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KENYA STANDARD DKS 2230:2010

ICS ……....

Soap Noodles — Specification

©KEBS 2010 ……………. Edition 2010


DKS 2230:2010

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE REPRESENTATION

The following organizations were represented on the Technical Committee:

The following organizations were represented on the Technical Committee:

PZ Cussons EA
Unilever Kenya
Orbit Chemicals
Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute
Government Chemist’s Department
University of Nairobi
Consumer Information Network
Kapa Oil Refineries
MEP Chemicals
Bidco Oil Refineries
Kenya Bureau of Standards — Secretariat

REVISION OF KENYA STANDARDS


In order to keep abreast of progress in industry, Kenya Standards shall be regularly reviewed. Suggestions
for improvements to published standards, addressed to the Managing Director, Kenya Bureau of Standar ,
are welcome.

© Kenya Bureau of Standards, 2010

Copyright. Users are rem inded that by virtue of Sectio 25 of the Copyright Act, Cap. 12 of 2001 of the Laws of Kenya, copyright
subsists in all Kenya Standards and except as provided under Section 26 of this Act, no Kenya Standard produced by Kenya Bureau of
Standards may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing
from the Managing Director.

ii © KEBS 2010 — All rights reserved


KENYA STANDARD DKS 2230: 2010
ICS ………….

Soap Noodles — Specification

K E N Y A B U R E A U O F S T A N D A R D S (K E B S )
Head Office: P.O. Box 54974, Nairobi-00200, Tel.: (+254 020) 605490, 602350, Fax: (+254 020) 604031
E-Mail: info@kebs.org, Web:http://www.kebs.org

Coast Region Lake Region Rift Valley Region


P.O. Box 99376, Mombasa-80100 P.O. Box 2949, Kisumu-40100 P.O. Box 2138, Nakuru-20100
Tel.: (+254 041) 229563, 230939/40 Tel.: (+254 057) 23549, 22396 Tel.: (+254 051) 210553, 210555
Fax: (+254 041) 229448 Fax: (+254 057) 21814

Foreword
© KEBS 2010 — All rights reserved iii
DKS 2230:2010

Foreword
This Kenya Standard was developed by the Technical Committee on Soaps and Detergents under the
supervision of the standards project committee, and is in accordance with the procedures of the Bureau.

When soap is made from conventional raw materials, the saponification of the oil is a relatively simple step
and is often combined with the subsequent steps of fin ing to a marketable product. The finishing step
converts the saponified mass, that is, sodium salt of y acids to a form which is ready for consumer use, by
suitable processing like milling, plodding, e.t.c. aft r the incorporation of adjuncts like colour, optical
brighteners, perfumes, etc.

With the need for using non-conventional oils due to shortage of traditional soap king oils and also for the
subsequent gylcerine recovery, the soap making process has become involving and capital intensive.
Therefore, there is a trend to carry out the capital intensive glycerine recovery peration in one plant and
market the intermediate saponified mass for finishing to soap of consumer acceptability to a different
establishment.

Soap noodles contain sodium salt of fatty acids comprising chiefly C-18 unsaturated and saturated acids with
added preservatives and necessary electrolytes, built or unbuilt and in a form which is not suitable for direct
domestic use

During the preparation of this standard, reference was made to the following document:

IS 10513:1983: Specification for Sodium Oleostearate, technical (Soap Noodles) Specification

Acknowledgement is hereby made for assistance derived om this source.

iv © KEBS 2010 — All rights reserved


KENYA STANDARD DKS 2230: 2010

Soap Noodles – Specification


1. Scope

This Kenya Standard specifies requirements for soap noodles used as an intermediate ct for
subsequent conversion into a marketable soap.

2 Normative references

This Kenya Standard incorporates by dated and undated erence, provisions from other publications.
These normative references are cited at the appropriate place in the text and the publications are listed
hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments or revisions of any of these publications apply
to this Kenya Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the
latest edition of the publication referred to applies.

KS 45; Methods for analysis of soaps

3 Types

Soap noodles are an unfinished soap. They can be class fied into the following 3 types:

a) Type 1 – for toilet soaps,


b) Type 2 – For pure laundry soaps, and
c) Type 3 – For built soaps.

4 Requirements

4.1 Ingredients – All the ingredients used shall be non-injurious to health and the optical
brightening agents, if used, shall be biologically safe.

4.2 The material shall be the form of chips or powder or flakes.

4.3 Odour and Lathering Properties – The material shall not have any disagreeable odour and shall
possess good lathering and cleaning properties.

4.4 Type 1 soap noodles shall be white to off white in colour while type 2 shall be ivory or cream white in
colour.

4.5 The material shall also comply with the requirements given in Table 1.
Table 1: Requirements for Soap Noodles

SL CHARACTERISTIC REQUIREMENT TEST


NO. Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 METHOD
i) Total fatty matter, % by KS 45 Clause
mass , Min 79.0 67.0 45.0 10
ii) Free caustic alkali as 0.04 0.1 0.2 KS 45 Clause
sodium hydroxide 5
(NaOH), % by Mass, max
iii) Matter insoluble in 1.0 1.5 20.0 KS 45 Clause
alcohol, % by mass, Max 4
iii) Matter insoluble in 1.0 1.5 20.0 KS 45 Clause
alcohol, % by mass, Max 4
iv) Titre of total fatty acids, 37 33 33 KS 45 Clause
0
C, min 21
v) Chlorides (as sodium 0.5 0.5 1.0 KS 45 Clause
chloride) % by mass, Max 8
vi) Nickel content (as Ni), 0.2 - - Annex A
parts per million, Max
vii) Iron (as Fe) content, parts 30 - - Annex B
per million, Max
viii) Copper (as Cu) content, 3 - - Annex C
parts per million, max

© KEBS 2010 — All rights reserved 1


DKS 2230: 2010

5. Packing and marking

5.1 Packing

The material shall be packed in suitable containers to avoid contamination or damage during transportation.

5.2 Marking

The packages shall be securely closed and marked with the following particulars:

a) Name of the manufacturer


b) Name of material and type
c) Batch number or lot number in code or otherwise; and
d) Date of manufacture
e) Country of origin

2 © KEBS 2010 — All rights reserved


DKS 2230: 2010
ANNEX A

DETERMINATION OF NICKEL

A OUTLINE OF THE METHOD


The method is based on the isolation of metal from the soap and reaction between nickel in the oxidized form
with dimethyl glyoxime forming a red colour, the intensity of which is proportional to the amount of nickel
present in the sample.

A.1 APPARATUS

A.1.1 UV Spectrophotometer

A.2 REAGENTS

A.2.1 Sodium Hydroxide – solid

A.2.2 Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid

A.2.3 Dimethyl Glyoxime Solution – 0.1 percent (v/v) in 95 percent ethyl alcohol

A.2.4 Saturated Bromine Water

A.2.5 Standard Nickel Sulphate Solution – containing 1000µg of nickel (Ni) per ml.

A.2.6 Liquor Ammonia – Relative density 0.9

A.3 PROCEDURE

A.3.1 Isolation of Metals from Sodium Oleostearate – weigh 50g of the sample in a beaker and dissolve
in hot water. Add to this soap solution 40ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid, stir and keep on steam bath
until fatty acid layer separates. Add 20g of paraffin wax; stir at intervals, and allow it to settle until phases
are clear. Cool to room temperature.

A.3.1.1 Remove wax cake with rod; rinse with water; add rinsing to aqueous phase. Evaporate
aqueous phase to about 60ml by gentle boiling. Add 10 of water and filter through paper washed
previously with hydrochloric acid. Evaporate the filter and washings to about 60ml. Cool and transfer to
volumetric flask. Make up the volume to about 100ml. Take aliquot portions for metal estimation.

A.3.2 Determination of Nickel Content – Take 50ml aliquot of the aqueous solution from the test solution
in a 250ml breaker. Evaporate the solution to about 1 y heating. Transfer the solution to a 50ml glass
stopped volumetric flask using a small quantity of water for rinsing the solution from the beaker into the
volumetric flask. Add to the flask 3ml of saturated bromine water and allow to stand for one minute. Add
liquor ammonia drop-wise until excess bromine is destroyed as indicated by the disappearance of brown
colour. Then add 5ml of liquor ammonia in excess. If a precipitation occurs, filter the solution and wash the
precipitate with water, combine the filtrate and the washings and concentrate to a volume of a few millilitre
and transfer to a 50ml volumetric flask. Add 10ml of dimethyl glyoxime solution followed by 15-20ml of 95
percent ethyl alcohol. Mix thoroughly and make up the volume and again mix thoroughly. Allow the solution
to stand for 5 minutes to permit full development of colour and take the absorption/transmittance reading at
445nm.

Prepare and conduct blank determination simultaneously and similar in all respects. The transmittance of
the black should be 98±1 percent. Determine the nicke content of the sample by reference to a
concentration transmittance graph prepared as follows.

A.3.3 Preparation of Concentration Transmittance Graph -


Weigh accurately 2.2617g of nickel sulphate (99 percent NiSO4.6H2O) and dissolve in distilled water in a
500ml volumetric flask. Add 30ml of concreted hydrochloric acid and bring to volume. This solution contains
1000µg of nickel per ml. Make appropriate dilutions of this solution and process this as in sample above.
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© KEBS 2010 — All rights reserved
DKS 2230: 2010
The dilutions should cover a range 0-100µg. Finally plot a curve relating transmittance to micrograms of
nickel.

A.3.4 Calculation

Nickel content, parts per million =


Where M1 = micrograms of nickel present in sample
M2 = micrograms of nickel present in black, and
m = mass in gram of the sample taken for the test

4 © KEBS 2010 — All rights reserved


DKS 2230: 2010
ANNEX B

DETERMINATION OF IRON

B OUTLINE OF THE METHOD

The method is based on the isolation of metal from the soap by dissolving in hot water. The aqueous extract
is treated with citric acid to sequester aluminium and thioglycolic acid in ammoniacal solution is added
and colour measured spectrophotometrically

B.1. APPARATUS

B-1.1 Spectrphotomotmeter

B.2. REAGENTS

B .2.1 Liquor Ammonia – Relative density 0.9

B.2.2 Dilute Sulphuric Acid – 50 percent (v/v)

B.2.3 Citric Acid (Aqueous Solution)-50 percent (v/v)

B.2.4 Thioglycolic Acid (Aqueous Solution)

B.2.5 Standard Iron Solution –Containing 10µg of iron per ml prepared from ferric ammonium sulphate
(Fe2(SO4)3.(NH4) 2 SO4,12H2O) in acid solution.

B.2.6 Methyl Red Indicator -0.1 percent aqueous solution.

B.3. PROCEDURE

B.3.1 Isolation of Metals from Sodium Oleostearate – Weigh 50 g of the sample in a beaker and dissolve
it with hot water. To this soap solution add 40ml of centrated hydrochloric acid with constant stirring and
keep the beaker on steam bath until fatty acid layer separates. Ad 20g of paraffin wax to this solution while
hot. Stir the solutions at intervals and allow it to settle until phases are clear. Cool the mass to oom
temperature. Remove the wax cake with rod, rinse with water and add the rinsing to the aqueous phase.

Evaporate the aqueous phase to about 60ml by gentle boiling. Add 100 ml of water and filter through paper
washed previously with hydrochloric acid. Evaporate the filtrate and washings to about 60ml. Cool the
transfer the solution to a volumetric flask and make up the volume to 100ml. Take aliquot portion of the
solution for metal estimation.

B.3.2 Determination of Iron - Take 5 ml aliquot of the aqueous solution from the test solution in a 25ml
volumetric flask. To this add 4ml citric acid solution in 25-ml volumetric flask. To this add 4ml citric acid
solution and 0.02 ml methyl red indicator and liquor ammonia till the colour of the solution of the solution
turns yellow. Then add 3 ml liquor ammonia in excess. Cool the solution and add 3 ml thioglycolic acid.
Make up the volume to 25ml and mix the solution thoroughly. Filter the solution through acid washed and
dried filter paper. Measure absorbance of the clear solution at 540 nm in the spectrophotometer using water
as reference. Prepare a calibration curve with standard iron solution and determine the iron content of the
soap sample from it.

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© KEBS 2010 — All rights reserved
DKS 2230: 2010

ANNEX C

DETERMINATION OF COPPER

OUTLINE OF THE METHOD

The method is based on the isolation of metal from the soap and to make a copper complex using zinc
dibenzyl dithiocarbamate in carbon tetrachloride solution and measure the colour of the solution
spectrophotometrically.

C.1. APPARATUS

C.1.1 Spectrophotometer

C.2. REAGENT

C.2.1 Zinc Dibenzyl Dithiocarbamate solution-0.05 percent in carbon tetrachloride.

C.2.2 Standard Copper Solution –Containing 1µg of copper oer ml (prepared from a stock solution of 100
times the concentration).

C-3.PROCEDURE
C-3.1 Isolation of Metal from Sodium Oleostearate-Weigh 50g of the sample in a beaker and dissolve it
with hot water. To this soap solution add 40ml of con entrated hydrochloric acid with constant stirring and
keep the beaker on steam bath until fatty acid layer s ates. Add 20g of paraffin wax to this solution while
hot. Stir the solution at intervals and allow it to settle until phases are clear. Cool the mass to room
temperature. Remove the wax cake with rod, rinse with water and add the rinsing to the aqueous phase.
Evaporate the aqueous phase to about 60 ml by gentle boiling. Add 1 0 ml of water and filter through paper
washed previously with hydrochloric acid. Evaporate t filtrate and washing to about 60ml. Cool and
transfer the solution to a volumetric flask and make up the volume to 100ml. Take aliquot portion of the
solution for metal estimation.

C-3.2 Determination of Copper –Take 20ml aliquot of the aqueous solution and to it add 10ml of zinc
dibenzyl dithiocarbamate solution followed by 25ml of ulphuric acid in a separating funnel. Shake the
solution for one minute and allow it to settle. Run t e lower carbon tetrachloride layer into 25-ml volumetric
flask. Wash the aqueous layer with carbon tetrachloride and transfer through glass wool to volumetric flask.
Make up the volume and mix well. Measure absorption of the clear solution at 435 nm in the
spectrophotometer. Prepare a calibration curve with standard copper solution and determine the copper
content of the soap sample from the curve.

NOTE: - The standard solution shall also be extracted with carbon tetrachlori efore estimation of colour.

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