Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010

Table of Contents
Introduction to types of Stress and Strain: ............................................................................................... 2 Stress....................................................................................................................................................... 2 Normal Stress: ..................................................................................................................................... 2 Longitudinal Stress:.............................................................................................................................. 2 Volume Stress (or) Bulk Stress:............................................................................................................. 3 Shearing Stress : .................................................................................................................................. 3 Strain ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Longitudinal Strain: .............................................................................................................................. 4 Volume Strain: ..................................................................................................................................... 4 Shearing Strain: ................................................................................................................................... 4 Stress Strain Relationship ........................................................................................................................ 5 Introduction to stress strain relationship: ............................................................................................ 5 The Explanation of Stress Strain Relationship Graph: ........................................................................... 6 Law about Stress Strain Relationship:................................................................................................... 7 Stress-strain Curve................................................................................................................................... 7 Introduction to stress-strain curve: ...................................................................................................... 7 Explanation about Stress- Strain Curve................................................................................................. 8 Features of Stress Strain Curve............................................................................................................. 9 Hooke's law ............................................................................................................................................. 9 Experimental verification of Hooke's law ........................................................................................... 10 Modulus of Elasticity ............................................................................................................................. 11 Explanation to Modulus of Elasticity .................................................................................................. 11 Modulus of Elasticity: Young's Modulus ............................................................................................. 11 Modulus of Elasticity: Bulk Modulus................................................................................................... 12 Modulus of Elasticity: Rigidity Modulus ( )......................................................................................... 13 Stress - Strain Relationship in a wire ...................................................................................................... 14 References: ........................................................................................................................................... 15

The University of Faisalabad

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the stress and strain analysis provides an important insight on the behavior of solids.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Introduction to types of Stress and Strain: In the mechanics of solids. but the molecules are compelled to change their positions. Deforming Force: External forces acting on a body bring about a change in its state or configuration. Elasticity: The property of the material of a body by virtue of which. the body regains its original length. Stress Different types of stress: Stress is of two different types mainly (i) Normal Stress (ii) Shearing or Tangential Stress. Plasticity: The property where bodies do not show a tendency to recover their original form after deforming forces are removed is called plasticity. is called elasticity. In this article we shall deal with types of stress and strain and try and understand them a bit better. Stress is always normal in the case of a change in length or a wire or in the case of change in volume of a body Longitudinal Stress:When a normal stress change the length of a body then it is called longitudinal stress which is given by The University of Faisalabad Page 2 . set up inside a body is called stress. The latter is possible when the body is not free to move. where F is the deforming force acting on an area A of the Its unit: N m-2 in SI system and dyne cm-2 in CGS system. . Stress = Restoring force / area = body. Dimensional formula is [ = ML-1 T-2. The restoring force per unit area. Such forces are called deforming forces. it is called normal stress. It is measured by the magnitude of the deforming force acting on unit area of the body. volume and shape after the deforming forces have been removed. Normal Stress: If the stress is normal to the surface.

the body is under the action of a pressure P. When a solid body is immersed in a fluid. it will be under compression.e. then the stress is called tangential or shearing stress. Bulk Stress = = Pressure Shearing Stress : When the Stress is tangential to the surface due to the application of forces parallel to the surface. It changes the shape of the body. The pillars of a building experience compressive stress.. to its original dimensions is called strain. The stress in such a case is called compressive stress. Shearing Stress = Force / Surface Area = F / A Strain Normal stress on a body causes change in length or volume and tangential stress produces change in shape of the body. When a rod is pushed at the two ends by equal and opposite forces. Volume Stress (or) Bulk Stress: When a normal stress changes the volume of a body then it is called volume stress. The ratio of change produced in the dimensions of a body by a system of forces or couples. the stress is called tensile stress. Strain is of three types depending upon the change produced in a body and the stress applied.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Longitudinal Stress = Deforming Force / Area of cross section = The longitudinal stress can be further divided into two types. The three types of strain are (i) Longitudinal strain (ii) Volume strain and (iii) Shearing strain The University of Faisalabad Page 3 . When a wire or a rod is stretched at the two ends by equal and opposite forces. the force at any point is normal to the surface of the body and the magnitude of the force on any small area is proportional to the area i. in equilibrium.

The University of Faisalabad Page 4 . If L is the original length of a wire or a rod and the final length of the wire or the rod is L + e under the action of a normal stress. Shearing Strain:If is the angle through which a face originally perpendicular to the fixed face is turned. Volume Strain: It is the ratio of the change in volume of a body to its original volume. (Or) It is the ratio of the displacement of a layer to its distance from the fixed layer. the corresponding strain is called tensile strain. the strain is called compressive strain. If the length decreases due to compressive stress. the change in volume is v. If V is the original volume of a body and v + v is the volume of the body under the action of a normal stress. the change in length is e. Longitudinal Strain = Change in length / Original length = e / L If the length increases due to tensile stress.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Longitudinal Strain: It is the ratio of the change in length of a body to the original length of the body.

At the free end. The University of Faisalabad Page 5 .strain graph is plotted as shown in figure. Stress Strain Relationship Introduction to stress strain relationship: Let a wire be suspended from a rigid support. it has no units and dimensions. This graph gives the relationship between stress and strain.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 As strain is a ratio. a weight hanger is provided on which weights could be added to study the behavior of the wire is suitably measured and a stress .

the graph is not linear. This point Q is called the yield point. (ii) Beyond P. The stress corresponding to S is called breaking stress. if we start decreasing the load. From Q. Up to P.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 The Explanation of Stress Strain Relationship Graph: (i) In the figure the region OP is linear. Therefore Sis called the breaking point. strain is proportional to the applied stress. PO represents the elastic range of the material and OB is the elastic strength. The University of Faisalabad Page 6 . In the region PQ the material is partly elastic and partly plastic.Thus a permanent strain OA is caused in the wire this is called permanent set. when the load is removed the wire regains its original length along PO. This region QR is the plastic range. Within a normal stress. This is Hooke's law. (iii) Beyond Q addition of even a small load causes enormous strain.The point P represents the elastic limit. the wire loses its shape and becomes thinner and thinner in diameter and ultimately breaks sat at S. the graph does not come to O via P. but traces a straight line QA. (iv) Beyond R.

It is denoted by symbol and its S.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Law about Stress Strain Relationship: Hooke's law gives a relationship between the stress and strain. strain produced in a body is directly proportional to the stress produced. Mathematically we can obtain stress in a body as Stress= Force/ Area The University of Faisalabad Page 7 .I. According to Hooke's law. Its unit is Nm-2. Stress strain A constant. within the elastic limit. This internal opposing force per unit area is called 'stress'. unit is Pascal or Newton/metre2. known as modulus of elasticity. Stress-strain Curve Introduction to stress-strain curve: Stress: When some external forces are applied to a body. then the body offers internal resistance to these forces.

elongation. 3. i. 2. Point A:At origin. Point C & D: Beyond the point B. This straight line region is known as Elastic Region and the material can regain its original shape after removal of load. It is a dimensionless quantity and it is denoted as in symbol. That's why the point A is also known as proportional limit. derived from measuring the deformation of the sample. derived from measuring the load applied on the sample. the stress±strain curve is a graphical representation of the relationship between stress.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Strain: It is defined as the change in length per unit original length. there is no initial stress or strain in the test piece. Point B: The portion of the curve between AB is not a straight line and Strain increases faster than stress at all points on the curve beyond point A. It can be calculated as Strain = Change in Length/Original Length Explanation about Stress. Point B is the point after which any continuous stress results in permanent. Thus. 1. The strain may be tensile or compressive depending upon whether the length increases or decreases. Up to point A Hooke's Law is obeyed according to which Stress is directly proportional to Strain. compression. The nature of the curve varies from material to material. If we begin from origin and follows the graph a number of points are indicated. and strain. or distortion. The University of Faisalabad Page 8 . At point D the workpiece changes its length with a little or without any increase in stress up to point E. point B is known as the elastic limit or yield point. the material goes to the plastic stage till the point C is reached.e.Strain Curve During testing of a material sample. At this point the cross. or inelastic deformation.sectional area of the material starts decreasing and the stress decreases to point D.

Features for Brittle Material:Materials which show very small or negligible elongation before they fracture are called brittle materials for e. He termed this limit as the elastic limit. In brittle material stress strain curve the plastic region is small and the strength is high. concrete etc. does not occur until point F. Materials for which Hooke's law is a useful approximation are known as linear-elastic or "Hookean" materials. until point F is reached. the extension produced in the wire was directly proportional to the load applied. 5. or the actual tearing of the material. From point E onwards. In case of ductility the material obeys the Hooke¶s Law and takes time for fracture. Features for Ductile Material:The capacity of being drawn out plastically (permanently) before fracture is called the ductility of the material. Ductile and Brittle. only up to a limit. PointE: Point E indicates the location of the value of the ultimate stress.g.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 4. The relation is often denoted The work done to stretch a wire or the Elastic Potential Energy is equal to the area of the triangle on a Tension/Extension graph. The point of fracture.e. Point F: A material is considered to have completely failed once it reaches the ultimate stress. In ductile material stress strain curve the plastic region is long and material will bear more strain before Fracture. the strength of the material increases and requires more stress for deformation. The portion DE is called the yielding of the material at constant stress. but can also be expressed as Experimental study by Hooke revealed that elastic bodies regain their original configuration completely. The University of Faisalabad Page 9 . They get fractured in two or more parts without any prior notice. Cast Iron. He found that within the elastic limit. Tool steel. The point F is also called Ultimate Point or Fracture Point. Features of Stress Strain Curve Features of Stress Strain Curve vary for different types of materials i. Hooke's law Definition: Hooke's law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the Force (load) is in direct proportion with the extension of a material as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit.

The University of Faisalabad Page 10 . one gets a straight line as shown below. The weights are loaded one by one and unloaded one by one to bring the spring to its elastic mode. Some more weights are added and the readings are noted once again.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 i.e. Weights are then added in the pan and reading of pointer on the scale is noted. The procedure is repeated for other weights. the graph verifies the Hooke's law. On plotting a graph between the load and extension. The difference between the two gives the extension in the spring due to the weights added in the pan. Stress a strain Stress = E strain Where E is constant and is called modulus of elasticity of the material of the body. Experimental verification of Hooke's law The apparatus is set as shown above. Thus.

corresponding to longitudinal strain. Stress is the total force applied on the object to which it is deformed divided by the area of deformation. its stress is directly proportional to strain within the elastic limit´. This proportionality constant is called the modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus. The unit for modulus of elasticity is expressed as pounds (force) per square inches and it is denoted as 'psi'. The stress has units of pressure. (ii) Bulk modulus. We also denote units for modulus of elasticity as Mega Pascal (MPa or N/mm2) or Gigapascal (GPa or KN/mm2). Let L be the natural length or original length of a wire or a rod of area of cross section a suspended from a rigid support. corresponding to volume strain and (iii) Rigidity modulus. corresponding to shearing strain. Strain is defined as the change in deformation to the original state of the object. with in proportionality limit. The proportionality constant is given by the ratio of stress is to strain. Modulus of Elasticity: Young's Modulus It is defined as the ratio of longitudinal stress to longitudinal strain. Hence the modulus of elasticity has units of pressure.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Modulus of Elasticity Modulus of elasticity is defined as the tendency of an object or a substance to be deformed elastically when an applied force acts on it. Explanation to Modulus of Elasticity The property of elasticity is relevant in materials which obey Hooke's law. Modulus of elasticity is the ratio of stress to strain in the elastic deformation region. The University of Faisalabad Page 11 . (i) Young's modulus. The SI unit of modulus of elasticity usually denoted as 'E' is represented by Pascal and is denoted as 'Pa' or 'N/m2. there are three moduli of elasticity. The unit of strain is dimensionless. Its length increases by e when a force F is applied at the other end as shown in the figure. Hook's law state that ³When an applied force acts on an object. Introduction to modulus of elasticity: Corresponding to the three types of strain.

F. Steel is more elastic than rubber as the magnitude of stress to produce a given strain is much larger in steel than in rubber. When the volume V of a body changes by V under the action of a pressure P. Liquids and gases do not possess Young's modulus. The University of Faisalabad Page 12 . Only solids can have Young's modulus. Modulus of Elasticity: Bulk Modulus It is defined as the ratio of volume stress to volume strain within proportionality limit.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Longitudinal stress = Longitudinal strain = Young's modulus Y = Longitudinal stress / Longitudinal strain Y= Y= = Young's modulus of a perfect rigid body is infinity as e = 0 for any applied force.

Consider a cube of side L as shown in the above figure. Modulus of Elasticity: Rigidity Modulus ( ) It is defined as the ratio of the shearing stress to the shearing strain of the body. (i) Isothermal elasticity corresponding to the isothermal change and (ii) Adiabatic elasticity corresponding to the adiabatic change. compressibility is zero. Shearing stress = Shearing strain = Rigidity modulus = = ) = Shearing stress / Shearing strain = The University of Faisalabad Page 13 . Volume strain = V/V Bulk modulus K = Volume stress / Volume strain = K= The minus sign is taken as pressure increases the volume of the body decreases. with in proportionality limit. liquids and gases possess bulk modulus. Solids. When a force F is applied on its face AHGB of area a fixing its lower face CDEI. The reciprocal of bulk modulus is called compressibility.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Volume stress = P. A rigid body and a perfect liquid are incompressible i.e. It is also known as shear modulus or torsion modulus.the bulk modulus is then given by K=-[ P/ V] V. Gases possess two types of bulk modulus of elasticity corresponding to the two types of change.. Generally V is taken as the change in volume when the pressure changes by P. the faces perpendicular to the fixed face are displaced by l.

Beyond A. strain is not zero or a permanent deformation sets in the material. the stress .Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 Rigidity modulus is also called shear modulus or torsional modulus. The University of Faisalabad Page 14 .Strain Relationship in a wire AO = Elastic Range P = Yield point OD| = Breaking stress or tensile stress E = Breaking point OO1= Permanent set When the stress-strain relationship in a wire is studied. Solids along possess rigidity modulus. The point 'A' is called the elastic limit and AO is called the elastic range. the behavior of the wire is very erratic. The Hooke's law is valid up till A. Stress .strain graph is a curve and that for a small stress. BO| is followed when stress is zero. Liquids and gases do not possess rigidity modulus. Beyond 'P'. The material beyond A and up to 'P' is partly elastic and partly plastic in behavior. Therefore. graph between stress and strain does not follow AO. There is a large increase in the strain but a very small change in the stress. large strain is produced in the material. OO| represents the permanent set. one finds that stress is directly proportional to the strain up to the point A (see the graph). Notice that beyond 'A'. if the stress is removed.

com/physics/modulus-of-elasticity http://www. Materials used to make sheets or wires must have a longer plastic region and must be ductile.com/physics/types-of-stress-and-strain http://www. Brittle substances generally have a small plastic region and the breaking stress lies closer to the elastic limit. the wire flows down up to the point C.tutorvista.com/physics/stress-strain-relationship http://www. The region PC is called the plastic region. References: http://www. Even if the wire is loaded by a little amount. The stress corresponding to the breaking point is called the breaking stress. is called the yield point.com/content/physics/physics-iii/solids-and-fluids/hookes-law. Beyond C.com/physics/stress-strain-curve http://www. The above graph is useful in classifying materials which serve different purposes.tutorvista. the graph has a hump at D.tutorvista.Muhammad Asif Idrees 2010 At this stage.tutorvista.com/physics/modulus-of-elasticity-of-steel The University of Faisalabad Page 15 .tutorvista. when the wire yields to the applied stress and begins to flow. the wire becomes thin at weak portions of the wire and tends to break at E. The point 'P'.tutorvista.php http://www.

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