landings made in conjunction with other
0.5 m/sec2 (one knot per second) and the pilot
tests.
performs the recovery manoeuvre in the same
way as for flight in non-icing conditions. (c) The aeroplane must have adequate
directional control during taxying. This may be
(i) If stall warning is provided by
shown during taxying prior to take-offs made in
the same means as for flight in non-icing
conjunction with other tests.
conditions, the pilot may not start the
recovery manoeuvre earlier than one second
after the onset of stall warning. CS 25.235 Taxying condition
(ii) If stall warning is provided by a The shock absorbing mechanism may not damage the
different means than for flight in non-icing structure of the aeroplane when the aeroplane is
conditions, the pilot may not start the taxied on the roughest ground that may reasonably be
recovery manoeuvre earlier than 3 seconds expected in normal operation.
after the onset of stall warning. Also,
compliance must be shown with CS 25.203
using the demonstration prescribed by CS CS 25.237 Wind velocities
25.201, except that the deceleration rates of
(a) The following applies:
CS 25.201(c)(2) need not be demonstrated.

Amendment 5

1-B-22
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

(1) A 90º cross component of wind the boundaries of the buffet onset envelopes may not
velocity, demonstrated to be safe for take-off and result in unsafe conditions. (See AMC 25.251(e).)
landing, must be established for dry runways and
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
must be at least 37 km/h (20 kt) or 0·2 VSR0,
whichever is greater, except that it need not
exceed 46 km/h (25 kt). CS 25.253 High-speed characteristics
(2) The crosswind component for takeoff (a) Speed increase and recovery
established without ice accretions is valid in icing characteristics. The following speed increase and
conditions. recovery characteristics must be met:
(3) The landing crosswind component (1) Operating conditions and character-
must be established for: istics likely to cause inadvertent speed increases
(including upsets in pitch and roll) must be
(i) Non-icing conditions, and
simulated with the aeroplane trimmed at any
(ii) Icing conditions with the likely cruise speed up to VMO/MMO. These
landing ice accretion defined in appendix C. conditions and characteristics include gust upsets,
inadvertent control movements, low stick force
[Amdt. No.:25/3]
gradient in relation to control friction, passenger
movement, levelling off from climb, and descent
from Mach to air speed limit altitudes.
MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS
(2) Allowing for pilot reaction time after
effective inherent or artificial speed warning
CS 25.251 Vibration and buffeting
occurs, it must be shown that the aeroplane can be
(a) The aeroplane must be demonstrated in recovered to a normal attitude and its speed
flight to be free from any vibration and buffeting that reduced to VMO/MMO, without –
would prevent continued safe flight in any likely
(i) Exceptional piloting strength or
operating condition.
skill;
(b) Each part of the aeroplane must be
(ii) Exceeding VD/MD, VDF/MDF, or
demonstrated in flight to be free from excessive
the structural limitations; and
vibration under any appropriate speed and power
conditions up to VDF/MDF. The maximum speeds (iii) Buffeting that would impair the
shown must be used in establishing the operating pilot’s ability to read the instruments or
limitations of the aeroplane in accordance with CS control the aeroplane for recovery.
25.1505.
(3) With the aeroplane trimmed at any
(c) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (d) of speed up to VMO/MMO, there must be no reversal
this paragraph, there may be no buffeting condition, of the response to control input about any axis at
in normal flight, including configuration changes any speed up to VDF/MDF. Any tendency to pitch,
during cruise, severe enough to interfere with the roll, or yaw must be mild and readily controllable,
control of the aeroplane, to cause excessive fatigue to using normal piloting techniques. When the
the crew, or to cause structural damage. Stall warning aeroplane is trimmed at VMO/MMO, the slope of the
buffeting within these limits is allowable. elevator control force versus speed curve need not
be stable at speeds greater than VFC/MFC, but there
(d) There may be no perceptible buffeting
must be a push force at all speeds up to VDF/MDF
condition in the cruise configuration in straight flight
and there must be no sudden or excessive
at any speed up to VMO/MMO, except that the stall
reduction of elevator control force as VDF/MDF is
warning buffeting is allowable.
reached.
(e) For an aeroplane with MD greater than 0·6
(4) Adequate roll capability to assure a
or with a maximum operating altitude greater than
prompt recovery from a lateral upset condition
7620 m (25,000 ft), the positive manoeuvring load
must be available at any speed up to VDF/MDF.
factors at which the onset of perceptible buffeting
(See AMC 25.253(a)(4).)
occurs must be determined with the aeroplane in the
cruise configuration for the ranges of airspeed or (5) Extension of speedbrakes. With the
Mach number, weight, and altitude for which the aeroplane trimmed at VMO/MMO, extension of the
aeroplane is to be certificated. The envelopes of load speedbrakes over the available range of
factor, speed, altitude, and weight must provide a movements of the pilots control, at all speeds
sufficient range of speeds and load factors for normal above VMO/MMO, but not so high that VDF/MDF
operations. Probable inadvertent excursions beyond
Amendment 5

1-B-23
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

would be exceeded during the manoeuvre, must (2) The maximum mistrim that can be
not result in: sustained by the autopilot while maintaining level
flight in the high speed cruising condition.
(i) An excessive positive load
factor when the pilot does not take action to (b) In the out-of-trim condition specified in
counteract the effects of extension; sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, when the normal
acceleration is varied from + 1 g to the positive and
(ii) Buffeting that would impair the
negative values specified in sub-paragraph (c) of this
pilot’s ability to read the instruments or
paragraph –
control the aeroplane for recovery; or
(1) The stick force vs. g curve must have
(iii) A nose-down pitching moment,
a positive slope at any speed up to and including
unless it is small. (See AMC 25.253(a)(5).)
VFC/MFC; and
(6) Reserved
(2) At speeds between VFC/MFC and
(b) Maximum speed for stability characteristics, VDF/MDF, the direction of the primary longitudinal
VFC/MFC. VFC/MFC is the maximum speed at which control force may not reverse.
the requirements of CS 25.143(g), 25.147(e),
(c) Except as provided in sub-paragraphs (d)
25.175(b)(1), 25.177(a) through (c ), and 25.181
and (e) of this paragraph compliance with the
must be met with wing-flaps and landing gear
provisions of sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph
retracted. Except as noted in CS 25.253(c), VFC/MFC
must be demonstrated in flight over the acceleration
may not be less than a speed midway between
range –
VMO/MMO and VDF/MDF, except that, for altitudes
where Mach Number is the limiting factor, MFC need (1) –1g to 2·5 g; or
not exceed the Mach Number at which effective
(2) 0 g to 2·0 g, and extrapolating by an
speed warning occurs.
acceptable method to – 1 g and 2·5 g.
(c) Maximum speed for stability characteristics
(d) If the procedure set forth in sub-paragraph
in icing conditions. The maximum speed for stability
(c)(2) of this paragraph is used to demonstrate
characteristics with the ice accretions defined in
compliance and marginal conditions exist during
Appendix C, at which the requirements of CS
flight test with regard to reversal of primary
25.143(g), 25.147(e), 25.175(b)(1), 25.177(a)
longitudinal control force, flight tests must be
through (c) and 25.181 must be met, is the lower of:
accomplished from the normal acceleration at which
(1) 556 km/h (300 knots) CAS, a marginal condition is found to exist to the
applicable limit specified in sub-paragraph (c)(1) of
(2) VFC, or
this paragraph.
(3) A speed at which it is demonstrated
(e) During flight tests required by sub-
that the airframe will be free of ice accretion due
paragraph (a) of this paragraph the limit manoeuvring
to the effects of increased dynamic pressure.
load factors prescribed in CS25.333 (b) and 25.337,
[Amdt. No.:25/3] and the manoeuvring load factors associated with
probable inadvertent excursions beyond the
boundaries of the buffet onset envelopes determined
CS 25.255 Out-of-trim characteristics
under CS 25.251 (e), need not be exceeded. In
(See AMC 25.255)
addition, the entry speeds for flight test
(a) From an initial condition with the aeroplane demonstrations at normal acceleration values less
trimmed at cruise speeds up to VMO/MMO, the than 1 g must be limited to the extent necessary to
aeroplane must have satisfactory manoeuvring accomplish a recovery without exceeding VDF/MDF.
stability and controllability with the degree of out-of-
(f) In the out-of-trim condition specified in
trim in both the aeroplane nose-up and nose-down
sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, it must be
directions, which results from the greater of –
possible from an overspeed condition at VDF/MDF, to
(1) A three-second movement of the produce at least 1·5 g for recovery by applying not
longitudinal trim system at its normal rate for the more than 556 N (125 lbf) of longitudinal control
particular flight condition with no aerodynamic force using either the primary longitudinal control
load (or an equivalent degree of trim for alone or the primary longitudinal control and the
aeroplanes that do not have a power-operated trim longitudinal trim system. If the longitudinal trim is
system), except as limited by stops in the trim used to assist in producing the required load factor, it
system, including those required by CS25.655 (b) must be shown at VDF/MDF that the longitudinal trim
for adjustable stabilisers; or can be actuated in the aeroplane nose-up direction
with the primary surface loaded to correspond to the
Amendment 5

1-B-24
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS-25 BOOK 1

least of the following aeroplane nose-up control
forces:
(1) The maximum control forces expected
in service as specified in CS 25.301 and 25.397.
(2) The control force required to produce
1·5 g.
(3) The control force corresponding to
buffeting or other phenomena of such intensity
that it is a strong deterrent to further application
of primary longitudinal control force.

Amendment 5

1-B-25
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

SUBPART C – STRUCTURE

GENERAL However, when proof of strength is shown by
dynamic tests simulating actual load conditions, the
CS 25.301 Loads
3-second limit does not apply. Static tests conducted
(a) Strength requirements are specified in terms to ultimate load must include the ultimate deflections
of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in and ultimate deformation induced by the loading.
service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by When analytical methods are used to show
prescribed factors of safety). Unless otherwise compliance with the ultimate load strength
provided, prescribed loads are limit loads. requirements, it must be shown that –
(b) Unless otherwise provided the specified air, (1) The effects of deformation are not
ground, and water loads must be placed in significant;
equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item
2) The deformations involved are fully
of mass in the aeroplane. These loads must be
accounted for in the analysis; or
distributed to conservatively approximate or closely
represent actual conditions. (See AMC No. 1 to CS (3) The methods and assumptions used
25.301(b).) Methods used to determine load are sufficient to cover the effects of these
intensities and distribution must be validated by deformations.
flight load measurement unless the methods used for
(c) Where structural flexibility is such that any
determining those loading conditions are shown to be
rate of load application likely to occur in the
reliable. (See AMC No. 2 to CS 25.301(b).)
operating conditions might produce transient stresses
(c) If deflections under load would significantly appreciably higher than those corresponding to static
change the distribution of external or internal loads, loads, the effects of this rate of application must be
this redistribution must be taken into account. considered.
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
(d) Reserved

CS 25.302 Interaction of systems and (e) The aeroplane must be designed to
structures withstand any vibration and buffeting that might
occur in any likely operating condition up to VD/MD,
For aeroplanes equipped with systems that affect
including stall and probable inadvertent excursions
structural performance, either directly or as a result
beyond the boundaries of the buffet onset envelope.
of a failure or malfunction, the influence of these
This must be shown by analysis, flight tests, or other
systems and their failure conditions must be taken
tests found necessary by the Agency.
into account when showing compliance with the
requirements of Subparts C and D. Appendix K of
(f) Unless shown to be extremely improbable,
CS-25 must be used to evaluate the structural
the aeroplane must be designed to withstand any
performance of aeroplanes equipped with these
forced structural vibration resulting from any failure,
systems.
malfunction or adverse condition in the flight control
[Amdt. No.:25/1] system. These loads must be treated in accordance
with the requirements of CS 25.302.
CS 25.303 Factor of safety [Amdt. No.:25/1]
Unless otherwise specified, a factor of safety of 1·5
must be applied to the prescribed limit load which CS 25.307 Proof of structure
are considered external loads on the structure. When (See AMC 25.307)
loading condition is prescribed in terms of ultimate
(a) Compliance with the strength and
loads, a factor of safety need not be applied unless
deformation requirements of this Subpart must be
otherwise specified.
shown for each critical loading condition. Structural
analysis may be used only if the structure conforms
CS 25.305 Strength and deformation to that for which experience has shown this method
to be reliable. In other cases, substantiating tests
(a) The structure must be able to support limit
must be made to load levels that are sufficient to
loads without detrimental permanent deformation.
verify structural behaviour up to loads specified in
At any load up to limit loads, the deformation may
CS 25.305.
not interfere with safe operation.
(b) Reserved
(b) The structure must be able to support
ultimate loads without failure for at least 3 seconds. (c) Reserved
Amendment 5

1-C-1
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

(d) When static or dynamic tests are used to show FLIGHT MANOEUVRE AND GUST CONDITIONS
compliance with the requirements of CS 25.305 (b) for
CS 25.331 Symmetric manoeuvring
flight structures, appropriate material correction factors
conditions
must be applied to the test results, unless the structure,
or part thereof, being tested has features such that a (a) Procedure. For the analysis of the
number of elements contribute to the total strength of manoeuvring flight conditions specified in sub-
the structure and the failure of one element results in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this paragraph, the
the redistribution of the load through alternate load following provisions apply:
paths.
(1) Where sudden displacement of a
[Amdt. No.:25/1] control is specified, the assumed rate of control
surface displacement may not be less than the rate
that could be applied by the pilot through the
control system.
FLIGHT LOADS
(2) In determining elevator angles and
CS 25.321 General chordwise load distribution in the manoeuvring
conditions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of this
(a) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the
paragraph, the effect of corresponding pitching
aerodynamic force component (acting normal to the
velocities must be taken into account. The in-trim
assumed longitudinal axis of the aeroplane) to the
and out-of-trim flight conditions specified in CS
weight of the aeroplane. A positive load factor is
25.255 must be considered.
one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward with
respect to the aeroplane. (b) Manoeuvring balanced conditions.
Assuming the aeroplane to be in equilibrium with
(b) Considering compressibility effects at each
zero pitching acceleration, the manoeuvring con-
speed, compliance with the flight load requirements
ditions A through I on the manoeuvring envelope in
of this Subpart must be shown –
CS 25.333 (b) must be investigated.
(1) At each critical altitude within the
(c) Manoeuvring pitching conditions. The
range of altitudes selected by the applicant;
following conditions must be investigated:
(2) At each weight from the design
(1) Maximum pitch control displacement
minimum weight to the design maximum weight
at VA. The aeroplane is assumed to be flying in
appropriate to each particular flight load
steady level flight (point A1, CS 25.333 (b)) and
condition; and
the cockpit pitch control is suddenly moved to
(3) For each required altitude and weight, obtain extreme nose up pitching acceleration. In
for any practicable distribution of disposable load defining the tail load, the response of the
within the operating limitations recorded in the aeroplane must be taken into account. Aeroplane
Aeroplane Flight Manual. loads which occur subsequent to the time when
normal acceleration at the c.g. exceeds the
(c) Enough points on and within the boundaries
positive limit manoeuvring load factor (at point
of the design envelope must be investigated to ensure
A2 in CS.333(b)), or the resulting tailplane normal
that the maximum load for each part of the aeroplane
load reaches its maximum, whichever occurs first,
structure is obtained.
need not be considered.
(d) The significant forces acting on the
(2) Checked manoeuvre between VA and
aeroplane must be placed in equilibrium in a rational
VD. Nose up checked pitching manoeuvres must
or conservative manner. The linear inertia forces
be analysed in which the positive limit load
must be considered in equilibrium with the thrust and
factor prescribed in CS 25.337 is achieved. As
all aerodynamic loads, while the angular (pitching)
a separate condition, nose down checked
inertia forces must be considered in equilibrium with
pitching manoeuvres must be analysed in which
thrust and all aerodynamic moments, including
a limit load factor of 0 is achieved. In defining
moments due to loads on components such as tail
the aeroplane loads the cockpit pitch control
surfaces and nacelles. Critical thrust values in the
motions described in sub-paragraphs (i), (ii),
range from zero to maximum continuous thrust must
(iii) and (iv) of this paragraph must be used:
be considered.
(i) The aeroplane is assumed to be
flying in steady level flight at any speed
between VA and VD and the cockpit pitch
control is moved in accordance with the
following formula:
Amendment 5

1-C-2
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

(t) = 1 sin(!t) for 0 " t " tmax cockpit pitch control motion does not
achieve the prescribed limit load factors
where: then the following cockpit pitch control
1 = the maximum available motion must be used:
displacement of the cockpit pitch (t) = sin(!t) for 0 " t " t1
1
control in the initial direction, as
limited by the control system (t) = 1 for t1 " t " t2
stops, control surface stops, or by (t) = sin(![t + t1 - t2]) for t2 " t " tmax
1
pilot effort in accordance with
CS 25.397(b); where:
(t) = the displacement of the cockpit t1 = #/2!
pitch control as a function of t2 = t1 + %t
time. In the initial direction (t)
is limited to 1. In the reverse tmax = t2 + #/!;
direction, (t) may be truncated %t = the minimum period of time
at the maximum available necessary to allow the
displacement of the cockpit pitch prescribed limit load factor to
control as limited by the control be achieved in the initial
system stops, control surface direction, but it need not
stops, or by pilot effort in exceed five seconds (see
accordance with CS 25.397(b); figure below).
tmax = 3#/2!;
1
! = the circular frequency Cockpit Control
(radians/second) of the control deflection
deflection taken equal to the %t tmax time
undamped natural frequency of
the short period rigid mode of the t1 t2
aeroplane, with active control
system effects included where
appropriate; but not less than: & 1

#V
!$ (iv) In cases where the cockpit pitch
2V A radians per second; control motion may be affected by inputs
from systems (for example, by a stick
where:
pusher that can operate at high load factor
V = the speed of the aeroplane at as well as at 1g) then the effects of those
entry to the manoeuvre. systems must be taken into account.
VA = the design manoeuvring (v) Aeroplane loads that occur
speed prescribed in beyond the following times need not be
CS 25.335(c) considered:
(ii) For nose-up pitching (A) For the nose-up pitching
manoeuvres the complete cockpit pitch manoeuvre, the time at which the
control displacement history may be normal acceleration at the c.g. goes
scaled down in amplitude to the extent below 0g;
just necessary to ensure that the positive
(B) For the nose-down
limit load factor prescribed in CS 25.337
pitching manoeuvre, the time at
is not exceeded. For nose-down pitching
which the normal acceleration at the
manoeuvres the complete cockpit control
c.g. goes above the positive limit
displacement history may be scaled down
load factor prescribed in CS 25.337;
in amplitude to the extent just necessary
to ensure that the normal acceleration at (C) tmax.
the c.g. does not go below 0g.
(iii) In addition, for cases where the
aeroplane response to the specified
Amendment 5

1-C-3
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

CS 25.333 Flight manoeuvring
envelope
(a) General. The strength requirements must be
met at each combination of airspeed and load factor
on and within the boundaries of the representative
manoeuvring envelope (V-n diagram) of sub-
paragraph (b) of this paragraph. This envelope must
also be used in determining the aeroplane structural
operating limitations as specified in CS 25.1501.

(b) Manoeuvring envelope

CS 25.335 Design airspeeds (3) At altitudes where VD is limited by
Mach number, VC may be limited to a selected
The selected design airspeeds are equivalent
Mach number. (See CS 25.1505.)
airspeeds (EAS). Estimated values of VS0 and VS1
must be conservative. (b) Design dive speed, VD. VD must be
selected so that VC/MC is not greater than 0·8 VD/MD,
(a) Design cruising speed, VC. For VC, the
or so that the minimum speed margin between VC/MC
following apply:
and VD/MD is the greater of the following values:
(1) The minimum value of VC must be
(1) From an initial condition of stabilised
sufficiently greater than VB to provide for
flight at VC/MC, the aeroplane is upset, flown for
inadvertent speed increases likely to occur as a
20 seconds along a flight path 7·5º below the
result of severe atmospheric turbulence.
initial path, and then pulled up at a load factor of
(2) Except as provided in sub-paragraph 1·5 g (0·5 g acceleration increment). The speed
25.335(d)(2), VC may not be less than VB + 1·32 increase occurring in this manoeuvre may be
Uref (with Uref as specified in sub-paragraph calculated if reliable or conservative aerodynamic
25.341(a)(5)(i). However, VC need not exceed the data issued. Power as specified in CS 25.175
maximum speed in level flight at maximum (b)(1)(iv) is assumed until the pullup is initiated,
continuous power for the corresponding altitude. at which time power reduction and the use of pilot
controlled drag devices may be assumed;
Amendment 5

1-C-4
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

(2) The minimum speed margin must be 2w
enough to provide for atmospheric variations =
! cag
(such as horizontal gusts, and penetration of jet
streams and cold fronts) and for instrument errors ! = density of air (slugs/ft3);
and airframe production variations. These factors
may be considered on a probability basis. The c = mean geometric chord of the wing
margin at altitude where MC is limited by (feet);
compressibility effects must not be less than g = acceleration due to gravity (ft/sec2);
0.07M unless a lower margin is determined using
a rational analysis that includes the effects of any a = slope of the aeroplane normal force
automatic systems. In any case, the margin may coefficient curve, CNA per radian;
not be reduced to less than 0.05M. (See AMC (2) At altitudes where Vc is limited by
25.335(b)(2)) Mach number –
(c) Design manoeuvring speed, VA. For VA, (i) VB may be chosen to provide an
the following apply: optimum margin between low and high
(1) VA may not be less than VS1 n where speed buffet boundaries; and,
– (ii) VB need not be greater than VC.
(i) n is the limit positive (e) Design wing-flap speeds, VF. For VF, the
manoeuvring load factor at VC; and following apply:
(ii) VS1 is the stalling speed with (1) The design wing-flap speed for each
wing-flaps retracted. wing-flap position (established in accordance with
(2) VA and VS must be evaluated at the CS 25.697 (a)) must be sufficiently greater than
design weight and altitude under consideration. the operating speed recommended for the
corresponding stage of flight (including balked
(3) VA need not be more than VC or the landings) to allow for probable variations in
speed at which the positive CNmax curve intersects control of airspeed and for transition from one
the positive manoeuvre load factor line, whichever wing-flap position to another.
is less.
(2) If an automatic wing-flap positioning or
(d) Design speed for maximum gust intensity, load limiting device is used, the speeds and
VB. corresponding wing-flap positions programmed or
(1) VB may not be less than allowed by the device may be used.

1 (3) VF may not be less than –
, K g U ref Vc a ) 2
Vs1 *1 - ' (i) 1·6 VS1 with the wing-flaps in
*+ 498w '(
take-off position at maximum take-off
where – weight;
(ii) 1·8 VS1 with the wing-flaps in
Vsl = the 1-g stalling speed based on CNAmax
with the flaps retracted at the particular weight under approach position at maximum landing
consideration; weight; and
(iii) 1·8 VS0 with the wing-flaps in
CNAmax = the maximum aeroplane normal force
coefficient; landing position at maximum landing
weight.
Vc = design cruise speed (knots equivalent
airspeed); (f) Design drag device speeds, VDD. The
selected design speed for each drag device must be
Uref = the reference gust velocity (feet per sufficiently greater than the speed recommended for
second equivalent airspeed) from CS 25.341(a)(5)(i); the operation of the device to allow for probable
w = average wing loading (pounds per variations in speed control. For drag devices
square foot) at the particular weight intended for use in high speed descents, VDD may not
under consideration. be less than VD. When an automatic drag device
positioning or load limiting means is used, the speeds
.88µ and corresponding drag device positions programmed
Kg =
5.3 - µ or allowed by the automatic means must be used for
design.

Amendment 5

1-C-5
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

CS 25.337 Limit manoeuvring load H = the gust gradient which is the distance
factors (metre) parallel to the aeroplane’s flight
(See AMC 25.337) path for the gust to reach its peak
velocity.
(a) Except where limited by maximum (static)
lift coefficients, the aeroplane is assumed to be (3) A sufficient number of gust gradient
subjected to symmetrical manoeuvres resulting in the distances in the range 9 m (30 feet) to 107 m (350
limit manoeuvring load factors prescribed in this feet) must be investigated to find the critical
paragraph. Pitching velocities appropriate to the response for each load quantity.
corresponding pull-up and steady turn manoeuvres
(4) The design gust velocity must be:
must be taken into account.
(b) The positive limit manoeuvring load factor U ds $ U ref Fg H 4 350
5 1
6

‘n’ for any speed up to VD may not be less than 2·1 +
where –
. 24 000 1
0 3 except that ‘n’ may not be less than
/ W +10 000 2 Uref = the reference gust velocity in equivalent
2·5 and need not be greater than 3·8 – where ‘W’ is airspeed defined in sub-paragraph (a)(5)
the design maximum take-off weight (lb). of this paragraph;
Fg = the flight profile alleviation factor
(c) The negative limit manoeuvring load factor defined in sub-paragraph (a)(6) of this
– paragraph.
(1) May not be less than –1·0 at speeds up
to VC; and (5) The following reference gust
velocities apply:
(2) Must vary linearly with speed from
the value at VC to zero at VD. (i) At aeroplane speeds between VB
and VC: Positive and negative gusts with
(d) Manoeuvring load factors lower than those reference gust velocities of 17.07 m/s (56.0
specified in this paragraph may be used if the ft/s) EAS must be considered at sea level.
aeroplane has design features that make it impossible The reference gust velocity may be reduced
to exceed these values in flight. linearly from 17.07 m/s (56.0 ft/s) EAS at
sea level to 13.41 m/s (44.0 ft/s) EAS at
4572 m (15 000 ft). The reference gust
CS 25.341 Gust and turbulence loads velocity may be further reduced linearly
(See AMC 25.341) from 13.41 m/s (44.0 ft/s) EAS at 4572 m
(a) Discrete Gust Design Criteria. The (15 000 ft) to 6.36 m/s (20.86 ft/sec) EAS at
aeroplane is assumed to be subjected to symmetrical 18288 m (60 000 ft).
vertical and lateral gusts in level flight. Limit gust (ii) At the aeroplane design speed
loads must be determined in accordance with the VD: The reference gust velocity must be
following provisions: 0·5 times the value obtained under CS
(1) Loads on each part of the structure 25.341(a)(5)(i).
must be determined by dynamic analysis. The (6) The flight profile alleviation factor,
analysis must take into account unsteady Fg, must be increased linearly from the sea level
aerodynamic characteristics and all significant value to a value of 1.0 at the maximum operating
structural degrees of freedom including rigid body altitude defined in CS 25.1527. At sea level, the
motions. flight profile alleviation factor is determined by
(2) The shape of the gust must be taken as the following equation.
follows:
Fg = 0·5 (Fgz + Fgm)
U ds , . # s 1)
U= *1 & cos0 3' for 0 " s " 2H where –
2 + / H 2(
U = 0 for s > 2H Zmo ; Zmo
Fgz $ 1 & (Fgz $ 1 & )
where – 76200 250 000
s = distance penetrated into the gust (metre
. 1
); Fgm= R 2 Tan 00 # R 1 33 ;
Uds = the design gust velocity in equivalent / 42

airspeed specified in sub-paragraph (a) (4) Maximum Landing Weight
R1 = ;
of this paragraph; Maximum Take - off Weight

Amendment 5

1-C-6
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

Maximum Zero Fuel Weight
R2 = ;
Maximum Take - off Weight Where:
Zmo maximum operating altitude (metres (feet)) = reduced frequency, rad/ft; and
defined in CS 25.1527. L = scale of turbulence = 2,500 ft.

(3) The limit turbulence intensities, U&, in
(7) When a stability augmentation system
is included in the analysis, the effect of any m/s (ft/s) true airspeed required for compliance
with this paragraph are:
significant system non-linearities should be
accounted for when deriving limit loads from (i) At aeroplane speeds between VB and
limit gust conditions. VC:
(b) Continuous Turbulence Design Criteria. The U& = U&ref Fg
dynamic response of the aeroplane to vertical and Where:
lateral continuous turbulence must be taken into U&ref is the reference turbulence intensity
account. The dynamic analysis must take into that varies linearly with altitude from 27.43
account unsteady aerodynamic characteristics and all m/s (90 ft/s) (TAS) at sea level to 24.08 m/s
significant structural degrees of freedom including (79 ft/s) (TAS) at 7315 m (24000 ft) and is
rigid body motions. The limit loads must be then constant at 24.08 m/s (79 ft/s) (TAS)
determined for all critical altitudes, weights, and up to the altitude of 18288 m (60000 ft); and
Fg is the flight profile alleviation factor
weight distributions as specified in CS 25.321(b),
and all critical speeds within the ranges indicated in defined in subparagraph (a)(6) of this
subparagraph (b)(3). paragraph;

(ii) At speed VD: U& is equal to 1/2 the
(1) Except as provided in subparagraphs
(b)(4) and (b)(5) of this paragraph, the following values obtained under subparagraph (3)(i) of
equation must be used: this paragraph.

(iii) At speeds between VC and VD: U&
PL = PL-1g 6 U7 A
is equal to a value obtained by linear
interpolation.
Where:
PL = limit load;
(iv) At all speeds both positive and
PL-1g = steady 1-g load for the condition; negative incremental loads due to
A = ratio of root-mean-square incremental load continuous turbulence must be considered.
for the condition to root-mean-square turbulence
velocity; and (4) When an automatic system affecting the
U7 = limit turbulence intensity in true airspeed, dynamic response of the aeroplane is included in
specified in subparagraph (b)(3) of this the analysis, the effects of system non-linearities
paragraph. on loads at the limit load level must be taken into
account in a realistic or conservative manner.
(2) Values of A must be determined
according to the following formula: (5) If necessary for the assessment of loads
on aeroplanes with significant non-linearities, it
; must be assumed that the turbulence field has a
A$ : H(8) 9 I (8)d8
2
root-mean-square velocity equal to 40 percent of
0 the U& values specified in subparagraph (3). The
Where: value of limit load is that load with the same
H(8) = the frequency response function, probability of exceedance in the turbulence field
determined by dynamic analysis, that relates the as A U& of the same load quantity in a linear
loads in the aircraft structure to the atmospheric approximated model.
turbulence; and
9 I( ) = normalised power spectral density of (c) Supplementary gust conditions for wing
atmospheric turbulence given by: mounted engines. For aeroplanes equipped with
wing mounted engines, the engine mounts, pylons,
and wing supporting structure must be designed for
8 2
")
1$" (1.339 L the maximum response at the nacelle centre of
L 3 gravity derived from the following dynamic gust
! I ( )" #"
%" [1$"(1.339 L 2
11
") ] 6
conditions applied to the aeroplane:

Amendment 5

1-C-7
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

(1) A discrete gust determined in (3) The flutter, deformation, and vibration
accordance with CS 25.341(a) at each angle requirements must also be met with zero fuel.
normal to the flight path, and separately,
[Amdt. No.:25/1]
(2) A pair of discrete gusts, one vertical and
one lateral. The length of each of these gusts CS 25.345 High lift devices
must be independently tuned to the maximum
response in accordance with CS 25.341(a). The (a) If wing-flaps are to be used during take-off,
penetration of the aeroplane in the combined gust approach, or landing, at the design flap speeds
field and the phasing of the vertical and lateral established for these stages of flight under CS
component gusts must be established to develop 25.335 (e) and with the wing-flaps in the
the maximum response to the gust pair. In the corresponding positions, the aeroplane is assumed to
absence of a more rational analysis, the following be subjected to symmetrical manoeuvres and gusts.
formula must be used for each of the maximum The resulting limit loads must correspond to the
engine loads in all six degrees of freedom: conditions determined as follows:
(1) Manoeuvring to a positive limit load
PL = PL-1g ' 0.85 ( (LVi2+LLi2) factor of 2·0; and

Where: (2) Positive and negative gusts of
PL = limit load; 7.62 m/sec (25 ft/sec) EAS acting normal to the
PL-1g = steady 1-g load for the condition; flight path in level flight. Gust loads resulting on
LV = peak incremental response load due to a each part of the structure must be determined by
vertical gust according to CS 25.341(a); and rational analysis. The analysis must take into
LL = peak incremental response load due to a account the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics
lateral gust according to CS 25.341(a). and rigid body motions of the aircraft. (See AMC
25.345(a).) The shape of the gust must be as
[Amdt. No.:25/1] described in CS 25.341(a)(2) except that –
Uds = 7.62 m/sec (25 ft/sec) EAS;
CS 25.343 Design fuel and oil loads H = 12.5 c; and
(a) The disposable load combinations must c = mean geometric chord of the wing (metres
include each fuel and oil load in the range from zero (feet)).
fuel and oil to the selected maximum fuel and oil (b) The aeroplane must be designed for the
load. A structural reserve fuel condition, not conditions prescribed in sub-paragraph (a) of this
exceeding 45 minutes of fuel under operating paragraph except that the aeroplane load factor need
conditions in CS 25.1001 (f), may be selected. not exceed 1·0, taking into account, as separate
(b) If a structural reserve fuel condition is conditions, the effects of –
selected, it must be used as the minimum fuel weight (1) Propeller slipstream corresponding to
condition for showing compliance with the flight maximum continuous power at the design flap
load requirements as prescribed in this Subpart. In speeds VF, and with take-off power at not less
addition – than 1·4 times the stalling speed for the particular
(1) The structure must be designed for a flap position and associated maximum weight; and
condition of zero fuel and oil in the wing at limit (2) A head-on gust of 7.62m/sec (25 fps)
loads corresponding to – velocity (EAS).
(i) A manoeuvring load factor of (c) If flaps or other high lift devices are to be
+2·25; and used in en-route conditions, and with flaps in the
(ii) The gust and turbulence appropriate position at speeds up to the flap design
conditions of CS 25.341, but assuming 85% speed chosen for these conditions, the aeroplane is
of the gust velocities prescribed in CS assumed to be subjected to symmetrical manoeuvres
25.341(a)(4) and 85% of the turbulence and gusts within the range determined by –
intensities prescribed in CS 25.341(b)(3). (1) Manoeuvring to a positive limit load
(2) Fatigue evaluation of the structure factor as prescribed in CS 25.337 (b); and
must account for any increase in operating (2) The vertical gust and turbulence
stresses resulting from the design condition of conditions prescribed in CS 25.341. (See AMC
sub-paragraph (b) (1) of this paragraph; and 25.345(c).)

Amendment 5

1-C-8
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

(d) The aeroplane must be designed for a CS 25.351 Yaw manoeuvre conditions
manoeuvring load factor of 1.5 g at the maximum
The aeroplane must be designed for loads resulting
take-off weight with the wing-flaps and similar high
from the yaw manoeuvre conditions specified in sub-
lift devices in the landing configurations.
paragraphs (a) through (d) of this paragraph at speeds
[Amdt. No.:25/1] from VMC to VD. Unbalanced aerodynamic moments
about the centre of gravity must be reacted in a
rational or conservative manner considering the
CS 25.349 Rolling conditions
aeroplane inertia forces. In computing the tail loads
The aeroplane must be designed for loads resulting the yawing velocity may be assumed to be zero.
from the rolling conditions specified in sub-
(a) With the aeroplane in unaccelerated flight at
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph. Unbalanced
zero yaw, it is assumed that the cockpit rudder
aerodynamic moments about the centre of gravity
control is suddenly displaced to achieve the resulting
must be reacted in a rational or conservative manner,
rudder deflection, as limited by:
considering the principal masses furnishing the
reacting inertia forces. (1) the control system or control surface
stops; or
(a) Manoeuvring. The following conditions,
speeds, and aileron deflections (except as the (2) a limit pilot force of 1335 N (300 lbf)
deflections may be limited by pilot effort) must be from VMC to VA and 890 N (200 lbf) from VC/MC
considered in combination with an aeroplane load to VD/MD, with a linear variation between VA and
factor of zero and of two-thirds of the positive VC/MC.
manoeuvring factor used in design. In determining
(b) With the cockpit rudder control deflected so
the required aileron deflections, the torsional
as always to maintain the maximum rudder deflection
flexibility of the wing must be considered in
available within the limitations specified in sub-
accordance with CS 25.301 (b):
paragraph (a) of this paragraph, it is assumed that the
(1) Conditions corresponding to steady aeroplane yaws to the overswing sideslip angle.
rolling velocities must be investigated. In
(c) With the aeroplane yawed to the static
addition, conditions corresponding to maximum
equilibrium sideslip angle, it is assumed that the
angular acceleration must be investigated for
cockpit rudder control is held so as to achieve the
aeroplanes with engines or other weight
maximum rudder deflection available within the
concentrations outboard of the fuselage. For the
limitations specified in sub-paragraph (a) of this
angular acceleration conditions, zero rolling
paragraph.
velocity may be assumed in the absence of a
rational time history investigation of the (d) With the aeroplane yawed to the static
manoeuvre. equilibrium sideslip angle of sub-paragraph (c) of
this paragraph, it is assumed that the cockpit rudder
(2) At VA, a sudden deflection of the
control is suddenly returned to neutral.
aileron to the stop is assumed.
(3) At VC, the aileron deflection must be
SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS
that required to produce a rate of roll not less than
that obtained in sub-paragraph (a) (2) of this
paragraph.
CS 25.361 Engine and APU torque
(4) At VD, the aileron deflection must be
(a) Each engine mount and its supporting
that required to produce a rate of roll not less than
structures must be designed for engine torque effects
one-third of that in sub-paragraph (a) (2) of this
combined with –
paragraph.
(1) A limit engine torque corresponding
(b) Unsymmetrical gusts. The aeroplane is to take-off power and propeller speed acting
assumed to be subjected to unsymmetrical vertical simultaneously with 75% of the limit loads from
gusts in level flight. The resulting limit loads must flight condition A of CS 25.333 (b);
be determined from either the wing maximum airload
derived directly from CS 25.341(a), or the wing (2) A limit engine torque as specified in
maximum airload derived indirectly from the vertical sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph acting
load factor calculated from CS 25.341(a). It must be simultaneously with the limit loads from flight
assumed that 100 percent of the wing airload acts on condition A of CS 25.333 (b); and
one side of the aeroplane and 80 percent of the wing (3) For turbo-propeller installations, in
airload acts on the other side. addition to the conditions specified in sub-
Amendment 5

1-C-9
Annex to ED Decision 2008/006/R

CS–25 BOOK 1

paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this paragraph, a (c) If landings may be made with the
limit engine torque corresponding to take-off compartment pressurised, landing loads must be
power and propeller speed, multiplied by a factor combined with pressure differential loads from zero
accounting for propeller control system up to the maximum allowed during landing.
malfunction, including quick feathering, acting
(d) The aeroplane structure must be strong
simultaneously with 1 g level flight loads. In the
enough to withstand the pressure differential loads
absence of a rational analysis, a factor of 1·6 must
corresponding to the maximum relief valve setting
be used.
multiplied by a factor of 1·33, omitting other loads.
(b) For turbine engines and auxiliary power unit
(e) Any structure, component or part, inside or
installations, the limit torque load imposed by sudden
outside a pressurised compartment, the failure of
stoppage due to malfunction or structural failure
which could interfere with continued safe flight and
(such as a compressor jamming) must be considered
landing, must be designed to withstand the effects of
in the design of engine and auxiliary power unit
a sudden release of pressure through an opening in
mounts and supporting structure. In the absence of
any compartment at any operating altitude resulting
better information a sudden stoppage must be
from each of the following conditions:
assumed to occur in 3 seconds.
(1) The penetration of the compartment by
(c) The limit engine torque to be considered
a portion of an engine following an engine
under sub-paragraph (a) (2) of this paragraph is
disintegration.
obtained by multiplying the mean torque by a factor
of 1·25 for turbo-propeller installations. (2) Any opening in any pressurised
compartment up to the size Ho in square feet;
(d) When applying CS 25.361 (a) to turbo-jet
however, small compartments may be combined
engines, the limit engine torque must be equal to
with an adjacent pressurised compartment and
the maximum accelerating torque for the case
both considered as a single compartment for
considered. (See AMC 25.301 (b).)
openings that cannot reasonably be expected to be
confined to the small compartment. The size Ho
CS 25.363 Side load on engine and must be computed by the following formula:
auxiliary power unit
Ho = PAs
mounts
where,
(a) Each engine and auxiliary power unit mount
Ho = maximum opening in square feet, need
and its supporting structure must be designed for a
not exceed 20 square feet.
limit load factor in a lateral direction, for the side
As
load on the engine and auxiliary power unit mount, at P = + )024
least equal to the maximum load factor obtained in 6240
the yawing conditions but not less than – As = maximum cross sectional area of the
pressurised shell normal to the longitudinal axis,
(1) 1·33; or in square feet; and
(2) One-third of the limit load factor for (3) The maximum opening caused by
flight condition A as prescribed in CS 25.333 (b). aeroplane or equipment failures not shown to be
extremely improbable. (See AMC 25.365 (e).)
(b) The side load prescribed in sub-paragraph
(a) of this paragraph may be assumed to be (f) In complying with sub-paragraph (e) of this
independent of other flight conditions. paragraph, the fail-safe features of the design may be
considered in determining the probability of failure
or penetration and probable size of openings,
CS 25.365 Pressurised compartment provided that possible improper operation of closure
loads devices and inadvertent door openings are also
For aeroplanes with one or more pressurised considered. Furthermore, the resulting differential
compartments the following apply: pressure loads must be combined in a rational and
conservative manner with 1 g level flight loads and
(a) The aeroplane structure must be strong any loads arising from emergency depressurisation
enough to withstand the flight loads combined with conditions. These loads may be considered as
pressure differential loads from zero up to the ultimate conditions; however, any deformation
maximum relief valve setting. associated with these conditions must not interfere
(b) The external pressure distribution in flight, with continued safe flight and landing. The pressure
and stress concentrations and fatigue effects must be relief provided by the intercompartment venting may
accounted for. also be considered.
Amendment 5

1-C-10