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Stage 1 - Desired Results

Established Goals: Standards

● Students deliberately
choose evidence that is What standards are you addressing?
detailed and complete to
best support their analyses RL. 10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn
of what the text indirectly from the text.
● Students examine the text RI 10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn
to understand the meaning
from the text.
of words or phrases, using
the context to inform their
thinking. Students RL 10.4 : Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word
consider how particular choices on meaning and tone
words and phrases are
used to influence the RI 10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word
overall meaning and tone choices on meaning and tone
of the text, such as how
they create a formal or
informal tone. L 10.4: Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading
● Students figure out and/or and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, words parts, word relationships, and reference materials
confirm the meaning of
grade 9-10 words/phrases W.9-10.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and
that are unfamiliar or have sufficient evidence.
multiple meanings, using a a) Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that
variety of strategies
covering the following: establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
context clues, word parts, b) Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of
word relationships, and both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
reference materials c) Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships
● Students will develop between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
arguments in support of d) Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in
claims that examine
which they are writing.
important topics or texts
and include plausible e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
reasons and pertinent,
adequate evidence L 10.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing;
● Students apply grammar demonstrate proficiency within the 9-12 conventions continuum
and usage skills to create a
unique style and voice
when writing or speaking Transfer
with increasing
sophistication and effect in
grades 9-12. Skills taught Students will be able to independently use their knowledge to…
in previous grades should
be reinforced and ● Make inferences about what I read
expanded. ● Cite evidence to support my answer
● Understand and Evaluate the effectiveness of textual evidence to support a claim
● Determine the theme or central idea of a text
● Identify theme
● Track the development of theme or central idea throughout the text
● Analyze characterization or character development, including how they interact with other characters
● Analyze how characters advance the plot or theme.
● Use context clues to determine the technical and connotative meaning of words or phrases
● Analyze character motivation
● Create inferences about characters using indirect characterization
● Demonstrate command of the convention of standard English grammar and usage in writing or speaking.
● Write an objective summary of the text
● Determine the difference between biased and unbiased claims
● Revise and edit writing for improvement
● Apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking
● Draw connections between different themes
● Analyze how diction affects tone



Students will understand that… Students will keep considering…
● What can be inferred about a character in this selection?
● Inferences can be directly or indirectly stated ● What evidence best supports your inferences?
● There is a difference between implicit and explicit ● What details are so integral they must be included for the
information summary?
● There is criteria for strong textual evidence. ● What does the author say about this idea over the course
● Inferences can support theme, character, and plot of the text?
development. ● How would the meaning of the sentence change if this
● Inferences from a text are affected by their background and word was changed?
point of view. ● How does the connotation of the word impact the
● Words have different meaning based on the context in meaning of the sentence?
which they are used ● What is the author’s tone in the passage?
● Connotation/Denotation affect a passage’s tone ● What is implied by the author’s use of the term/phrase ___
● Good writers pre-write and revise their work in paragraph X?
● Arguments include claims and counterclaims ● What word could best replace the italicized word in the
sentence without changing its connotation?
● What is the author’s tone in the passage?
● Which line best supports the author’s tone in the passage?
● How does the tone shift from paragraph A to paragraph B
in the passage?
● How does the author’s diction influence the tone of the
● How does the author’s language function to make
effective choices in for the meaning or style of the piece?
● How does the author introduce the claim and counterclaim
in the text?
● What process of logic or reason does the author make to
justify his claim in the text?
● What evidences has the author provided to support the
claim and counterclaims in the text?
● What thought-provoking questions will foster inquiry,
meaning-making, and transfer?


Key vocabulary: Students will be skilled at…

● Analysis/analyze, What discrete skills and processes should students be able to use?
● Argument ● Annotating the text
● Audiences ● Evaluating evidence
● Cite ● Using interpretive reading strategies to better analyze
● Claims literature on their own
● Counterclaims ● Explaining inferences in writing or discussion
● Conclude ● Identifying explicit textual evidence
● Explicit ● Supporting inference using several examples from the text
● Editing ● Composing cohesive arguments
● Inference
● Implicit
● Textual evidence
● Tone
● Synthesize
● Formal English, style, task, and use of

Code Evaluative Criteria


Grammar Conventions Students will show that they really understand by evidence of…

Rubrics ● Students use three-column graphic organizers, and the columns are labeled as follows: “my inference,” “what the
text says,” “what the evidence means.” Students state their conclusions in the “my inference” column, record textual
Performance Tasks evidence in the “what the text says” column, and explain the connection between their conclusions and the evidence
in the “what this evidence means” column.
Participation in ● Create a list of criteria for strong and thorough textual evidence. As students cite evidence to support their analyses,
discussion/classwork they refer to the criteria to evaluate and check the quality of their evidence. Students only use the evidence that fits
the established criteria and supports their analyses.
Well Supported ● List context clues to determine the meaning of words in a text. Have students rate each other on their evidence of
Arguments what the word means. Students consider how particular words and phrases are used to influence the overall meaning
and tone of the text, such as how they create formal or informal tone.
Cohesion of the piece ● Determine the tone of text. List tone words on the board and discuss how an author would establish that tone.
● The teacher selects an important passage from the text and assigns each student a tone (formal, informal, bitter,
Textual Evidence cautionary, empathetic, etc). The students rewrite the passage by changing the words and phrases to convey the tone
they have been assigned. After rewriting the passage, students compare their written work to the original text, noting
Appropriate Audience how the word choices changed the meaning and tone.
● Develop claims and counterclaims for an argument, compose an argumentative essay, and present the argument to
the class
● Explain the tone of words and analyze how synonyms or antonyms would change the meaning of the passage or
affect the tone of the piece
● Evaluate the inferences of other students in the class using established criteria.
● Write individual responses to text-dependent questions. Using criteria established, students will provide evidence to
support their answers.
● Read the assigned _____(text) once alone. Read the article a second time and complete the Close Reading Routine
steps in your notebook. You may work with your reading partner on the second reading.
● Have the students re-read the text with a particular question or claim that needs supporting in mind. As they read,
mark evidence in the text that answers the question or supports the claim. Write your answer and prove it using text

● Essays
● Discussions
● Quizzes/Tests
● Performances/Presentations


CODE What pre-assessment will you use to check student’s prior knowledge, skill levels, and potential Pre-Assessment
● Give a sample text and ask the students to evaluate the credibility of inferences. This will
show if students know (1) what an inference is and (2) if they can evaluate evidence
● Pretest using tone, context clues, and inferences
● Ask students to list tone words to see if they know what the criteria for an appropriate tone
word is
● Sample writing
● Schoolnet Assessment

T, A, M Learning Events Progress Monitoring

● Socratic Seminar ● Quizzes/Tests

● Tone Quizizz ● Exit Tickets
● Graphic Organizer ● Discussion Boards
● Essays ● Essay Rubrics
● Text-Dependent Questions ● Formative Assessments
● Reading Passages
● Class Discussions
● Annotating the Text
● Murder Mystery- have students “solve” a murder by providing textual evidence to support
their claim of “who done it” (see this for ideas)
● RAP (restate the prompt, answer the question, provide evidence)
● RACE (restate the prompt, answer the question, cite the evidence, explain)
● TPCASTT, TPFASTT (title, paraphrase, connotation/figurative language, attitude, shift, title,
● Escape Classrooms
● Teaching Tone with Songs
● Film Clips/Ted Talks

● Text - The Eyes Have it - good for use with connotation/denotation

● Making Inferences - Reading Between the Lines
● My Mother Pieced Quilts - Diction and Tone Practice
● Catcher in the Rye - Diction and Tone Practice
● How Far She Went
○ Text
○ Questions
● Context Clues - Multiple Choice Practice
● Word Choice- I, Too Sing America
● Inferences - The Best Place
● Diction and Tones - Notes Activity
● Connotation/Language Practice - If you Forget Me
● Basic Connotation Practice
● How Far She Went -
○ Questions focusing on Inference and Character
○ Text