You are on page 1of 32
 

Teaching The Strokes to

Developmental Swimmers

   
 

Very basic skills and progressions for coaches of novice swimmers.

Guy Edson American Swimming Coaches Association.

 

Freestyle

   
 

What to look for

Establish Alignment And Balance And A Stabilizing Kick At The Beginning Of Every Swim/Drill

Head in line with spine Head steady Recovery not affecting alignment No splash entry Length of stroke acceleration Rolling to breathe Steady kick, good alignment

 

Freestyle Essential Skills

   

Kicking from lots of quality kicking Body position and alignment from side glide Steady head from side glide, snorkel, no breath swimming Rolling to breathe from side glide, one arm free High elbows on recovery zipper drill No splash entry partner coaching Anchoring the hands in water fingers down

 

Freestyle Keywords

   
 

Splash equals slow; Reach Roll Breathe; Fingers down, Elbow up, S-l-o-w quick, Thumb your thigh, Touch turn breathe, Elbow high, Fingertips first

 

Styles of Freestyle

   
 

On the next four slides are examples of two basic styles of freestyle

Oppositional arms Front quadrant

Which is best? Which do you teach?

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

Brooke Bennett Distance Swimmer, Oppositional Arms
Brooke Bennett Distance Swimmer,
Oppositional Arms

1

Scott Tucker Sprinter Oppositional Arms Thanks to Glenn Mills at Go Swim
Scott Tucker Sprinter
Oppositional Arms
Thanks to
Glenn
Mills at
Go Swim
Scott Tucker From Glenn Mills at Go Swim
Scott Tucker
From Glenn Mills at Go Swim
Erik Vendt Distance Swimmer, Front Quadrant From Glenn Mills at Go Swim
Erik Vendt Distance Swimmer,
Front Quadrant
From Glenn Mills at Go Swim
 

Building Freestyle

   
 

Build freestyle on a foundation of:

Kicking

Streamlining

Alignment

Reducing resistance is more important than increasing propulsion.

The kick, while it is propulsive, serves primarily to stabilize and align the body

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Good Age Group Freestyle

47

 
 
Good Age Group Freestyle 47 Progressions? 49 Is there a best progression for any of
 
 

Progressions?

49

 
 

Is there a best progression for any of the strokes? NO.

Is there a straight line progression for any of the strokes? NO. Sometimes we build the strokes from several directions at once. Free and back must have great kicking start there. Breast and fly need correct timing start there. In some cases there are clearly some things that need to be done before others. DON T RUSH. Do the basic fundamentals

better than basically

.

2

In general we build the strokes from body position (alignment and stabilization) to whole

stroke.

 

50

 
 

For Free and Back

  • 1. Body Position posture, line and balance

  • 2. Kick with correct body position

  • 3. Arm Action proper extension, catch or anchoring, exit, recovery, and entry

  • 4. Timing rhythm and coordination

  • 5. Breathing when to breathe, how to breath

For Breast order is:

1/2, 4/5, 2, 3.

For Fly order is:

4, 3, 1, 5, 2

 
 

Types of Kicking

52

 
 

Kicking with a board

With hands holding board near the top and head up

Changes body position but this is about the legs more than alignment. Plus you get to talk to them.

With hands holding board at the bottom and with head in the water

Closer to proper body position

Kicking without a board is best for working on body position, alignment, streamlining

 

Freestyle Progression

   
 

Practice the posture and movements on the deck before each drill. Repeat key words.

Kicking strength, with board Streamlining Streamlining with kicking, no board Streamlining, one arm pull to sideglide Sideglide Sideglide with switching Three strokes to sideglide, repeat Perfect Full stroke without breathing, then add breathing

Basic Fundamental Kicking w/Board Key words: Toes pointed Fast feet Boil the water 3 by 3
Basic Fundamental Kicking w/Board
Key words:
Toes pointed
Fast feet
Boil the water
3 by 3 s
To the cone
Catch-up
Chase backs
All very fast
Finis Streamline Board
Finis Streamline Board

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Learning to Streamline

   
 

Novice Streamlining

Shape shifting

Shape shifting

on deck with help on deck oyo

on deck with help

on deck oyo

Shape shifting standing in the water

Holding the shape into a streamline kick

3

Novice Streamlining After Expert Coaching
Novice Streamlining After Expert
Coaching
Unacceptable Streamlining 57 Hands not stacked one on top of other; arms not straight; space between
Unacceptable Streamlining
57
Hands
not
stacked
one on
top of
other;
arms not
straight;
space
between
arms and
head;
head too
high.
Streamlining Poor steamlining Better Steamlining Shape Shifting Looking for Head below the arms
Streamlining
Poor steamlining
Better Steamlining
Shape Shifting
Looking for Head
below the arms
Streamlining Key Words Head below the arms Arms straight Arms locked No space between the ears
Streamlining Key Words
Head below the arms
Arms straight
Arms locked
No space between the ears and arms.
Hide the head.
Look Down
Chin on your chest
Streamlining Why Streamlining is so difficult Why streamlining is so important Why the ability to swim/kick
Streamlining
Why Streamlining is so difficult
Why streamlining is so important
Why the ability to swim/kick underwater is important
School for Coaches of Novice
Swimmers
 

After Learning Streamlining

61

 
 

(not that the swimmer has truly mastered it ) Learn to sideglide The sequence off the wall is:

Streamline Kick Pull one stroke to side touch, roll, breathe.

Ear is attached to leading arm on the breath Cheek is attached to leading arm on the streamlined sideglide no space between head and arm

4

Basic Side-glide But notice separation between head and arm.
Basic Side-glide
But notice
separation
between
head and
arm.
Sideglide Kick Key Point: Establish streamlining and kicking first stabilize the body. THEN begin the drill.
Sideglide Kick
Key Point: Establish streamlining and kicking first stabilize
the body. THEN begin the drill.
This is a pretty
good example
for a
developmental
swimmer. The
body stays on
the side and
just the head
is rolling.
Sideglide Kick Key words: Touch-roll-breath, thumb your thigh, head is glued to your arm Shoulder is
Sideglide Kick
Key words: Touch-roll-breath, thumb your thigh, head is glued to your arm
Shoulder is not
very steady
here. Notice
bending the
knees too much
on the kick
which leads to
the movement in
the shoulders.
Sideglide Kick Nice steady shoulder but lifted head on first stroke
Sideglide Kick
Nice
steady
shoulder
but
lifted
head on
first
stroke
Sideglide Kick Head out of Position We want to take ONE breath then roll head back
Sideglide Kick
Head out of Position
We want to
take ONE
breath then
roll head
back down.
Try to
establish
streamlining
first.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

Sideglide with a Tennis Ball Rolling too far here. 67 This is a deliberate over correction
Sideglide with a Tennis Ball
Rolling too far here.
67
This is a deliberate
over correction to
help this swimmer
with two
difficulties: 1) not
rolling enough, and
2) tends to lift
head. Tennis ball
helps keep head in
line with the spine.

5

 

Sideglide after Using Tennis Ball

68

 
 
Sideglide after Using Tennis Ball 68 More Tennis Ball Kicking 70
 
 

More Tennis Ball Kicking

70

 
 
Sideglide after Using Tennis Ball 68 More Tennis Ball Kicking 70
 

Arms

   
 

Common mistakes Rushing into arm recovery before stabilizing kicking Thumb first recovery non alternating arms Straight arm recovery (not always a problem) Tips Out of water practice Kinesthetic teaching Shadow swimming

Key words: pinkie, elbow, reach for the sky, thumb up your side

Using FINIS Tempo Trainer

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Multi-Use Drill?

69

 
 

For Swimmers having difficulty kicking backstroke and maintaining body position, this freestyle drill is a nice transition to backstroke kicking.

For Swimmers having difficulty kicking backstroke and maintaining body position, this freestyle drill is a nice
 
 

Clearly, We Have Not Worked on

Recovery Yet.

71

 
 

Note on drills:

Note on drills:

with many drills, some things are temporarily given up, in order to teach something else. In time, we will add a recovery drill to this exercise.

 
 

Short List of Drills for Arms

73

 
 

Before arms: streamlining, alignment, kicking, stabilization

Arms progression

Single stroke to sideglide Three stroke switch to sideglide Full stroke breathing every 3

Also of value:

Catch up stroke with and without board

Pro: work on recovery Pro: introduce front quadrant swimming Con: swimmers often stay flat Con: front quadrant swimming is NOT for everyone

One Arm Freestyle, opposite side breathing One Arm Freestyle, same side breathing

6

 

More Drills for Arm Stroke?

74

 
 

Hundreds

Nice to have a bunch in your toolbag so you can pull one out for a special need

However, for developing swimmers it may be better to have fewer drills done properly and every drill is aimed at getting them to swim basically well. Basics first, hold the exceptionals for a bit later.

Shadow Swimming Ask swimmers to watch themselves watch the head for alignment and stillness.
Shadow Swimming
Ask
swimmers
to watch
themselves
watch the
head for
alignment
and
stillness.
Shadow Sideglide Drill Practicing the drill on the deck increases the likelihood that the drill will
Shadow Sideglide Drill
Practicing
the drill on
the deck
increases
the
likelihood
that the
drill will be
done
nearly
correct in
the water.
Learning Sideglide Switch
Learning Sideglide Switch
Well, maybe not learned
Well, maybe not learned

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

Sideglide with Single Arm Switch
Sideglide with Single Arm Switch

7

Sideglide with Single Arm Switch
Sideglide with Single Arm Switch
Sideglide with Single Arm Switch
Sideglide with Single Arm Switch
 

Sideglide to Switch

   

Three Stroke Switch

   

83

 
 
Sideglide to Switch Three Stroke Switch 83 Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch Sideglide with Three Stroke
 
Sideglide to Switch Three Stroke Switch 83 Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch Sideglide with Three Stroke
 
 

Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch

   

Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch

84

 

85

 
 
Sideglide to Switch Three Stroke Switch 83 Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch Sideglide with Three Stroke
 
Sideglide to Switch Three Stroke Switch 83 Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch Sideglide with Three Stroke

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

8

Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch 86
Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch
86
Catch-Up Freestyle 88 This is a good drill for thinking about one stroke at a time;
Catch-Up Freestyle
88
This is a
good drill for
thinking
about one
stroke at a
time; for
working on
recovery; for
working on
length and
alignment.
Well, maybe not learned 90
Well, maybe not learned
90

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch

87

 
 
Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch 87 Learning Catch-Up 89 Learning Catch-Up 91
 
 

Learning Catch-Up

89

 
 
Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch 87 Learning Catch-Up 89 Learning Catch-Up 91
 
 

Learning Catch-Up

91

 
 
Sideglide with Three Stroke Switch 87 Learning Catch-Up 89 Learning Catch-Up 91

9

 

Learning Catch-Up With KickBoard

   

Catch Up Free with Tennis Ball

92

 

93

 
 
Purpose is to learn to keep head down. The kick board offers a temporary crutch to

Purpose is to learn to keep head down. The kick board offers a temporary crutch to allow the swimmer to focus on the head position.

Purpose is to learn to keep head down. The kick board offers a temporary crutch to
 
 

Catch-Up Free with Tennis Ball

   

More Catch-Up With Tennis Ball

94

 

95

 

You only need to use the tennis ball one or two times. After that you can say, Pretend you are holding a tennis ball under your chin.

You only need to use the tennis ball one or two times. After that you can
 
You only need to use the tennis ball one or two times. After that you can
 
 

Freestyle One Arm Catch-Up

   

Freestyle One Arm Catch-Up

96

 

97

 
 
Learning Catch-Up With KickBoard Catch Up Free with Tennis Ball 92 93 Purpose is to learn
 
Learning Catch-Up With KickBoard Catch Up Free with Tennis Ball 92 93 Purpose is to learn

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

10

One Arm Free - Opposite Side Breathing Key words are: reach, roll, breathe 98
One Arm Free
- Opposite Side Breathing
Key words are: reach, roll, breathe
98
 

One Arm Free - Same Side Breathing

   
One Arm Free - Same Side Breathing Key words are: touch, roll, breathe. The swimmer rolls
One Arm Free - Same Side Breathing Key words are: touch, roll, breathe. The swimmer rolls
 

Key words are: touch, roll, breathe. The swimmer rolls to breathe after

the thumb of the stroking hand

touches the thigh.

99

Hose Drill The purpose of pulling on the hose is to work on alignment during hand
Hose Drill
The purpose of
pulling on the
hose is to work
on alignment
during hand
entry and the
ability to keep
alignment when
breathing.
Take out a lane
line and place a
hose there
instead.
First created by
Jack Nelson.
100
Hose Drill 101
Hose Drill
101
Hose Drill Hose Hardware 102
Hose Drill Hose Hardware
102

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

Freestyle Sailboat Drill 103 This is an advanced drill in that it requires a very good
Freestyle Sailboat Drill
103
This is an
advanced
drill in that it
requires a
very good
kick.
Purpose of
drill: work on
recovery and
entry; and
work on
proper timing
sequence of
switching
from side to
side.

11

Scooters 104 The purpose of scooters is for the swimmer to watch their entry. Yes, it
Scooters
104
The purpose of
scooters is for
the swimmer to
watch their
entry.
Yes, it takes
them out of
proper body
position. No, it
doesn t
permanently
ruin them. With
some drills you
temporarily give
up something in
order to gain
something else.
 

Evolution Stroke

Evolution Stroke
Evolution Stroke
FINIS Hydro Fins
FINIS Hydro
Fins
Swimming with Hydro-Fins
Swimming with Hydro-Fins
FINIS Tec-Tocs
FINIS Tec-Tocs

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

Check Alignment with swimmer swimming away from you 109 Watch the hips and check for rolling
Check Alignment with swimmer
swimming away from you
109
Watch the
hips and
check for
rolling along
the axis but no
side to site
swinging.

12

Check Alignment with swimmer swimming toward you 110
Check Alignment with swimmer
swimming toward you
110
Full Stroke Novice Swimmer 112 Notice Lifting of Head.
Full Stroke Novice Swimmer
112
Notice Lifting of
Head.
It s not learned until it s done under pressure. 114 Racing is a good
It s not learned until it s done under
pressure.
114
Racing is a good
way to see if
young swimmers
are learning the
skills.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

Full Stroke Novice Swimmer 111 For a novice swimmer, this stroke has pretty good balance. Full
Full Stroke Novice Swimmer
111
For a novice
swimmer, this
stroke has
pretty good
balance.
Full Stroke
113
Notice:
finishing
stroke
early; lifting
head;
swimming
flat;
recovery
with fingers
leading.
Common Freestyle Stroke Faults
115
Most stroke faults in freestyle relate to breathing and recovery
problems.
Breathing faults:
1.
lifting the head to breathe
2.
lifting head to breathe with skating on opposite arm
3.
holding the breath
4.
breathing early

13

 

Drills for Freestyle Breathing Faults

116

 
 

Drills should seek to lower the head in line with the spine and use rolling to breathe rather than lifting to breathe

  • 1. side kicking, then side glide drill

  • 2. catch up drill using a kickboard

  • 3. one arm freestyle, opposite arm down, opposite side breathing

  • a) reach, roll, breathe

  • 4. one arm freestyle, opposite arm forward, same side breathing

  • a) touch, turn, breathe

  • 5. bobbing

 
 

Correcting Freestyle Recovery and

Entry Stroke Faults

118

 
 

Drills seek to correct the movement of the arms and the placement of the entry.

  • 1. zipper drill or fingertip drag

  • 2. Scooters

  • 3. Sailboat Drill

  • 4. hose drill

Jeff Rouse, note depth
Jeff Rouse, note depth

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Freestyle Recovery and Entry Faults

117

 
 

A misplaced entry creates a poor setup . When the setup is incorrect

the rest of the stroke is hard to correct.

It should also be noted that

there is a relationship between the shape of the recovery and the pattern of the pull. When there is a low wide recovery of the left arm the right arm often has a wide pull. We have found that by correcting the recovery many pulling problems are also corrected.

  • 1. high straight arm recovery

  • 2. low wide straight arm recovery

  • 3. cross over entry

  • 4. crushing water molecules entry

  • 5. no extension entry

 
 

Backstroke

   
 

What to look for

Establish Alignment And Balance And A Stabilizing Kick At The Beginning Of Every Swim/Drill

Steady head, in line with spine Alternating arms No splash entry Entry above the shoulder rolling Deep arms acceleration Steady kick

 
 

New Trend in Backstroke?

121

 
 
Freestyle Recovery and Entry Faults 117 A misplaced entry creates a poor setup . When the

14

Good Age Group Backstroke 122
Good Age Group Backstroke
122
 

Backstroke

   
 

Skills

Kicking from quality kicking Body position and alignment from quality kicking, side glide Steady head from kicking Rolling from one arm backstoke Alternating, deep arms: steady rhythm No splash entry partner coaching, shadow swimming Anchoring the hands in water fingers down and deep Deep stroke pattern at least at the beginning

 

Backstroke Progression Overview

124

 
 

Kicking strength with proper body position is the key. Work on this first.

OK to use fins with weak kickers so that you can work on arms.

Work on rhythm and roll steady straight arms with a steady head.

Arm details last.

 

Backstroke Drills

126

 
 

Kicking streamlined on belly rolling to back, Kicking, one hand up, one down Sideglide with head up and steady Alternating arms Sidestroke backstroke

One arm free, one arm side, one arm backstroke progression

Shadow swimming or mirror swimming

Laying on the deck, practicing arm placement at entry, with partner coaching.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Backstroke Progression Suggestion

125

 
 

o

Streamline kicking with a board

o

Toes up, belly up, head back

o

streamline kicking no board

o

push belly to the sky

o

streamline kicking to one arm pull to sideglide and hold

o

arms straight, palm down, deep arms, roll

o

streamline kicking to one arm pull to sideglide hold, to switch and hold

o

opposite arms, head steady, deep arms, roll

o

o

arm brushes your ear little finger first

o

streamline kicking to one arm pull to sideglide hold, to three arm cycles and hold

o

opposite arms, head steady, deep arms, roll

o

o

arm brushes your ear little finger first

o

o

streamline kicking to three opposite arm cycles

Streamline kicking to full stroke

 
 

Backstroke Key Words

127

 
 

Splash equals slow; "freestyle and backstroke are the same stroke," Palm down - Fingers out; deep and straight; Deep, up, and over Roll shoulders, Snap the hips, Head steady

15

 

Backstroke Progression

     
 

Streamline kicking with a board

 

Toes up, belly up, head back

 

streamline kicking

 

push belly to the sky

 

streamline kicking to one arm pull to sideglide and hold

 

arms straight, palm down

 

streamline kicking to one arm pull to sideglide hold, to switch and hold

 

opposite arms, head steady

arm brushes your ear little finger first

 

two cycles of

above

 

deep arms

 

streamline kicking to one arm pull to sideglide hold, to three opposite arm cycles and hold

 

opposite arms, head steady

arm brushes your ear little finger first

 

streamline kicking to three opposite arm cycles

Backstroke Kicking, Hands down, tennis ball for steady head and alignment 129
Backstroke Kicking, Hands down, tennis
ball for steady head and alignment
129
 

Backstroke kick drill or Freestyle Kick drill?

130

 
 
Backstroke kick drill or Freestyle Kick drill? 130 Free Kick Rolling to Back Kick 132 For
 
 

Free Kick Rolling to Back Kick

132

 

For those

For those

less buoyant, this is a

difficult drill.

Backstroke Kick from Freestyle Kick 131
Backstroke Kick from Freestyle Kick
131
Free kick to back kick 133 For swimmers with a weak back kick, rolling form free
Free kick to back kick
133
For
swimmers
with a weak
back kick,
rolling form
free to back
to free to
back can
help them
add
strength
and
distance to
their back
kick.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

16

Backstroke Kicking with Fins 134 Streamline, then dolphin kick, then backstroke kick.
Backstroke Kicking with Fins
134
Streamline,
then
dolphin
kick, then
backstroke
kick.
Streamline to One Stroke 136 Begin with streamlining, then a stabilizing kick, THEN take one stroke.
Streamline to One Stroke
136
Begin with
streamlining,
then a
stabilizing
kick, THEN
take one
stroke.
Back: One Stroke Hold, Switch 138 Begin with streamlining, then a stabilizing kick, THEN take one
Back: One Stroke Hold, Switch
138
Begin with
streamlining,
then a stabilizing
kick, THEN take
one stroke.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Backstroke Kicking Fashion Model Backstroke

135

 
 
Less skilled kickers can keep arms

Less skilled kickers can keep arms

This drill requires a very good kick. Hands placed on the hips. Alternately roll the elbows out of the water. Roll whole body not just a shoulder shrug. Purpose is to work on body roll and strengthen kick.

at side.

at side.
 
 

One Arm Backstroke

137

 
 
Backstroke Kicking Fashion Model Backstroke 135 Less skilled kickers can keep arms This drill requires a
 
 

Switch and Hold

139

 
 
Backstroke Kicking Fashion Model Backstroke 135 Less skilled kickers can keep arms This drill requires a

17

3 stroke to hold 140
3 stroke to hold
140
Three stroke Hold 141
Three stroke Hold
141
Working on Entry 142 Hands up. Fingers out. Right arm down. Fall back and go.
Working on Entry
142
Hands up.
Fingers out.
Right arm
down.
Fall back and
go.
Using Shadows 143 (or mirrors) to check alignment and entry position.
Using Shadows
143
(or mirrors)
to check alignment
and entry position.
One Arm Back 144 with and without Fins Fins make it difficult to roll but make
One Arm Back
144
with and without
Fins
Fins make it
difficult to roll
but make it
possible for
weaker
swimmers to
do backstroke.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

3 Stroke Switch Free to Back 145 Nice drill for relating free to back; and for
3 Stroke Switch Free to Back
145
Nice drill
for relating
free to
back;
and for
working on
good
alignment

18

 

Sidestroke Backstroke

146

 

Good drill for feeling the water. Fingers go down, up, and through, accelerating through the range. Recovery is up the side of the body. The real purpose of this drill is to prepare for the next drill.

Good drill for feeling the water. Fingers go down, up, and through, accelerating through the range.
 
 

Backstroke Faults

148

 

The most common problems in backstroke are in four areas: weak kick, misaligned entry, no body roll leading to shallow pull, poor pulling pattern.

Drills for legs 1. for flexibility, plantar flexion before practice 2. for strength, kicking:

 

a. arms down, one arm down, both arms up b. arms down with rotation

c.

side kicking

d. side kicking with stroke to switch sides

e. fashion model backstroke

Back: 2-2-2 Drill -- 2 strokes OA Free, 2 Side Stroke, 2 One Arm Back 147
Back: 2-2-2 Drill -- 2 strokes OA Free, 2 Side Stroke,
2 One Arm Back
147
A very good
drill for
transitioning
from free to
back.
She does 2-
2-2 here but
3-3-3 or 4-4-
4 is better.
 

Backstroke Faults

   
 

Entry stroke faults 1. over reaching

Drills for entry problems 1. water shadows

2. wide entry

2. dryland practice with

3. back of hand entering

partner

4. crushing water

3. recovery around the clock

molecules 5. non alternating arms

4. over correction

 

5. swimming next to wall or lane line

 

149

 

Backstroke Faults

 
   
 

Pulling stroke faults

Pulling Drills

1.

no rolling resulting

1. sidestroke

in shallow pull/splash

backstroke

2.

straight arm

2.

3 one arm free, 3

3. dropped elbow 4. no acceleration

sidestroke backstrokes, 3 one arm

 

150

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Breaststroke

   
 

What to look for

Establish Alignment And Balance At The Beginning Of Every Swim/Drill

Timing: pull, kick, stretch Swimming up AND downhill 3 dimensional kick Wide arm stroke

Slow-quick

19

Amanda Beard Gold Medalist 152 Note that she pulls a streamlined lower body through the water.
Amanda Beard Gold Medalist
152
Note that
she pulls a
streamlined
lower body
through the
water.
THEN she
kicks a
streamlined
upper body
through the
water. 2
engines,
alternately
working.
Alas .. There is hope 154 This is same swimmer, after about 2 weeks.
Alas
..
There is hope
154
This is
same
swimmer,
after
about 2
weeks.
Good Age Group Breaststroke 156
Good Age Group Breaststroke
156

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

Novice Swimmer Not a Breaststroker

153

 
 

What is the biggest issue here? NO TIMING (among about a hundred other things. ) Fix the timing FIRST.

What is the biggest issue here? NO TIMING (among about a hundred other things. ) Fix
 
 

Acceptable Novice Breaststroke

155

 
 

Timing: Pull, Kick, Stretch. Head is a little high. Arms pull a little too wide and too far

Timing: Pull, Kick, Stretch. Head is a little high. Arms pull a little too wide and

back.

Kick is a

little wide.

 
 

Breaststroke Progression Overview

157

 
 

Teach the timing first Teach kicking all the time

 

Don t wait for a legal kick before teaching arms or timing. Be patient on errant kicks.

 

Teach the arms Teach advanced lunge breaststroke later

20

 

Breaststroke Progression

158

 
 

Timing: kicking with board, coach shouts "breathe, kick, g-l-i-d-e"

kicking without board, hands in front, breathe, kick, glide

Kick sitting on edge of wall, then kick on back, then kick on belly

kinesthetic teaching of arm stroke on deck Various arm drills in water

 
 

Breaststroke Drills

160

 
 

Sit on side of pool and kick - "up to the wall, toes out, around and together"

Kick on back using board, Switching, kick on back, kick on belly Kick with board, face in: "breathe, kick, stretch" Kick on front, hands down, touch heels. "up, kick, dive" Kick on front, hands out front: "up, kick, stretch" Sitting on the board, sculling Cobra, "strike" Float: coach shouts "up-kick-down" Crescendo pull Noodles in the arm pits Y breaststroke

 
 

Breaststroke Kick Suggestions

162

 
 

Swimmers with illegal kicks with one foot turned in are usually not kicking FLAT on their bellies. They are kicking a bit on their side.

Have them kick down the side of the pool, pointing their belly button toward the wall (in the opposite direction they are currently kicking) and ask them to pretend to brush the side of the pool with the big toe. This turns the foot out and flattens them out.

The coach can lie on the side of the pool and hold the swimmer s feet in the proper position while the swimmer, using a kick board, moves through the kick motion. After three motions holding on to the feet, let the feet go and have the swimmer perform about 3 kicks. One or two will be good. Repeat.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Breaststroke

159

 
 

Progression:

 

Kick on wall, kick on back, kick on belly kicking with board, coach shouts "breathe, kick, g-l-i-d-e" kicking without board, hands in front, breathe, kick, glide kinesthetic teaching of arm stroke on deck crescendo breaststroke

Skills

 
 

Kicking

Timing Beautiful arms

 
 

Breaststroke Key Words

161

 
 

Up, Kick, stretch

 

for kicking with or without board, timing drill

What come up on the word up?

 

Hands, heels, head

 

out, up, kick, stretch

 

For whole stroke

 

Hands go out, then hands come in as head comes up, heels come up, kick, stretch

Describing the kick: out, around, and down Describing the arm stroke: S-l-o-w, quick Describing the arm stroke: out, up, and forward Chest down, hips up

 
 

Breaststroke: Kick from side

163

 
 
Breaststroke 159 Progression: Kick on wall, kick on back, kick on belly kicking with board, coach

21

 

Breaststroke -- Kicking on back, switching to belly

   
Breaststroke -- Kicking on back, switching to belly Most novice swimmers can perform a legal kick
Breaststroke -- Kicking on back, switching to belly Most novice swimmers can perform a legal kick
 

Most novice swimmers can perform a legal kick on their back, even if they cannot do a legal kick on their belly. In this drill we are transitioning from back to belly in

hopes that it will allow them to learn how to feel the water on their belly.
hopes that it will allow them to learn how to feel the water on their belly.
164
Brush the Wall
Brush the
Wall with the
toe will turn
the hips,
allow the foot
to be out
and change a
sidestroke
kick to a legal
breaststroke
kick.
166
Breast: up, kick, glide
168
Breast Kick With Board Timing Drill UP, KICK, GLIDE
Breast Kick With Board Timing Drill
UP,
KICK,
GLIDE
 

165

 

Up, Kick, Down

   
 

Up, Kick, Down becomes Up, Kick, Glide becomes Up, Kick, Stretch becomes Out, Up, Kick, Stretch (when the arms are added.)

Up, Kick, Down becomes Up, Kick, Glide becomes Up, Kick, Stretch becomes Out, Up, Kick,
 

167

 
 

Breast Kick, no board

   
 

She is cheating a little here by using her arms

169
169

a bit.

Not a big

issue and good to see them figuring out how to use their hands. (Head is a little high though.)

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

22

 

Breaststroke Timing Drill:

up, kick, glide

   
Breaststroke Timing Drill: up, kick, glide With Board Without Board 170
Breaststroke Timing Drill: up, kick, glide With Board Without Board 170
 

With Board

Without Board

 

170

Breaststroke: kick with hands down 171 Touch you heels with your hands. Chest down, Hips Up
Breaststroke: kick with hands down
171
Touch you
heels with
your hands.
Chest down,
Hips Up
Up, Kick,
Dive.
Purpose of
this drill is to
make the kick
more 3
dimensional
and to add
dolphin action
to the body.
3 Dimensional Kick means out, around, and DOWN. Width,
length, and depth.
 

Breaststroke Kick Drill:

Touch Heels with Hands another view.

172

 
 

Watch the hips go up as the legs kick down and the head goes down.

Watch the hips go up as the legs kick down and the head goes down.
 
 

Breaststroke Shadow Arms

174

 
 

We are asking her to watch her shadow to see if she is pulling back

We are asking her to watch her shadow to see if she is pulling back

too far.

We want

the pull out in front of the shoulders. (She doesn t turn her head until the second stroke after her sister steps in to remind her!)

On Deck Arms 173 Key words: Out, up and forward. Here, we are asking them to
On Deck Arms
173
Key words:
Out, up and
forward.
Here, we are
asking them to
pause after the
out just as a
temporary
overcorrection to
emphasize the
width. We do
not want
swimmers to
pause at this
point during the
normal stroke.
Breaststroke Pull: Standing on Bottom 175 Out, Up AND Forward.
Breaststroke Pull: Standing on Bottom
175
Out, Up
AND
Forward.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

23

 

Y Breaststroke Arms

   

One Arm Breaststroke with Board

176

 

177

 
 

Float, hands out, wait for the words, Up and forward.

Float, hands out, wait for the words, Up and forward. Here we are isolating one arm
 

Here we are isolating one arm at a time,

Head is too

Here we are isolating one arm at a time, Head is too

Purpose of this drill is to work on the quick insweep.

working on the outsweep.

high and there isn t enough stretch between each stroke.

 
 

Little Circles

   

Breaststroke Handcuffs w/Free Kick

178

 

179

 
 
Purpose is to isolate the arms not to worry about the timing. Handcuffs is
 

Purpose is to isolate the arms not to worry about the timing.

Handcuffs is

Purpose is to isolate the arms not to worry about the timing. Handcuffs is

a mind picture image to remind the swimmer to keep the arm stroke out in front. Over- correction.

 
 

Breaststroke w/handcuffs

   

Breaststroke Faults and Drills

180

     
 
Timing Faults Timing Drills
 

Timing Faults

Timing Drills

  • 1. drill on deck, arms extended, up, kick,

pulling and kicking at same time

1.

  • 2. down , what two things come up on

not finishing kick

the word up ?
3.

breathing early

2.

kicking with board, arms extended holding board out front, face in water; listening for coach, up, kick, glide , doing same with coach.

3.

kicking without board, hands out front, same drill.

4.

kicking with hands at side, up, kick, dive touching heels with hands

5.

full stroke, out, up, kick, stretch

 

181

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

24

 

Breaststroke Faults

182

 
 

Pulling Faults

  • 1. pumpkin pulls, big wide circles finished under belly

  • 2. flat, dropped elbows

  • 3. climbers, pulling too hard too soon, then dropping the water

 
 

Breaststroke Faults

   
 

Kicking faults

Kicking drills

  • 1. deck manipulation

knee and foot turned in

1.

2.

  • 2. swimmer holding board, coach holding feet moving
    3.

Not finishing kick

dropping knees

in correct pattern

  • 4. sitting on the edge of the pool, bring feet to wall, turn toes out, kick out around and together

not getting toes out

3.

4.

kicking on back with kick board

5.

stretching exercises

184

 
 

Butterfly

186

 
 

Key words Kick in, kick out Out before, in before The chest goes down, the hips go up Chest before the hands Fingers forward, fingers back

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Breaststroke Faults

183

 
 

Pulling Drills

  • 1. drill on deck: swimmer faces coach, bent forward, head down, offering outstretched arms, coach holds wrists and forearms making movements and saying words, out, in, and forward adding acceleration, asking swimmer to pop head and lift shoulders on the up

  • 2. noodles in the armpits to keep the stroke out front

  • 3. standing on bottom, practicing arm patterns in unison with the coach.

  • 4. sitting on board, sculling across pool.

  • 5. using the washtub sweep on the deck then into the water

  • 6. cobra

  • 7. crescendo

 

Basic Butterfly: What to Look For

185

 
 

Establish Alignment And Balance And A Stabilizing Kick At The

Beginning Of Every Swim/Drill Set up hands enter outside the shoulders

Stroke width and pattern matches athlete s swimming strength Stroke pattern is drag oriented with a slight taper inward

fingers forward, fingers back Chest down, hips up Head out before the hands, in before the entry End of stroke rounded out for novice

kick hands in, Kick hands out (kick in, kick out) Little finger first on recovery

Minimal splash

Chin plowing the water

 
 

Benny Neilson Olympic Bronze

Medalist and classic butterfly

187

 
 
Breaststroke Faults 183 Pulling Drills 1. drill on deck: swimmer faces coach, bent forward, head down,

25

 

Misty Hymen Gold Medalist

188

 
 
Misty Hymen Gold Medalist 188 Einstein and Butterfly 190 Einstein said, Make everything as simple as
 
 

Einstein and Butterfly

190

 
 

Einstein said, Make everything as simple as possible, but not any simpler.

Therefore (next slide)

Fonzi Butterfly
Fonzi Butterfly

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Good Age Group Butterfly

189

 
 
Good Age Group Butterfly 189 Do not overcomplicate the stroke 191 Do not overload the
 

Do not overcomplicate the stroke

191

 
 

Do not overload the swimmer

Do not ask the novice swimmer to swim with an advanced stroke pattern

The result might be Fonzi Butterfly

 
 

Teaching Strategies

193

 
 

Teach kicking all the time

Teach all kinds of dolphin kicking

Upside down, on the side, underwater, on top, with board, without board, hands up, hands down, with fins, without fins

Teach the timing first Teach the arms later

26

 

Kicking

194

 
 

All ways, all the time Starting with wigglers, building to holding the line

examples next

 
 

Butterfly Kick, Wigglers

196

 
 
Kicking 194 All ways, all the time Starting with wigglers, building to holding the line examples
 
 

Fish on Vacation

198

 
 
Kicking 194 All ways, all the time Starting with wigglers, building to holding the line examples
Butterfly Kick wigglers 195
Butterfly Kick wigglers
195
Fish on Vacation 197 Similar to wigglers except under water. Try to go 4 or 5
Fish on Vacation
197
Similar to
wigglers
except
under
water.
Try to go
4 or 5
kicks on
one
breath.
Fish on Vacation with Fins 199
Fish on Vacation with Fins
199

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

27

 

Kick with Board, head down

200

   
 
Kick with Board, head down 200 Teaching: the fine print This progression violates all known swimming
 
 

Teaching:

the fine print

     
 

This progression violates all known swimming principles

This progression gives Terry Laughlin heartburn.

This progression leaves Bill Boomer speechless. But Bill Sweetenham likes it.

And for me it works. So I humbly present this as a suggestion.

 
 

Fly:

Pull up, stop

204

   
 
Kick with Board, head down 200 Teaching: the fine print This progression violates all known swimming

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

Kick with Board, head down 201 We also kick with head up. It changes body position
Kick with Board, head down
201
We also kick
with head up.
It changes
body position
but: it moves
emphasis
away from
head
movement to
chest and hip
movement
AND I can talk
to them!
 

Timing Progression Keep it Simple!

203

 
 

1.

"pull up, stop"

 

o

no kick, maybe use pull buoy for the sinkers,

o

one stroke at a time,

o

breathe every stroke.

 

o

Helps keep from stopping at the end of the stroke

 

o

Goal is timing only.

o

Maximum of 3 strokes

o

Do not worry about length of stroke.

o

Do not worry about body position

 

o

Because it is really ugly!

 

--- continued

 
 

Pull up - Stop

205

 
 
Kick with Board, head down 201 We also kick with head up. It changes body position

28

 

Pull Up - Stop

   

Pull up, stop three times

206

 

207

 
 
Pull Up - Stop Pull up, stop three times 206 207 Interspersed with Water Time Deck
 
Pull Up - Stop Pull up, stop three times 206 207 Interspersed with Water Time Deck
 
 

Interspersed with Water Time

   

Deck Practice - Arms

208

 

209

 
 

Do Lots of On Deck Drills with Arm Strokes, Recovery (especially little finger forward), and Timing.

 
Do Lots of On Deck Drills with Arm Strokes, Recovery (especially little finger forward), and Timing.
 
 

Shadow Arms

   

Timing Progression

210

 

211

 
 
2. "pull up, dive"
 

2.

"pull up, dive"

 

o

the dive or chest down brings the hips up,

o

which creates the kick

 

o

But don t talk about the kick yet.

 

o

Maximum 3 strokes

 

--- continued

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

29

 

Pull Up -- Dive

   

Pull up -- Dive

212

 

213

 
 
Pull Up -- Dive Pull up -- Dive 212 213 Pull up -- Dive Pull up
 
Pull Up -- Dive Pull up -- Dive 212 213 Pull up -- Dive Pull up
 
 

Pull up -- Dive

   

Pull up - dive

214

 

215

 
 
Pull Up -- Dive Pull up -- Dive 212 213 Pull up -- Dive Pull up
 
Pull Up -- Dive Pull up -- Dive 212 213 Pull up -- Dive Pull up
 
 

Progression - 3

   

Progression - 4

216

 

217

 
 

3.

alternately work on all types of dolphin

 

4.

Slowly add length to the arm stroke. Too

 

kicking. Do not introduce kicking as part of

 

much length too early leads to recovery of

the whole stroke too early.

head and arms at same time.

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

30

 

Progression 5, 6

218

 
 

5.

One arm fly chest before the hands,

 

o

Key words

 

o

Kick hands in, kick hands out,

 

o

Kick in, kick out

 

o

head comes out before the hands, in before

 

o

Out before, in before

 
 

Butterfly Drills

 

220

 
 

For the Developmental Swimmer, fewer drills is probably better. Again, avoid over complicating it. Kick underwater, hands up / down Kick on top, no board Kick with board, different positions pull over the lane line with head leading way One arm butterfly with opposite arm down

 

chest before the hand

Avoid drills that require the hand to stop at the sides. One of the worst stroke difficulties to correct is the butterfly stroke that gets stuck at the hips. Short strokes at first. Lengthen with gain in strength.

 
 

Fly One Arm

222

 
 
Progression 5, 6 218 5. One arm fly chest before the hands, o Key words o

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

 

Fly: Chest before the hands

219

 
 
Fly: Chest before the hands 219 Fly One Arm 221 Fly from Dive 223 Having novice
 
 

Fly One Arm

221

 
 
Fly: Chest before the hands 219 Fly One Arm 221 Fly from Dive 223 Having novice
 
 

Fly from Dive

223

 

Having novice swimmers do butterfly from a dive gives them some speed which helps the stroke.

Having novice swimmers do butterfly from a dive gives them some speed which helps the stroke.

If we can get half way down the pool on 3 or 4 strokes, that s a good butterfly start for a young butterflyer.

 

This young swimmer doesn t quite make the middle on 4 strokes.

31

Fly from Dive 224 This 10 year old novice makes the middle of the pool on
Fly from Dive
224
This 10 year old
novice makes
the middle of
the pool on 3
butterfly
strokes!

School for Coaches of Novice Swimmers

32