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Biomass Gasification by the use of Rice Husk Gasifier

Arjyadhara Pradhan1, S. M Ali2 & Ritesh Dash3


1&2
School of Electrical Engineering , KIIT University
3
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, ABIT, Cuttack

Abstract – Gasification is a process that converts organic or waste streams. The largest source of energy from wood
fossil based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, is pulping liquor or “black liquor,” a waste product from
hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The process of producing processes of the pulp, paper and paperboard industry.
energy using the gasification method has been in use for Waste energy is the second-largest source of biomass
more than 180 years. During that time coal and peat were
energy. The main contributors of waste
used to power these plants. Initially developed to produce
town gas for lighting & cooking in 1800s, this was replaced energy are municipal solid waste (MSW),
by electricity and natural gas, it was also used in blast manufacturing waste, and landfill gas. Biomass alcohol
furnaces but the bigger role was played in the production of fuel, or ethanol, is derived primarily
synthetic chemicals where it has been in use since the from sugarcane and corn. It can be used directly as a
1920s.In this article mainly Biomass Gasification process fuel or as an additive to gasoline. Biomass can be
and a case study of Rice husk Gasifier using Biomass converted to other usable forms of energy like methane
Gasification is studies. gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel.
Keywords – Gasification, gasozene, syngas, pyrolysis ,
devolatilasation, Fischer-Tropsch. III. GASIFICATION OF CHARCOAL
1. The dehydration or drying process occurs at around
I. INTRODUCTION 100°C. Typically the resulting steam is mixed into
the gas flow and may be involved with subsequent
In order to save energy, reduce pollution, extensive chemical reactions, notably the water-gas reaction if
use local rich biomass resources, Rice husk gasification the temperature is sufficiently high enough.
power generation technology, converting biomass to
green electricity. Power plant will not discharge 2. The pyrolysis (or devolatilization) process occurs at
pollution due to adopt biomass as fuel materials. around 200-300°C. Volatiles are released and char
Biomass resource achieve high efficiency utilization is produced, resulting in up to 70% weight loss for
.Gasification process is achieved by reacting the coal. The process is dependent on the properties of
material at high temperatures (>700°C), without the carbonaceous material and determines the
combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or structure and composition of the char, which will
steam. The resulting gas mixture is called syngas (from then undergo gasification reactions.
synthesis gas or synthetic gas) or producer gas and is
3. The combustion process occurs as the volatile
itself a fuel. The power derived from gasification of
products and some of the char reacts with oxygen to
biomass and combustion of the resultant gas is
primarily form carbon dioxide and small amounts
considered to be a source of renewable energy; the
of carbon monoxide, which provides heat for the
gasification of fossil fuel derived materials such as
subsequent gasification reactions. Letting C
plastic is not considered to be renewable energy.
represent a carbon-containing organic compound,
the basic reaction here is
II. BIOMASS
4. The gasification process occurs as the char reacts
Biomass is carbon, hydrogen and oxygen based. with carbon and steam to produce carbon monoxide
Biomass energy is derived from five distinct energy and hydrogen, via the reaction
sources: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases,
and alcohol fuels. Wood energy is derived both from 5. In addition, the reversible gas phase water gas shift
direct use of harvested wood as a fuel and from wood reaction reaches equilibrium very fast at the

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Special Issue of International Journal on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (IJACTE)

temperatures in a gasifier. This balances the VII. STRUCTURE OF RICE HUSK GASIFIER SYSTEM
concentrations of carbon monoxide, steam, carbon
The gasification system includes:
dioxide and hydrogen.
1. Feeder
IV. ADVANTAGES OF GASIFICATION
2. Circulation fluidized bed gasifier
The advantage of gasification is that using the
3. Cyclone separator
syngas is potentially more efficient than direct
combustion of the original fuel because it can be 4. Air pre heater
combusted at higher temperatures or even in fuel cells,
5. Blower
so that the thermodynamic upper limit to the efficiency
defined by Carnot's rule is higher or not applicable. 6. Induced draft fan
Syngas may be burned directly in gas engines, used to
produce methanol and hydrogen, or converted via the 7. Ash device
Fischer-Tropsch process into synthetic fuel. Gasification 8. Automatic controlling device
can also begin with material which would otherwise
have been disposed of such as biodegradable waste. In VIII. TECHNOLOGY ROUTE
addition, the high-temperature process refines out
corrosive ash elements such as chloride and potassium, The Technology Route adopt combination of
allowing clean gas production from otherwise circulation fluidized bed gasification furnace and
problematicfuels. internal combustion engine to achieve utilization of rice
husk resource. Meanwhile, according to clients demand,
surplus heat boiler will be used for collect the surplus
heat of fuel gas and exhaust gas from generator,
finishing comprehensive utilization of energy.

IX. PROCESS

As shown, the gasifier is a small unit with 40-cm


diameter reactor equipped with 3-in., 220-volt electric
blower to provide the air needed in gasifying rice husks
to produce carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2)
gases. Rice husk is fed at the top end of the reactor
either manually using a ladder or with the use of a
bucket elevator. On the other hand, char is removed
from beneath the char box using a screw conveyor. The
gas coming out of the reactor is conditioned by allowing
Fig : Shows various zone of Gasifier it to pass through the gas-cleaning devices which
consisted of wet scrubbers, tar condenser, and a series of
V. TYPES OF GASIFIER packed and bag filters. The gas is fueled to a 3-cylinder,
12-valve surplus Susuki engine which directly drive a
 counter-current fixed bed
10-kWe AC synchronous generator at a speed of 1,800
 co-current fixed bed rpm producing 220 volt current. A total of 160 pieces of
 fluidized bed 50-watt bulbs can be energized by the plant for 8 to 10
hours continuous operation. The plant consumes rice
 entrained flow husks at an average rate of 19 kg per hour. The gas
 plasma temperature coming out of the reactor ranges from 400
to 550°C. It dropped between 50 to 70°C after passing
 free radical the wet scrubbers, and further cooled down between 35
to 42°C before entering the intake manifold of the
VI. RICE HUSK GASIFIER engine. Gas flow rate is at 24 Nm3 per hour. The engine
Rice husk will be main fuel material of Rice husk is entirely fueled by the gas generated, except at the
gasifier power generation plants, the analysis of rice start-up and at the end of the operation. Furthermore, a
husk is given as an example. parasitic load of 15% of the power output is needed to
run the plant itself.

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XII. A 2MW RICE HUSK GASIFICATION POWER


GENERATION PROJECT
PICS 12.1 Brief Introduction of Project
In order to save energy, reduce pollution, extensive
use local rich biomass resources, circulation fluidized
bed gasification power generation technology,
converting biomass to green electricity. Power plant will
not discharge pollution due to adopt biomass as fuel
materials. Biomass resource achieve high efficiency
utilization In order to best using rice husk resource, we
intent to collocate one set of 2mw circulation fluidized
bed biomass gasification furnace, 2set purification
system 5set fuel gas genset engine for this project to
supply heat, electricity. Gasification furnace gasified
biomass into fuel gas, which access to purification
system for removing dust, tar and other impurity.

12.2 Technology Route


The Technology Route adopt combination of
Fig : Shows rice husk gasifier
circulation fluidized bed gasification furnace and
internal combustion engine to achieve utilization of rice
X. ADVANTAGE OF RICE HUSK GASIFIER SYSTEM husk resource. Meanwhile, according to clients demand,
surplus heat boiler will be used for collect the surplus
The advantage features of the gasifier system are: heat of fuel gas and exhaust gas from generator,
(1) It makes use of available wastes in rural areas to finishing comprehensive utilization of energy. The
fuel engines that usually drive Generators. figure is below: F1 2MW Diagram of Circulation
fluidized bed gasification power generation, gas supply
(2) The tar problem which is common among system
conventional rice husk gasifier systems is
eliminated in this gasifier technology.
(3) Operation can be done continuously without the
need to restart the reactor;
(4) It can easily be adopted with surplus spark-ignition
engine that is readily available in the locality.
(5) The technology can be locally produced making use
of available fabrication resources and skills.
(6) It can be scaled up to meet the power demand of a
certain community or application.
(7) Investment and operation costs are at the reach of
the local community.

XI. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS


Rice husk belong to renewable clean energy.
Environment protection and clean biomass energy is
sole renewable energy that can be converted to clean
fuel materials. Hazardous Substances from
straw(S&Ash ) content is 90% less than bituminous
coal. The emission and absorption of Carbon compose
12.3 Gasification reaction of rice husk
carbon circulation in nature, achieving CO2 Zero
emission. Practice has proved that biomass energy play Rice husk access to circulation fluidized bed
a notable role in reducing CO2 emission. gasification furnace through Feeder. Under high-

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Special Issue of International Journal on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (IJACTE)

temperature, recycling and heating materials, rice husk XV. REFERENCES


in gasifier meet air accessing from bottom so that
[1] National Non-Food Crops Centre. "Review of
hydrogenation & gasification reaction occurred, and rice Technologies for Gasification of Biomass and
husk converted into fuel gas. The element of fuel gas: Wastes, NNFCC 09-008", Retrieved on 2011-06-24
CO、H2、CH4 etc. Calorific value: 1450kcal/ m3
[2] The Clean and Renewable Energy Source,
approximately. Moreover, including a little tar. Through
www.biomass.uk.com, accessed 16.05.11
innovated fuel gas purification technology, dust, tar
included in fuel gas is effectively treated and collect to [3] Thermal Gasification of Biomass, International Energy
completely achieve the demand of internal combustion. Agency Task 33, www.gastechnology.org, accessed
16.05.11
XIII. CONCLUSION [4] Clean Renewable Fuel from the Plasma Gasification of
Waste, www.waste-management-world.com, Accessed
With the increasing industrialization and rapid 16.05.2011
population growth non renewable fuels are rapidly [5] Gas Generator Project History of the Gasogene
getting consumed, which may lead to risk of energy technology
shortage in the future, but a definite solution to it is the
[6] Beychok, M.R., Process and environmental technology
use of renewable source. Biomass is conversion of waste
for producing SNG and liquid fuels, U.S. EPA report
to energy. India being a major agricultural country rice EPA-660/2-75-011, May 1975
husk gasifiers produce a change in the energy scenario
of the country. [7] Beychok, M.R., Coal gasification for clean energy,
Energy Pipelines and Systems, March 1974
XIV. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT [8] Beychok, M.R., Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan
process, American Chemical Society 168th National
We would like to thank School of Electrical Meeting, Atlantic City, September 1974.
Engineering, KIIT University for providing necessary
experimental platform for research and analysis for the
completion of the paper.

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