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AN

ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR

THE GREEK LANGUAGE


CONTAINING A SEEIES OF

GREEK AND ENGLISH EXERCISES


FOR TRANSLATION,

WITH THE REQUISITE VOCABULARIES,


AND AN

APPENDIX
ON THE HOMERIC VERSE AND DIALECT.

DR. RAPHAEL KUHNER,


CORRECTOR OF THE LYCEUM, HANOVER.

FROM THE GERMAN BT

SAMUEL H. TAYLOR,
PRINCIPAL OF PHILLIPS ACADEMY, ANDOVER, MASS

THIRTEENTH EDITIOW.

NEW YORK
IVISON & PHINNEY, 321 BROADWAY
CHICAGO : S. C. GRIGGS & CO., Ill LAKE ST.
BUFFALO PHINNEY & CO. CINCINNATI : MOORE, WrLSTACH, KEYS &
:
CO.
PHILADELPHIA SOWER & BARNES. NEWBtJRO T. S. QUACKENBUSH.
: :

SCHENECTADY G-. Y. VAN DEBOGERT, W. F. BOLLE9.


:

AUBURN SEYMOUR & ALWARD.


:

1857.
•Iff
18-5"?

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, bj


ALLEN, MORRILL AND WARD WELL,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.
PREFACE

Raphael Kuhner, the author of the following Grammar, was


born at Gotha, in 1802. Among his early classical teachers were
Doring, Rost, and Wustemann. At the University of Gottingen,

he enjoyed the instructions of Mitscherlich, Dissen, and Ottfried


Miiller, men of great distinction in classical philology. For more
than twenty years, he has been a teacher in the Lyceum at Hano-
ver, one of the principal German gymnasia, and has consequently
had the most favorable opportunities, as a practical teacher, to un-
derstand the wants of students and to be able to meet them.
In addition to several other important works, Dr. Kuhner has
published three Greek Grammars :

1. A Copious Greek Grammar, containing 1150 octavo pages,


which has been translated by W. E. Jelf, . ., of the
University of Oxford.
2. A School Greek Grammar, which has been translated and
published in this country.
3. An Elementary Greek Grammar, the original of the present
work, from the second edition of which a very faithful trans-
lation was made by John H. Millard, St. John's College,
Cambridge, the Greek and English exercises and the accom-
panying Vocabularies, however, having been omitted.
The grammatical principles of the present work, so far as they
extend, are the same as those contained in the Larger Grammar
already published in this country, the latter being designed to carry
forward the student in the same course which he had commenced in
the former. The work enjoys the highest reputation among classi-

cal scholars both in Europe and America. It is based on a thor-


IV PREFACE,

ough acquaintance with the laws and usages of the language. The
author has evidently studied the genius of the Greek, and has thus
prepared himself to exhibit its forms and changes, and general phe-
nomena, in an easy and natural manner. His rules and statements
are comprehensive, embracing under one general principle a variety
of details. The analysis of the forms can hardly be improved. The
prefixes and suffixes, the strengthening and euphonic letters, are
readily distinguished from the root of the word. The explanation
of the Verb in particular, is so clear and satisfactory, that, after a
little practice, the student can take the root of any verb, and put it

into any given form, or take any given form and resolve it into its

elements. The rules of Syntax, too, are illustrated by so full a col-

lection of examples, that the attentive student cannot fail to under-

stand their application.


The work is designed to be sufficiently simple for beginners, and
also to embrace all the more general principles of the language.

The plan is admirably adapted to carry the student forward under-


standingly, step by step, in the acquisition of grammatical knowl-

edge. As soon as the letters and a few introductory principles, to*

gether with one or two forms of the verb, have been learned (the
sections marked with a [f] being omitted), the student begins to
translate the simple Greek sentences into English, and the English
into Greek. As he advances to new forms or grammatical princi-

ples, he finds exercises appropriate to them, so that whatever he

commits, whether forms or rules, is put in immediate practice. The


advantage of this mode of study is evident. The practical applica-

tion of what is learned is at once understood ; the knowledge ac-

quired is made definite ; the forms and rules are permanently fixed
in the mind, and there is a facility in the use of them whenever
they may. be needed. The student, who attempts to commit any
considerable portion of the Grammar without illustrative examples,
finds it difficult memory what he has learned. There
to retain in his

is a confusion and indistinctness about it. One form often runs into
another, and one rule is confounded with another. But if each suc-
cessive principle is carefully studied, and then immediately put in
PREFACE. V

practice, in translating the Greek and English exercises, and is af-

terwards frequently reviewed, there will, in the end, be an immense


saving of time, the student will be prepared to advance with plea-
sure from the less to the more difficult principles, and in the subse-

quent part of his course, he will experience no difficulty in regard


to grammatical forms and rules. One of the most serious hin-
drances to the rapid and profitable advancement in the Greek and
Latin Languages, is a want of an intimate acquaintance with their
elementary principles.
The plan of the author proposes that the vocabularies accompa-
nying the exercises, be committed to memory. In doing this, the

student should be made to understand the value of the ear, as well


as of the eye, the advantage to be derived from the former being

altogether too much neglected in the acquisition of a foreign lan-


guage. When the student first sees a new word, let him fix the

form distinctly in his mind, and associate with it its meaning, so


that the meaning may afterwards readily recall the word, or the

word the meaning. Then, too, let him pronounce the word, and
associate its meaning with its sound, so that when the word is again
heard, the meaning may at once suggest itself. The child acquires

its knowledge of language almost wholly by the ear ; and if the

student in his efforts to learn a new language, would imitate the


child in this respect, his progress would undoubtedly be much more
rapid. This method would require that the words be often pro-
nounced, their definitions being at the same time carefully associa-
ted with them. This will in no way be so successfully accomplished
as by requiring the vocabularies to be committed to memory. If
the student knows that, when the Greek words are pronounced by
his teacher, he must give the definition, or that, when the definition
is given him, the corresponding Greek will be required, his atten
tion will be more carefully and perseveringly directed to the forms
and sounds of the words in his exercises ; he will soon have at his
command an extensive vocabulary of the words in more common
use, and will save much time, which is so often lost in turning
again and again to the same word in the lexicon. Such a process,
A*
VI PEEFACE.

too, will be of great service in cultivating the habit of fixed and


close attention. In addition to the exercises contained in the

book, it will awaken new interest in the class, if the teacher give
exercises of his own, either in Greek or English, and require these

to be translated at once by the members of the class. It will be


profitable, also, for any one of the class to propose exercises for the

others to translate. On this subject generally, however, the expe-


rienced teacher will be able to point out the best course to his pupils.
In preparing the present work, it has been the aim of the trans-
lator to adapt it to the wants of students in this country. He has
occasionally, therefore, made slight changes in the original, where it

seemed desirable. Occasionally, too, he has given explanations of

his own in the body of the book, where he supposed the wants of
the younger pupils might require them. But all the principles of

the Grammar and nearly all the arrangement are retained as they

were given by the author. The translator has endeavored to make


such a book as the author himself would have done, under similar
circumstances.
The English exercises in the Etymological Part of the Grammar,
were taken from the Greek Delectus of the late Dr. Alexander Al-
len, London, as they had been translated by him from the Elemen-
tary Grammar of Kiihner. The exercises in the Syntax were trans-

lated by Mr. John N. Putnam, of the Theological Seminary, An-


dover.

In conclusion, the translator would acknowledge his special obli-

gations to Mr. R. D. C. Bobbins, Librarian, Theological Seminary,


Andover, and to Mr. A. J. Phipps, Instructor in Phillips Academy,
for the highly valuable assistance they have rendered in correcting
the proofs.

Andover, Mat 1, 1846.


——

TABLE OP CONTENTS.

ETYMOLOGY.
CHAP. I. The Letters and their Sounds.
1. Alphabet . . . Page 1 § 5. Breathings . .Page 4
Marks of Crasis and Elision
2.

ters ....
Pronunciation of particular Let-

Division of the Vowels.— Diph-


2
6.

7. Movable Consonants at the end


of a word ...
5

5
3.

4.
thongs ...
Division of the Consonants
2
3
8. Change of Consonants in Inflec-
tion and Derivation 6 .

CHAP. .— Syllables.
Quantity of Syllables 9 Atonies or Proclitics 12
9.

10.
11.
Accentuation ...
Change and Removal of the Ac-
.

9
13.

14. Enclitics

15. Inclination of the


... Accent
.

13
13
cent by Inflection and Con- 16. Enclitics accented 14

12.
traction ...
Change and Removal of the
10
Ac-
17. Division of Syllables
18. Punctuation-marks
.

.
.

.
14
15
cent in connected Discourse 12

CHAP. HI.— 19. Some General Views of the Verb, Page 15.

CHAP. IV. Substantive and Adjective.


20. Nature and Division of the Sub- 28. Second Declension . . 25
stantive .17 29. Contraction of the second De-
21.
22.
Gender of Substantives
.

17
Number, Case and Declension 18
.

. clension
30. Attic
...
second Declension .
28
30
23.
tive ....
Nature and Gender of the Adjec-
19
31.
32.
Third Declension
Remarks on
.

the Case-endings of
. 32

24.
tions
25. Eirst
....
General View of the Preposi-

Declension . .
19
20
the third Declension
33. Gender, Quantity
32
and Accentua-
tion of the third Declension 33
.

25. Endings of the first Declension 20


Eeminine Nouns of the first De-
A. Words which in the Genitive
26.

27.
clension
Masculine Nouns of the
... first
20
De-
have a Consonant beeore the
ending -, i. e. Words

clension ... 24
Stem ends in a Consonant.
vm TABLE OP CONTENTS.

34. The Nominative exhibits the . Words -, -


§ I.

pure Stem ... 34


§ 42.
43. Words in -
in
(Gen. -),
.

and in
45

35. II. The Nominative lengthens the - and - (Gen. -) 46

36. Syncopated nouns,


etc. .
Stem 35
short final vowel of the

.
e.

.
g. ,
. 37
44. Words

45. III.
in
- (Gen. -)
Words in -, -
- (Gen.

49
-),
.
and in
.

.
47

37. The Nominative appends 46. Words in -, -, -, - 49


... to .

Stem
the 38 47. Irregular Nouns of the third De-
38. The Stem ends in a Tau-mute 39 clension . . .51
39. Neuters ending in r and 40 48. Irregular Adjectives . 52
40. The Stem ends in or 42 49. Comparison of Adjectives 54
T3. Words which in the Genitive 50. A. First form of Comparison 54
have a Vowel before the end- 51. Second form of Comparison 58
....
.

ing - 43 52. Anomalous forms of Compari-


-, -, son 58
41. I.
- ....
Substantives in
43

CHAP. V.—Adverb.
53. Nature, Division and Formation 54. Comparison of Adverbs 61
of the Adverb . . 60

CHAP. VI.—Pronoun
55. Nature
nouns
56. Personal
....
and

Pronouns
Division

.
of Pro-

.
62
62
60. Demonstrative Pronouns
61. Relative
62.
Pronouns 66
Indefinite and Interrogative Pro-
.
.

.
66

57. Reflexive Pronouns . . 63 nouns . .67


58. Reciprocal Pronoun . 64 63. Correlative Pronouns 68 .

59. Possessive Pronouns . 65 64. Lengthening of Pronouns 69

CHAP. Vn.—Numerals.
65.

66.
merals
Numeral Signs
....
Nature and Division of the Nu-

. .
69
70
68.

69.
Declension of the
merals
Numeral Adverbs
.
first four Nu-
72
73
Summary of the Cardinals and
67.
Ordinals ... 70

CHAP. VHT.— The Verb.


70. Nature of the Verb . . 73 76. Conjugation of the Verb . 75
71. Classes of Verbs . 73 77. Stem, Augment and Reduplica-
72. Tenses . 74 tion. —Verb-characteristic 75
73. Modes . 74 78. Inflection-endings . . 76

74. Participials.
ticiple ....
Numbers and Persons
Infinitive and Par-
75
79. (a) Tense-characteristic
Tense-endings . .
and
76
75.

Verb .... of the


75
79. (b) Personal-endings and Mode-
vowels . . 77
TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX

$80. Remarks on the Personal-endings 105. Remarks on the Characteristic


and Mode- vowels 77 . 117
81 Conjugation of the regular Verb 106. Formation of the Tenses of
in - . . .79 Mute Verbs . .118
82 Remarks on the Paradigm 84
Paradigms of Mute Verbs.
83 Remarks on the Formation of the
107. Verbs whose Characteristic is a
Attic Future . . 84
Pi-mute ..119 .

84. Accentuation of the Verb 85


107. Pure Characteristic , , < 9
85. More particular view of the Aug-
108. Impure Characteristic, in
ment and Reduplication 91
Pres.and Impf. .120 .

85. Syllabic Augment .91 .

109. Verbs whose Characteristic is a


86. Temporal Augment . 92
Kappa-mute 121 . .

87. Remarks on the Augment 92


1 10. Verbs whose Characteristic is a
88. Reduplication . 93
Tau-mute . 121. .

89. Attic Reduplication . 94


90. Augment and Reduplication in B. Liquid Verbs.
Compound "Words 95 .
111. Formation of the Tenses 124
Remarks on Augment and Redu- Paradigms of Liquid Verbs 126
91.
plication ...
-
Verbs in according
96
112.
113. Shorter Paradigms arranged ac-
92. Division of cording to the Stem-vowel of
to the Characteristic, together the Future .128
. .

with Remarks on the Forma- 113. With in the Future 128 .

tion of the Tenses . 96 114. With in the Future 129 .

94.
....
Formation of the Tenses of Pure
Verbs
Verbs which retain the short
97
115. With and in the Future 129
116. Special Peculiarities in the For-
mation of Single Verbs, both
Characteristic Vowel in Form- Pure and Impure 132 .

ing the Tenses . . 98 117. Syncope and Metathesis 134


95. Formation of the Aor. and Fut. 118. Verbs in -
with the Stem of
Pass, and Perf. and Plup. Mid. the Pres. strengthened 134
or Pass, with . . 99 119. Verbs whose Pure Stem is

Contract Pure Verbs . 100 strengthened in the Pres. and


Remarks on the Conjugation of Impf. by inserting before the

Contract Verbs . . 104 ending . . .134


98 Contract Verbs which retain the 120. Verbs whose Pure Stem is

short Characteristic-vowel in strengthened in the Pres. and


Forming the Tenses . 110 Impf. by inserting before

Paradigms of the above 110 the ending . . 135


99. .

100. Impure Verbs . .114 121. Verbs whose Pure Stem is

Stem 114 strengthened in the Pres. and


101. Strengthening of the
Impf. by inserting uv, more
102. Change or Variation
Stem-vowel .
of
.115
the
rarely
ing
,
.
before the end-
. . . 137
103. Remarks on the Secondary
121. (a) av or aiv is inserted without
Tenses . . .116
any change . . 137
A. Mute Veebs 121. (b) av is inserted before the
104. Introduction to Mute Verbs 117 Tense-ending and is inser-
TABLE OF CONTENTS.

ted before the Characteristic- Formation op the Tenses.


consonant of the Pure Stem
137
131. Pirst Class of Verbs in - 151
132. Second Class of Verbs in -ui 153
4122. Verbs whose Pure
strengthened in the Pres. and
Stem is 133. Paradigms of Verbs in - 153
134. Eemarks on the Paradigms 156
Impf. by annexing the two
Consonants or the syllable
Summary op Verbs in -.
139
135. Verbs in -
which annex the
123. Verbs whose Pure
strengthened in the Pres. and
Stem is

135.
....
Personal-endings to the Stem-
vowel
Verbs in -a
163
163
Impf. by prefixing the Eedu- . .

124.
plication .

Verbs to whose Pure Stem is


added in the Pres. and Impf.
. .141
137.
138.
, -,
136. Verbs in -
and
to be,

Verbs in
to go

which annex the


.

166
. .166

syllable vvv or vv to the Stem-


142
125. Verbs whose Stem is Pure in vowel and append to this the
the Pres. and Impf., but which Personal-endings . .169
in other Tenses assume a Stem
139. Verbs whose Stem ends in a
with the Characteristic 143
Vowel and assumes vvv 170
140. Verbs whose Stem ends in a
126. Verbs whose Tenses are formed
from different Eoots, and Consonant and assumes vv 171
which are classed together only 141. Inflection and 172
in respect to signification 146 142. Verbs in -
which follow the
analogy of Verbs in -, in
Verbs in -. forming the second Aor. Act.
- 148
127. Conjugation of
128. Division of
129. Mode-vowels .
Verbs in
Verbs in
.
-
.149
148 143. ,
and Mid.
I know
144. Deponents, and Active Verbs
.173
.

.175
.
.

130. Personal-endings . . 149 whose Put. has a Mid. form 176

SYNTAX,
CHAP. I Elements of a Simple Sentence.
145. Nature of a Sentence.— Subject. 150. Eemarks on the Classes of
—Predicate .179 . Verbs . . . .193
146. Agreement . . .180 151. Tenses and Modes . .198
147. Exceptions to the General Eules 152. More Particular View of the
of Agreement . .182 Tenses . . .198
147b. Agreement when there are seve- 153. More Particular View' of the
ral Subjects . .184 Modes .203
. .

148. The Article . . .185 153. Eemarks on the Modal Adverb


149. Classes of Verbs . . 193 av . . . .205

CHAP. II.— 154. Attributives, Page 207.

CHAP. — 155. The Objective Construction, Page 209.


TABLE OF CONTENTS.

§ 156. Genitive
Cases.
. .

— Genitive
.209 Ace, ,,
166. Prepositions with the Gen.
.
and
235
157. Local Relation.
Separation .

158. Causal Relation of the Genitive


. .209
of
,,,-
167. Prepositions with the Gen., Dat.

,,
and Ace,
, . 237
210 168. Remarks on the Construction of
158. Active Genitive . . 210 Verbal Adjectives in -,
15S. Genitive as the expression of -, -, and on the Con-
Cause . . .215 struction of the Comparative
158. Genitive denoting certain Mu- 243
tual Relations . .217 169. Remarks on the Use of Pro-
159. Accusative . . .220 nouns . . . 244
159. Accusative of Effect . 220 170. The Infinitive . . 248
159. Accusative of the Object on 171. Infinitive without the Article 249
which the action is perform- 172. Nom., Gen., Dat. and Ace. with
ed . . . .221 the Infinitive . .249
160. Double Accusative . 224 173. Infinitive with the Article 251
161. Dative . . . .226 174. The Participle .252 .

162. Prepositions . . .230 175. The Participle as the Comple-


A. Prepositions with one Case. ment of the Verb 253 .

176. The Participle used to express


,,,,
163. Prepositions with the

64. Prepositions with the Dat. only,


Gen. only,
231
Adverbial Relations and Sub-
ordinate Explanatory Circum-
1

, ... 233
177.
stances
The Adverb
.

.
.

.
.

.259
257

,,
165. Prepositions with the Ace. only.
. . 233

Syntax of Compound Sentences.

CHAP. I.— 178. Coordination. Page 263.

CHAP. H.— Subordination


179. Principal and Subordinate 184. Causal Adverbial Sentences 278
Clause .265 185. Conditional Adverbial Senten-
180. Substantive-Sentences
.

181. Pinal Substantive-Sentences in-


.

. 266 ces
186. Adverbial
...
Sentences
.

denoting
278

troduced by , lva y etc. 268 Consequence or Effect 281


182. Adjective-Sentences . 270 187. Interrogative Sentences . 283
183. Adverbial Sentences . 275 188. Oblique or Indirect Discourse 285
183. Adverbial Sentences of Place
and Time . .275
xu TABLE OF CONTENTS.

APPENDIX.
Homeric Dialect.
$ 189. Remarks on the Hexameter 287 The Verb.
190. Quantity . . .289 § 205. Augment. —Reduplication 298
191. Hiatus . . . 290 206. Personal-endings and Mode-
192. The Homeric Dialect . 290 vowels . . . 29<»
193. Digamma . . .291 207. Contraction and Resolution in
194. Contraction. — Diaeresis.— Oa- Verbs 300
sis. — Synizesis. —
Apocope 291 208. Formation of the Tenses 301
-
195. Change of Consonants

196. Suffix
Declensions.
() .
292

.
.

.293
210.
211.
,
209. Conjugation in

, to be

to go
302
.

302
303
197. First Declension . . 293 Verbs in - which in the second
198. Second Declension . 294 Aor. Act. and Mid., in the Perf.
199. Third Declension . . 294 and Pltjp. Act., and Pres. akd
200. Anomalous Words . 296 Impf., follow the analogy of
201. Adjectives . . . 297 Verbs in -.
202. Comparison . . .297 212. Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 303
203. Pronouns . . 297 213. Perf. and Plup. Act. 304 .

204. Numerals . . . 298 214. Pres. and Impf. 304


. .
ELEMENTARY GREEK GRAMMAR.

ETYMOLOGY.

CHAPTER I

THE LETTERS AM) THEIR SOUNDS.


§ 1 . Alphabet.
The Greek language has twenty-four letters, viz.

Form. SOT7ND. Nasie.


A a Alpha
b Beta
7 g Gamma
d
e short -
*
Delta
Epsiloc
Zeta
V e long Eta
- th
i

k
' Theta
Iota
Xappa
*

1 Lambda
^ m Mu
Nu
W
X Xi
short U Omicron
m
< Pi
Q r Rho
s Sigma
t Tau
7
u
ph ' Upsilon
Phi
ch Chi
ps Psi
U long ". Om^ga.
1
2

Remark. Sigma ()
This small
first
may
PRONUNCIATION.

takes the form


be used also in the middle of compound words, when the
part of the compound ends with Sigma e. g.
DIVISION OF VOWELS.

at the

; ,. .
end of a word ; e. g.
[§§ 2, O,

Pr onunciation* of particular Letters.

- § 2 .

a has the sound of in fan, when it is followed by a consonant in the same

, -
syllable, e. g.
consonant which

not final, e. g. ---,


is

;
;

followed
the sound of a in fate,

also
by two vowels,
when
; it
it
the
forms a syllable by
when

has the sound of a in father, when


by a single p, if in the same syllable, and also when it ends a word, except when
first
it

of which
stands before a single

itself,
is or ,
or ends a syllable
it is
e. g.

followed
-
the word is a monosyllable, in which case it has the sound of
--,, , -&, .
, , , before
yap,

Anchises,
the hard sound, like g in
and has the sound of ng in

get.
syncope,
in fate, e. g.

angle, e. g.

larynx ;
,
before vowels always has
ang-gelos,

-, -
has the sound of short e in met, when it is followed by a consonant in the
same syllable, e. g. ; the sound of long e in me, when it ends a

, -, --.
word, or a syllable followed by another vowel, or when it forms a syllable by it-

self, e. g.

l
has the sound of e in me,
has the sound of i in mine, when
e. g. . it ends a word or syllable, e. g. -, ;

e. g. , -.
the sound of i in pin, when it is followed by a consonant in the same syllable,

in the middle of a
of a word, the sound of , e. g. .
word has the sound of x, e. g. ; at the beginning

same
has the sound of short
syllable, e. g. -,
word, or a syllable followed by another vowel, e. g.
- in not, when
in go, when it ends a
-&-.
;
it is

the sound of long


followed by a consonant in the

,,
,,,. =
has the sharp sound of s in son ; except it stands before , in the middle of
a word, or at the end of a word after or where it has the sound of , e. g. ,
followed by never has the sound of sh, as in Latin, e. g. Galatia,
not Galashia.
has the sound of in tulip, e. g. ..
X has
) has
the hard sound of ch in chasm,
the sound of long in note, e. g. .
e. g.

§3. Division of the Vowels. — Diphthongs,


and are always short 7? wels ;
and always long ; , an<J
either long or short.

^
The short vowels are indicated by (~;, * ne lon g hJ (")> e • g•
a, a. The mark (*) sno ws that the vowel may ^ e either lon S or
short, e. g. «.

* For rules on the division of syllables, see § 17.


: :

§ 4.] DIPHTHONGS. —DIVISION OP CONSONANTS. 8

The diphthong's are

ae pronounced like ai in aisle, e. g.

£L
u " ei " sleight, "
01 " oi " oil, M

also «,
VI

€V
OV and
?/
and

and , i.
n
a
u

e. ,
"
"
"
"
and
Mil» " whine,
aw
ezi

oii
" /awe?,

" feudal,
" sound,* "
"
"
"

with an Iota subscript.


,
,
i>ftv£

-These
;

three diphthongs, which are called improper diphthongs, we pro-


nounce like , and without an Iota subscript.
Rem. 1. The following examples will show how the Romans sounded these

,
diphthongs, and

,
diphthong

,
ae, el
how
by
Phaedrus,
I and
they are represented in English
t, by

,,
, y, ot by oe,

Eurus,
ov by
;

u^-%. g.

,
at is expressed

,
, Thraces,
by the

a
,
Rem.
line
2.
Glaucus,
Nilus,
Lyceum,
With
with the vowel;
'&,
the capital letters, the Iota subscript of
e. g. Ai=a, Kt=y,
Boeotia,
Musa,
Ilithyia,

=. , and
Thressa,
tragoedus.

is placed in

Rem. 3. When two vowels, which regularly form a diphthong, are to be pro-
nounced separately, it is indicated by two points called diaeresis, placed over the
second vowel (t, v) ; e.g. , o'i, .
§ 4 . Division of the Consonants .

1. The consonants are divided, first, according to the organs by


which they are formed, into :

Palatals,
Linguals, d t & a
Labials, . ^
. . .— . . . . .
. . . . . . &. . . . . . . .
..
.
Exercise for Reading,

. . . . . .—. . . ..
. ........
2. Consonants are divided again, according to the greater or less
influence of the organs of speech in their formation, into

'.
:

(a) Semi-vowels, viz. , which are called Liquids, and the


sibilant a ;

(b) Mutes^viz. These nine mutes are divided

* By some, however, pronounced like ou in group.


— ; ;

BREATHINGS, §5
(a) According to the organ of speech, into three Palatals, three
Linguals and three Labials ;

(b) According to their names, into three Kappa-mutes, three Tau-


mutes, and three Pi-mutes
(c) According to the stress of articulation, into three smooth Mutes,
three medial Mutes, and three rough Mutes.

SMOOTH. MEDIAL. ROUGH.

Palatals 7 Kappa-mutes

Linguals & Tau-mutes

Labials Pi-mutes.

3. From the coalescence of the Mutes with the sibilant , three


double consonants originate,
\p from

. . . ,.. ,...,.
. .
,.
Exercise for Reading,

, ,
from
from .
.

.
. &.
. -.
, ,
&. -. ,
. . .
, .
.
. ', . *. , &. . .
&.
.
. . —
. —

. § 5 . Breathings.
.
ipi.

1. Every vowel is pronounced with a Breathing this is either a ;

smooth or rough Breathing. The smooth is indicated by the mark


('), the rough by ('). One of these marks is placed over every
vowel which begins a word e. g. The rough breath-
;

ing corresponds to the English and Latin h. The smooth breathing


is connected with every vowel, which has not the rough.
, .
2.

second vowel , &, ..


In diphthongs, the mark of the breathing is

But when
placed over the
the improper

,
; e. g.

diphthongs
the first
a,

vowel
%
;
,
e. g.
are capital letters, the breathing
pronounced like , is

Hades.
placed over

3.

.The liquid is pronounced with the rough breathing, and


hence has the mark of the breathing at the beginning of the word
e. g. When two @'s occur in the middle of a word, the first
§§ 6, 7.] CRASIS AND ELISION. —MOVABLE CONSONANTS. 5

is

.
The
e. g.

. .
pronounced with the smooth breathing, the

, .,.
.
first

. ....
.
has the

Exercise for Reading,


mark of the smooth, the last that of the rough

-.
last with the rough.

eW>

......... '.

§ 6. Mark of Or a sis and Elision (Coronis —


Apostrophe.)
1. The mark of Crasis and Elision is the same as the smooth
breathing.
2. When two words come together, the one ending, and the other
beginning, with a vowel, these two vowels frequently coalesce and
form one long syllable. This coalescence is called Crasis, and the
mark by which it is indicated, Coronis. The Coronis is placed
over the syllable formed by Crasis, and when this syllable is a diph-

., ,
thong, over the second vowel. But the Coronis is omitted, when a
word begins with a vowel or diphthong formed by crasis e. g.

=
= — & = &, ;

Rem. In Crasis the Iota subscript


the last of the coalescing vowels

3. Elision is to
; e. g.

be distinguished from Crasis.



=<
3) is written only
; but
when
=.
the belongs to

It consists in the
omission of a vowel before a word beginning with a vowel. The
mark by which
= . -. Elision is indicated, is called Apostrophe ; e. g.
The Apostrophe is omitted in compound words ;

,
e. g. from

t § 7 . Mo vable Consonants at the end of a word.


Another means of avoiding the concurrence of two vowels in
1.

()
,
two successive words, is by appending a

(a) to the Dat.

& ;
to the third Pers.
PL

;
(called

suffixed) to certain final syllables, viz.


in
universally,
, to the

Sing, and
and
two adverbs,

so also to
all adverbs of place in

PL
; ;
in
;

;
,
e. g.
the last year,

; e. g.

,
()
()
to the third Pers. Sing, in
to the numeral
often omitted ;
,
e. g.
; e. g.

although even before vowels the


and ;
is

*
Rem. In
sections,
follows.
Attic prose, ? CHANGE OF CONSONANTS.

regularly stands at the end of complete


and sometimes before the longer punctuation-marks, where no vowel
[§8.

, 2. The word
vowel, but drops
but . .
its final
(thus) always retains
before another consonant;
So also
its

and
full form before a
e. g. t

3. In like manner

,, . the Prep,
vowels and at the end of a sentence, but before consonants takes the
form ; e. g.
(ex) retains its full

, but
form before

; so also in
composition
4.

;
, So the negative

e. g.
; e. g.

but ov
;
;
but
becomes ov before a consonant e. g.
(not)
and before a rough breathing it becomes
yet not before the aspirate ; e. g. ov .
;

f § 8 . Ch ange of Consonants in Infl ection and


Derivation.
1.

into
A
o" ;
Tau-mute
e. g.

-
&-
-&--&
( &) before another Tau-mute

from
"
"
-&
-& becomes
"
"
&
-.
is changed

2. A Pi-mute ( ) before is changed into ,


a Kappa-mute
a Tau-mute
() Pi-mute -
-
-,
:
(
(
)
#) u
from
"
becomes
"
"
1,
;.

() Kappa-mute
-
-
:
"
"
"
"
"

remains

-
" becomes
() Tau-mute /-. " "

^-
:

"
n
"
-& "
"

. A Pi-mute ( ) with is changed into ,


a Kappa-mute ( ) with is changed into J,

a Tau-mute ( &) disappears before a ; e. g.

.
() Pi-mute: from becomes
" '

" '

a
{) Kappa-mute :
1

" *

* 1

() Tau-mute:
& & " 1

'

'

" .
18•]

Remake 1.

before a Pi-mute
The Prep,
CIIANGE OF CONSONANTS.

before

(
is an exception ;

changed into ,
e. g. , . not

-
4. xp) is

-
-- -
-
-, , &. -
kv
before a Kappa-mute (
before a Tau-mute ( &)
becomes
"
"
"
is
£) is changed into
not changed e.
becomes
"
"
"
;
,
g.

, ,
;

but
Rem.
5.

Rem.
-
-
2.

3.
The
JV before a Liquid

The
enclitics

becomes
"

preposition
form an exception

is

before
- .,
is
; e. g.

changed into the same Liquid

an exception
/,
becomes
"

; e. g.
not

; e. g.

not -
6.

Rem.
- ,,- - .,
iV

4.
is dropped before
nature, remains short after the omission of

Exceptions
becomes

v, e. g.
and " ; the preceding vowel, short
before
becomes

-
o" ; e.g.

e.g. -
by

,
:

,
;

some forms of inflection and derivation in and


;

- -.
; e. g.

- .
from and some few substantives in and The of in com-
position, is changed into before another followed by a vowel ; e. g.

instead of ; but when is followed by a consonant, is dropped ; e. g.


becomes

7. But when is joined with a Tau-mute, both letters disappear


before , and, as a compensation, the short vowel is lengthened be-

-
-
- -& -
fore

-
7-
o",

-&- '
.
namely, e into

becomes
"
"
"
, into >, «, ?, into a,
becomes
"
"
"
i, ; e. g.

8. A
Pi-mute or a Kappa-mute y( ) ( ) before a Tau-
mute, must be of the same order as the Tau-mute, i. e. smooth, mid-
dle or rough. Hence only a smooth Mute (n ) can stand before
the smooth Mute r only a medial ( ) before the medial
; ; only

^ -
-
an aspirate
and yo" cp& and

" -
; e. g.
;

before r becomes
()
before the aspirate

• "
-
77
as
"
: from
"
/3
# ; consequently,

=
=
and ? ;

7
"
"
"
"
"
d

d
"
"
"
"
"
/c

ac

/?

/?
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
«
«
"
/>7
ypa^cj
-
-
=
=
=
=
=
: :

?
oefore
"
"
&
&
becomes
"
"
CHANGE OF CONSONANTS.

"
as
"
: from
"
"
-
-
--&&
-- -&
=

=
[§ 8

•6
.
,
"
"

5.

etc.,
The
#
9•

not by
"
"

, &.
^ "
#
preposition
"

/c
"
" /
does not undergo this change
-- , ;
=
= ^9-??.
e. g. -
9. The smooth mutes {n ) before a rough breathing, are chan-
ged into the cognate aspirates &), not only in inflection and (
derivation, but also intwo separate words. The medials ), (
however, are thus changed only in the inflection of the verb; in

,' ov

- , '',, ' .
'
= ' ov,
(from
=
& ,) ,)-
other cases they remain unchanged hence

,), ) &
(from

, —
,
;

=
=
=

-
(from
= (from ), (from =
=',
=
but
but
not
not
Rem. 6. This change also takes place in Crasis ; e. g. from .
($ 6. 2).

), ^ ,
ged into
When
aspirates (No. 8)
instead of
; e. g.

'-,
two smooth mutes precede an

.
aspirate, they
instead of
must both be chan-
(from ,
10. If, in the reduplication of verbs, whose stem begins with an

-
-
-
be repeated, then the first aspirate
aspirate, this aspirate is to
changed into the corresponding smooth Mute ; thus,
from
"
"
stem
•&
is changed into
i

'

*
-
.
is

The two verbs, &, to sacrifice, and ti&ivai (stem to place, ),


-•&,
11.
-, -, --&,
also follow this rule, in the passive endings

In words whose stem begins with t and ends with an aspirate,*


which begin with & e. g.
instead of -, -. ;

the aspiration is transferred to the smooth r, when the aspirate be-

fore the final syllables beginning with o~, t and , must be changed

into an unaspirated consonant (according to No. 3. 8. 2.) by this ;

--, ,
-
transfer,

, - {-)
, , -- (-^-)--, [) -
is changed into the aspirate &.

, (-)-
is changed into
into
into
Thus

- d

* Some other Grammarians regard the words to which this principle applies,
as having two aspirates in the root but as it is not euphonic for two successive
;

syllables to begin with an aspirated letter, the first must be smooth, as long as
the second remains, and when the second disappears, the first becomes rough
again ; hence (properly but Fut. ), Tit. .—
— —

- ,(-
§§ 9, 10.]

into
has
QUANTITY OP SYLLABLES.

Comparative.
in the
; - ACCENTUATION.

into
(But
, -., from
9

),
Rem.
from
7. Where
),
(stem
,
remain unchanged).
the passive endings of the above verbs,
begin with &, the aspiration of the two
(stem
final con-

;
sonants
-^
changes r,

-/, &--&&
the initial consonant of the stem, into

&--&, -&--&, •&--, --&.


# ; e. g.

Rem. 8. In the imperative-ending of the first Aor. Pass., where both syllables

- &, &.
would begin with •#, viz. --&, not the first, but the last aspirate is changed into

,& -
the corresponding smooth mute, thus e. g. not : ;

12. is doubled, — (a) when the augment is prefixed ; e. g. t§-

qeov ; (b) in composition,

;
when
but
is

).preceded by a short vowel


(from and
; e. g.

CHAPTER II.

SYLLABLES.
§9. Quantity of Syllables.
1. A syllable is short by nature, when its vowel is short, viz. }

, a, t, v,

', '&.
and when a vowel or single consonant follows a short vow-

,";),
el e. g.

, ',
;

A syllable long by nature, when the vowel


2. is is a simple, long
vowel, viz. , , , v, or a diphthong g. ",
77, ; e.

hence contracted syllables are always long;


).
,
e. g. (from (from
3. A syllable with a short vowel
two or more consonants or a double consonant
short vowel e. g.
Remaek. But when a
; ',
,, ,..
short vowel stands before a
is made long by
(
(),
mute and
position,

)
when
follow the

liquid, it regu-

larly
cases,
remains short

composition
one of the three
; e. g. ' ,,.
:

liquids,
e. g.

however, a short vowel before a mute and liquid


; (b)

;
when one
e. g.
'',
of the medials
is made long,

( ) stands before

In two
(a) in

§ 10. Accentuation.
1. The accentuation of a word of two or more syllables, consists
in pronouncing one syllable with a stronger* or clearer tone than

* In our pronunciation of the Greek, however, we do not observe the written


accent; but the Greeks undoubtedly distinguished the syllable on which tho
written accent stands, by a greater stress of voice. Tr.
;;

10 CHANGE OF ACCENT BY INFLECTION, ETC. [§ 11.

the other ; e. g. destructible, immortal. A monosyllabic word also,

must be accented, an indepen


so as to form, in connected discourse, <

dent sound. The Greek language has the following marks of ac-
centuation :

(a) The acute ( to denote the sharp tone e. g.

;
'
), ; ;

(b) The circumflex (~), to denote the protracted tone; e.g.

(c) The grave (* ), to denote a softened acute on the final sylla-


bles of words in connected discourse (§ 12, 1.). The grave
is also used instead of the acute to distinguish certain words
e. g. , any one, and , who ?

,,
Kem. 1. The accent stands upon the second vowel of diphthongs ; and, at the
beginning of words commencing with a vowel, the acute and grave stand
the breathing, but the circumflex over it ; e. g.
But with capital letters, the accent is placed after the breathing, over the first vowel
?], ,. after

of the diphthongs a, y, e. g. ; ".


With the diaeresis (§ 3. Eem. 3.), the
acute stands between, and the circumflex over, the points e. g. ; ,.
2. The
this is long or short ; e. g. , &,
acute stands on one of the last three syllables, whether
; yet upon the

e. g. &, &.
antepenult, only

The
but
when the last is short,

circumflex stands only on one of the last two syllables,


and is not long by position

3.

,
, ,, ,
but that syllable must always be long by nature

.
; e. g.

,
;

it stands upon the penult, however, only when the ultimate is short,

or long by position only ; e. g. (Gen.


-),
.
,,
2.

following names:
According to the accentuation of the

Oxytones, when the ultimate has the acute


last syllable, words have the

•&

, &,
(a) ; e. g. ;

(b) Paroxytones, when the penult has the acute


Proparoxytones, when the antepenult has the
; e. g. ;

&, -
;,
(c) acute; e. g.

,.
(d) Perispomena, when the ultimate has the circumflex; e. g.
(e) Properispomena, when the penult has the circumflex; e. g. -
;

(f ) Barytones, when the ultimate is unaccented; e. g.

t §11. Change and Removal of the Accent by In-


flection and Contraction.
1. When a word is changed by inflection, either in the quantity
of its final syllable or in the number of its syllables, then, according
: ;

§ 11.] CHANGE OF THE ACCENT BY INFLECTION, ETC. 11

to the preceding rules, there is generally also a change or removal


of the accent.
(a) By
(a)
lengthening the final syllable,
A Proparoxytone,
e. g. ;
as ,, becomes a Paroxytone

-
()

()
;
A Properispomenon,
An Oxytone, as
as

-, a Perispomenon
a Paroxytone

; e. g. &.
; e. g.

Yet
this change is limited to particular instances. See § 26,

,
5, (a).
(b) By shortening the final syllable,
(a) A dissyllabic Paroxytone with long penult, as
becomes a Properispomenon ; e. g. but , &,
()

.
;

A polysyllabic Paroxytone, whether the penult


or short, becomes a Proparoxytone ; e. g. ,~ is long

,.
(c) By the accession of a syllable or syllables at the beginning of
a word, the accent is commonly removed towards the beginning of

word e. g. By the accession of syllables at

, &, &&.
the ;

the end of a word, on the contrary, the accent is removed towards


the end of the word e. g. ;

Rem. 1. The
particular cases of the change of accent by inflection, and the
exceptions to the general rules here stated, will be seen below under the accen-
tuation of the several parts of speech.

2. In respect to contraction, the following principles apply :

(1) When neither of two syllables to be contracted is accented,


the contracted syllable also is unaccented, and the syllable which,

traction
=
; e. g. = ,
previous to contraction, had the accent, retains

. but = , it also after the con-


'== ,-
(2) But when one of the two syllables to be contracted is accent-
ed, the contracted syllable also is accented

(?) The

=
=
=
, &&
contracted syllable
penult, takes the accent
when composed of the antepenult and
which the general rules require ; e. g.
=
=
= ;

Jb) The contracted syllable, when it is the ultimate, takes :

(a) The acute, when the last of the syllables to be contracted


has the acute ; e. g. = ;
;

12 CHANGE OF ACCENT. —ATONICS. [§§ 12, 13.

Rem.
() The

2.
circumflex,
tracted, is accented; e. g.

The
when the

exceptions to the principles stated, will be seen below under the


9
first

=?= .
of the syllables to be con

contracted declensions and conjugations.

t § 12. Change and Removal of the Accent in


connected Discourse.
1. In connected discourse, the Oxy tones receive the mark of the grave, i. e.
by the close connection of the words with each other, the sharp tone is weaken-
'. .
ed or depi'essed

.
in the thought

Exceptions.
;

The
5 e. g.

must stand before every punctuation-mark, by which an


e. g. £>

interrogatives , quis ? quid ?


, But
actual division
the acute
is

always remain oxytoned.


-
made

, ,
,

word is omitted, and the word formed


2. In Oasis (§ 6. 2),

from the two has the accent of the


=
s
the accent of the

=
first

second word e. g. ; =
= ;
-,
yet, according

to the general rule (§ 10. 3), the long

,
flex instead of the acute,

'
with a short final syllable
=
3. In Elision
— -&.
when
;
the second
e. g. rd = ,
vowel formed by Crasis takes the circum-
word was a

the accent of the elided vowel goes back as an acute


= ,
dissyllabic paroxytone,

upon
(§ 6, 3),

the preceding syllable


is

,
a preposition or one of the
and
;
yet, when the word,
particles,
the accent of the elided vowel wholly disappears,
,,, from which a vowel has been elided,
or one of the enclitics,
and also when
the lUJcented vowel of monosyllabic words

=
=
'
' •&
is elided; e. g.

'
=
='
= '
' '
=
'
=
= ''
?*, =
=' .
t § 13. Atonies or Proclitics.
Some small words are termed Atonies or Proclitics, which, in
connected discourse, are so closely united to the following word,
that they, as it were, coalesce with it, and lose their accent. They
are:
(a) the forms of the article, , , , ai
(b) the prepositions, iv, in, (ig), into, ix (if), ex, , ad;
(c) the conjunctions, , as, that, so that, when, , if;
(d) (, ), not; but at the end of a sentence and with the
meaning No, it has the accent ; e. g. ().
; : ; :

§§ 14, 15.] ENCLITICS. —INCLINATION OF THE ACCENT. 13

t § 14. Enclitics.
Enclitics are certain words of one or two syllables, which, in
connected discourse, are so closely joined, in certain cases, to the
preceding word, that they either lose their tone, or throw it back
upon the preceding word , . They are

(a) The verbs


second Pers. Sing,
,, to be,
;

and
art, and
,
e. g.

,
to say,

thou sayest
in the Pres. Indie, except the

(b) The following forms of the three personal pronouns

I. P. S. . P. S. III. P. S. )
ol
Dual, PL ()
i

,,
(c)

, , , &,
The indefinite
gether with the abridged forms
pronoun,

,,
through
and , and
all the cases and numbers,
the indefinite adverbs , to-

on the contrary, are always accented


,,,
; ,
, ,, ,",
; the corresponding interrogative words,
e. g. etc.

,
(d) The particles, vvv,
both when it expresses the direction whither
when it serves to strengthen a word e. g. ;
.
; e.
and the inseparable
g. to
particle,
Erebus, and also

t§15. Inclination of the Accent.


1. An
Oxytone so unites with the following enclitic, that the ac-
cent, is commonly grave in the middle of a sentence (§ 12. 1),
which
again becomes acute ; e. g.

?
for for

2. A
"
"

Perispomenon unites with the following


"
"

enclitic
. without
further change of the accent e. g. ;

for for
.
.,
" "

Remark. Long syllables in enclitics are considered in respect to the accen-


tuation as shori ; hence are viewed as separate or compound
words, like

3. A Paroxytone unites with the following monosyllabic enclitic


without further change of the accent ; but there is no inclination

, ,
,
when the enclitic
for
"
? ,,
is a dissyllable
but
"
; e. g.

.
4.

lowing
.
& &-
A Proparoxytone
enclitic,
and a Properispomenon unite with the
and take an acute accent on the last syllable.
for
"

2
for
" .
fol-

14 ENCLITICS ACCENTED. DIVISION OF SYLLABLES. |_§§ 16, 17.

Remark. When
on the preceding ; e. g. .
several enclitics occur together, each throws back its accent

.— .—()
t § 16. ^Enclitics Accented.
1. The ?enclitics at the beginning of a sentence, retain their accent; e. g.

\ [) -&. —But instead of at the be

(), ' ", ,


ginning of a sentence, the form used; also, stands in connection
,,,^
is if it

",
with an
',
. " , , "
, , '
Inf. for
.•—
also after
and after the particles
the pronoun e. g. ; -&. —
,

. — licet videre.

2.

.
and the other persons of the Ind., retain the accent,
rated from the preceding
&,
word by a punctuation-mark e. g. ; "
if they are sepa-
-
3. The enclitic personal pronouns, ,,, ol, {), retain their ac-
cent:
(a) When an accented Prep, precedes
this case, instead of the enclitic
; e. g. ,
forms of the Pron. of the
, .
first Pers., the
In

longer, regularly accented forms are chosen

'
' not
"
,
,
; e. g.

not
"
,
.
, ,
Remark. The unaccented
, , , .
prepositions are united to the enclitic forms ; e. g.

(b) After copulative or disjunctive conjunctions ; e. g. £ , ,


as generally, when the pronouns are emphatic, e. g. in antitheses.
(c) The forms , ol, i, are accented only when they are used as reflexive
pronouns.
4. There
clitic rests,
' ,
is no
disappears
but
inclination,

.
by Elision e. g.;
' but ,
when the accent of the word on which the en-

t § 17. Division of Syllables.


Preliminary Remark. The division of syllables, according to our mode of
pronouncing Greek, depends in part upon the place of the accent.*
The accent (stress) is on the penult in dissyllables, and on the antepenult in
polysyllables, when the penult is short. The accent on the penult or antepenult
is called the primary accent. If two syllables precede the primary accent, there
is a secondary accent on the first syllable of the word.
1. In dissyllables, a single consonant following a or in the penult, is joined
to the final syllable ; e. g. -, -, -, -, -, -. l

2. In dissyllables, a single consonant following or o, is joined to the first

syllable ; e. g. -, -.
* term accent and accented, throughout these rules, is used with reference
to our pronunciation cf the Greek, and not to the written accent on the Greek
words.
;;
,

§§ 18, 19.] PUNCTUATION-MARKS. VIEWS OF THE VERB. 15

e.
3.

g.
The double consonants
-, -, -, -. and are joined to the vowel preceding
But is joined to the vowel
them
fol-

-
lowing

A
-,
tepenult,

4.
it,

-, -, -.

;
-, -,
except

but
in
when
which case
it stands after
it is
or o,

joined with these vowels

single consonant (except in the penult) before or after the vowels a and
or after an accented vowel in the an-
; e. g.

, --,A --.
the accent, -, -, --, --
having the accent, and also a single consonant before or after and having
is joined to these vowels ; e. g.

-, -.
Exception.
-.
single consonant after an accented syllable, and followed
vowels, the first of which is or , is joined to the vowel after it e. g. ;
by two

A
-, -,
ing
-.
5.

-, -, -,
; e. g.-, -, -,
single consonant after a long vowel or
- ;
is joined to the vowel follow-

-.
AException.
having the accent, -, single consonant following long
is
a or in the antepenult, and
joined with the vowel preceding e. g. ;

-, -, -, --, -.
rated
6. Two
e. g.
single consonants coming together in the middle of a word, are sepa

-.
;

AException. mute and liquid are sometimes joined to the following vowel
C. g.

7. When three consonants come together in the middle of a word, the last
two, if a mute and
e. g. --, -, -&. liquid, are
but
joined to the following vowel, if not, the last only

- -,-
8. Compounds are divided into their constituent parts, when the first part
ends with a consonant ; but if the first part ends with a vowel followed by a

-, -, -, \>\-,
ihoft syllable, the compound is divided, like a simple
not
word ; e. g.

so

.
;

t § 18. Punctuation- marks.


The colon and semicolon are indicated by a period at the top of the line j

e. g. •
The interrogation-point is like cur
semicolon ; e. g. ; The period, comma and exclamation-
point are like ours.

CHAPTER III.

§ 19. Some general views of the Verb.


1. The verb expresses action; e. g. to bloom, to strike. In
Greek there are three and mid-

,
classes of verbs, viz. active, passive
dle. The middle has a reflexive signification, i. e. it expresses an
action which proceeds from the subject
and again returns to it, i. e.

an action which the subject performs on itself; e. g. I


:

16

,,
strike myself,, SOME GENERAL VIEWS OF THE VERB.

I advise
In most of the tenses, the middle and passive forms are the same
e. g.

2. At
I strike myself"amd
myself,

lam struck.
present only those forms of the verb are given which are
I defend myself.
[§19.

necessary for translating the exercises that occur before the entire
verb is presented.

Num- Num-

-,
Mode. ber and Present Active. ber and Present Middle or Passive.

Indica-
Person.

-, I advise.
Person.

s. I advise my-

-,
s. 1. 1.
tive. or am advised.
-], self,
2.

3. -,
visest.

-,
it
thou ad-

he, she, or
advises.
we
2.

3. -^
-,
self,

self,
thou advisest thy-
or art advised.
advises him-
or is advised.
we

-,
P. 1. ad- P. 1. advise
vise.
--, ourselves, or are advised.

Impera-
2.

3. -(),
-,
advise.
ye advise.

they
2.

3. -,
-,
selves, or are advised.
advise your-

they advise
themselves, or are advised.

-,
s. 2. advise thou. s. 2. advise thyself,
tive.
--, or he advised.

-,
,
P. 2. advise ye. P. 2. advise your-

Infikit. to advise. --, selves, or he advised.


to advise one-
self, or be advised.

Remark. On the in see

3.

be learned
Also the following forms of the irregular verb , § 7, 1. (b).

to be, may

(),
(), they are
Icr&i, be,
he, she, or it is

, let him, her, or it be


,
,
,
he, she, or it
they were
be ye.
was

I. Vocabulary* and Exercises for Translation.


,
&, , ,
,
,
always. and, even.
', if.

,
, truth.
to speak

manfully, brave-
the
[ly.

, accompany.
w. dat. to follow,

w. gen. and ace. to


?,
,
badly, cowardly.
well.
to flatter.

,
,
,
excel.
to be the

to live.
best,

,
,
eat, corrode.

it has itself, it is.

pleasantly, cheer- ,
contend.
not,
w. dat. to fight,

always placed be-

, ter.
to be lazy.
to write, enact.

to pursue, strive af-


-,
,
d
fully,

mire.
with pleasure.
to wonder, ad-

moderately.
, fore the Imperative
Subjunctive.

ment.
to mourn,
and

la-

* All the vocabularies are designed to be committed to memory before trans-


lating the exercises.
:

§§ 20, 21.]

,
(),
(, ), not. [cate.

to bring up, edu-


7rai'Cw,toplay,joke,playat.
u\ gen. and ace, to
,
SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.

,
, oneself.
to be believed,
to basten, exert

to flee, flee from,


,
",
GENDER.

light in.
to blame,
17

w. dat, to rejoice, to
rejoice at, or over, dc-

drial- shun. *.

Rule of Syntax. The verb agrees with its subject-nominative,


in number and In Greek, as in Latin, the subject of the
person.

.
first and second person of the verb, need not be expressed except

. . .. ,
. ., . .. ,.
,
for emphasis, it being sufficiently indicated by the ending of the verb.

. ".
-
. ,
.. , . . ,
.
?, . .
.
?,,
?.. /,
-
-
I speak the truth. If I speak the truth, I am believed. Rejoice (pi). Mourn
thou not. Thou livest pleasantly. He writes well. It is (has itself) well, to
speak the truth. Always speak (pi) the truth. Eollow (pi). He is well brought
up. Flatter thou not. If thou flatterest, thou art not believed. To be believed,
is (has itself) well. If we^ are lazy, we are blamed. If ye speak the truth, ye
are believed. If they fight bravely, they are admired. If they flee, they are
pursued. Be thou always the best.

CHAPTER IV.
THE SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.
§ 20. Nature and division of the Substantive.
A substantive is used to express a thing or object. There are
two classes of substantives: (a) the names of persons, as man,
woman ; (b) the names of things, as earth, garden,

§21. Gender of Substantives.


The gender of substantives, which is three-fold, as in Latin, is
determined partly by their signification, and partly by their ending.
The last mode of determining the gender will be treated under the
several declensions. With respect to the signification, the follow-
ing general rules apply
2*
: ; ; :; —

18 NUMBER, CASE AND DECLENSION. [§22,

1. Names of males, of nations, winds, months, mountains, and


most rivers, are masculine.
Names of females, of countries, islands, most most

,
2. cities, trees,

and plants, are feminine.


3. The names of the letters and fruits, infinitives, diminutives in
-ov, except the proper names of females, e. g. all indecli-

nable words, and


sound, e. g. , finally,

the
every word used as the mere symbol of a
word mother, are neuter.
4. The names of persons, which have only ohe form for the
Masc. and Fern., are of common gender
goddess.
; e. g. , god and

§ 22. Number Case and Declension.


,

1. The Greek has three numbers, the Singular, the Plural,

and the Dual, which denotes two.


2. It has five Cases, namely

(1) Nominative, the case of the subject


(2) Genitive, the whence-case ;*
(3) Dative, the where-case ;

(i) Accusative, the whither-case

(5) Vocative, the case of direct address.

Rem. 1. The Nom. and Voc. are called direct cases, the others, oblique cases.
Substantives and adjectives of the Neuter gender have the same form in the
Nom., Ace. and Voc. of the three numbers. The Dual has only two forms for
cases, one for the Nom., Ace. and Voc., the other for the Gen. and Dat.

There are in Greek three different ways of inflecting sub-


3.

stantivesand adjectives, distinguished as the First, Second and


Third Declensions.

QUESTIONS
What case ?
:
% &
Rem. 2. In parsing• a substantive, the beginner may accustom himself to an-
1
swer the following questions: what case ? what number ? what declension? wlvat
gender ? from what nominative, e. g. is

ANSWERS
Dative case ;
1

What number ?

&
Plural number ;
WJiat declension ? Second declension ;
What gender ? Masculine gender
From what nominative ? From the Nom. ;

e. g.

nominative , is the Gen. Sing, of the third declension, neuter gender, from the
body.

* See a fuller statement under the Cases in the Syntax, § 156 seq. Tr.
: : ;

§§ 23, 24.] ADJECTIVE. PREPOSITIONS. 19

§ 23. Nature and Gender of the Adjective.


1. The adjective expresses a quality, which is considered either
as already belonging to an object, e. g. the red rose, or one which

- & , ,,& &,


is merely attributed to an object, e. g. the rose is red. In both in-

stances, in Greek, as in Latin, the adjective agrees with its sub-

,
stantive in Gender,
bonus homo, 6

est.
pulchra Musa,
,
Number and Case

pidchrum ver,
; e. g. 6
homo bonus est
Musa pulchra
;

ver pidchrum
est;

2. Hence the adjective, like the substantive, has three genders.


Yet all adjectives do not have separate forms for the three genders
many have

quiet man,
but two separate endings, viz. one for the masculine and
feminine gender, the other for the neuter e. g.

a quiet woman, , a
a
; ,
',
quiet child; several, indeed, have only one ending, which commonly

gender e. g.
exiled woman.
; ,
indicates only the masculine and feminine genders, seldom the neuter
an exiled man, an ,
3. The declension of adjectives, with few exceptions, is like that
of substantives.

§24. General view of the Prepositions.


Preliminary Remarks Before proceeding to the declensions, a general
view of the prepositions will be given as 3
a knowledge of these is indispensable
in translating•.

I. Prepositions with one case. ,


, cum, with, and the adverb

,
,
(a) With the Genitive
ante, before, for, instead of
,
together with.

(c) With the Accusative

,( pro, before, for,


ah, from, by, ,
on, upon, xip, through,

Lat. in with Ace, into, to,

, before a vowel), ex, out of, from,


for the sake of,

Here belong several adverbs which,


on account of
, to,

.
ad.

Prepositions with Genitive ana

-, ,&,
~&
like prepositions, govern the Gen., viz. Accusative.
and before, , through, by ; with Ace. often, on ac

, and
except.
behind,

without, ,
,
count of,

de, down, with Ace. often, through,


super, over, above; with Gen. often,
(b) With the Dative: for.
hv, Lat. in with AbL in, upon,
20 FIRST DECLENSION. —FEMININE NOUNS. [§§ 25, 26.

. Prepositions with Gen., Dat. and , by, near; with Gen. from (prA-

and , Accusative.
around, about ; with Gen.
perly from being near
with Ace. to
some one)
(properly into the pres-

,
often, for,
upon, at ; with Ace. often, towards, ,
,
ence of some one),
before ; with Ace. often, to,

, against,
with; with Ace. often, after,
sub, under.

§ 25. First Declension.


The first declension has four endings, , (or ), and ; a
and are feminine, and masculine gender.

NDINGS.

Singular. Plural. Dual.

Nom. or or at
Gen. 0)V atv
Dat. V a V 9- V
Ace.
-
Voc. a V- ,. , .

§26. I. Feminine Nouns.

, , , , ,
The-Nom. ends in -a or -a, and the a remains in all the
1. (a)

cases, if it is preceded by ,

, ,
form,

in -a

Voc.
(b)
e. g.

;
;

,
wisdom,
the Gen. in -, Dat. in -a.
or (a pure)
utility,

and some proper names

The Nom. ends


in the
Gen.
e. g.

good-will:

-,
e. g.
land,
These make
Here belong also some substantives

Dat. -a.
in -a, which remains only in the Ace. and
;

Gen. and Dat., the -a is changed into -, if it is pre-


; ,
ceded by , , 6, (), , , //, .
(c) In other instances, the Nom. ends in -, which remains through
all the cases of the Sing.
2. When -a is preceded by or a, in some words - is con-
tracted into -, and - into -a. Then the final syllable remains
circumilexed in all the cases.
:

§26.] FIRS! DECLENSION. —FEMININE NOUNS. 21

Paradigms.
a. through all tlie cases.

Sing. Nom. -
-
Justice. Honor. Opinion.

-
Tig-tree.
-()
Gen.
Dat,
V

-
- -
-
-
T7,
Ace.
Voc. -
- -
Plur. Nom.
Gen. -
-
- -
-
-
Dat.
Ace.
Voc. -
- -
-
Dual.N. A. V.
G. and D.
TU
- -.
b. a through all the cases. C. a G. .
(a) long . (b) short a.

S.N. V -
Shadow.

-
Country.

-
Mina.
-()
Hammer . Muse. Lioness.

D. -
- "9 -
-
.
. -
- -
-
..
G. -
-
- -
-
-
D.
.
- -
Dual.
V.
-
- -
- .)
;, , , . ),,
Remark. The feminine of all adjectives of three endings, is like the declen-
sion of the above paradigms ; e. g. ?, the glorious honor;

;-
&,
(contracted from as from the golden robe,

-
the just opinion,
& the hostile land, &
3. The quantity of the endings is given in § 25. The feminine ending -a, is
always long in adjectives ; e. g. free.
4.

(a) The
)
"With regard to the accentuation,
plural ending -a ,
(not ?),
is

(not
it is to be observed that
considered short in respect to the accent; hence

,
;

(b) Theaccent remains on the accented syllable of the Nom., as long as the
laws of accentuation permit.
Exceptions, (a) The vocative from lord;
() In adjectives in
lable as the masculine,
ble permits. Hence
-, -
through
(-), -ov, the feminine
all the cases,
the nominative plural feminine of
is

, ^,
accented on the same syl-
where the nature of the final sylla-

: ;

,,,
22

&, is

count of the long ending

(y)
;
FIKST DECLENSION.—FEMININE NOUNS.

accented on the antepenult,

- and

Dec, the final syllable


In the Gen. PI. of the first
-a, is

.
viz.

a paroxytone,

is circumflexed e. g.
,. ,,,,
-
3
, although the feminine Sing., on ac-
[§ 26.

;
-

, ,, ,, , ,,, )
-
from from But to this there are the following
exceptions: (1) Feminine adjectives and participles in -, - (-), -ov, are ac-
cented like the Gen. of masculines e. g. from
,
;

hut other feminine adjectives and participles, are cir-

,--.
;

cumflexed in the Gen. PI. e. g. ; Gen. PL


— The substantives usurer, anchovy, monsoons,
, (2)

5.
wild-boar,
The
which in the Gen.
accent of the Nom. is
remain Paroxytones, thus
PI.
changed according to the quantity of the final
syllable, as follows

e. g.
(a)

(b)
, Oxytones become Perispomena, in the Gen. and Dat. of all three numbers
-y, -, -, - ; this is true also of the

Paroxytones with a short penult, remain paroxytones through all the


second declension.

,, ' ,,,,
cases, except the Gen. PL, which is always circumflexed on the final syllable
on the contrary, paroxytones with a long penult, become properispomena, when
the ultimate is short, which is the case in the Nom. PL ; e. g. but
; but ; on the contrary, but

,
,.,; (c)
;

Properispomena become paroxytones, if the ultimate becomes long ; e. g.

,
() Proparoxytones become paroxytones, if the ultimate becomes long; e. g.

,
, ,
II. Vocabulary.

,
,
,
-, , injus- -, , poverty.

,
Gen. to promise,
tice.

, to bring on.
?, -, , avarice.

,
, ciousness, prating.
-, ,

-,
loqua-

,
-, , pleasure.
to esteem, hon-

,
often.

-, , inter-

,
,
vera, true. or, worship. course, society.
w. gen., to ab- -, , vice. tero, to wear out,

,
stain from,
from.
keep oneself

,
-, , the heart.
-, , a refuge, ,
,
weaken, tire,

to beget.
plague.

,
,
,
-, , virtue.
-, , violence.
-, , help.
,
,
,
-, , disgrace.
-, , sorrow.
-, , a lyre.
,
,
-, , excess, luxu-
rious indulgence, effem-
inacy.

,
,
be.

-, ,
-, ,
to become, arise,

calumny.
,
,
to loose, free, dispel,
violate (a treaty), abol-
ish.

-, , care.
,
-, ,
-,
densome, troublesome,
oppressive.
friendship.
molesta, bur-

,
justice,

right, a judicial sen- -, , a muse. -cc, , need, inter-


,
, tence.

to, to
w. dat, to give
yield to.
way
,, the.

w. dat, to be-
lieve, trust, obey.
,
course.
as.
§ 26.] FIKST DECLENSION. — FEMININE NOUNS. 23

Rules of Syntax. 1. Transitive verbs govern the Accusative.

Verbs and adjectives expressing the relation of to or for in


2.

-. . . &.. * -.
English, govern the Dative.

. ?<,

.
1

&.
. } . . 3
-.
. .' ?»-&

Abstain ye from violence. Flee thou from vice. Cares corrode the heart.
Flee thou from pleasures. Trust ye not to calumny. The Muses are honored.
Do not give way (pi.) to pleasure. Virtue begets true friendship. The heart
is corroded by cares (dat.). Sorrow is brought on by vice.

,
III.

-, ,
Vocabulary.

,
, -,

,
to lead, bring, con- report, fame,

, ,
A.}cj, every, all.

,,
, duct. reputation.
&, -,
to fall.

,
,
,
,
-, simple.
-,
tea, silver (adj.).
argen• splendid.
to make
good, noble,

straight,

,
",purple
-, much, many.

(adj.).
-,

, ,
', , -, , lightning.
-, , dishonor.
-, , a queen,
rectify.

quickly.
-, , good ad-
,
,
verted.
easily.

-, crooked, per-

,
,
,
dom.
-, , king-

-, , injury. , ministration.
have, hold, contain,
to hold back, re-

,,
,
-, ,
-, ,
(generally)
a robe.
fortune,
misfortunes.
pi.

,
-, , thunder.
-, , the tongue, ,-,
strain. [liant. ferro, to bear, bring.
-,

,?
splendid, bril- awea,
a language. [life. ?., -, magna, great. golden.

. ^ . -
-, , a mode of

'.
-, , change.

.. . ?. . / . .
. ??/.
-&
.
&.7, . 7 . .
/.
Flee from cares.
?.

Vice begets dishonor. Good reputation follows virtue.


The perverted sentence is rectified by good administration. The lightning is
brilliant. Good reputation arises from virtue. Yield not to misfortunes. From
splendid fortunes often arise splendid cares.

2
157. § 161, 2. (a), ()
;

24 FIRST DECLENSION. MASCULINE NOUNS. [§27

§ 27. II. Masculine Nouns.


The Gen. -
,
of masculine nouns ends in -ov ; those in retain the
-
a

, , ,
', ,,
(1) all in
and Voc., and those in
in the Dat., Ace.
the Ace. and Dat. Sing.
-
(2) all substantives in
The Voc. of nouns
; e. g.

- composed
Voc.
of a substantive and a verb
in
retain the
-
Voc.
ends in a,

-
in

. .
e. g.

, ; (3) national
—All other
Voc.
names
nouns
-
- have
— The
in
in ; e. g.

the Voc. in
a salve-seller,

-
a Persian, Voc.
; e. g.
Voc.

, ,
Perses, Voc. plural of masculine nouns does not differ
from that of feminine.
-
, .
Rem.

proper names
1.

from
Several masculine nouns in

; e. g. ', -, ,
patricide, matneide, &&,
have the Doric Gen. in

-d ;
fowler; also several
finally, contracts in
d,

-
namely,

; e. g.

Paradigms.

Sing. N.
Citizen.

()
'
'
Mercuiy. Youth.

&
-
-&-&
&
Fowler. Boreas.

'
-
-&
G.
D.

' -- .
Dual.
A.
V.
Plur. N.
G.
D.
A.
V.
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
--
&-
& ,,
&&
-&-&
-&-
Rem.
manner
-&
. ;
2. Adjectives of one ending in
e. g. ,, a
- and -,
trilling citizen,
are declined in the
&
same

,
;
a lonely youth, uoviov

-, , a pra-
IV. Vocabulary.
ness with , to be ,
,
w. gen., to strive

,
,
;

&,quiet. after.

,
ter.

-, , the sea. w. dat,


to hear.
&, it is be•

,
, tor.
-, , an audi-

w. ace, to injure.
-, , a master.
&,
,
-, , a spectator.
to learn, study.
w. dat. of the person
,
,
coming,

coming,
it

w.
it

-, , wisdom.
becomes.
dat., it is be-

becomes.

, der,
-, , good or-
decorum.
-, , quiet, still-
, and gen.
concerns.

sailor.
•, ,
of the thing, it

nauta, a ,-, -, , art.


, luxurious,
riotous, voluptuous.
§ 28 SECOND DECLENSION. 25
J

Rule of Syntax. One substantive governs another in the Geni-

tive, when the latter signifies a different thing from the former.

. ,..
.,,,,...&,. ,,
The substantive in the Gen. defines or explains more particularly

the one by which it is governed.

",...' . . .
, .
. -
- 2
1

Learn. youths, -isdom ! Good order becomes citizens. YVe admire tha
•wisdom of youths. Shun, citizens, injustice ! To the Spartans there wa*
great fame (?'. e. they had great fame). Keep yourself from voluptuous youths
Elee from praters. Keep yourself from a prater. It becomes an auditor and a
{}

, ,,, ,,
spectator to observe stillness. Flee from a voluptuous youth.

V. Vocabulary.
-, , justice, -ov, , a thief. -ov, , a sol
w. gen., to care -ov, , a judge. dier, a warrior.

,
, , ,
for,

care.
,
,
friend.
take care

-ov, , a
of,

lover,
take

a
', -,-, ,,
rely upon.
w.
shipwreck,

dot., to
a servant.
trust,
tist
-, ,

to nourish, support^
keep, bring up.
an ar

. - . , ..
wonderful.

. " .. <& .., .


"
-, admiranda,
be believed.
to

3
be trusted, -, , a liar.

The
'. Persians flee.
'
Justice becomes the judge. It is theduty of a soldier to
fight for the citizens. Flee from a liar. Trust not Bars. Art supports artists.
We admire Hermes. Soldiers fight. Liars are not believed.

§28. Second Declension,

.
The second declension has two endings, -og and -ov ; nouns in -og
are mostly masculine, but often feminine nouns in -ov are neuter. ;

Feminine diminutive proper names in -ov are an exception e. g. ;

2 3
158, 3. (b). § 158,6.1. (b). with the Gen., it is the duty of any
4
one, see § 158, 2. § 158, 6. 1, (b).

3
SECOND DECLENSION. §28.

Endings
Singular. Plural. Dual.

Nom. ov 01 O)

Gen. OIV
Dat 9 OLV
Ace. ov
Voc. and ov. 01 . 0).

Paradigms,

S.N. b -
-
Word.

-
Island. God.
-
•&
Messenger. Pig.

G.
D.
A. -
-
-&
•&
P.N.
V.
-
-
-
•&
-&
G.
D.
A. -
-
-
-&
•&
•&
.-
V.
D.
-otv
$
Rem. 1. The Voc. of words in - commonly ends in , though often in ;

e. g. and ; always -&.


Rem. 2.

—The plural ending


spect to the accent,
On the accentuation, the following
accent remains on the tone-syllable of the
final syllable permits

is
; the Voc.
-,
from
like -ai in the first declension
considered short.
,
observations are to he noted
Nom. as long as the quantity of the

The change
brother, is


an exception.
26, 4. (a)],
of the accent is
with
the
: The

re-

same
as in the first declension (§ 26, 5.), except in the Gen. PL, where the accent re-

, ,& ,-
tains the place, which it has in the Nominative. See the paradigms.
Rem. 3. Adjectives in -, - (a), -ov, in the masculine and neuter, and those
-
,
of two endings in (Masc. and Pem.), -ov (Neut), are declined like the pre-
ceding paradigms e. g. a& , -&, good,

,
;

,
a good speech, -bv a good child,

very beautiful, a very beautiful speech,

,a very beautiful form, a very beautiful child. Adjec-


two endings in -, -ov are almost all compounds. Adjectives of three
tives of
- - -
, ,
endings in preceded by , or, and those in preceded by p, like nouns

, -, -,
of the first declension, in -a pure and -pa, have the Nom. Pem. in -a ; e. g.

-, -, -, -.
Rem. 4. It will be seen by the following paradigms, that, in adjectives in -,
- (-a), -ov, the masculine and neuter are declined like the second declension,
and the feminine like the first
§28.1 SECOND DECLENSION. 27

-
-
-
) -
- - -
-, ?-
Paradigms of Adjectives
-
- -
-,
- - -?- )1-
--
S.N. good

- -?]
lovely
G. &)
D.
A.
-
- -
- --
- - -
- -
- -
-
1
)
9--
/U-OV

- --
V.
P.N.
G.
D. -
&-
- - &- ?-
-
- -
-
- -
7-
-
-
Dual.
A.
V.
-
-- -- &-
&-. -. -
- -.
?- -
-OL

,
, -, , a good &,
, ,
-,
VI. Vocabulary.
-ov, b, an enemy. ,
, -ov, o, wine.

,
thing, an advantage. -ov, b, God, a god. to grant, afford,

,
,
&,
,
senger.

cher.
/,,
-ov, b, a mes-

-ov, b,
-ov, b,

-ov, b,
a man.
a

a slave.
tea-
, , ,
, , ,,
good;
-,
-ov,

-,
-, bad, wicked.

-,
an

ness,beauty,or the beau-


tiful.
evil.

beautiful,
good-
offer.

-,
trustworthy.
-,
-ov, b,

-,
-a,
-, faithful,

many.
a friend,
-ov, dear.
-
-ov, , an action,

, -ov, b, danger. w. gen., to care

/,
,
a work, a business.

ble, splendid.
-, -, good, no-
,
,
-ov,

report, reason.

,
b, a word, a

w. gen., to take
for,

bout
trouble oneself a-
: w.
on, think about.
ace., to reflect

, ion, a
-ov, b,

friend.

-, ,
Rule of Syntax.
a compan-

good
[tune.
for-

A
part

mix.
in.

misceo, w. dat., to
to rejoice.

.
subject in the neuter plural usually takes

&
& .
& *&
&
. '/
a singular verb.

&./ . - .
& .(& .-,
,. . , -.
. , . /.
. 3
1

5
~&?
-

Follow the words of your (the) teachers. God cares for men. Men worship
God. Dangers accompany many actions. Grant, God, happiness to my (the)
friend !
Keep yourself from the bad man. I rejoice over the noble youth.
Trust not the word of a liar, my (0) dear young man.

161, 2. (a), (). 2


§ 158, 3. (b). § 158 6. I. (b).
* §161, 2. (a), 5
(). § 161, 2. (c).
28 CONTRACTION OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. [§29.

,
-,
-,
worthy, worth.
-, w. gen., , VII. Vocabulary.

•&, -,
-, ,
,
death.
the Deity.
, -a, -ov,

-ov,th.e
young,
youth, the young
,
w. ace. of the per- -&, -, the mind,
,
man.

,
,
son and gen. of the
to free from, release.
-, ,
-, ,
thing,

silver. ,
,
courage.
-&, -, , a door.
to shut, fasten.
-, , a pupil,
-, , a disease, an
illness.

,
(before an aspirate
),
in-

,
life, a liveli- a stead of not.

,
,
,
hood.

vice.
-, , counsel, ad-

-, ,
[rel.

,
learner.
-, , a measure,
moderation.
-, ,
,
,
-, 6,
hardship.

, -, , silence.
-, , time.
trouble, toil,

&
a quar- a bolt, a
to rejoice, glad- lever. [ble. -, , gold.
den, cheer.

To , .
..
,-, -, innumera-

&
.- •&.

- &.
^
1

-
.
,
By
*.
death
. &
- .. .
- 4

men are freed from troubles and evils. By


(dot.)
2

(, w. gen.) the
Deity the bad man is brought to justice. The bolt fastens the door. Art sup-
ports theman. My (0) dear pupil, strive after wisdom and virtue. Diseases
weaken men. My friends, follow the words of the judges.

§29. Contraction of the Second Declension.


1. A small number of substantives, where or s precedes the
case-ending, are contracted in the Attic dialect.

Paradigms

S.N.

D.
A.
V.
G.

7
Navigation. Circumnavigation.

? Bone.

P.N.
G.
D.
A.
V.
Dual.

1
§157. 158, 7. ().
3
§ 161, 3. §
.
158, 3, (b).
§ 29.] CONTRACTION OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. 29

- - (-), -
,,
Rejiakk. Here belong, (a) Multiplicative adjectives in (-),
(-) g. /^, -, -, simple; — (b) Adjectives
; e. of two endings in
-oo (-) Masc. and Fern., and -oov (-ovv) Neut. e.g. ;

well disposed, which differ from the declension of substantives, only in not con-

, , ,

-
tracting the neuter plural in -oa
(-), - (-,7), - (-),
; e. g.
which denote a material; e.
golden. AVhen a vowel or
; (c) Adjectives in
g.

precedes

- ,,- ,--,,- ,
the feminine ending -, - a is not contracted into -, but into -a, ($ 26, 1)5

e.g.

- Paradigms
woollen.

silver.

- -- --
.

S. . -
Golden.

?
7*
Simple.

G.
D.
.
? ? ?,
?. ?. /,
? ?/?.
V.
P. .
G.
D.
A.

Dual.
V.

. ? ?.
Accentuation. The
= , ,
following are to be noticed as exceptions to the rules in
= ,
, ,,?. , ,
§11,2: (a) instead of (b) compounds ;

and polysyllabic proper names, which retain the accent on the penult, even

=
,
when as a circumflex, it should be removed upon the contracted syllable e. g.
instead of ; = instead
;

(c)

,,
;

= instead of and -, -,
- ; e. g. =
basket,
=
also adjectives in

- - — '-,
instead of
= instead of
;

,
finally, substantives in

nephew.
== ; e. g.

, -,
-,
VIII. Vocabulary.
—, both—and.

,
unknown.
7}$, -,

-= ,
-,

= -,- = -,
,

imprudent, irrational.
= -, - =-,
uncertain,

truth. , with.
w. dot.,

= -,- =-,
well-wishing,
to disclose.
to alleviate.
to contend

well-dis-
,,a
,-,
, , =
= -,- = -.
basket.
-,

to say, call or
, a mir-
,a
- = -,
[ror.

goblet,
name.

, made of
-, ,
silver.
silver,

bread.
i. e.

,-, posed, kind.

servant.
, a female ,
the mind.
the understanding,

3*

30

,
, -, -a, few.
ATTIC SECOND DECLENSION.

^, -, , plebs, the ,- -,
= -, - = -%
6, a
[§30.

bridle.

', - = , -, ,
-, , anger. common people. [to.
-, , Orestes, to bear or bring = -, brazen.
=j=, -, -, , sleep, slum- -, -, , the soul.
, a bone. ber.

.
Rule of Syntax. One substantive following another to explain
it,

case.

.. .&
and referring to the same person or thing,

- .
This construction is called Apposition.
is put in the same

} -& . ..
-& . "
&.-., &. .. * .
',
2 '.
3
.
The understanding is a teacher to men. The well-disposed friend is honored.
Keep yourself from the irrational. Strive after a well-disposed friend. Bring
bread in a basket. Honor, young man, a simple mind Flee from impru- !

dent youths. Trust, friend, well-disposed men Young men are often im- !

prudent. The goblet is golden.

§ 30. The Attic Second Declension,


Several words (substantives and adjectives) have the endings -,
(Masc. and Fern.) and - (Neut.), instead of - and -ov, and re-
tain the - through all the cases instead of the common vowels and
diphthongs of the second Dec., and place under the -co an Iota sub-
where the regular form has - - and -a be-
script,

come
-
-
-, -ov and
become -,
;

and
become -,
-
or

and
-- ; ,-
- -
-
;

and
thus, -ov
-,; and
remain unchanged.
-
The Voc. is the same as the Nominative.

Sing. N.
G.
-
People.

-
-
-
Paradigms.
-
-
Cable.

-
-
-
-
-
-
Hare. ,
-
-
-
,Hall.

D.
A.
- - - -
Plur. N.
V.

G.
D.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
D. N. A. V.
G. and D.
1
A.
V. -
-
- -
- -
- -
-
§ 161, 2. (a), (). § 161, 5. (a). § 161, 5.
§ CO.] ATTIC SECOND DECLENSION. 31

, Singular.
' ,Plural. Dual.
N.
G.
D.
A.
V. -, , , '.
. , ,,, ,
,
Some words of the Masc. and Fern, gender reject the in the Ace.

, ,
1.

.,
Sing., namely, the hare, and and commonly tlie

dawn, ?,, a threshing-floor, "&, and the adjec-


tives not old, full, guilty.

2. Accentuation.

all the cases of all numbers, the two syllables

..
and
as it were, but one yet those with a long penult, as
;

Oxytones in -,
-
Proparoxytones retain the acute on the antepenult in
etc. being considered,

are paroxytones
in the Dat. Sing, and PL, and also in the Gen. and Dat. Dual e. g.
, retain this accent even in the Gen.;
-,
, ,- ;

e. g.

, ,
instead of

, IX. Vocabulary.

,
',
,
, brave.
-,
old, unfading.
-ov,
not getting

, an eagle.
-ov, captured.

-d, -ov,

,a
manly,
,
,wait

&,
for.

man, a sportsman.
&,
w. dat, to

-, ,

-ov,
praise.
to pray, beg.
,
Lie

a hunts-
in

,
,
,
,
gain.
-, , a

-id,
to take, receive

-,
temple.
-ov,

-, easy.
to honor, rever
most

, room.
-, hall, a

,
•, -,
to hunt, catch.
merciful. ,
,
ence.
-, , a peacock.

, to lead away.
, -, , a rope.
, -ov, , a son.
to walk, go, pro-

. to found, build.

.-
as, just as.

...
ceed. , -, , a hare.

&. --. ?.
1

#.
Ov
. ?^ --
. ?.
& 2
. &
1

We build beautiful temples to the gods. To walk on a rope is not easy.


The huntsmen hunt hares. God
Worship the merciful God. By
is merciful.
the Samians beautiful peacocks are kept in honor of Hera (say, to Hera). Keep
yourselves, citizens, from the irrational multitude Get out of the way of !

(, w gen.) the irrational multitude. The huntsman strives after (pursues)

,
hares.

',
, .
to call.
dot., to please.
, X. Vocabulary.

tue.
-, , bravery, vir-
palace.
-, ,a royal

1
§ 161, 5. § 161, 5. (a).
; — :

— CASE-ENDINGS.
,
32

,-,•,., worth-
-, ,
THIRD DECLENSION.

a wife. , ,-,
-, -, the dawn.
to, a wild
,
7, ov, 6,
[§§ 31, 32.

a poet.
-ov, rosy-

,
,'
-, less,

produce.
bad.
to bring

-ov,
forth,

[ous.
danger-

.. ,
, beast,

cred
an animal.
-a, -ov,

to.
w. gen., sa-
fingered.
-, ,

. •
a pillar,

*
01

. "
'?
.
?. .
?\.
-.?...
Menelaus is admired for his bravery. In the royal palace are splendid rooms.
Huntsmen catch peacocks. Peacocks are beautiful. Trust not the speech of
the people, citizens The huntsman lies in wait for peacocks. Good citi-
!

zens flee from the irrational multitude. Youths lie in wait for hares. The pil-
lars of the temples are beautiful.

§31. Third Declension.


The third declension has the following Case-endings

Singular. Plural. Dual.


Nom. f Neut. — ; Neut. a
Gen.
Dat. I
— ()
Ace. and a Neut. —a
;
;

Voc. mostly as the Nom. Neut. —. .


These endings are appended to the unchanged stem of the word ; e.g.
an animal, Gen. --.
§32. R em arks on the Case-endings.
The pure stem is frequently changed in the Nom. of masculines and femi-
1.

nines. But this is found again by omitting the genitive ending &- -
, a raven, Gen. pa -.
2. Neuters exhibit the pure stem in the Nominative.
e. g.

Yet the euphony of the


;

{
Greek language does not permit a word to end with r. Hence, in this case, r
is either wholly rejected or is changed into its cognate

g
&
(

J
j
e. g.

()
() 1
;

[
-
- -
(-) -
-
or

The Accusative
- singular has the form in with masculines and feminine»

.
3.

-, whose stem ends in -, -, -av and -


in -, -,
Stem Nom.
and
' Ace. Stem Nom.
; e. g.

Ace.
.
, ,,- , , -. ,
vavv
But the Ace. lias the form in -a, when the stem ends in a consonant ; e. g.
— —
: —

§ 33.] THIRD DEC. GENDER, QUANTITY AND ACCENTUATION. 33

Yet barytoned substantives in - and -, of two or more syllables, whose


stems end with a Tau-mute, in prose, have only the form in -v ; e. g.

Stem
-
-
kpi 5 Nom. Ace.

, .
bpviv

4. The Voc. is either like the Nom. or the stem. See the Paradigms.
5. On see § 7, 1, (a).

§33. Gender, Quantity and Accentuation of the


Th ird Declension.
I. Gender. The gender of the third declension will be best learned by obser-
vation. The following rules, however, may be observed
-, -, - -, -), -, -,
()
(except
those in
,
(a) Masculine; (a) Substantives in

-,
-
hand),
-, -, -
(except
(Gen.
,
-), -
--),
, —
(Gen.
fire),
(Gen.
(except
-, with
ear)
several
;

exceptions.
-
-
-,
(b) Feminine;
(Gen.
-
-)
(Gen.
;
(a)

-, --
Substantives in
;

-), with several exceptions.


(except ,
(Gen. -), -, -, -, - and
comb)
Those in
;

-
() those in
vary between the
-, -,

Masc. and Fern, gender.


(c) Neuter; All substantives in -, -,
starling), - (Gen. -, -, except , -op,

a
-, -,
stone),
-, -ap, (except
and contracts in -.
,
. Words whose Nom. ends in -, -, -, -, and -, -, -

, ,-,
Quantity.
-, have the penult of the Cases which increase, either short or long, according

coat of mail, -,, *, reed, ,,


as the vowel of the above endings is short or long by nature e. g.
ray, -, but
;

clod,

',
,,,-, -,,-.
,, ,, ,
.
hope,
Accentuation,

deed,
-.
(a) The

swallow,
but
accent remains, through the several Cases, on the
accented syllable of the Nom., as long as the laws of accentuation permit

particular exceptions will be noticed in the paradigms,


name,

(b) Words
but
;

of one syl-
e.
'

The
-
g.

,
lable are accented, in the Gen. and Dat. of all Numbers, on the final syllable,
-
the short syllables
and oiv, the circumflex;
-, - and
e. g.
-,
<5
,,,
taking the acute, and the long syllables
{).
Exceptions.

, , , ,, , , The following monosyllabic substantives are paroxytoned in the


Gen. PI. and in the Gen. and Dat. Dual •&,

,,,
torch, slave,

, ,,, ,,,, ,,,


:

Gen.

.
jackal, ear, moth, Trojan,
, child,

(),, ,
Gen.

, , ,
should also be taken of
a

Gen.
burning,

but
all,
Gen.

every,

().
Gen.
light ; e. g.

Dat.
Moreover, notice
but
34 THIRD DEC.— STEMS ENDING IN A CONSONANT. [§34

A. Words which in the Genitive have a consonant be-


fore THE ENDING i. e. WORDS WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A
-0£,

CONSONANT.
§34. I. The Nominative exhibits the pure stem.
The
() - ),
Stems which end in -vt
the r according to § 32, 2 ; ,
case endings are appended to the unchanged Nominative.

--, , hence
and (
Gen.
must drop

Gen.

S.N.
--.
-
- -
o,

-
-RdlUV
-
- -
-
Paean. , Age.

-
-
, Xenophon. , Month. , Nectar.

-
-
G.
P.
- -L -t

A.
V.
- -
- -
- -
-
P.N.

Dual.
G.
D.
A.
V.
-
-()%
- - -
- - -
'- -
- -
-()
-otv
'-()* ^,•()^ -()*

atwv-oiv
-
- -,-.,
,
,
,.
,
,
Rem.

.
1. The
threshing-floor,
three words in Gen.-, viz.

can be contracted in the Ace. Sing,


The
preserver, contrary to the rule [§ 33, III. (a)],
-,
three substantives, ', after

have in the Voc.


dropping

",•
v, thus,

and

Rem. 2. The neuters belonging to this class all end in -p [-ap, -op, -, - ) ;

(Gen. -), fire, has long, contrary to § 32, 2.

,,,
XI. Vocabulary.
, -,
-,
,
song.
to sing, celebrate in
dant.

-,&,-, ,
to bloom, be ver-
,-,-, fire.

zeal

,
-, ,
to read.
aevurn, an
,
-&, , a wild beast.
a lyre.

-, , a mixing
,
,
ous,
serious.
diligent, earnest,

,
age, a space of time, to delight.
time, lifetime. bowl, goblet. w.dat.,to delight
-,
to
, a book,
know, think, ,
, -,
-,, a meadow.
to wash. >
, ,
in, or be delighted
, the hand.
at.

judge,
-, -, ,
try, perceive. , a war-
,, -, , a dance.
a feast.

.'
.
song, a song of victory,

. , a wasp.

&.
,,,,
-.
-
-d

* Instead of § 8, 6 and 7.
.
. . . .'& -
§35.]

wasps.
are sung
Flee from
. &}
Flee from the wild beast
THIRD DEC.

Ho?J.oi

The meadow
by
vile
(, w.
()
is
— STEMS LENGTHENED IN THE

verdant.
Wash

gen.) the soldiers.


wasps. Many
your (the) hands.

We
.

Soldiers delight in war-songs.


Keep

delight in beautiful
are friends of the bowl.
yourself from
War-songs
meadowe.
Poets pray to
SO

Poseidon.

§35. II. The Nominative lengthens the short final


vowel of the stem, or into .
, According
instead of .
to § 32, 2. stems in vz must drop in the Nom. ; e. g.

S.N.
G.
,
-
-
Shepherd.

-
, A Divinity. ,

- -
7- &-
- -
&- -
Lion.

-
,
'- Air. , Orator.

- -
D. (yfjTop-t
A.

- -- (
P.N.
V.

G.
D.
- -()* -()* ()^ - -
-
?- &-
-
&- /-
-
-- (-
'-&

'•&-() /-()
Dual.
A.
V.
-
- .

-
- 7- -&-
&- -ocv
-
-.
Rem. 1.

.
Oxytoned substantives of this
class retain in the Voc. the long vowel

,
(,

, .
) ., Rem.
)

and
; thus,

2.
from

hand, Gen.
The Voc.
brother-in-law, is an excep-

tion; its accent also differs from the fundamental rule [§ 33,
difference occurs also in the Voc. of
Comp.
-,
§ 34,
(a)].

Rem. 1.

etc.
.
', - ',
This
viz. -,
has in the
}

Dat PI. and Dual -


, ,
,

/, ,
Rem. 3. The following in
, ,-,— -, Gen. reject the in particular Cases,

,
and suffer contraction image, Gen. and Dat. Ace.

,,
:

and

Rem.
;
,
,,
Ace.
should be noted
PL

swallow, Gen.
Here belong:
:

(a) the
and the irregular accentuation of
nightingale,

-—
two adjectives
Dat.
,
Gen.
.
, ,
and Dat

,,
4. father-
less,

(Neut)
,
and
male, Gen.
motherless,

;

Gen.
(c) adjectives in
; (b) the adjective
-
(Masc. and Fern.), -ov
and comparatives in -, -ov,

,,,
; e. g. fortunate,
or -, -iov. These comparatives, after dropping admit contraction in the

1
§ 161, 2. (c). * Instead of see § 8, 6 and 7
—STEMS LENGTHENED IN THE .
, .-
36 THIRD DEC. [§ 35.

from the rule [§ 33, III. (a)]. But compounds in


Voc.
-
Ace. Sing, and in the Nom., Ace. and Voc. PL In the Voc. the accent differs
follow the rule; e. g.

Fortunate. More hostile. Greater.


S.N.
G.
D. -- -&
A.

- and and

P.N.
V.

&&
() -
G.
D.
-&() ()
.
A.

Dual.
V.

.
& . like the Nominative. like the Nominative. like the Nominative.

,. ,
,
",
, , ,
too much, too.
- , , , herd, a flock
Vocabulary.
-, , a
,
leader, to do, act; w. adv.,

,
-ov, a pun- to fare.

, -ov, unjust.

-,
isher.
-, , a
-ov, sound-mind-

, -, ,,,
,&, , , odker, harbour. ed, wise, sensible.

the heavens. to dwell. high-mind-

,
-ov,

, , , an old -ov, , a way; with ed, haughty.


-, ,
,, - ,
man. [nity. to retire from the pi.

, -, , , a divi- way. the understanding, the

, , , -, ,
the mob.
the people, -,
-ov,

-, ,
-,
happy.
and mind or spirit.

to guard, look

. w.acc, a herds-
well, after, defend.

. to

'&. "
Tbv

.
.,
do well

- ... ,,
&to. man, a shepherd.

.
.-
Do
" . ,
well
.. (pi.)
.
men. Beverence (pi) the Deity. The flocks are guard-
to old
ed by the shepherd. Follow a good leader. Go, youth, out of the old man's
•&

way. The mob often follows bad leaders. The spirit (pi) of man is worn out
by (dot.) oppressive cares. Keep yourself from the bad man, as from a bad
harbour. The flocks follow the shepherds. Ye (0) gods, guard the good old
men.
STEMS LENGTHENED IN THE .
,
§36.] THIRD DEC.

, ,, ,
§ 36. The following substantives in -?]q belong to the preceding
paradigms, viz. 6
ter,

which
belly,
father,

from those of the above paradigms only in rejecting


differ
mother,
Demeter (Ceres) and , daugh-
man,

in the Gen. and Dat. Sing., and in the Dat. PI., and in inserting an
a in the Dat. PI. before the ending -at, so as to soften the pronun-
ciation.The word (stem ), rejects in all Cases and
Numbers, except the Voc. Sing., but inserts a , to soften the pro-
nunciation. »

Sing. N.
-
,

-
Father. , Mother. ,
& Daughter. , Man.
--
G.
D.
-
- & --
--
-
A.
V.
--
Plur. N.
G.
D.
-
--()
-
() &() --
----()
-- -
&
d
--
-
A.
V.
D.N.A.V.
G. and D.
--
--.
, -, .-
..
Remark. Also the word a star, which has no syncopated
form, belongs to this class on account of the form of the Dat. PI. The

,
word
but Ace.
has a varying accent, via. . , Voc.

, Vocabulary.

,. ,
#, -, ,
,
, -,
reward.
-, ,
a prize,

the belly.
a slave to,
for.
serve,

to hate.
work to love, to
tented with.
be con

w. dat, to com

. ,
w. dat., to be a -, -, wise. ply with, oblige, gratify

,
??
* & ..
... '& •&
/
.. ,
,-
3
2

. ?*, 1

, . "
.,,
-&
..&,&
161, 2. (a), ().
2
§ 161, 2. (c).
6

} -&.
§161 2. (d).
viol

?„{

6
161, 2. (a), (). §161, 5.
— —

38 THIRD DEC. . APPENDS 6 TO THE STEM. §37.


Love, youths, your (the) fathers and mothers! Consult not with had
men. Good daughters cheerfully follow their (the) mothers. We admire a
good man. Obey, my dear youth, your (the) father and mother. Gratify, dear
father, thy (the) good son. Pray to Demeter. Strive, son, after the reputa-
tion of thy (the) father. The prize of wise men is virtue.

§ 37. The Nominative appends to the stem.


(a) The stem ends a Pi or Kappa-mute , ,
in ; , ,,.
On the coalescence of these with so as to form and ?, see § 8, 3.

Sing. N.
G.
,
-
-
Storm. ,
-
Raven.

-
-
,
-
-
Throat.

- -
D. -L

A.
V.
- •
Plur. N.
G.
D.
A.
V.
-
()
-
- -
()
- -
[)
-
D. N. A. V.
G. and D. KOpUK-OLV -.
, -,,
-, -, -)
- - (Gen.
-)
Remark. Here belong
; e. g.

Gen.
Gen.
one-horned;
adjectives in
-, ,
', -, -,
rapax,
(Gen.

Gen.
Gen.
high.
and
aequalis,

, , ,
,
XIV. Vocabulary.
-, , a -, , a -,
, -, , -,
,
,
,
,

cock.

but.
-, , a song.
contest,
a goat.
, a ,
, raven,

a whip.
—,
to croak.
-, , a
truly
crow, a

scourge,

— but; on
,
--,

,
,
-,

, -, ,
-,
-ov,

,
, a quail.
, a dance.
the voice.
-ov, laborious.

,
a flute.

a grass-'

,—, to drive.
-, , a horse.
— and,
the one
other
,
:
hand,—on the
used in antithe- ,
,-,-, hopper.
, an
[tor
impos-

,, ,
. ,&-&. . . -
both ses seldom to be , a harp,

, -,
;

well as. translated. the counte-


, a flatterer, -, °> an ant. nance.

/ 1
01

..
}.
.
2

.
,
§157.
01

161, 2. (c).
, Tac

§38.J

The raven
.
THIKD DEC-

croaks.
.
?. ,
Flee from the
.
APPENDS

flatterer.
o" TO THE STEM.

Keep yourselves from impos


.
39

tors. Men are delighted by the harp. The horee is driven with the whip. The
shepherd sings to the flute. The life of the ant and of the quail is laborious.
The shepherd guards the goats. Flutes delight shepherds.

§ 38. (b) The stem ends in a Tau-mute d, , xt, &, v&. On


the Ace. Sing, in -a and see § 32, 3.

*
-v,

S.N.
G. - *
&- * -
*
- - - -- &-
, Torch.

&- *
&-
, Helmet b, , Bird. , King. y, Tape-worm.

'^-
P.N.
D.
A.
V.

G.
D.
- &-
-
&- - - &-
-- - &-
-- -
()* ?-
-&-
-()* -{)* ()* -()*
Dual.
A.
V.
-
- &- &--- -- -.
?<,-
&-
?\,~-
-&- &-
?&-

Rem. , - The word , Gen. has

, ;
1. child, in the Vocative.
Eem. 2.

ro - ,
,
Here belong
Gen. -,
adjectives in
pleasing ; those in
- and -, Gen. -,
-, Gen. e.
; e. g.

g.
-
, ,
;

-, -; -,
- --, ,
Gen. exiled; those in -, Gen. e. g. ) Gen. white;
those in -, -, Gen. ; e. g. Gen. unknown ; those in -,
Gen. ; e. g. Gen. -, weak, Gen. -, native land;
-, -,

, ,
those in Gen. ; e. g. Gen. lately come.

-,
, ,
, -, XV. Vocabulary.

,-, ,
w. gen. of the to conceal. ,, poor.
-, rich.

,
,
thing, to

,
,,,-,
-,
,
?,
- ,-,
to
set free from.
every.
,
awaken,
laughter.
excite.
to punish.
-, -ov, light, vain.

esteem happy.
, youth. cern.
-, ,
-,
, riches, wealth.

care, con-

. -ivS-, , a worm. , night,

,
), ava-

,
,
, -, ,-, ,

,,
strife. -,
,
-, , hope.

,
contention,

love.

-, , wicked-
night.

ness.
by night, in

,
the

like-
rice.

-, ,
ness,gratitude,elegance.
-, ,
favor, kind-

need-

7,, &, , , &


ness, vice.

* Instead of
etc., see
»
§ 8, 3.
a boy.
,, a child, inese, poverty.

; Dat. PL
1

.
40

.
• &. -
.
. THIRD DECLENSION.

.
.,
, . ,'
&.
—NEUTERS.

...
[§39

-
-
.?*
The
(dat.)
bird sings.
wisdom a wonderful
.& From favor arises favor
love (pi.)
from contention, contention. By
;

of the beautiful is awakened in tbe minds


'
. --

of men. By (dat.) the song of birds we are delighted. Wine dispels the cares
of men. Flee, my (0) boy, from vice. From (dat.) likeness arises friendship.
We delight in birds (dat.).

§ 39. The stems of neuters belonging to this class, end in t and


?. But as the laws of euphony admit neither r nor at the end .
,
of a word,
Comp.
from the stems
§ 33, 2.
and also are either omitted, or r is changed into a.
In the words,
and ,yovv, knee, and spear,
a, the final vowel of the stem, is
,
changed into v, in the Nominative.

- - -
- - , Knee. , Milk. , Wonder. ,
S. N.
G.
to,

-
- - -
-
Body.

-.
-
\
-
-
Ear.

-
D.

P. N.
G.
A.

- -
- -
()* -
- -
Dual.
D.
A.
- - -
-()* -()*
---- -
-()*
-
-()*
-
-.
,
, error, an
-, , an
offence.
,
-,
,
XVI.

-,
Vocabulary.
,a
to accustom.
spear. , tion,
-, , an
a business, a thing,
ac-

,
,
,
oneself
w. gen., to attach
to, touch.
to carry.
-, ,
d

,
,-,
,
vice.
-, , care, ser-

6, sweat.
,
,
,
an exploit.
-, , a
to pour
word.
libations,

, -, , milk.
help.

,
-, 6, a suppliant.
-, -, small.
pour out.
-, tau-

,
fj,

, enjoy.
w. gen., to taste,

to exercise. , -, , a speech, a
word, an account.
-, -ov, various,

,
tology, a repetition of
what has been said
fore.
be-

* Instead ,,
to exchange. variegated.

?., etc., see § 8, 3.


-, -ov, bad.

t Instead of .
§39.]

, -, ,, , THIRD DECLENSION.

a thing -, -,
NEUTERS.

-ov, ,
11

separa-

&
;
useful,

pL property, money, good, brave. tion.

. . ?
&
.
treasures.

'
. . ,•&
&*
'.
1

,
-. & -. . °?. 2
2

¥.
?)

.
& §7.
?..
. 4
&, ,
.,, 4
.
/.
-
6
?)

In a difficult business there are few faithful friends. Exercise, youths,


yonr body with labor and sweat! Strive,
(the) boy, after noble actions.
Many men delight in money. From a noble action arises reputation. We ad-
mire noble actions. Boys taste milk with pleasure. Soldiers fight with spears.

,
r
Remark. The word
is dropped
flesh, and
; e. g. ,
, ;

horn, reject the


,
usually admits contraction in the plural, after
reicard of honor,
in all numbers, and then suffer con
, old age,

traction in the Gen. and Dat. Sing., and throughout the Dual and PI., except
the Dat, PI. ; besides these forms, however, has also the regular forms
with

-
r.

Sing. N.
G.
- and (-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
Plur.
D.
A.
N. -
-
and

and (-)
(-) (-)
(-)
. N. A. V.
G. and D.
G.
D.
A. -
-()
-
-
and

and
and
and
(-)
(-)
(-)
-()
(-)
(-)
(-) .
',, - , , XVII. Vocabulary.
-,
,
,
,
, a reward, a
of honor.
, old
bravery.
gift 8-,
, ,-
,
dation.
good
-ov,
condition.
, a foun-
,
, pel,

-, ,
to turn to, im-
[pet.

a trum-

?*,
ment

troublesome.
-, ,

-ov,
age.
nourish-

difficult,

,
, flesh,
a horn.

meat.
to send.
-ov,
= -,

, a sheep.
,
,
,-,,
or signal.
to
to be had, be.
to give a sign,

be at hand, or

remedy.
&$, -ov, , , a stag.

§158,3. 3 4 6
(b). «§161,5. § 161, 2. (a), (<*). §161 3. § 158, , (a)
4*
42

#. - & .. . THIRD DECLENSION.— STEMS IN V OR Vt. [§40.

'. . '
.
1

ol

* . . 2
&-

By (, w. gen.) the gods, prodigies are sent to men. Death abolishes the
evils of old age. By {dot.) rewards, soldiers are impelled to bravery. Rejoice,
youth, at the reward. We admire the beautiful horns of the stag. Many
evils accompany old age. Bear the troubles of old age.

§ 40. (c) The stem ends in or vt.

Sing. N.
,
-
$r*
Nose. ,
*
-
- -
*
- *
-
Dolphin.

-
, Giant. , Tooth.

G.
-
- -
- -
D.
7^-
A.
V.
- - ()
Plur. N.
G. -
-
-()*
- -
-()*
-
-{)* -{)*
D.

- - -
D. N. A. V.
G. and D.

Rem.
A.
V.

1.
-
-
Here belong:
-
-.
, -, , , ;,,
,
-
(a) the two adjectives in
- -, -, -av, viz.
-
,, •, a,

all,
-av, Mack, and
every, and its, compounds;
-, -, -,
e. g.
-,
, , ,—
wretched; — (b)

(c)

(d) adjectives in
willing,
-

PL, masculine and neuter, ends in


, - , -,- and
which are
instead of
peculiar,
- ; e. g.
unwilling ;—
inasmuch as the Dat>

Black. All.
Sing. -
G.
D.
A.
V.
?.
Plur. N.
G.
D.

.
A.

D. N. A. V.
G. and D.

161, 3.
V.

,,,,
2
§ 158, 5. (a).
.
* Instead of ,, £
etc., see § 8, 6 and 7.
§ 41.] THIRD DECLENSION.— STEMS ENDING IN A VOWEL. 43

N.
G.
D.
*)
] Singular. Graceful.
JN.

G.
. ()
Plural.

()
A.
V.

, ,,
. 2.
Dual N. A. V.
G. and D.

Adjectives compounded with


one-toothed,
.
V.

Gen.
, are declined like
.
adjectives in
;

-, Gen
e. g.

-, like ; e. g. untiring, Gen. -. ;

,
' -,
ray.

, -,
ing.
-, , a beam, a
-,

-,
unwill-

all to-
, -,-,
,
,
XVIII. Vocabulary.

phant, ivory.

ing m.
-,
,
willing.
an

-ov,w.gen.,ViOQuna.-
ele- ,
, -,
,,,
,
,,
,

once, sometimes.
,
a tooth.
to smell.
every,

the nostril,
all.

, ,,
gether, every.
-, •,
f/, -, ,
?>,-,-, loquacious,
the sun.

-,
,-,-,
the nose.
wretched.

, -, , , -,
ipse,

the same. to make smooth, -, man-


food, vie- grind. loving, philanthropic.

, , -, , a battle. -, -, grace-

& .'".
tuals.

,-,
-,
, a giant,

.
, a dolphin. dark.

. -, Mack, ful.

&..'
7^
3
]
.. -
' &. 2 •&
1

The teeth grind the food. We smell with the nose (dat.). The gods once
had a battle with the giants (To the gods there was once a battle against the
giants). "We admire the beautiful ivory. Trust not all men. The business of
the teeth is, to grind the food. It is proper for (it is, w. gen.) every man to wor-
ship the Deity.

B. "Words which in the Genitive have a vowel before


the ending -og.

§41. I. Suhstantiv es in - - , , - .
The stem of substantives in -, -avg, -ovg ends in v. The
remains at the end of a word and before consonants, but is omitted

* The dropping the


2
before lengthens
3
into .
161, 3. § 158 2. U61,2. (d). § 161,2. (c\
44 THIRD DECLENSION. — STEMS ENDING IN A VOWEL. [§41.

in the middle between vowels. Those in -svg have -da in the Ace,
Sing,
Attic Gen. -
and -dag in the Ace. PL in the Gen. Sing., they take the
instead of -dog, and in the Dat. Sing, and Nom
;

PL, admit contraction, which is not usual in the Ace. Plural. Those

in -avg and -ovg admit contraction only in the Ace. Plural.

S.N.
G.
D.
-
6, King. , A measure.
()
()
,
- -t
.
, ,
bos for bovs
, An

•-
ypu
old woman.

-
A. a
V.
-
- -
-
P.N.
G.
D.
-
()
-
()
()
() ()
-
()
-
,
Dual.
A.
V.

Eemark. Among
-
end also in - ; e. g. , .
the older Attic writers, the
instead of
(-)
-
-
Nom. and Voc. PL
(-)

-.
of those in

,XIX. Vocabulary.
&,
",
,
,
command,
w. gen., to begin, to
rule.

not to honor, de- ,


,
w.
compare.

&, to
"dat.,

-, ,
to liken,

care. ,—
-, , an
r ov, loquacious.
w. gen., before.
eye.

—and, as well

,
,
spise.

ful, ungrateful.
-ov, unthank-
,
,
sacrifice.

-, , a
-ov,

-,
,
priest.

loquacity.
,
,,
,
/caLboth

to murder,
,
kill.

a measure

,
Achilles, [ing. pastor, a
to wish, be will-

, herdsman, a shepherd. for liquids, a pouring-

pi.

"
. .. -, ,

..
.
parents.
a parent, -, , pasture. vessel.

.
, ..". '.- .
&, , . - 1
-- 2

., ,
-&.
The king cares for the citizens. The herds follow the herdsman. Oxen are
)

sacrificed by (, w. gen.) the priests to the gods. The old women by (their)

161, 2. (a), (). § 161, 5.


;

§ 42.] THIRD DECLENSION. WORDS IN - AND -. 45

prating (dot.) plague our (the) ears. Ye rule well, kings! priests, sacri-

fice an ox to the god ! It is proper for (it is, w. gen.) a good herdsman to take

care of the oxen. Children love their (the) parents.

§ 42. II. Words in -, - ; - ( Gen. -) and - and - ( Gen.


-) ; - (Gen. -), - (Gen. -).
1. The stem of words of this class ends in o\ In respect to the

remaining or omission of o% the same rule is observed, as in regard


to in the preceding class of substantives, viz. the remains at the
end of a word and before consonants, but is omitted in the middle
between vowels. In the Dat. PL a is omitted; e. g. &,
jackal, --().
(1) Words in - and - .

2. The endings -, -, belong only to adjectives (the ending -


being masculine and feminine, and - neuter), and to proper names
in -, -, -', -, -, -&, -&'
(-) -, having the termination of adjectives.
and
The neuter
exhibits the pure stem.
3. The words of this class suffer contraction, after the omission
of a, in all Cases, except the Nom. and Voc. Sing, and the Dat. PI.
and those in -, which are already contracted in the Nom. Sing,
into -, suffer a double contraction in the Dat. Singular.

,
(-)
(-)
Singular,
clear. (-)
(-)
-()
Plural.
(-)
(-) (-) (-)
Dual . . V. -
- .
(-) (-)

,
1

(-)
(-')
(-
Singular.
trireme.
G. and D.

(-)
-()
(-)
(-)
- |

Plural.

and
(-)
(-)
Dual.

Singular.
(/,)
G.
D.
.
(-) ()
(?.-)
(-)
V. (?;) ?..
tice,
. 1. The
since here
contraction in the Dual, viz.
- is contracted into -, and not as elsewhere, into
— is worthy of no-
-.
Pvzm. 2. In adjectives in -, -, preceded by a vowel, - is commonly not
46

G
Voc.
g. , ,,
contracted into

PL
-
THIRD DECLENSION.•

=
(as in
without fame,
healthy,
—WORDS IN -.
— ), but into -a
= .
- (as in
Masc. and Fern. Ace. Sing., and Neut. Nom. Ace. and
==
[§43.

-)

Rem. 3.

Heteroclites ; e. g

declension. Yet with those in


and = ,
Proper names with the above endings, and also

-
form the Ace.
Sing, both according to the first and third declensions, and are therefore called
according to the firs*
the Ace. in -
",
not usual in good At-

,,
is

tic prose.

Rem. 4. The Voc. of paroxytones differs, m its accentuation, from the rule
.
in § 33,
compounds of ,
(a). In the contracted Gen. PL,
are paroxytones, contrary to the rule [§ 11, 2.
contented,

(2) (b)
and
()].

,
Ata#poc,-a,-ov,disgraceful. ,
,
,
XX. Vocabulary,
-, , slavery. ,
, -, , a river.

,
incontinent,
-,

wanting
immoderate,
intemper-
,
,
to pity,
-, marshy,
, India. , -, , a teacher
of eloquence, a sophist.
-, ,

, ,
ate. in self- safety,

, command.
-, true. , -, , a reed.
, welfare.
-, , a place.

,
to say.

',
, -, unfortunate,

-,
Astyages.
unknown, ob- intercourse
Mandane.
-, , w.
(with any
dat. :
edy.
-, , a trag-

.
', ,
scure.

.
1
one).

..
.
..', '
-.
-&-

-,&.
,&. .•& ', .
- 2

. &.
Pericles
4

had great wisdom (to Pericles there was great wisdom). Pity un-
3

fortunate men. Many young men were pupils of Socrates. The intemperate
(man) serves a disgraceful slavery. We admire Sophocles for his (the) splen-
did tragedies. True words are believed. "We pity the life of unfortunate men.
Do not have intercourse with intemperate men.

- -), and in - - (Gen. -).


§ 43. (2) Words in {Gen.
-, - and

S.N.
-
, •&, Jackal. PL •&-
(a)

-&-
Gen.
S. ,
-
-
- .

Hero. PL
.-
D.
G.
D.
A.
V.
. . V. & ,
-
&-
& G. and D.
-&-{)
-&-
---
-. D.
- -
-, -. -
and
-[) and

2 3 « §
161, 2. (d). § 158, 1. $ 159. 2. 161, 2. (a) ().
;

§44.] TIIIIID DECLENSION. WORDS IN -CO*, - AND -CL£. 47

(b) - and -, Gen.


Substantives of these ending* are always feminine.
- - = .

The ending
- common language -
. is retained in the
The Dual and
second declension, thus, ,,
PI. are formed
etc.
only in the substantive
like substantives in - of the

Sing. N.
G. (-)
(stem ), Shame.
(-)
(stem ), Echo.

D. (-) (hxo -)
A.
V.
(-)
(-) . (-)
(-) .
,
, -,
, shame,
-, good.
modesty,
,
,
XXI.

blesome.
-,
Vocabulary.
-, sad, trou- -,
-, to
adsum, to
look at.

be

,,- ,,
,
, reverence. Lysias. present, be joined to.
?', -, -,
, a slave.
= -, , , -, lyric. (only in Norn,

,
, ,
well-being, prosperity.

,
-, , an -, ,
, the counte-
nance, the visage.
an uncle
and Ace.)
teem.
respect, es-

to beHe, deceive

3
.
-
. .
. ..
historian.

,
.-, ''. . .
&
-, , a garden.
(by the father's side).
- = -, ,
suasiveness.
per-

?,
Mid. to He.

ttj

.
,
',,
Trj

. ?.? &. . ?)

?. --
-
Homer celebrates the hero Achilles in song. The bravery of the hero is

wonderful. Slaves lead (to slaves there is) a troublesome life. The uncle has
(to the uncle there is) a beautiful garden. All delight in prosperity. Admire,
young man, with reverence, the actions of good men "We admire the per !

«uasiveness and elegance of Lysias. "We are often deceived by Echo.

§ 44. (3) Words in - (Gen. -), and in - (Gen. -sog).

-
Only the neuters ,
(a) , Gen. -.
light, and , gollet, belong to
this class.

j
Sins:. N. ,
-
?«-
light. PI. -
/.-
and Dual. ?.-
-.
G.
D.
A.
and
-
-() and
48 THIRD DECLENSION. WOEDS IN -0£. [§44

(b) -of,
Substantives of this class are likewise neuter.
Gen. - - = .

In the Nom.,
f, the stem-vowel of the last syllable, is changed into o.

Sing. N.
G. (-)
for , genus.
(-)
for , glory.

D. (-) (-)
Plur.
A.
N.
G.
D.
-
(-)
-()
(-)
and
(-)
(-)
-()
(-) ,
.
A.
Dual. (-)
(-) (-)
(-) 7
Remark. On the contraction in the Dual of -
into - instead of -, see § 42,

Hem.
e. g.
1 ;

= .
in the plural preceded
Comp.
by a vowel, is contracted into -a, not into -
(§ 42, Kern. 2).
;

,
, sed, but. ,- XXII.
,
Vocabulary.
= -, ,
the cerno, to separate,

&, - = -, ,
-, , the wind.
, figure, the form.
- = -, , ,- judge, discern, choose

,
,-
flower.
-,
[safe.

firm, secure,
— -, , race,
a

,
•&,
word.

ishment,
-, ,

- -,
injury,
loss.
pun-
a

,
, ,
length.

wicked.
-a,
= -,
-, dishonest,
,

,-— -, , -,
,
descent. == splendor.

/V, yvc>
5,
, -,
worthless.
>

-,
the earth.
-, cowardly,

, - -, ,
-, spring, .
,,
heat.

gain.
--,— -, ,
-, mortal.
,
, -
elevation.
-, ,
,

brass.
= -,
height,

,-
e.

belonging to the spring, = a lie. [cold.

&
(tap) vernal.

. -& .} ,
_,

.
. .
-
,
.
-
fame, ^/.famous actions,

.
= -,

.. ,
& , .
Abstain from dishonest gain. We delight in spring flowers. Keep not
. .
yourself, youth, from cold (pi) and heat! (pi.). Flee from dishonest gains.
Punishment follows the lie. TVe admire the Hellenes for w. dot.) their (,
(the) famous actions. Soldiers are impelled to noble actions by (dat.) the love
for (gen.) fame. The famous actions of soldiers are admired.

1
See rule of Syntax, p. 27.
;

§§ 45, 46.] THIRD DECLENSION. —WORDS IN -Iff, -t/£, -i, -V. 4^

§ 45. III. Words in -ig, -vg, -t, -v.

(1) W ords in -, -.
Sing. N. ,
- corn-worm. , ,
- a boar, a sow. &,
&- fish.

G.
D. Kl-l - &-
A.
V.
KCV
KL

-
&
&-
Plur. N.
G. -
-
- &-
D.
A.
V.
-
-()
- -
-()
- and
1--()
&-,
&- rarer &
D. N. A. V.
G. and D. -
kt- --ocv
&-
-.
7,-,
.
,
,
Vocabulary.
,
,
ay

-,
, to catch.
-, ,
ro, ahook.

, -,
-, ,
-, , a frog,
a cluster
, -,
,
-,
dead body.
, a corpse,

,
a vine of grapes. , a trap, a

.
peep up or -, -ov, like, equal.
to
, snare.
-,

.
out, emerge. , mus, muris, a , an ear
w. gen., to be mouse. of corn,
king, rale.

loot

•& &.
.
.. . .-
. •&
2
1
"&
-
We catch fishes with hooks. The huntsman lies in wait for the boars. The

(,
clusters (of grapes) and
w. gen.) in clusters of grapes.
ears (of corn) are beautiful.
The frogs once had a battle with the
mice (To the frogs was once a battle against the mice).
The vine is abounding

§ 46. (2) Words in -ig, , vg, v.

The stem-vowels and remain only in the Ace. and Yoc. Sing.
in the other Cases they are changed into . In the Gen. Sing, and
PI., masculine or feminine substantives end in
which case
- and -, —in
has no influence on the place of the accent. Comp,
§ 30, Rem. 2.

*
§ 158, 7. (a) *§ 161,2. (d).
:

50 THIKD DECLENSION. —WORDS IN -V$, -V. 46.

-
-I

- ,- ,
-iff, .[§

Sing.

D
N.
G.
, city. cubit, rd mustard. ,
- city.

- - -
A.

-() -
V.
Plur. N.
G.
D. -() -{) -()
- -- -
- --.
A.

Dual.
v.
-
Rem. 1. Here belong adjectives in , -, -, the declension of which does
not differ from that of substantives, except that the Gen. of the masculine
gular has the
uncontracted.
common form
Thus
- (not -), and that the neuter plural is always
sin-

N.
G.
D.
A.
- - Singular. Sweet.
.
G.
D.
.
{)
Plural.

()
V.
Dual N. A. V.
G. and D.
V.

.
,, ,
Here

e. g. b
also belong adjectives in
-, except that the neuter plural in

Some
-,

two cubits
-, and
-, Gen.

long,
-
. , ),
-, which
is coDtracted into
are declined like

-,
- (as ;

, Rem. 2.

skilled in,
substantives in
have a regular inflection ;
also adjectives in
so also the word
-, e.

eel,
g.
in tho
singular.

Sing. N.
G.
D.
, ,
-
- calf. ,
-
- eel. , , sheep.

A.
V.
- -
-
Plur. N.
G.
D. -() -() ()
,
- - -
A. rarer

Dual.
V.
- .
oh

*Ap;^>-fa>^>
command,
a beginning,
pi. magis-
XXIV.
trates,

fices of
Vocabulary.
authorities,
command.
of- , -, , excess,
/3e/?aiOf,-fi,-ov,firm,secure.
!

,
§ 47.]

,
, -,
IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

-, mortal.
-, , eating.
,
,
,
-, -, alone.
-, , a law.
,
, -, ,
-, , neediness,
a tower.
51

, -, different
, -, , advantage.
, want

,
,
,
,
-, , a gift
-, , want
-, , desire,
-, , fruit.
,
,
-, , the elbow,
a cubit

-, ,
-, , war. ,
,
sedition.
-, , a
-, ,
faction,

under-

,
a town, a standing.
-, , an oma- state, a city. -, , insolence,

, -, ,
ment, order, the world,
, -,
-, , , a heifer.
, , haughtiness.
-, , a guard, a
,?, . ,'
a pos- drinking,
drink.
, -, ,
guardian.

&
session. [session.
-, , gain, pos- -, , an action, , nature.

.
.
-, , } &
.*

.. '
. '
.
1

.
. . 3

. . ' .* .
Riches free from neediness and want. In the state the magistrates are the
guardians of the laws. young man, after a noble action
Strive, The pos- !

session of virtue is alone secure. Good laws bring order to states. Soldiers
fight for the safety of cities. Flee, citizens, from factions

§ 47.

, , , -,
Irregular No uns of the Th ird Declension.
,, ,
, ; , ,-,,, .
-,
1.

2.

Voc.
see § 36 ;

(, woman), Gen.
1.
§ 39
Dat. -,
(),
; § 35, Rem.
Ace.
2.

-
.
Gen, Dat. Ad, Ace. Voc.

-
3.

.
4.

5.
(, hair), Gen.
(, key), Gen.
and (commonly)
Dat. PL >&(), see
Dat.
,
PI. Nom. and Ace.
Ace.
also
-, -,
,
,
, § 8, 11.

; , , ,-,
6.

. , ,, PI.
(, , dog), Gen.
(),
Dat. Ace. Voc.

, ; , ,().
, , (). ,
7. (, stone), Gen. Dat. Ace. seldom ;

PL
8. (6, , witness), Gen. Dat. Ace.

, ,
more seldom Dat. PL
9.
(, navis), Gen. Dat. Ace. Dual:
1
157. 2 3 -§ 4
§ § 161, 2. (a) (). 158, 3. (b). § 161, 5.
52 IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. LH8.

,, ,
Gen. and Dat
vmv,
10. ".
(),
(,
(Nom. and Ace. are not
Comp.
water), Gen.
§ 41.
etc.
in use) ; PL

, man.
', -,
-, 6, an Athe- ,
,
,
,
XXV. Vocabulary.
to set right, guide,
-, , a loom.
,
,-,
, -,
, ,
#, testimony.
a house.

,
,
,
(Pluto).
-ov,
6,
god of the lower world
Hades, the

unfaithful, ,
,
,
,
-, , the head,
-, , a chest,
coffer.
to hollow out. ,
,
-, , a house.
round, gad- about.
-, , a rock.
-,
-ov, running

, incredible.
-,
to receive.
,
[treaty.
an en-

, -,
to bring.
,
to comb.
a comb.
,
, -,
or dropping.
, a drop,
to save, preserve.

, . " ,-,
.. ,-,,
-, , an as- -, , a die. , a saver,
sembly. a steers- a preserver.
&' , man, a , advantage

.
the hair. pilot.

.
,

.
Ai

.
&.
. * . - -
-
. ?<.

.. , , .., , -
1

'

.*. ", ...


The woman
.
look after the house.
delights in ornament.
Bring,
It is the
boy, the key of the house
duty (it is,

!
w. gen.) of women to
Women
3

delight in
beautiful hair. The Athenians had (To the Athenians were) many ships.

Trust not all witnesses. It is the business (it is, to. gen.) of dogs to guard the
house. Zeus had (To Zeus were) many temples. The fishes peep up from the
water. The steersmen guide the ships. Modesty becomes a woman.

Irregular Adjectives.
Sing. N.
G.
§ 48.

, mild.

Plur.
P.
A.
V.
N.
, and
G.
D. and () ()
A. and

D. N. A. V.
G.andD.
1
§
V.

158, 2.
.
and

§ 161,5.
. 3
U61,3.
48„] IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES.

7.
Sing. N.
G.
D.
A.
/. 7, ,
7. '

7 7, / Tco7J)\.y
much.

? 7. 7* a, great.

Piur. N.

etc.
V.

G.
etc. regular.
?
/,/
7. ?. /etc. regular.

Declension of Participles
.
7 /
/
7 ?
?
.

S.
G.
D.
.
V.
/,
? 7
7
7
() 7 7
P.N.
G.
D. &() () /()
Dual.
A.
V.

/ --- . 7 - 7. 77
S. N.
7*.-&
- - 7* -
- 7, -
- -
-
- -

&
G.
D.
A. ?-& - 7. - -
- -
-
- - 7„ --
- -
V.
P.N.
7* - - - - -
G.
D.
A.
?-/()
7»-& -
- -
- 7, -
- -
- -()

Dual.
V.
7*-&
7,•

/.- - - 7,
- -. 7, -
- -
-.
, ,
Eemark. All
Aor. and first

sive participles, like


-
.
participles in
Eut. participles in
-8-, and
-,
are declined like

all
like
second Put. Act.
and first
and all present, second
and second Aor. pas-
participles, like

,
, --,=,-, Egypt.
XXVI.
, Vocabulary.

a multi- -, - = -, ,
,,\
,
,-
pain.
-, ,
,
absence
', -,
,
,
tude of

donian.
evils.

, Mace-

,,,
suffering, a passion.

many, great.
much,

-,
of envy, abundance. greatly. soft,

= -, , cus- -, -, little, small. mild.

, -,
tom, manner.
, the Iliad,
7, crease.
to nourish, in-

name
to call,

*
54 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. [§§ 49, 50

-, -, ,
preach, an income, rev-
an ap- ,
,, -ov,

-ov,
, corn.
, fear
be connected or attend
ed with fear,

.•
;

&..
enue, reditus. to have fear, to

'
& .,
? . .
olvov

() & .. '.
.
.
. .,
At
[) &}
{)?,
Abstain from much wine. Kings have (to kings are) great revenues. Egypt
has (in Egypt is) great abundance of corn. Croesus has (to CroesuB are)
great riches. Strive after mild manners. Women have (to women is) a mild
nature (). Alexander, king of the Macedonians, is called the Great.

§49. Comparison of Adjectives.


The Greek language has two forms to indicate the two degrees
of comparison (Comparative and Superlative)
common form is - t , -r , -t , ; much
for the Comparative,
the most

and -t at , -
more
tive,

Rem.
and
1.
-,
rare form

The
is - ,,
-iGtrj,
-t
-

- ,
at ,
ov, or
for the
-, -
Superlative
,
for the Superlative.

Superlative expresses a quality in the highest degree, or only


for the
; a much
Compara-

in a very high degree.


Rem. 2. Instead of the simple forms of the Comparative and Superlative, the
Greek, like the Latin, can prefix
Positive.
(magis) and - (maxime) to the

§50. A.
Comparative,
Superlative,
First
-, -
-rat ,
Form of Comparison.
-' , -
at , -tat .
.
The following adjectives annex these forms in the following man-
ner:
I. Adjectives in - , - (- a), - ov.
(a) Most adjectives of this class, after dropping , annex th
above endings to the pure stem, and retain the o, when a syllabL
long by nature or by position, § 9, 3, precedes, (a mute and liquid
always make the syllable long here) ; but, in order to prevent the

1 2
§ 161, 2. (d § 161, 2. (a), (a).
§ 50.] ADJECTIVES. —FIRST FORM OF COMPARISON. 55

concurrence of too many short syllables, is lengthened into , when


a short syllable precedes;

-,
-,
-,
light,
strong,
Com.
"
--
e. g.

--,
--,
Sup.
"
--,
--,
-- -. -ov,

-,
-,
thin,
vehement,
"
" --,
--,
"
" --,
--,
-,
-,
bitter,
wise,
"
" --,
--,
"
" --,
^--,
-, firm,
worthy,
"
" -)-,
"
" --.
(b) Contracts in -«? = -» ? and -oo? == -ov?, suffer contraction

-
in the Comparative and Superlative also, since « of the former is ab-

which
- -
sorbed by

-- -
-
-- --
is

--
--
, but the latter,
contracted with the preceding
=
=
after dropping o?, insert the syllable e?,

; e. g.

=
=

- -, -- -
= —

,-,, -,,
,
--
=
Here belong
-, Neut.
=
also contracts of

--. =
two endings in
Com.
- c and -ovv;
= --, e.g.
Sup.

(c) The following adjectives in - viz. old, -


6 , ancient, on the other side, at lei'
sure, drop - and append - 1 and - to the root ; e. g.

-,
-, Com.
-, Sup.

, (d) The
quiet, , ,
"

following adjectives in
own,
-

equal,
* "

£, viz.

,
, &,
-
-raroc.

middle,
calm,

early, 6 , late, and , in the morning, after dropping


-, insert the syllable at, so that the
of these adjectives are like the preceding in -
Comparative and Superlative
e. g.

, ,. ,-
;

--,

, ',Rem.
;
1.

Two
-,
- Com.
"

/lof, beloved, dear,

;
--,
--,
-?,
has three
Sup.
" --.
different forms:

, ,
(e) adjectives in viz. strong, and

, --, --,?,-'-.
--,
So also
(f)
,The
unmixed, after dropping

modest, has
following adjectives in
eating alone,
-o£, insert

-,
the syllable «£

in the Superlative.
viz.
dainty, and
;

talkative,
e. g.

poor, after dropping


--?, Sup.
,
--. insert the syllable t£ ; e. g. •, Com.
: ;

—FIRST FORM OF COMPARISON.

,
56 ADJECTIVES. [§ 50

-, Gen. -ov, and -, ,


-',
ish,
II. Adjectives in

--,
shorten the ending
Com.
- into
Sup. --
- ; e. g. -, ;
Gen.
false, Gen

-
-ov, thiev-

,
,
w.
in,

in.
dot., to

be proud
to

-,
adorn
pride oneself

-,
of,
; Mid.

delight

choice,
,
XXVII.
-&,

,,
,
- = -, ,
Lacedaemonian.
Vocabulary.

nation, a people.

to think,
-,

deem.
6,
a

a
,
,
,
,
-,
very poor.
-, ,
-a,
-,

-ov,

esteemed, valuable.
begging,

silence.

honored,

,
,,
eligible
preferable
; Comparative,
to.

-a, -ov, violent.

-a, -ov, Attic

-ov, just.
-
,, -,
country.
nothing.
no one

, native , low.
-, , a
-,
advantageous.
swal-

-ov, useful,

Rule of Syntax. The expression denoting comparison, which


in English is subjoined to the Comparative by than, is subjoined
in Greek, by , what is more usual, by the Gen.
than (quam), or,

' .... ... -.


without , when that expression must have stood in the Nom. or
Ace. after if expressed. Hence the rule : The Comparative gov
ems the Gen. when is omitted.

,
'
.
. .
& . &.
, &. 1

3
2 -
-
'.
The father is wiser than the son. The most valuable possession is that of
virtue. The life of Socrates was very simple.
one of the Athenians was No
more just than Aristides. The eldest are not always the wisest. Men are
quieter than boys. The Lacedaemonians were very strong. Old women are
often very loquacious. The raven is very thievish.

Those in -
and the word ,
III. Adjectives of the third
-
-
, - &-
, -,
mediately to the pure stem, which appears in
-,
Declension

happy, append

- —
,
-
(Gen.
1
-
),
and -rat
the Neuter form ;
, -, im-
e. g>

&, Neut.
Neut •—
1 2 3
§ 161, 2. (c). § 161, 5. (a). § 146, 2.
§ 50.]

,
,
,
,
ADJECTIVES.

Neut
Neut.
Neut.
-—
- —— ?.-
-
-

?*-
FIRST

- -
-
- -.
FORM OF COMPARISON. 57

. Neat,
-
and -.
IV. - 2. The
See §
adjectives
51, 1,

and
and
-
§ 52, 9.
, and

are appended to the pure stem, after


are compared in

, -,
the insertion of a single letter or of a whole syllable :

(a) Compounds of insert ; e. g.

--, --. -, Gen. pleasant,

, --,
, --.;
(b) Adjectives in
Com.

Xeut.
Com.
-, - (Gen.
happy,
Sup.

-), insert e. g.

, ?.--,
-,
(c)

?--,
, Adjectives in -J sometimes insert
-,
--,
--.
Gen.
Com.
Sup.
growing old,
£?, sometimes
Gen.
Com.
Sup.
iff; e. g.

rapax,

V. Adjectives in - insert , the r of the stem being

, -,
t -s

, -.
g, i>,

dropped, § 8, 6 ; e. g.

Neut. pleasant,
Com. Sup.

, , , -,
XXV 111. Vocabulary,
-, , old age. #, -, , impulse,

,,
6, an iE- y^pao, zeal,

,
, -, ,
thiopian. -, continent, desire, rushing.

,
, ,
,
,
-, ,

,
quickly.
JEtna,

rapacious,
abstinent, moderate.
-,
-,
pious.
attractive,
even.
and not, neither,

-a, -ov,
not

and

,
,
rapax.
-,
,-,, ,, -
-, -,
•,
[weak,
powerless,
-, , misfortune.
deep, pro-
-, , youth.

diocrity, moderation.
,

a thought,
me-
-ov,

to pass by.
-, -,
-, and
like.

and

, ,
found.
, a conception. old.

, , . ,' .
-, -, heavy, bur- -, -, straight, -, -, quick.

. '.
densome.

. ?*
correct, upright.

.
?, .
. ' ..
'
-
...

161, 2. (b).
/.
2

,
2
§
?,. --

161, 2. (c).
;

58 ADJECTIVES. SECOND FORM OF COMPARISON. [§51

Age is very burdensome. Nothing is quicker than thought. Moderation is

the safest. No bird is (there is not a bird) blacker than the raven. The
./Ethiopians are very dark. Nothing is more attractive than youth. No one ot
the Athenianswas more moderate or more sensible than Socrates. No one was
more rapacious than Critias. Nothing is more graceful than a beautiful flower.

§51. B. Second Form of Comparison.

Rem.
Comparative,
Superlative,
1. On
-
- , Neut. - , or - , Neut. - .
, .-,
the declension of the Comparative, see
- § 35, Rem. 4.

This form of comparison includes,

- , &-,&,, .
I. Some adjectives in - , which drop -vg and append -, etc.

this usually applies only to , sweet, and , swift.


has in the Comparative (Att. § 8, 11), Neut.
(&). Thus:

, ,, , -,,-, ,, -
-,
-, Com.
"
-, Neut.
Att.
Sup.
-lov,
-&, Neut. -&, Att.
-, - :

Sup.

Rem. 2. The others in -, as a & , deep, , heavy, slow,

, ,
short, sweet, thick, wide, sharp,

, old, swift, have the form in § 50, III.

The following adjectives in -, viz. a base,

,),-,
II. i

&, hostile, g, honorable, and


- wretched (but
always in the Comparative,

-.
being dropped; e. g. Com.
the ending
Neut. -, here also
Sup.

,, -, -, alius, -a, ud, ,


XXIX.
-ov,
Vocabulary.
6, the right ,
,
-a, -, pitiable,

,
=
,
another, time, an opportunity ; miserable.
-, ,

, thing
the
else.
rest, every-
[imical.
-,
time (in general).
-, -, remaining , -, ,
a smell.
-, a snake.

, -, hostile, in-

.,
-, to remove, to afford, bring

ing,
-,
an animal.

.
,a living be-

.. .
change.

.&,
& 1
forth.

.
ful
.
Nothing
than slavery.
is
,
more pleasant than a very deep
2

sleep.
The horses are very quick. There is nothing more inimical
'.

Nothing
3

is more disgrace'

than bad advice. The old man has for {dot.) the old man the most pleasant
3
159, 2. 161, 5. (a). Adverbially.
§ 52.] ADJECTIVES. —ANOMALOUS FORMS OF COMPARISON. 59

speech, the boy for the boy. The poor have always a very miserable life.

Nothing is more miserable than poverty.

1. ,
, ,
§52.
Positive.
Anomalous Forms of Go mp arison.
good,
Comparative.
Neut.
Superlative.

, Att.

2.

3.
4. ,
?,
,
bad,

beautiful,
painful,
, Att. (inferior)
?
5.
6.

7.
,
,
,
,
long,
small.

few,
, Att.
and

10.
11.
8.
9.

,
,
,,
great,
much,
easy,
ripe,
?* or
"
.
,
12.

,, -, -, and - ,
XXX.

, -,
Vocabulary.
implanted. ,
,
, -, •, soft

,
-,
-, ,
necessary.
necessity,
,
&, sometimes.
-, , desire.

,
-, , war.
to joke, jest (Eng.

,
,
,
compulsion.
-, ,
government, anarchy.
-, ,
-,
want of

injury.
, , a
,
,

,
, ,
or;
aut —
-,
—,
out.

-, ,
be
fortunate.
either

Spain.

strong or
or,

,
scoff).

isfied,
to love, to be sat-
contented with.
-, , an ad

,
to viser.

&,
&,
neighbor.
opinion, view.
-, -,
-,
and
free- , able, have power,
to order, bid.
-, , flattery.
-, , & croc-
avail.

mindedness,
wisdom,
-, ij, sound•
modesty,
chastity.

, , .
born, free. odile.

Rule of Syntax. with the Superlative strengthens it, as

.
quam in Lat. quam celerrime, as quick as possible.

.
; e. g.

. / ,
,
b
'.
. .'&
. . '&
) .
*
Tb
1

1 2 8 also.
§ 161, 5. The Ace. means, in regard to, see $ 159, 7.
4 is a slave to money.
60 ADVERB. NATURE, DIVISION AND FORMATION.

&
[§ 53.

.
.
.
. &..
. .
.. 1

."
-

&
2

.. '-
. .
., ..
There
the best.
. 01

is

The
}
nothing better than a very diligent
best adviser
3

is time.
'
Nothing
life.

is
The opinion of the old
better than that which is most
is

safe (than the safest). The worst (persons) are often very fortunate. Sadness
is the worst evil to man. Nothing is worse than flattery. The immoderate
man is a slave to pleasures. In women nothing is better than modesty. To a
free man nothing is more painful than slavery. The crocodile is very long.
The son is smaller than the father. The good often have more property than
the bad. The poor are often in greater honor than the rich. Avarice is a very
great evil. Nothing brings more evils than war. To order is very easy. It is
easier to bear poverty than sadness. We taste the ripest fruits with great plea-
sure.4 The sheep of the father are fatter than those of the neighbor.

CHAPTER V.
THE ADVERB.
§53. Nature, Divi sion and Formation of the
Adverb.
1.

time or
beautiful manner.
manner ; e. g. there, vvv, now, ,
Adverbs are indeclinable words, denoting a
, relation of place,
beautifully, in a

Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by assuming the


2.

ending -. This ending is annexed to the pure stem of the


adjective and since the stem of adjectives of the third declension
;

appears in the genitive, and adjectives in the Gen. PI. are accented
like adverbs, the following rule may be given for the formation of
adverbs from adjectives : viz. - the ending of the adjective in
-;
the Gen.
-,
-,
-,
PL,
lovdy,
fair,
is

timdy,
changed into
Gen. PI.
"
"
-
-
-
e. g.

Adv. -
-
-
1 s 3 4
§ 1 61, 5. also. § 158, 3. Neuter plural of the superlative of t
§ 54.] COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 61

(-)
, ,
-(-),
>(-),
,
,
simple.
benevolent,
Gen. PI.
"
" -
-
(-) -
-
/.(-) Adv.
(-)
- -
all,

-
"

,
,
prudent,
pleasant, "

.
"
sivift,
great,
" (-) (-) ?,-
?.•&, true,
(-)
,
,
-&,
Rem.

Rem.
§
1.

29, p. 29.
2.
accustomed,

On
comp.

By
the accentuation of
§ 42, Rem. 4

appending the three endings


"

j also
compounds in -&
(-&-)
and of the compound
on the accentuation of ,
instead of ev-

-, -#£ and - (-), to substan-


tives, pronouns and adverbs, adverbs are formed
place, whence
Heaven, •-, - (-&),
in Heaven, -,
where (-#i) and whither (- or -)
into or to Heaven.
; e. g. -,
to denote the three relations of

from

Rem. 3. The ending is commonly appended to the Ace. of substantives


- -
-,-
only. To pronouns and
thither, -,
,,
primitive adverbs,
to another place.
is appended instead of
In plural substantives in -, - ; e.

be-
g.

comes

3.

there, etc.

used adverbially
; e. g.

Besides adverbs with the ending


evidently have a case-inflection;
The Ace.
; e. g.
to Athens.

Sing, and PI. of adjectives


yXaUiv,
e. g.

to
,
-, there are many which

weep much.
is
suddenly, ,
very frequently

§54. Comparison of Adverbs.


1. Adverbs derived from adjectives, have commonly no indepen-
dent adverbial ending for the different forms of comparison, but, in
the Comparative, use the neuter singular, and in the Superlative,

from <
the neuter plural of the corresponding adjective

Com .
; e. g.

Sup .

'
"
"

.
"
"
"
-, -
,, ,
"

2. All primitive adverbs in -, e. g. «|, etc.,

retain this ending regularly in the Comparative, and for the mos*
part in the Superlative

In
,
, like
above
below,
;

Com.
e. g.

manner, most other primitive adverbs have the ending


the Comparative and Superlative ; e. g.
Sup.
. - in
6
62 THE PRONOUNS

, 8}0, OV. [§ 55, 56.


CSV,

,
,
,
,
near,
beyond,

/ar,
near.
Com. Sup.
Sup. wanting

and

CHAPTER VI.
THE PRONOUN.

§ 55. Nature and Division of Pronouns.


Pronouns do not, like substantives, express the idea of an object,
but only the relation of an object to the speaker, since they show
whether the object is the speaker himself (the first person), or the
person or thing addressed (the second person), or the person or
thing spoken of (the third person) ; e. g. I (the teacher) give to you
(the scholar) it (the book). Pronouns are divided into five princi-
pal classes, viz. personal, demonstrative, relative, indefinite and
interrogative pronouns.

§ 56. I. Personal Pronouns


A. Substantive personal pronouns.
(a) The simple , ego, , tu, ov, sui.

Singular.
Nom. Jy£>, I , thou

,,
Gen. (), of me (), of thee (>), of himself, etc.
Dat. (), to me (), to thee ol (ol), to himself, etc.
Ace. (), me (), thee 2 (), himself, etc.

N.A.
G.D.
,
,we both,

of us
us both
both , to us
,
,
Dual.
you both
of you both, ' (), of them
both to you both both, to them both

Nom. ,
, we ,
,
Plural.
ye (v) ,
, , Neut. they
Gen.
Dat.
Ace.
,
,
of us
to
us
us ,
,
of you ()
to you (v)
you (v)
() (),
,
oftliem

Neut.
to them
(), them.
Rem. 1. The forms susceptible of inclination are put in a parenthesis, with-

out any mark of accentuation. Comp. § 14, (b). On the signification and use
of the third person of the pronoun, see § 169, Rem. 2.
;

§ 57.J the reflexive pronouns ,,. 63

,
,
, to look at, see.
XXXL
-, w. gen.,,
Vocabulary.

, to be zealously, dili-

,. ,
for. different from, differ gently.
-, , that from. w. dot., to re-

which
phabetical
is written, an
letter, pi. let-
al- -&, waste.
to destroy, lay joice with.
gracefully.
ters, literature.

, '. ,
.
. &*
. '.
.& .
.* * ,3 ,
.
.,&, -
.'
,
.?.
.
,*

-
1

?.

only

Rule of Syntax. The Nom.


when they
.• .
of personal pronouns
are emphatic, particularly, therefore, in antitheses.
. is expressed,

.
ed in Greek.
2. In the following examples, the italicized pronouns must be express

We write, but you play. We both are writing, but you both are playing. I
reverence you, gods ! boy, hear us! God sees you always. If you injure
us, you do not differ from enemies. We are stronger than you. You rejoice
with us. I obey you cheerfully, parents. Our (the) father loves me and
thee. Our (the) mother loves us both. It is my duty (it is of me) to guard the
house ; for I am the guardian of the house. It is thy duty, boy, to learn dili-

gently ;
for thou art a pupil. The lyre affords (to) me and thee pleasure.Both
of you had (to you both was) a very bad illness. Both of you have (to you
both is) a very faithful friend. Our (the) father gratifies both of us (us both)

,,.
cheerfully; for both of us study literature diligently.

§ 57. (b) The reflexive pronouns

e. g.
1. The

etc.,
reflexive pronouns of the
separately, in the plural, both pronouns of

, or
;

,
that of the third person
etc.
first and second person decline
which they are composed
is either simply ,
1 s 3 4
§ 158, 5. (b). § 157. $ 161, 2. (a), (). § 158, 2,
64 THE RECIPROCAL PRONOUN. L§58.

G. ,
, -, of ,
,
,
Singular.
-, or ,
,
, -, or
'

[self

D.

A. ,
myself

myself
-y,

-,
to
,
,
,
-, of thyself
-, or
-, to thyself
-, or
-, thyself
,
,
,
-, oftemselj,
-rj,

-y,
-,
-,
or

-, or
of
[to itself
to himself to herself
[itself
lier-

•, , ,,-, -,
myself -, himself herself
Plural.
G.

D.

A.
,
ourselves

,
to ourselves
-,
-,
of

,
selves

,
yourselves
of your-

-,
-, to

your- ,, ,
or

-, or
-, -, or
or
of themselves

tlieynselves

ourselves selves -, -, or

, themselves.
-, -

§58. (c) The reciprocal pronoun.

The
persons to each other.

Plur. G.
D.
,
reciprocal pronoun expresses

?*, -, --
of one
-,
another, Dual, ,
a mutual action of several

, -,
-,
-
-

-,
A.

.)
, Vocabulary,
,
-, -.

,
,
,
,
,-,-,
, ,
-,
,
wicked.
-,
ing, unenvious.

, -,

-, ,
not grudg-

injurious.
injurious,
[doer.
an
w. ace, according to.
evil-
parative of

habitants
the gods.
(

rather, sooner.
==

adv., only, alone.


-, ,
com-
more,

the in-
of Ouranos,
cious.
-, ,
perty, possession,
being

to carry about.
-,

to enrich,
-,
;
pro

avari-
[rich,

make

.
useful.

. ,
,,
,&. (") .
(
1

). rj
.(). '
().
-
.
-
The
1

.
wise carry about their (the) possessions with them.
makes himself rich, but he injures
rate man is
others.
not injurious to others and useful to himself, but he
The avaricious man
Ye please yourselves. The immode
is
',
'.
an evil-doer
to others and much more injurious to himself. Good children love one another.

§ 161, 2. (c).
: ;

§ 59.] ADJECTIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 65

§ 59. B. Adjective personal pronouns, or possessive pronouns.

,
Possessive pronouns are formed from the genitive of substantive
personal pronouns

, -, -,
,
-,
-trum,
-, -,
-,
from
mens,

tuus, -a,
;
-a, -urn.,

-urn, from
from

; , ;

-, -,
noster,

vester, -tra, -trum,


-tra,

5,
from
, ,
, suus,
;

from
-, -,
ov, instead of which,

,
however, the Attic writers use the
-, -,

, ,
Gen. in the reflexive signification, and
in the signification of the personal pronoun of the third person e. g. ;

or vibv he sti-ikes his own son, rtorrei


or vibv Tie strikes his son, (i. e. the son of him, ejus). The

.$,
position of the

dilatory.
.
,
Greek

-ov, negligent,
article should he observed.

lead.
Vocabulary.
to uphold, ,
,-, ,, -ov,
the body,
a child.

Rule of Syntax. The possessive pronouns are expressed in

' ,
Greek, only when they are particularly emphatic, especially, there-
fore, in antitheses. When not emphatic, they are omitted, and their
place is supplied by the article, which stands before the substantive
e. g.

Instead of the adjective personal pronouns


uses, with the same
the

,,
mother loves her
etc.,

Gen. of substantive personal


daughter.
the Greek

) and the reflexives


signification, the
pronouns, both the simple forms (in the singular the enclitics
().
The position of the article
,
may

. .,'
be learned from the following examples.

&. & or or

.
;

or or

. . , - or

,. b &.
or b or

Thy father is good. My slave is had. Our children learn diligently. Many
(persons) love the children of others, but not their own. He admires his own
actions, but not -hose of the others.
6*
66 DEMONSTRATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. [§§ 60, 61.

§ 60. II. Demonstrative Pronouns.


Singular.
this. this. self, or he, she, it.
N.
G.
D
A.
Plural.
N. ovtol avTat
G.
D.
A.
Dual.

.
, (), ,,
N.A.
G.D.

Like ,,(),(), ,are declined


talis, -e,
tardus, -a, -um,

so great, so
old; it

, is to he noted, (a) that the Neuter Sing., besides the form in o, has

Like
also the
with r,
common form
the r

alias, alia, aliud.

ted.
is dropped.
are declined
The
, , , ,, , ,
in ov

article
;

, ,
(b) that in all

is
forms of

he, she,

declined like
it,

the
which begin

being omit-

N.
G.
Singular.
() Plural.

D.
()
A

Eemark. The pronoun


..
G. D.

,
Dual.

-, -,
.
signifies either self, ipse, ipsa, ipsum,

or is used for the


she, it ; is, ea, id.
oblique
With the article, viz. , , ,
Cases of the personal pronoun of the third person,
it sig-
he,

nifies the

2) with
usually ,, , , ,
same (idem, eadem, idem).
and forms one word,
The
viz.

etc.
article usually coalesces
instead of ,,, by Crasis (§ 6,

§ 61. III. Relative Pronoun,

Singular. Plural. Dual.


. , qui , quae , quod
G. olv olv
D. rj olv alv olv
A. .
. — : —

§§ 64, 65.] LENGTHENING OF THE PRONOUNS. —NUMERALS. 69

Kemjlrk. The forms which are wanting

&, &.
are expressed by
here, t/iere (hie, ibi),

vide), by
&, in the Common
and those
language to denote
to denote hence (hinc t

§ 64. Lengthening of the Pronouns.

,
1 The enclitic is joined to the personal pronouns of the first and second
person, in order to make the person emphatic. The pronoun then draws
back its accent in the Norn, and Dat. ; e. g. , , ;

-.
, , Moreover can be joined with any other word, and also with any other
pronoun, but does not form one word with ye.

,,
it ; e. g.

2. The particles ?/, most commonly and v, are appended to rela-

,
tives

, ,,,
make

, , , , , compounded

the object denoted


of interrogatives or indefinites, as well as to
the relative relation general,
by the pronoun
quicunque (Gen.
etc.) j
;
i. e.

e.
to

g.
or
extend it to everything

quantuscunque
Dat.
;
in order to
embraced in

or

,
however great, how old soever.

,,,
The suffix appended to some demonstratives for the purpose of
,,
3. is

strengthening their demonstrative relation ; e. g. ; ; -


; from which change their accent after
is appended

,
,
4. The

.,
tive relation still
enclitic

(Gen.
is

more emphatic
etc.); ,
appended
; hence
to all relatives, in order to

5. The inseparable demonstrative , is appended to demonstrative pronouns


it

, ,,
denotes, even who, which ;
(Gen.
make
e.
the rela-
g.
etc.);

and some demonstrative adverbs, always giving them a stronger demonstrative

,, , ,,,, , ,
sense. It takes the acute accent and absorbs every short vowel immediately
preceding it, and also shortens the long vowels and diphthongs
this here (hicce, celui-ci),

& &
Gen. Dat. PI.
,, from ; from ; from
;

.
;

from ; from ; from ; from

CHAPTER VII.
THE NUMEKALS.
§ 65., Nature and Division of the Numerals.
The numerals express the relation of number and quantity.
They are divided into the following classes, according to their sig-
nification :
— —

70 NUMERAL SIGNS.—NUMERALS. [§ 66, 67.

()
,
(a) Cardinals, which answer the question, "How many?" The four nu-

,
first

merals and the round numbers from 200 to 10,000 (), as well
as the compounds of are declined all the others are indeclinable. The

,
;

thousands are expressed by adverbial numerals ; e. g. 3000.


(b) Ordinals, which answer the question, "Which one in the series?" They all

have the three endings of adjectives -or, -, -ov, except which has -or,

-, -ov.

all
(c) Multiplicatives,

compounded of ,
which answer the question, "How many fold?" They are
and are adjectives of three endings, -, -ovv.
-,
-,

,
For the declension of these, see § 29. Numeral adjectives in answer the
question, "How many times ?"

are all compounds of -, -,


(d) Proportionals, which answer the question, "How many times more?"
e. g. -
two-fold, double.
They
;

, -,
(e) Substantive-numerals, which express the abstract idea of the number; e. g,
duality.

§ 66. Numeral Signs.

,,
1. The numeral
which three obsolete
as the sign for 6
letters are

; ,
signs are the twenty-four letters of the Greek alphabet, to
added, viz. after

5, as the sign for 90;


, or the
, digamma
Qf^, as the
F or

sign for 900.

units
eight,
2. The
;

i.
first eight letters,
the following eight,
e. from to
i.

with the
i.

e.

,
e.from a to & with the
from to with the
the hundreds.
,, or
the tens
denote the
; the last

3. Up numeral signs, are distinguished by a mark


to 999, the letters, as
placed over them, and when two or more letters stand together, as numeral signs,
only the last has this mark. With 1000, the alphabet begins again, but the let-
ters are distinguished by a mark placed under them, thus, a'— 1, a = 1000, i'=

10, = 10,000, 5742, ,'= 1842, p'= 100, jp = 100,000. '=


Summary of the Cardinals and Ordinals.

,
§ 67.

1
2/3'
, , ',
, ,,
, or
Cardinals.
one
turn ,
,
,
Ordinals.
-, -ov,

-a, -ov,
primus,
secundus,
-a, -um
-um
-a,

3
4
5
/
(
'
U
three
-a, or
,
,
,
-, -ov, tertius,
-, -ov
-, -ov
-, -ov
-a, -um

6
7
,
, -
-, -ov

, ---
,
,
-,

,
8 if
9 #' -,
10 ' -,
11 ' -,
12 ' -, -
13 / -, -
14 ' or -, -
67.]

15
16
17 ?
NUMERALS.

,
,
,
, -,
-,
-
-
-, -
-, -
71

'
,
,
18
-, -
19

,
(), , ,
, , -

,
20 *' -,
21 ' -, -, -, -*
-, -

,
'
30
40 "
'
or

, -, -
-, -

,
50
60 ' -, -
-, -

,
'

,
70
-, -

, ,
80
-, -
90 5'
100
200
300
'
<f
' ,
,
,
-, -
-, -

,
-, -
-, -
-, -

, -, -

, -, -
400 '
500 ' -, - -, -
-, -
600

, -, -
-, -

,
,
-, -

,
700 V'
800 ' -, - -, -

,
900 Cfo '
1000 ,
2000

,
3000 //
,
,
,
-, -
-, -
-, -
-, -

,
-, -
-, -

-, -
-, -

,
4000 -, - -, -

', -, -

,
5000 , -, -
6000 -, - -, -

,
,ff

-, -
-, -
6?,
,
,
7000
-, -

,
8000 , -, -

,
,
9000
10,000 / -, -
-, -
-, -
-, -
-, -

.
20,000
100,000
,*

,
-, -
- -,
In compound numerals, the smaller number with
-, -.
is usually

,
placed before the larger, often also the larger without is p-aced first, some-
limes with

25 :
; e. g.

, or , . .
345
The same
.

, .
holds of the ordinals

or
; e. g.
or .
:

72 NUMERALS. [§68.

§ 68. Declension of the fir st fo u r Nu merals.


Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
,
,
and
Attic also
more rarely ()
Ace.

.
Nom. Neut. or

()
Neut.
Gen.
Dat.
Ace.
() Neut. Neut.

Rem. The Gen. and Dat. , ,,


,
1. of viz. have the accentuation of
monosyllabic substantives of the third declension. See
§ 33, (b). Like.
, ,(), -, ,-., , ,
are also declined and no one, which have the same irregular ac-
centuation, thus
Gen. Dat. etc., but
-,
in PI.

Rem. often used indeclinably for all the Cases.


() The numeral ,
,,
2. is

both, like has -olv in the Gen. and Dat. ; the Ace. is like the Nom.
Like it is also sometimes used indeclinably.

XXXV.
, Vocabulary.
- = -,
-, -, about.

ing up, an expedition


, a go-
,
,-
bearing, furnished with
scythes.
-, , a year.
?\,-&,

, ,
a multitude, extent.
, a foot,

,
= -,
-, -,(from the sea inland).
, number,
-, -,
breadth. &,pes, pedis,

, a station, a

,
-pv,

, -, ,
,
extent, length. , a go day's journey, a march.
-, ,
,-, ,
,
stupid.
-ov,
a chariot.
senseless,
ing down (from
to the sea), retreat.
-, ,
inland

a heavy-

,
army, an armament.
conscribo, to
an

en •

,?
, barbarian, armed man. list, to describe.
-, -,
(every one not a Greek).
3, -, , a
pace.
step,

-ov, scythe-
a ,-,,
man.
to be present.
a shields-
, gether, in a body, whole.
-,
intelligent.
-,
all to-

sensible,

To
. --
-
« . ?()..., -J

.
, . '&
, '&
,, , --
.
,
:

,. -
NUMERAL ADVERBS. THE VERB.

,
§§ 69—71.] 73

'.
It is better to ha\-e one sensible friend, than all senseless ones. Seventy
years afford about 25,555 days. The extent (number) of the way from the bat-
tle at ()
Babylon to () Cotj-ora on the retreat (gen.) which is described by
Xenophon, amounts to (is) 122 days' journeys, 620 parasangs, 18,600 stadia;
the length (multitude) of the time eight months. The number of the armament
is 12,639,850. The armament are four, each of 300,000 (gat.).
generals of the
In the battle were present 96,650 soldiers and 150 scythe-bearing chariots.

Numeral Adverbs.
1

2
,
,
once
twice
§ 69.

18
19
3
4
5
6
20
30
40
50
or .
7
8
9
10
11
, 60
70
80
90
100
12
13
14
15
16
17
or 1000
2000
200
300

10,000
20,000
-
CHAPTER VIII
THE VEEB.
§ 70. Nature of the Verb.
The verb expresses something which is affirmed of a subject ; e. g.

the father writes, the rose blooms, the boy sleeps, God is loved.

§ 71. Classes of Verbs.


Verbs are divided, in relation to their meaning and form, into the
following classes
; ;

74 CLASSES OP VERBS. —THE TENSES AND MODES. [§§ 72, 73

1. Active verbs, i. e.

,
such as express an action, that the subject
&,
itself performs or manifests

vise myself,
3.
e. g.

I deliberate;
Passive verbs,
receives from another subject;
i.
I write,

e.
; I bloom;
Middle or Reflexive verbs, i. e. such as express an action,
2.

that proceeds from the subject and again returns to it, i. e. an- ac-
tion which the subject performs on itself; e. g.

e. g.
I ad- ,
,
such as express an action that the subject
I am smiU
ten by some one.

1.

I. (1) Present,
(2) Perfect,

,
,
,
,,
The Greek language has
§72. The Tenses.
the following Tenses
I advise,
I have advised;
:.

II. (3) Imperfect,

2.
(4) Pluperfect,
(5) Aorist,
III. (6) Future,

(7)

a.
,
I shall have
All the Tenses may
advised myself, or
be divided
I was advising,
I had advised,
I advised, (indefinite)
I shall or will advise,
Future Perfect (only in the Middle form),

into,

Principal tenses, viz. Present, Perfect and Future


b. Historical tenses, viz. Imperfect,
;

/ shall have
, been advised.

Pluperfect and Aorist.

Remark. The Greek language has two forms for the Perf. and Pluperf. Act.,
two for the simple Fut. Pass., and two each for the Act., Pass, and Mid. Aor.
these two forms may be distinguished as Primary and Secondary tenses.
Still, few verbs have both forms most verbs construct the above tenses with
;

one or the other form. No verb has all the tenses. Pure verbs form, with very
few exceptions, only the primary tenses. Mute and liquid verbs may form both
the primary and secondary tenses. The Eut. Perf., which is found in but few
verbs, is almost entirely wanting in liquid verbs.

§73. The Modes.


The Greek has the following Modes :

I. The Indicative, which expresses what is actual or real ; e. g.

the rose blooms, bloomed, will bloom.

and
. The
conception of the mind.
is called the Optative

Remabk. How
Opt.),
; comp. ,
Subjunctive, which denotes merely a representation or
The Subjunctive of the historical tenses,
with scriberem.

the Aor. can have both forms of the Subjunctive


and the Future an Optative, will be seen in the Syntax
(i. e.

($ 152).
Subj.
§§ 74 77.] VERBS. —PARTICIPIALS, ETC. 75

will
III.

§ 74.
e.
The
g , Imperative, which denotes a direct expression of one's

Participials
advise.

.
—Infinitive and Participle .

In addition to the modes, the verb has two forms, which, from
their partaking both of the nature of the verb, and also of that of
the substantive and adjective, are called Participials, namely,
(a) The Infinitive, which is the substantive-participial ; e. g.
i&ekes , I ivish to advise, and , the
advising.
(b) The
, Participle, which is the adjective-participial
an advising man, i. e. a counsellor.
1\fmaek. These two participials may be called verbum infinitum; the
; e. g.

re-
v-

maining forms of the verb, verbum fimium.

§ 75. Numb ers and Persons of the Verb .

The personal-endings of the verb show whether the subject of


the verb be the speaker himself (I, first person) ; or a person or

of (he, she,
ber, viz. Singular,
advise
she, it,
; , ,
thing addressed (thou, second person)
it, third person).
Dual and Plural

the person or thing spoken of, advises


They also
;
;

thou, the person addressed, advisest ;


e. g. ,,,
or a person or thing spoken
show the

;
relation of
I, the speaker,
num-

ye two,
he,

the persons addressed, advise ; they, the persons spoken


of, advise.

Remark. There is no separate form for the first Pers. Dual in the active
voice, and in the Pass. Aorists ; hence it is expressed by the form of the first Pers.
Plural.'

§76. The Conjugation of the Verb.


The Greek has two forms for
cludes much the larger number
and the older conjugation in -,
conjugation, that in
of verbs,
e. g. -,
e. g. -,
to station.
-, which
to advise,
in-

§77. Stem, Augment and Reduplication. — Verb-


characteristic.
1. Every verb is divided into the stem, which contains the ground-
form of the verb, and into the syllable of formation, by which the
relations of the action expressed by the verb, are denoted. See

§§ 71
the ending of the
75. The stem
first
is found in most verbs in
Pers. Ind. Pres. ; e. g. -,- -, -- by cutting off
;;

76 VERBS. INFLECTION-ENDINGS. TENSE-ENDINGS, [§§ 78, 79.

2. The

-;
syllables of formation are either
the stem, and are then called inflection-endings,
-, e. g. -,
annexed as endings to

called
ing, -,Augment and
I have
Reduplication,
advised.
e. g. -,
or are prefixed to the stem, and are then
I was advis-

3. The Augment, which belongs to the Indicative of all the his-


torical tenses, i. e. the Imperfect, the Aorist and the Pluperfect, is

-,
£ prefixed to the stem of verbs which begin with a consonant
I advised ; but in verbs, which begin with a vowel,
a and being changed
consists in lengthening the first stem-vowel,
; e. g.

it

into (and in some cases into ), and into and , and into .
4. Reduplication, which belongs to the Perfect, Pluperfect and

Future Perfect, consists in repeating the first stem-consonant to-


gether with , in those verbs whose stem begins with a consonant

Augment
plicated,
;

from
e. g.

'-. -,
but in verbs whose stem begins with a vowel, it is the same as the
I have
For a more
advised, ',
full definition
I have
of the Aug-
sup-

ment and Reduplication, see § 85.


5. The last letter of the stem, after the ending - is cut off, is

called the verb-characteristic, or merely the characteristic, because


according to this, verbs in - are divided into different classes ; ac-
cording as the characteristic
are divided into pure, mute and liquid verbs
vise, -, to honor, -,
is

to rub, -, ; e. g.

to
-,
a vowel, or a mute, or a liquid, verbs

show.
to ad-

§ 78. In fie ction -en dings.


In the inflection-endings, so far as they denote the relation ot
tense, mode and person, there are three different elements, namely,
the tense-characteristic, the mode-vowel, and the personal-ending
e. g. ---. According
are divided into the Active, Middle and Passive endings.
to the three classes of verbs, they

§79. (a) Tense-characteristic and Tense-endings.


1. The tense-characteristic is that consonant which stands next
after the stem of the verb, and is the characteristic mark of the
tense. In pure verbs, is the tense-characteristic of the Pen. and
Plup. Ind. Act.
--- ; e. g.

---- ;

that of the Fut. and first Aor. Act. and Mid. and the Fut. Perf. is

; e.g.
;

§§ 79, 80.]

?,--
---
k
VERBS.

-- ---
PERSONAL-ENDINGS AND MODE-VOWELS.

-?<.-- ;
77

that of the first Aor. Pass, is # ; in addition to the tense-character


istic , the first Fut. Pass, has the ending -& of the first Aor.
Pass thus,
,

-7•,-- ---.

,
The primary tenses only, see § 72, Rem., have a tense-character-
istic.

2. The tense-characteristic, together with the ending following,


is called the tense-ending. Thus, e. g. in the form " is

the tense-characteristic of the Fut., and the syllable , the tense-


ending of the Future. The stem of the verb, together with the
tense-characteristic
tense-stem.
the first
Thus,
Aor. Active.
e. g. in -,
and the augment or reduplication,
is
is called the
the tense-stem of

§ 79 (b) Persona l-endings and Mode-vow el s.


The personal-ending takes a different form according to the dif-
ferent persons and numbers ; and the mode-vowel takes a different
form according
1
3
1

2
«
"
"
PI.
"
"
"
to the different

Pers. Sing. Ind. Pres.


" " Put. "
Pres. "
" "
.
. --,
----
--
modes e. g.

--
-- --
/>---
---
?,---
;

Subj.
Opt.
Subj.
"
-oc-ro

---.
,
" Sing. " I. " "
1
3 " u " " " ?.--- Opt.

Remark. In the above forms, is the verb-stem, and


and are the tense-stems, namely, of the Pres., Fut. and first Aor. Mid.
the endings -, -rat, etc., are the personal-endings, and the vowels , , , oc,

, a, ac, are the mode-vowels.

§ 80. Remarks on the Personal-endings and Mode-


vowels.
1. The personal-endings are appended directly to the mode- vowel,
and are often so closely united with

--,
as separate parts, but are united in one
-r}, instead of
it,

--.,—
; e. g. -,
that the two do not appear

the
instead of
and a coalescing
and forming , and being subscribed.
2. The difference between the principal and historical tenses is

-- --, -& --&


here important. The principal tenses, viz. Pres., Perf. and Fut.,
form the second and third person Dual with the same ending, -ov;
e. g. ; but
7*
:

78 VERBS. —PERSOXAL-ENDINGS MODE-VOWELS. [§ 80.

the historical tenses form the second person Dual with the ending -o v,

-
-- -- -- --
the third with the ending

3. The
,
; e. g.

principal tenses form the third person plural active with


& -&.

the ending - () [arising from - , - t], the third person plu


ral middle with - a t, the historical active with -v, and the mid
-;
die with
--
?»--= -() ---.
e. g.

--
The principal tenses in the singular middle end ~, -,

-
4. in
-, -, -

5.
--
;

--
--
the historical, in

The
a
a
a
t

t
= - --
--
--
personal endings of the subjunctive of the principal tenses,
; e. g.

.
=

are the same as those of the indicative of the same tenses ; and the

the historical tenses


-
-&
-
;

-
endings of the optative are the same as those of the indicative of

- - e. g.

-
2 and 3 Du. Ind. Pr. Subj.
"

-
&

2 "
3 "
3

1 S.
1. "

"
"
"
"
"
"

"

-
-
--,--- -
-
-
-y
()
rat
at

, --
"
"
"
"
"
, --
--,--'&
-y
t ()

- -
2 and 3 Du. " Impf. Opt. -r

-
"

(- -
"

-
1. " "

,
3
"

\ S.
2 "
3 "
"
"
tL
"
"
"
(- -. )
"
"
"
)

Remark. On see § 7, 1. (b).

6. The mode-vowel of the subjunctive of the principal tenses dif-


from that of the indicative, merely in being lengthened, viz.

-
fers
into

"nd.
nd.
,
--
-- -.and a into , and into

Subj.
Subj.
e. g.

;
;

Ind. --& --. Subj.

7. The mode-vowel of the optative is in connection with the

preceding mode-vowel of the first person singular indicative. (The


pluperfect is an exception, the optative of this taking the mode-
vowel of the present).
1. Sing. Ind. Imperf. Act.
" Plur. " Aor. I. Act. a
Thus
Opt.
"
ol
at
8----
-- --
:

§ 81.] CONJUGATION OF THE REGULAR VERB IN -. 79

§81. Conjugation of the Regular Verb in -, ex-


hibited in the Pure Verb (§ 77, 5) .

Preliminary Remarks. As pure verbs do not form the secondary tenses

(§ 72,
and a
hibit a
Rem.), these tenses are supplied in the Paradigm from two mute verbs
liquid verb
full conjugation.
(-, -, stem , -, stem ), so as to ex-

In learning the table of conjugation, it is to be noted


(1) That the meaning in English is opposite the Greek forms. All the par-
ticular shades of meaning, however, which belong to the different Modes and
Tenses in connected discourse, cannot be given in the table.
(2) That the Greek forms may always be resolved into their constituent

Tense-stem,
(3)
and Subj.
The
(e) Verb-stem,
spaced forms,
Pres., may
e. g.
(f

call the attention


- -,
parts, viz. (a) Personal-ending, (b) Mode-vowel, (c) Tense-characteristic, (d)
) Augment or Reduplication.
, 3d Pers.Du.Ind.
of the learner to the difference between

, ,,
the historical tenses in the Ind. and Opt. and the principal tenses.

(4) Similar forms, as well as those that differ only in accentuation, are dis-
tinguished by a star {*).
them together;

cat, Inf.

(5) The
Aor.
2. S.

I.
e. g.

Act.
Imp. Aor.
The

I.
learner should search these out
1.

Mid.,

accentuation should be learned with the form.


S. Ind. Put. Act, or
3. S.
1. S. Subj.
Opt. Aor.

The
I.
Aor.
Act, -
and compare
I.

following gene-
Act.:

ral rule will suffice for beginners : The accent of the verb is as far from the end as
the final syllable ivitt permit. Those forms, whose accentuation deviates from this

rule, are indicated by a cross (f ).

,,
(6) When the following paradigm has been thoroughly learned in this way,
the pupil may first resolve the verbs occurring in the Greek exercises into their
elements, i. e. into the personal ending, mode-vowel, etc., observing the follow-
ing order, viz. is (1) of the first Pers., (2) Sing., (3) Ind., (4) Put.,

(5) Act., (6)from the verb to advise; then he may so translate into

Greek the verbs in the English exercises, as to exhibit the elements of which
the form of the Greek verb must be composed these elements may be arranged ;

in the following order: (1) Verb-stem, (2) Augment or Reduplication, (3)


Tense-characteristic, (4) Tense-stem, (5) Mode-vowel, (6) Tense-stem with
Mode-vowel, (7) Personal-ending, (8) Tense-stem with Mode- vowel and Perso-
nal-ending. E. g.
himself using the Aor. of the Pres.,
What would
-,
be the form in Greek of the phrase, he advised
to advise ? Answer : The verb-
stem
Aor. Mid.
lad. Mid.
is ?.-, augment ,
is

is a,
, thus tense-stem
thus -?>--,
thus
is -- ; the tense-characteristic of the
; the mode- vowel of the
the personal-ending of the third Pers. Sing,
first
first

Aor.

of an historical tense of the Mid. is


;

, thus ----.
(7) In order that the memory of the pupil may not be tasked by too many
forms at once, it is best to commit the verb in parts, and in the order in which
the exercises in § 84 follow each other. He may at the same time translate the
exercisesfrom Greek into English, and from English into Greek. After all the
forms have been thoroughly committed in this way, he may turn back to the
tables and repeat all the forms together.
80 CONJUGATION OF THE REGULAR VERB IN -. [§81.
ACT
The
Tenses. Subjunctive
Indicative.
-* -* of the Principal tenses.

Present.
'-,
-,
-
-,
-,,
I advise,
thou advisest,
he, she, it advises,
-
)-,
/-*
,
I may advise,
thou mayest advise,
he, she, it may adv.
, ye two may ad.
,

-
Tense- D.2. ye two advise,
stem:
?,-
-* they two advise,
?,-, they two may a.

Imperfect.
-
-,
-
--{),
--,
l

*
we

I was
advise,
you advise,
(), they advise,

he, she, it
advising,
thou wast advising,
was ad.
'-,
'-(),
we may

they
advise,
you may advise,
may adv.

Tense-

-- --
--,,
ye two were ado.

-
stem : they two were a.
we were advising,
-?<,-, you were advising,
-ov^they we?*e advising,

---,
---, I have advised, -••,
---, Ivuxy have ad.
thou mayest

---
thou hast advd,
Perfect I. ---{)*},8, has a have advised, etc., declined

---
-Tense- ,ye two have a. like the Subj. Pres.
stern they two
- :

---,liave advised,
,

---,
---
we haveadv.
you have adv.
c (), they have a

----
---- ,^',
,
---- ^^,.
---- thou hadst a.
Pluper-
,
\

|
feet I.
Tense-
stem
--
3--\
:
advised,
--7\--
---- ,
had advised,
v,wehadad.
, ye two had

they two

----
---•
k
you had ad.
av.theyhada.
S
Perf. II. --, I 1
appear, --, I may appear^
Mpf. II. ---, 2

--*
---
--- ,
, S. 1. 1 I advised, (indef.)
--•, I may advise,
thou mayest ad-
--- (),
. -?,-- ,
Aor.
Tense-
I.
2.
3. 1
thou advisedst,
he, she, it adv. vise, etc., declined like the

--- ,,
stem:
2. j!
ye two actVif,
they two ad.
Subj. Pres.

\8?.-- ..---
3. 1
i-

-?--,,
--- we advised,
2. 1 you advised,
they advised,
-,
f
3.

. S.i --, I left, etc., declined like the


Aor.
h -- .
jj

--, etc., declined like Subj. Pres.


j Impf. Ind.
Future. S. 1.. ?*.--* I shall advise,
?„--\ | declined like the Indie. Pres.
The declension of the 2d Perf. in all the Modes and Participles, like that of the 1st Perf.
}81.] CONJUGATION OF THE REGULAR VERB IN -. 81
IVE
OD S . Participials.

i. e.
Optative
Subj. of Historical tenses.

-,
-,
-,
Imperative.

?<.-, ye two
advise thou,
let him a,
a.
Infin.

3-
,
?-•
to
---,
G.
Particip.

-ovf

-* both advise,

-,5\\\•*,
let

do ye ad.
them advise,
advising,

-,
?^-,
I might advise,
let them a.

-
?*-,
?^-,
-
-,
?^•,,
thou miglitest advise,
might adv.
he, she, it
ye might ad.
ttco
they two mig. a.
we might advise,
you might advise,
,
i they miglit advise,

[---*] -- ---\
---\
declined like the
etc.
- ---\
Imp. Pres.
only a few Per-
yet

fects, and such as


;

to have
advised,
,--,
G.

advised,
--
having

have the meaning


of the Pres., fonn
an Imperative.
---,
•?-•, mig. have a.
thou mightest
have advised, etc., declined
like the Opt. Impf.

--, --, appear thou, -- --


--, --
-,•\
--
,* -
I might appear,

--
--
-•*•\
- --,
--
-•
I might advise,
or advise, -
- .--
--
-- -- or -()

?-•
--,
to
-av'f

?.--
-- --, advise,

-*
having advised,

, -,,,,\
- Lav
-, etc.,
or
declined like the -, declined
etc.,
us ually
?-

'-,
9
Opt. Impf.

declined like the Opt. Impf.


The declension of the 2d
I would advise,

Pluperf. s
like the Imp. Pres.

- •-•,
-,
G.

etc.,

like that of the 1st Pluri erf., both in the ind.


like Pr. Pt.
and Opt.
::::

CONJUGATION OP THE REGULAR VERB IN -. [§81.


MID
1 » The

- -
Tenses.
in

- -
Indicative.
Subj unctive
of the Principal tenses.

-
-
- -
-
-
-*
-
-
-*
-
-
Present.

-
Tense-stem
S.l.

D.l.

P.l.
2.
3.

2.
3.

2.
-
-y*
a
, I

t
deliberate,
[am advised,
or

rat
at, I may
[deliberate,

--
-- , 3. at

--
S.l. I was
--
delibe-
2.

--
[rating,
Imperfect. 3.
D.l.

--
Tense-stem
2.
3.
--
--
---
P.l.

S.l.
2.
3.

-
-
--
--
-- -u , I have delibe- --may have
,

--
2. [rated, deliberated,
Perfect. 3.

--
Tense-stem
D.l.
2.
3. --
-?„-&
--*
P.l.
2.
3. --
---, rat
S.l.
---
--•
I had de-

Pluperfect.
D.l.
2.
3.
---
---
---
[liberated.

---
Tense-stem
P.l.
2.
3.
---
---
2.
3. ---
--- , --
Aorist I.
S.l.
2.
3.
---
---
I delibera-
[fee?, (indefinite) --*
etc.,
, I may
[deliberate,
declined like
-?»---&
D.l.
----
--- - Pres. Subj.

---
Tense-stem
P.l.
2.
3.

2.
---
---
---
Aorist II.
S.l.
3.

-'-, I remained, decli- -, Imay remain,

Future.
S.l. --,
ned like Ind. Imperf.

I. shall delibe-
declined likePres.Subj.

Fut.Perf.
S. 1. ---,
rate,

erate,
declined like Pres. Ind.
I shall delib-
declined like Pres. Ind.
181.] CONJUGATION OF THE REGULAR VERB IN -. 83
DLE.

Optative
i.e.Subj. of tho Hist, tenses.

-
-*
Imperative.

?<,-, deliberate thou,

-
- -,
Infin.

&,
to delibe-
rate,
-
Participials.

Particip.

deliberating,

--*
-
-
-
,
-&
I might
--, usually -&*
- [deliberate,

-
--
-
icr&ov

--
--, --
a&airf to
^
-
2.--
-&
--&*
have de-
liberated. vovfi having

--* --&
-- ,
might have deliberated.
--&, usually

--
--
--
--
-
?\.--
v,Imi(ft
[delibe-
[rate,
--*
?>--&
?»---
--&*
deliberate thou
- --
---&,
to deliber-
ate,
-
having delib-

--'&
--& --&
--
-, -,?,---&, --$*
-& -,
-
- ,
--
like Opt. Impf.

ovv--ov,Im. have
,
-
remain

--
-&,
like Pres. Imp.
usually
declined --

---, --
-- ----
,
cie/z6eraiec?,likeOpt.Impf.

deliberate.lUke Opt. Impf.


-,

-, -.
1

84 REMARKS ON THE PARADIGM. —ATTIC FUTURE. [§§ 82, 83.

PAS
The
Tensos. £ S S2 Subjunctive
Indicative. of the Principal tenses.

Aorist I.
S.i. ---,
---&-
---
-%-&-
I mas advised,
--
'-•&-,
---^
I might have
[been advised,

--
|

Tense -
bo ?\,---
---
"'
stem : I '

--•&-
-&-\
"
rt
'
*'
---&- --&-
---*
---&- -•&-
Future I.
S. l.

2.
----,
---, shall be adv.
etc., declined
[)

Aonst U.
S.I.

S.I.
like the Ind. Pres.

--,
-, I
first

---, I
was rubbed,
declined like the
etc.,
Aor. Ind. Pass.
Mid.

shall be rubbed,
-
-, I
first
may have been ruVd,
,etc.,declined like the
Aor. Sudj. Pass.

Fut. II. ---, etc., declined like

-,
I

the first Fut. Ind. Pass.


Verbal Adjectives : -, -, advised,

§82. Remarks on the Paradigm.


1. In the
-, a form in -
first

; e. g. ?-,
person Sing. Plup. Act., Attic writers use besides the form

commonly shortened
instead of --.
---, The mode-vowel
m

-
in the third Pers. PI. is into instead

&-)-
?,---.
;

of

-7]
2. In the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and Fut. Mid. and
besides the form in -y, use another in
and -, and -,
- ; e. g.

and -,
and -,
Pass., the Attic writers

-y and
\>-
-.

,
This last form in
verbs, viz.

,
, I think,
I ivish,

I sluatt see,
'
- is

,
exclusively used in the following forms of the three

,
, thou wishest (but Subj.
thou thinhest (but Subj. olrj)
thou ivilt see.
)
3. The abbreviated forms of the third Pers. PI. Imp. Act. have in all tenses

except the Perf., the same form as the Gen. PI. of participles of the respective
tenses. The pupil should seek out these forms.

§83. Remarks on the Formation of the Attic Future.


1. When in the Fut. Act. -,
and Mid. of verbs in from stems of two -,
or more syllables, the short vowels , , I, precede , certain verbs, instead of
the regular form, have another, which, after dropping a, takes the circumflexed
ending -, -,
called the Attic Future;
£, -$, -, -, -, -, -()
and because
e. g.
it

(usually
;
),
was frequently used by the Attic

, to drive,

to finis} ,
--,
writers, it is

--, Fut Att


Fut. Att
: —

81.] ACCENTUATION OF THE VERB. 60

SIVE.
Modes. Partlcipials.

-
Optative
Imperative. Infin. Participle.

--,
--
i. e. Subj. of the Hist, tenses.

---•\
-9--
?.--&-
I might be
[advised,
--
--&-
--&-
---\
?,--&-7], be thou ad-
-$-\ [vised,
d-7~/vat,
to be ad-

- ---*
vised, Genitive
3--- 7,-"&-
3--&-
/,-- and
- -•&-,
-- and
7*-•&-7]
?-
having
advised,
been

-•&?]--7/, I should
declined
be advised, etc.,
& , &--
-----
- -,

-,
-,
like the Impf. Opt. Mid.

I might
declined like
be rubbed,
-&,-&.,
'- -,
declined like I.
etc.,

- ---
etc..

the first Aor. Opt. Pass. like first Aor.Imp.Pass. Aor.Part.Pass.


---, nibbed, etc., declined like
I should be
- -,
'

(), ,
the first Fut Opt. Pass.
?<.-, -, -,
, , , --
to be advised.

>, -, -, -, -, -, -()
-, -,
-, -, -() etc.

-, -,
; ,
-, -, to carry, Put.
;

Put. Att. -, -,

, , (),
; etc.

,
This form of the Put. found only in the Ind., Inf. and Part., never in the

,
2. is

7^. The

,
Opt, thus ; but verbs which have this
,

-
form are the following (a) : to dnve, to finish,

to call, and, though seldom, to griyid; — (b) all polysyllables in -

(,—, -,
;

(c) a few verbs in - , very generally ; (d) of verbs in -, all in

and to clothe etc.). Excep-


tions to this form of the Put. are found but seldom in the Attic dialect

1.

,,,
, , ,. Primary law.
the beginning, as
§ 84.

far as
Accentuation of the Verb.
The
the nature
acce7it is

of
draum back from
the final syllable ,-
,.
the

permits /
end of the ivord toioards

e. g.

,.
but
Rem. ] . The diphthong - at the end of a word, is considered short in re •
spect to accent ; e. g. The Opt. ending -ai, however, is considered
long ; e. g. third Pers. Sing. Opt first Aor. Active. The Opt end-
ing - is also long ; e. g.

2. The same law holds good in composition, yet with this limitation, that the

accent cannot go back beyond that syllable of the word prefixed, which before composi-
tion had the accent; nor beyond the first two words forming the compound, neit/ier be-

yond an existing augment ;


* e. g.

8
— —— : : — —

,,,
86 ACCENTUATION OF THE VERB. [§ 84.

,
but like
like
, (not
like like
etc.),
/,
but Imp. . like

Exceptions to the Primary Law.


The

, ,,
3. accent is on the ultimate in the following forms
(a) In the Inf. second Aor. Act. as circumflex, and in the Masc. and Neut.

, ,
Sing of the Part, of the same tense as acute
the second Pers. Sing. Imp. second Aor. Act. of the fire verbs,

-. (b)
&, , ,
and (but in composition,
Also in the Imp. second Aor. Mid. as circumflex
; e. g.

; e. g.
').
-,
-,
and
,
from
in

&,
, , , , ,,,, , , ,
Rem. 2. In compounds, the Imp. (not Participials) of the second Aor. Act.

,,
draws back the accent in all verbs according to the primary law e. g.
- (but not
;

, , &, ,
see No. 2), but etc. But in the
Imp. Sing, second Aor. Mid. of verbs in -, the circumflex remains on the ulti-

& ,
mate in compounds also e. g.

&,
bic preposition
the verb , &,
; so in verbs in
; e. g.

compounded with a
;

-, when the verb

;
is compounded with a monosylla-
yet the accent
dissyllabic preposition
is drawn back, when

&, -, -, &,
is ; e. g.

; but in the Dual and PI. of the second Aor. Mid., the accent is in all

-.
cases drawn back

The
; e. g.

acute stands on the ultimate in all participles in -


&&,
(Gen. -), con-

-
(c)

-, , -, &, -, ,
-,

,
sequently in

-, , -, , -, , -, ,
and second

,,,, ,. ,
all active participles

Perf. Act. and first


of verbs in
and second Aor. Pass, of
as well as in those of the
all verbs ; e. g.
first

,.
Gen. Gen. Gen. Gen.
Gen. Gen. Gen. Gen.
Gen.
Rem. 3. The first Aor. Act. Part., which is always paroxytone, is an excep-
tion e. g. Gen.

&, .
;

(d) In the Sing, of the first and second Aor. Subj. Pass, as circumflex ; e. g.

4. The accent is on the penult in the following forms


(a) In the Inf. Perf. Mid. or Pass., first Aor. Act. and second Aor. Mid.; also

-- ,
-, hence in

,,
&, -, - ,
of verbs in -, as well as
all infinitives in all active infinitives

,.
in

, ,-, -,
, &, , , , , , , ,
in the Inf. of first and second Aor. Pass, and of the Perf. Act. of all verbs ; e. g.

&, ;
;

-at ; -
: ;

(b) In all Optatives in - and -, see Rem. 1.

Rem. 4. The three similar forms, viz. the Inf. first Aor. Act., Imp. first Aor.
Mid. and the third Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Act., when they consist of three
or more syllables, whose penult is long by nature, are distinguished from one
another by the accent, in the following manner:
!

§ 84.]

Inf. first Aor. Act.

Aor. Act.
,
CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.

.
Imp. first Aor. Mid. , 87

,
Opt. first

But when

,.(c)
;
the penult

but Imp. first


is short
Aor. Act. corresponds with the third Pers. Sing. Opt.
Aor. Mid.
In the Part. Perf. Mid. or Pass.
.
by nature or long only by

; e. g.
first
position, the Inf. first
Aor. Act.

-, -, --
; e. g. -

XXXVI. Vocabulary.

-,
Present and Imperfect Active

,
',
(a)

to say. -a, -ov, alter, the ,


, when.
,)

-,
),
-ov,

w.
quainted with, unskill-
(adv.
gen., unac-

,
, - ,
other (of two), opposite,

,
different.
in order that.
-, ,
thus,
(bef. cons,

-, , education,
so,

( ,
ed ==

,
in. instruction.
to turn away, beauty. to approach,

-,avert. to conceal. -, , foresight,

,
,-, ,
, -,
to flee

nobly, bravely.
-, fearful, ter-
away,
a plough.

,
-, , -,
the patronage
Muses,especially music.
understood)
every art under
of the

,
precaution.
(in third pers.

sing.), it falls out, it oc-

curs, it presents itself,

,
rible,

.
dangerous ;
to. subj., when, when-

.,
to live at va

\ .
. '. .
the danger. ever. riance with.

. , . ).- -
. " ",
,. .' ,..
. -&, '
.,
',
?*,
- .,
Two horses drawing (driving) the chariot, hasten. Two women sing. Let
us flee from vice. The boys study literature diligently, that their parents may
rejoice. The boys studied literature very diligently, that their parents might
rejoice. Let the citizen defend the laws. Let friends care for friends. Two
horses, drawing the chariot, hastened. Two women
Those who are un- sang.
acquainted with literature do not see, when they see. Bear nobly the danger
which presents itself (part.), citizens! You speak (so) as you think. We
were unacquainted with music. May the gods avert the danger from us
88 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. [§ 84.

, (b)

-a, -ov, be-


XXXVII.

-,
First Perfect and Pluperfect Active.

,
Vocabulary.

to loosen, de-

,,, about to do, delay; rb

-,
-,
-,
manly.

,
longing to women, wo-

to go into, put on.

,
stroy, dissolve.
w. gen., to be or
become master of, con-
the future,
-, -ov, hostile, b

the enemy.

. ,
to pursue. quer, obtain. to prophesy.
go down, -, ,
,
to dip, a seer, a to bring forth. Per/.

..
set, conceal oneself. prophet. to have become, be.

&.
.
'

,
.
,.
.
,
,
?. - "
to intend or be

-&

'-
-
-

. The sun has gone down (is set). The Lacedaemonians have destroyed Pla-
taea.
Diodorus
tained
"VVe

many
()
admired the woman, who had put on (having put on) a purple robe
says that Alexander (ace. w. inf.), pursuing Darius, ob-
treasures. The enemies had killed 400 soldiers. Thy friend
had brought up his (the) children well.

", (c)
XXXVIII.

,
Vocabulary.

First Future and Aorist Active.


,
,
,
,
-,
cence.
both, ambo.
-, ,

to complete, finish,
-ov, ,a
inno-

tear.
,
,
-,
,
-ov,

descended from.
descendant,

to hope, expect.
to
w.
announce.
clat, to
,
',
ger,

after.
run a
to incur dan•
risk.

w.gen., with

w. dot., to be
; w. acc. %

angry

,
to dissolve, sepa- plot against. with.
,
, rate.

,
-, -ov (superl. of

,
that, because.

.
to judge. ), outermost, utmost, w. subj., before,

.
-ov, b, a judge, last. ere, until.

, a magistrate. to ask, suppli- to plant.

Qi
w. opt,

1
that.

.
,. " , .. -
cate, entreat.

. & ?\, >-


!

..
84.]

. &, () . -
CONJUGATION OP THE VERB.

Uplv 1
89

?,
, . . -
() , ().
. . - ol

Rule of Syntax. The


expressed or to be supplied.
}

particle
1

denotes a condition either


;

"-

You will free the town from the enemies. Good men will plant also for
their descendants. He said, that the town would incur great danger. Achil-
les and Agamemnon were angry with (dual) one another. We entreated the
magistrates with many tears. Achilles killed Hector (", -). Judge
not {pi.) before you have heard the account of both. Thou canst not trust (opt.

to. uv) a liar. May we complete (merely the opt.) everything well. that you
would hear me, friends ! May the soldiers free us from the enemies. Hear
me, friends ! Friends should trust (imp.) friends. To command (aor.) is

easier than to do. Medea rejoiced in having murdered (aor. part.) her children.

/,
-,
(d)

,
XXXIX.

,
Present and Imperfect Middle or Passive.

,
Vocabulary,

,
,
,
-ov, b, a brother, to work. to be poor.
to receive, to go, come. to do, to act to.

,,
;

admit, approve of.

&, quiet, quietly. adv., to fare.

,,
kav =
-ov, b,

, -& .
or av,
-ov,
a

and
-a, -ov, native,
flute.

if,

-
w. subj.

of
w. ace, to
concealed from, escape
the notice of ;
to forget.
lateo,
be

Md.,
[die.

,
pedition

tile
to
;
make an ex-
Mid. to make
war, march (in a hos
manner).

. & -.
"
? . .
the country.

--& .
?
-. ? ,
-
middle, in the mid-
2
to lie.

'
..&. .
,* .?, &. ' .
, .
'
The
dle path, goes safest.
.
magistrate should consult without anger.
Two
He who
beautiful horses are driven to the town.
goes
Eld-

(part.) the
?&-

If
mid-
()
warriors fight courageously, they are admired. We will not lie, but always
speak the truth. Sons should obey their fathers. With God and fate ()
it is terrible to contend. Two men contended. The soldiers fought courage-
ously. that every one would consult without anger ! that thou wouldst
always worship the Deity

158, 5. (b). Ǥ153, (a), (1).


8*
90 CONJUGATION OP THE VERB. [§ 84.

,
XL. Vocabulary.

,
,.a
-, ,
castle.
(e)

a summit,
,
-,
,
Perfect and Pluperfect Middle or Passive.

,
&,
to implant.
to build, found.
dicor, to

-ov, b,
be said,
a robber.

&. . .
. - -, , freedom,
independent legislation. up.
to shut, lock -, , a treaty

&.
&.
, .,
-&.
"'
..&-
•&

--
The robber has been murdered. The children of the friend have been well
brought up. The doors are said to have been shut. Before the work, you have
deliberated well. Good and bad desires have been implanted in men. The
treaties are said to have been violated by the barbarians. The two children
have been brought up by the same teacher. The royal authority had been abol-
ished by the people.

-,
(f) Future and
to
first

cause to , XLI. Vocabulary.

Aor. Mid., and Put. Perf. Mid. or Pass.


to manage, , to lead forward;
rest ;

( ),
Mid. to
cover oneself.
rest, re-

, transact with diligence,


practise.
,
Mid. to go, march, set
out (w. pass, aorist).

.
to give -, , the state, -, , a gate (usu-

any one a taste of any- the administration. ally in the plural).

. . ?
thing ; mid. w. gen., to

,
/

-... "
taste, enjoy.

-.
., . 2

3
'&,'' 1
. Tlpd

-
ounced (),
You will deliberate about the safety of the
that the enemies
(, w.
citizens. The messenger
would march against our town. The
an-

led
closed.
(,
general enjoyed a great honor.
subj. aor.)

Before the work, deliberate well


If subj.) the

(pi.). In ()
enemies shall have been
against us, the gates of the town will remain (have been)
such a danger it is not
easy to deliberate (aor.). If you have deliberated, (aor. particip.) begin the work.

1 2 3
§153, (a), (I). § 158, 5. (a). §158, 4.
;

§ 85.] VERBS. —AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION. 91

,
-, ,
mocracy.,
(g)

to
-,
rule of the people, de-
?),

bring upon
the
XLII. Vocabulary.
First .Aorist and first Future Passive.
after verbs of fear, w.
subj., if

fut.

if
a pres., perf.

goes before
an historical
;
or
w. opt.,
tense
iu ne, to be translated
by '
that
-,
of the enemy.
' or '
lest.'

-ov, hostile

" ', . - helium in- goes before ; as the Lat- -ov, b, a sove-
fero. reign, a tyrant.

.
,
? ?. .
&
,
&?).
,
You were
.
- . &./.
7, ,. #
both educated by the same teacher. We were freed [)
-
-
from
a great danger. I fear much (a great fear holds me), that the friend, who set
off [paiticip.) six days ago, has been murdered bv robbers. I feared much, that
you had been murdered by robbers. The two robbers are said to be killed.
The youth is said to be well brought up. The treaties are said to have been
violated by the enemies. Well brought up youths arc esteemed by all. The
robbers will be killed.

§85. more particular view of the Augment and


Red up lication.
After the general view of the Augment and Reduplication (§ 77,
3 and 4), it is necessary to treat them more particularly.
As has been already seen, all the historical tenses, viz. the Impf.,
Plup. and Aor., take the augment, but retain it only in the Indica-
tive. There are two augments, the syllabic and temporal.

(a) Syllabic Augment.


1. The augment belongs to those verbs whose stem be-
syllabic
gins with a consonant, and consists in prefixing to the stem, in the
Impf. and Aorists, but to the reduplication, in the Pluperfect.

-, -, --.
this way, the verb is increased by one syllable e. g.
In
Impf. ,
,
;

Aor. Plup.
2.

ment
Aor, .
If the stem begins with
is prefixed (§8, 12);
,
e. g. ,
this letter is

to
doubled when the aug-
throw, Impf.

Gen. absolute, like the Abl. absolute in Latin.


;

92

The ,
- -& , VERBS. —TEMPORAL AUGMENT. [§§ 86, 87.

/,
Rem. 1. three verbs to will, to be able, and
?*, to be about to do, among the Attic writers take , instead of , for the

?^-
augment ; still this is found more with the later Attic writers, than with the
earlier
Aor.
; e. g. Aor.
and -- ). &) and
(but always
; Impf.
; Impf.
and
and

.
(the Aor. is very seldom
Rem. 2. Among the Attic writers the augment is often omitted in the Plup.
of compounds, for example, when the preposition ends with a vowel ; in sim-
ples, when a ^

§86. (b) Te?nporal Augment.


The temporal augment belongs to verbs, whose stem begins
with a vowel, and consists in lengthening the first stem- vowel ; in
this way the quantity of the syllable is increased
a becomes , e. g. "/ Impf. ^yov Perf %' Plup

'
" "
, " "
I

"
I,

,
"
"
' " " <<
" "
"

. , " (( (« "
" " "
ai , jjpovv
av " , " « "

, , » " "

,
OL « "

,
^?,
ment

,
;

,
;

"
Remark. Verbs which

" e.g.oa,tobe overcome, Impf.


to press, Aor.
begin with

;
'£>
??, , t>,

,
, ot> and

ZmS to sfep, Aor.


, do not admit the aug-
Perf. Plup. ^Trj7-
;
-

, , , . ,, ,
# ,
, benefit, Impf. ; to wound, Impf. ;

yield, Impf. /cov, Aor. ?£ ; to liken, is an exception, which among


the Attic writers, though seldom, is augmented ; e. g. seldom

, , seldom seldom Also those verbs whose stem


, usually take no augment to supplicate,

more/,
begins with
rarely r
prose, always omits the augment.
but Perf. not
; e. g.

; to find, in good

§87. Remarks on the Augment.

' , * ' ',


1. Verbs beginning with a followed by a vowel, have a instead of but ;

, , .,, . ,
those beginning with a, av and followed by a vowel, do not admit the aug-
ment; e. g. 'at , to perceive (poetic), Impf. ; , to be dis-

gusted with, Impf. ; to dry, Impf. ; to

steer, Impf. ; also to destroy, although no vowel follows a, has


as well as But to believe, always
takes the augment ; e. g.

2. Some verbs, also, beginning with followed by a consonant, do not take


.
the
8,
augment
The
augment, viz. ,
which belongs also
; e. g. i

eleven following verbs, beginning with


to permit,

-, to be
,
Impf.
to guard

,
accustomed)
the house,

Aor.
;
Aor.
, have
; , instead of

A.or. (stem
to
,
accustom, (to
). Its•
for the
:

,
); , ,
§ 88.J

,,
, , ?. -
)
tablished,

, founded ;
VERBS.

to take,
to

Aor. (stem
REDUPLICATION.

wind;
of
to draw; Aor.
; to follow;
93

(stem

,
,. to work; to creep, to go; to entertain;

to have.

4.

, .
The following verbs take the syllabic, instead of the temporal, augment

-, ,
,, . The verb
,

to
to break,

push,
, to buy,
Aor.
capior, Peif.

Impf.
etc.

to celebrate
etc.

and

Perf.
a feast, takes the augment in the second

.
5.

syllable, Impf. The same true of the following forms of the Plu-

,
is

,
perfect

2, ,
:

second Perf. lorna,

to do,
to hope, second Perf.
second Perf.
I am like,

.
Plup.
?,, I hope, Plup.
Plup.
.

,
, ,,, . ),
,
6. The
earn e time:
three following verbs take the temporal

to see,

to open,
Impf.
Impf.
to be taken,

§88.
Perf.

Aor.
Aor.

Reduplication.
(Inf. ?*,
(Inf.
and syllabic

a) and .
augment

etc.
at the

1. Reduplication consists in repeating the first consonant of the

-,
stem with .
to the Perf., e. g.

which as a
duplication ;
It

e. g.
-,
denotes a completed action, and hence

I shall

--.
he
historical tense, takes also
I
adorned, from

It
'
have loosed; to the Fut. Perf.,

the augment
remains in
and to the Plup.,
;

before the re-


all
is prefixed

the modes, as
e. g.

well as in the Inf. and Part.

,-, ,
2. Those verbs only admit the reduplication, whose stem begins
with a single consonant or with a mute and liquid
with
injure,
q, , , ,* (except
from
', to blaspheme,
; verbs beginning
from to

and from to sprout,) are exceptions, inasmuch


as they take only the simple
,
,
,
&•,

,
,
to loose,
to sacrifice,
to plant,
Perf.
"
"
"
-
-
-
augment ; e. g.

(§ 8, 10.)
(§ 8, 10.)
Plup.
"
"
"
--
--
k
--'&
--
--
--
-
to dance, (§ 8, 10.)

--
"

, to write,
to bend,
to judge,
"
"
- "
"

* Such verbs are excepted on account of the difficulty of repeating these


letters.— Tr.
:

94

,
,
&,
",
to breathe,
to bruise,
VERBS.

Perf.
"
"
-
-
ATTIC REDUPLICATION.

- (§ 8, 10.)
Plup.
"
"
--
-
--
[§ 89.

-
to throw,

,3. The
to make knoum,
to be slothful,
to carve,

reduplication
"
"
"

is
"
"
"

not used (beside the above cases of verbs


-.
beginning with , y*•, , /), when the stem of the verb begins

mute and

,
',
,
liquid

to emulate,
; e. g.

Perf. -
with a double consonant or two single consonants, which are not a

- Plup. -
-
-
to entertain, " "

,
,
to sing, "

-
-
"

,
to soiv, " "

Rem.
to build,

1.
to fold,

The two verbs


u
"

(stem ), to
"
"

remind,
^.and
to acquire,

nants, which are not a


k --. mute and a liquid : -, -,
take the reduplication, although their stem begins with two conso-
--,

,
4.

but take
Five verbs beginning with a liquid do not repeat
for the augment :
this letter,

, Plup.
to take, Perf.

,
,
"

,
to obtain, "

', ?,, to collect, " "


to say, " "
to obtain^ " (with rough Breathing), it is fated.

Rem.
simple
2.

in the sense of
to converse,

to say,
has Perf. ?\,,
always takes the regular reduplication, -
though the

, dictus sum (Perf. Act. wanting).

§89. Attic Beduplication.


Several verbs, beginning with , or o, repeat, in the Perf.
and Plup. before the temporal augment, the first two letters of the
The
stem. This augmentation
Plup. then very rarely takes an additional augment;
the regular Attic reduplication.
is called the Attic Reduplication.
/, has

-
-,
(a)

- -
- -
Verbs whose second stem-syllable is short

(),
by nature

- -
-, - -
-, to plough, to drive,

, to convince, to dig,

(b) Verbs which in the second stem-syllable have a vowel long


:

,-,
- ,
90.]

- )-
by nature, and shorten

-, to prop,
VERBS. AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION.

this after prefixing the reduplication (except


:
00

-
to anoint, to hear,

-
,
- , - ,
- to collect,
ky
to awaken,
-
'- .
, Remark. The verb to lead, forms the second Aor. Act. and Mid., and

, -&.-,..,-
to carry, forms all the Aorists with this reduplication, with this difference,
however, that the vowel of the reduplication takes the temporal augment only
in the Ind.,

,, , to lead, Aor. II. -,


and the vowel of the stem remains pure

),
Inf.

. -^/,
Aor. II. Mid.
to

Inf. -,
carry (stem
Aor. Pass,
Aor.
-&, Inf.
Inf.

§90. Augment and Reduplication in Compound


Words.
1. First rule. Verbs compounded with prepositions take the aug-

ment and reduplication between the preposition and the verb then
, ;

--
prepositions which end with a vowel, except and suffer
Elision (§ 6, 3)

their

-?,
,-,
--?.,
to throw from,
;

means of Crasis (§ 6, 2), and becomes

to throw around,
to throw before,
and

-
- - -
frequently combines with the augment by

.-
-,
-
-
and avv resume
which had been assimilated, or dropped, or changed e. g.

?>. -/. -?*


-
-
-?>,?
~.:-
-?«
, ;

- -
-,
-,
-,
-,
-,
to

to
to
throw
to be in,
in,

pack up,
throw together,
to collect together,

2. Second rule. Verbs compounded with


-' - take the augment
and reduplication, (a) at the beginning, when the stem of the sim-
ple verb begins with a consonant or a vowel which does not admit

ment
-,
-,
'-,
; e. g.

to be vrforiunate,
to

Verbs compounded with


make ashamed,
to be displeased,
- -
the temporal augment ; (b) but in the middle, when the stem of the
simple verb begins with a vowel which admits the temporal aug-

-' -.
tv
--
may take the augment and reduplica-
tion at the beginning or in the middle, yet they commonly omit
them at the beginning, and usually in the middle ; e. g.
96

-,
-,
-,
VERBS.

to be fortunate,
to feast well, -
-, -
—AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION.

, -.-,
-, commonly
[§§ 91, 92»

&
to do good, Perf. commonly

, & .
3. Third rule. All other compounds take the augment and re-

&,
duplication at the beginning
to relate,
to build,
; e. g.

§ 91. Remarks.

, - ../ &
1. The six following words compounded with prepositions, take the augment
in hoth places, viz. at the beginning of the simple verb and before the preposi-

,
tion:

to clothe oneself, Impf. or Aor.

.
"

,
to endure,
to be uncertain, and
-&, to raise up, Perf.
"
"
"
to molest,
to not, " "

,...,
The analogy

,
2. of these verbs is followed by three others, which are not com-

, , ,
pounded with
(from
prepositions, but are derived

Perf.
to serve (from
food), (a) to feed, (b) to be
from other compound words,

servant), Impf.
a judge, Impf.

and
viz.

and

Perf.
(from to dispute), Impf. and -
3. Exceptions to the first rule (§ 90, 1). There are several verbs compound-

,
ed with prepositions, which take the augment before the preposition, since they
have nearly the same

,
,
(),
to clothe,
signification as the simple verbs

to be uncertain, Impf.
Aor. ,
, -
;

or
Perf.
e. g.

(No. 1)

, &, &&.
to know, -
Impf.
cause to " Perf.
to
to sit,
sit,
" and -. (without Aug.)

-, to sit,
sleep, "
" arid
seldom
(without Aug.)

,
,
4. Those verbs form an apparent exception to the first rule (§ 90, 1), which
are not formed by the composition of a simple verb with a preposition, but by
derivation from a word already compounded (Comp. No. 2) e. g.

, oppose oneself
to
to defend at law,
to establish,
to, from
"
"
Impf.
"
"
;

.
§ 92. Division of Verbs in -
according to the Characteristic, to-

gether with Remarks on the Formation of the Tenses.

Verbs in - are divided into two principal classes, according to


the different nature of the characteristic (§ 77, 5) :
; : ; : ; ;;

93.] FORMATION OF THE TENSES OF PURE VERBS. 97

I. Pure verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel ; these are again


divided into two classes :

A. Uncontracted
, , o; e. g.

B. Contract verbs, whose characteristic


-,
verbs, whose characteristic is
to educate, -,
is
a vowel, except
to loose ;

either , or

II.
-,
Impure
to honor,

verbs,
-,
whose
to love,

characteristic
&-,
is
to let.

a consonant ; these are


; e. g.

again divided into two classes :

A. Mute verbs, one of the nine mutes


whose characteristic is

e. g. -, to leave, '-,
to persuade; to twine, --,
, , ,
<-, to
;

show?
e. g.

&-,
-,
B. Liquid verbs, whose characteristic is one of the four liquids,
to

to destroy.
announce? -, to divide,

Remark. According to the accentuation of the first Pers. Pres. Ind. Act., all
verbs are divided into,
(a) Barytones, whose final syllable in the first Pers. Pres. Ind. Act.
-, -,
is not ac-
cented ; e. g. etc.

(b) Perispomena, whose


are consequently contract verbs
final syllable is

; e. g. , , -.circumfiexed in the first Pers.

§93. I. Formation of the Tenses of Pure Verbs.


1. In pure verbs, both Barytones and Perispomena, the tense-

e. g. -eoj, -.
endings are commonly appended to the unchanged characteristic
Pure verbs do not form the Second-
ary tenses, but only the Primary tenses the Perf. with (), the ;

Fut. and Aor. with (, ).


Pure verbs, however, are subject
to the following regular change in the stem
2. The short characteristic-vowel of the Pres. and Impf., both in
Barytones and Perispomena, is lengthened in the other tenses. The
Barytones will first be considered, thus
into I,

,
e. g.
-, -,
?]-, --,
?.-, --.
etc.

,
into e. g.

Pres.
to hinder.

Ind.
--
?^-
-- -
-
--- --
- Subj.
ACTIVE.
Imp. Inf. -etv Part,

/- - - -
Impf. Ind. Opt,

---
-- --.
Perf.
Plup.
Ind. Inf. Part, :
Ind.
Put.
Aor.
Ind.
Ind. --
.?„- _
Imp.
Opt.
Subj.
Inf.
Inf.
Opt.


Part,
Part,
:

98 TENSES OF PURE VERBS WITH SHORT VOWEL.

-
[§94.

Pres. Ind. --
--
-- 7-
Part,
Subj.
MIDDLE.
Imp. - Inf. -$
-- --
Impf. Ind. Opt.
Perf. S.l. Ind.
--
- -/-
Imperative Infinitive

--
2.

D.l.
3.

--& --&
/£-/-^
-rac
Participle

2.
3. --&
-- -/-^^
-- Subjunctive
P.l.
2.
--
---
---
/-- -:/>-#]
-7--&
---& ----
-
3. or
Plup. S. 1.
--- ---^- --- [- D.

--- -&
P. Opt. /ce-

Ind.

Put. Ind.
2.
3. ---
- -
-- --- -. Opt.
--- [- Inf.
k

Part,

----.-
Aor. Ind. Subj. Opt. Imp.

Aor.

Put.
Ind.

Ind.
---
Imp.

Part,
- - Inf.

Subj.

Opt.
PASSIVE.
--
Inf.
Part,

Opt. --&
Part.
Inf. --&-&
§ 94. Ferfo which, contrary to the rule, retain the short Character-
istic-vowel in forming the Tenses.

1. Several pure verbs, contrary to the rule (§ 93, 2), retain the short charac-
teristic-vowel, either in all the tenses, or at least in some tenses. Most of these

, , . ',
in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, and

,, ,
verbs take a in the first Aor. Pass. This is

,, -
indicated by the phrase, Pass, with (see § 95). Thus:
to pick, Fut. Aor. Inf. Pass, with ; (but

, to anoint,

apt ,
. -).
Mid. or Pass,
Put.

to complete,

to draw
Put.
water, Put.
Aor.

,.
Aor.
; Aor.
;
Inf.

Aor. Pass,
Aor. Mid.

Pass, with
Pass, with
.

,
<r.
; Perf.

«#, <o c?ose, e. g.

am
, to
, to
Pass.
silent.

.
spit, Put.
cause to
ifte e?/es,

sit,
Put.

Put.
Aor. .;
Aor.

Aor.
;

Pass, with
but Perf.

(later
.
, )', Aor.
I am shut,

2. The following dissyllables in - lengthen the short characteristic-vowel


in the Put. and Aor. Act. and Mid., and also in the Perf. and Plup. Act.,
),

& &, &


but they resume the short vowel in the Perf. and Plup. Act. (except also

,
in the Mid. or Pass., and in the Aor. and Put. Pass.

&
&
,
to wrap up, Put.

, to sacrifice,
to loose,
Aor.
"
"
Perf.
-& "
"
Aor. Pass,

?,
"
"
"
"
"
" &
95.] FORMATION OF THE TENSES OF PURE ERBS. 99

Re»laek. When the vowel in the Fut. Act. is long, and short in the Peif.

and in contract pure verbs ; e. g. , .


Mid. or Pass., the Put. Perf. resumes the long vowel, both in uncontracted verbs

§ 95. Formation of the Aor. and Fut. Pass., and Perf. and Plup.
Mid. or Pass, with a.

1. Pure verbs which retain the short characteristic- vowel of the stem in form-
ing the tenses, insert (Comp. § 94) before the tense-ending -&, etc. in -,
the Aor. and Put. Pass., and in the Perf. a»d Plup. Mid. or Pass. this con- ;

-
nects the endings to the tense-stem
----
---
; e. g.

h
---
----.
Besides these verbs, several others also, which either have a long character-

, ,
2.

istic-vowel in the stem, or lengthen

-•
tion ; e. g. to hear, Aor. ---,
it in

,--,?, -•
forming the tenses, take the same forma-
Fut. Perf.

,
,
Plup.
to stone; , to
;

scrape;
,
, to kindle;
to saw; , , to
to

shake;
command;
to anoint (§
to roll;

94) ;

, --
-
to touch, etc.

Pres.
Impf.
to

h
command.
Perf.
Plup.
--
ACTIVE
--- Put.
Aor. --. -
Present ?,-
---
MIDDLE
Impf. --
Perf. S.
Ind.
1.

--
--
---
--
--- --&
Imperative Infinitive

D
--&
-- --
--& --- -rat
Participle

---&
--& -- --- Subjunctive

---
---- --- ----
---- ---\ or
Plup. S.
Ind. 2.
1.

--- ---
---- --- --•
---
D. .

Opt.
Future
3.

--- -- --. Fut. Perf. Aor.


PASSIVE
--- ---.
Aorist

,
-
Rem.

,
d

Rem.
1.

, to break in pieces,
to shut,

to strike
k

Some vary between

upon,
& , &.
and Att.
and
Future

the regular formation

and
; Aor.
;
and that with

Aor.
,
-&-&
?-.
.

Some
2.

short characteristic-vowel
contrary to the rule, do not take
; thus, e. g. , -, 7,, mentioned
although they retain the
§ 94, 2.
:

CONTRACT PURE VERBS.

,
100 [§ 96

,
XLIII. Vocabulary.
-,
,
,
w. gen. ox ace,
to perceive, observe.
, running.
-, , a course,

,
, to.
to put a stop

.
-, , a -, , strength, to knock, beat.

,
shield.

&
terribly, violently, power, might. -, , an earth-
extraordinarily,
,
to break, shatter, quake.

. . crush.

&.
' , ' to shake.

. .
&-
"
The march against the enemies. Our town has been
soldiers are ordered to
by an earthquake. The might of the Persians was crushed by
violently shaken
the Hellenes. The enemies have been shut up in (into) the castle. The shields
were beaten by the enemies against their spears. The war is ended, i. e. has
been put a stop to.

§ 96. Contract Pure Verbs.


1. Contract pure verbs, as has been seen
§ 92, are such as have
for their characteristic ,
which are contracted with the mode-
or o,

vowel following. Contraction takes place only in the Pres. and


Impf. Act. and Mid. or Pass., because, in these two tenses only, is
the characteristic-vowel followed by another vowel.
2. The following are the contractions which occur here
a -f- becomes d -{- = -{- =
-\- = -\- = -}- =
-\- = -- = -j- =
-\- = -{- = -f- =
-\- = -f- = -f- =
a -jr
a 4"
bl
'
=
=
4~
+
==
=
-f-
+
=
=
( in Inf.)

"* = -j- = = .
3. The tenses of contract verbs, as has been seen § 93, are form-

a
into
into
into
,
,
,
e. g.

e. g.

e. g.
-,
&-,
-,
to love,

to
,-,&-,-,
ed like those of uncontracted pure verbs, i. e. the short characteris-
tic-vowel is usually lengthened, in forming the tenses, viz.

to let out,

honor, --,
---,
etc.

etc.
etc.

a into a, e. g. -, to permit, Fut. -. This lengthening


into a occurs, when ,
ia-co, -; $-,
or

to laugh, -; -,
precedes (Comp. § 26, 1) ; e. g.

to catch
§ 96.]

a
-,
thief, - -,-,
to erg out,
CONTRACT PUKE VERBS.

(but
like
to give as a pledge,
). To
; 101

these verbs be-

-,
-,
, ,, . -.
long the following:

-,
Kem ark. The verbs
to thresh,
to hear,

give an oracle, to use, and ,


to bore, although a precedes, lengthen a into ; e. g. The
exceptions to rule No. 3. will be stated in § 98.
102 CONTRACT PURE VERBS. [§96.

Paradigms op

ACTIVE.
m "3 ra
Present.
2-2 1
Mode and
Participi
3 a>
Characteristic a. Characteristic . Characteristic .

(-), (-),
S. 1.

2.
3.
-(-)
(-£)
to honor,
(-)
(-)
to love,
(•)
-&(-), to
,(-)
let,

Indic-
ative,
D.l.
2. (-)-
(-)- (-)-
(-)- &(-)-•
(-)-
P.l.
3.

2.
(-)~
(-)- (-)- (-)-
(-)- &(-)-
3. (-)-() (-)-() (-)-()
S.l.
2.
{•)
\-) (-)
(-7))}
$(-)
${-)
Sub- D.l.
3. (-) i3
CD
CO

S
(-)^ &(-)
junc- 2. (-)•
(-)-
ft
-|'B"
.
(-)-
(-)- $(-)-
•&(-))-
tive,
P.l.
3.

2.
(-)-
(-)-
Tl
? <
(•)•
{-)- (•)-
•&(6-)-
3. (-)-() 3
t5 (-)•() -&(6-)-()
S.2. (-)
\•)- "&{-)
(-)- (-)
(-)-
Imper-
D.2.
3.
(-)-
(-)- (-)-
•&(-)-
(•)-
(-)-
ative,
P.
3.
2. (-)-
(-)- (-)- •&(•)-
* ( -)- * \-)-
3.
(-))- {-6)- -&(•6)-(
Infin. {-)
(-) (-) -&{-) (-) ,(-)
or

Norn.
(-)- (-)• -\-)-
Parti-
ciple,
Gen.
(-)
(-)-
(-)-
(-)
(-)- &(-)
-(-)
(-)- -(-)-. -
Imperfect.

S.l. (-)
\-) (-)
'{-) •&(•)
$(-)
2.
3. [-) (-) -&(-)
Indic-
ative.
D.l.
2. (-)-
(-)- (-)- -&{•)-
(-)- •&\-)-
P.l.
3.
(-)-
(-)- (-)- (-)-
(-)- -(-)-
2.
3. (-) (-) -&\-)
.

§96.] CONTRACT PURE VERBS. 103

Contract Verbs.

MIDDLE.
Present

Characteristic a. Characteristic . Characteristic .


(-)-
(- )
(-)-
(•7)%
-&{•)-
&(-%)
(-)•
{-)-& {-)•
(-)- -&(-)-
<&(-6)-$
(-)-•& (-)--& -(•)--
(-)-&
\-)-$ (-)-
(-)-•&
-(-)-&
-(-)-•&
(-)-(&
(-)- (-)~
(-)- (-)-'&
•&(•)•
(-)-
(-))
(-)-
£ -))-?}
-&(~)-
(-)
(-)-
{-)--&
(-)-
(-)-- -&(6•)-
&(-)- &
(-)-
/ ,

r* (-)--& -(-)--&
{•)-•& & <(-)- & ,
-(6-)--&
{-)•&
(•)- (-)-$-
(-)•-
-&(-)-•&
(•)--&
(-)-
(-)
<
(-)-
(-)
(-)-
(-)
(•)-&<)
(-)-- (-)--
(-)-•&
(-)-
-&(6-)-(&
(-)-&) (•)-•& -&(-)--
(•)•
(-)-<& (•)--&
{-)-- •&(-)--&
-&(•)- &) or
(•)-(&
{-)--.
or
(-)--&
(-)-•&
or
--
&(-)
(-)--
,

(-)- (-)-
(-6))-
(-)-
(-)-
{-)-
(-)-
(•)-
(•6)-
(-)-
(-6)-
-&(-)-
-(-)
•&(-)•
-(-)-.
-
Imperfect.

(-)-
(-) (-)-
(-) -(-)-
•&(-)
(-)-
(-)-•&
{-)-
(-)•-& -&(-)-
-&(-)--&
(-)-&
{-)•& (-)--&
(-)•'&
•&(-)~-
-(•) -&
(-)••&
(-)•-
(•)--
(-)-•&
&(-6)
-(-)-•&
-&
(-)- (-)- -\•)•
104 CONTRACT PURE YERBS. [§97.

2 » Imperfect.
c S Si

Characteristic a. Characteristic . Characteristic .

8.1. (-)-
(-) (-)- &(-)-
2.
3. (-) ?(-)
?(-)
-&{-)
&(-)
Opta-
tive,
D.'l.
2. (•)-
(-)- ?^(-)-
(-)- $(--
-(-)-
P.l.
3.
(-)-
{-)- (-)-
(-- -(-)-
-&(-)•
2.
3. (-)- {-)- -&{-)-
s.r. {-)-
(-)- (-)-
?^(-)-
-(.)-
~&(-)-
Attic
2.
3. {-)-]
(-)- (-)-
(-)- (-)-
-&\-)-
Opta-
D.2.
3. (-)-
{-)- {-)- (-)-
{-)- (•)-
&
tive,
P.l.
2.
3.
(-)-
(-)• (-)- -&(.)-
(-)- -&(--
Perf.

Indi-
cative,
Plup.

Put.
Aor.
F.Pf.
' &
-&
Aorist, |
-
Verbal adjectives : -,& \

-, -, -, -, -,
|
PAS

§97. Remarks on the Conjugation of Contract

1. Verbs in ~ with a monosyllabic stem,


&£ti y to run, are contracted only in
Verbs.

(arising
e. g.

from
, , to sail,

or ), but in
to breathe,

the

, , , ,,,
all

Act. Pr. Ind.


Subj.
Imp.
Impf. Ind.
Opt.

-&. , ,
, ,
Other forms, they are uncontracted

. , , ,, ..
., ,
l
Inf.

,
,
;

,
.,. l
e. g.

Part,

, etc.
,

2.•&,
().
().

Mid. Pr. Ind.

2.

larly in
The verb
Inf.

, , ,,.
compounds ;
bind, is

e. g.
,

rb
Part,

commonly

Several verbs deviate from the general rules of contraction


Impf.
contracted in all the forms, particu-
etc.

3.

(a) - and - are contracted into - and -y,


;

instead of into -a and -a


e. g.
; e. g.
— — — — —

§97.] CONTRACT PURE VERBS. 105

Imperfect.

Characteristic a. Characteristic . Characteristic .

(-)-
(-)- (-)-
(-)- (-)-
$(-)-
(-)-
(-)- {-)-
(-)-- -&\-)-
-&\-)--&
(-)-
(-)-(&
[-)-(&
(-)-& (-)-&
(-)--&
(-)-
(-)-<&
(-)-
(-)-(&
&(-)-&
(-)-(&
(-)- ?\-)- (-)-

,
&
&.
|
SIVE.

-, Future,
-~,
j &- --, &-, -, -.
\ |

--,,-, -, -, ,,
(
-,
(-),
Inf.

to
;
,(-), ,

-,

Kvyv
)

have enough,
it suffices,

,, .
to live,

(-)-,
;

Inf. ,
to thirst,

(-) ,
to abuse,
;
-y,

Impf.
to
etc., Inf.

smear, Inf.
to use, ,— ;
, & ),
;
Inf.

(-) ,
Imp.
to hunger,

—- (-),
Inf.

(-) ,
; so
(abridged from
,
, Impf.

to give
etc ;
-,
to scrape,

to rub, Inf.

an oracle, to

, , , ,
prophesy, Inf.

(b) -oo and - are contracted into -, instead of into -ov, and -6 into -, in-

stead of into -, in /5 l (
- ) , to freeze, Inf. (- and Part
Gen. and Subj. Opt. etc.

4.

Opt. in
much more
The
-,
following things are to be noted on the use of the Attic forms of the
namely, in the Sing, of verbs in
in use than the common
- -
form, and in verbs in
and -,
-
the form in
it is used almost
is

common form

.
exclusively ; but in the Dual and PI. of all three, the is more in
use ; in the third person PL, the Attic form is always the same as the common
form ; e. g.
!

106 CONTRACT PURE VERBS. [§ 97.

The verb , wash, though properly not a contract, admits contrac-

,,, ,,
5. to

tion in all the forms of the Impf. Act.


ending of which there
of Mid.
is

etc.,
- or -o
(,)
as if
;

, .,, ,
e. g.
and of the Pres. and Impf. Mid., in the

from the stem


instead of
etc., Imp. Inf.
instead
Impf.

Remark. On the change of the accent in contraction, see §11, 2 .

XLIV. Vocabulary.

-
,
, (a) Contract Verbs in

,
,
in the Pres.

,
and Impf. Act.

&,
,
,-,,&
innately.
to love.
-ov, immortal,
miserably, unfor

point, height,
, ,
,
,
, ly
to live.
-, , age, especial-
youth or manhood.

ageously.
boldly, cour-
;
w.
how %
inf., before.

to be silent,
to
gether, bring into con-
move to-

,
3,
full power, bloom.

to
to lighten.
to thunder.
thirst, or be
,
,..,
ance,

come.
-, , an appear-
an outward figure,
to conquer, over-

,
fusion, confound.

with ;

combatant, or
-ov,

subst,
fighting
a fellow-

(
ally,

,
-,
thirsty.

,
,
pity,

, to finish,

,
to do, act.
to completely
deceive, or mislead.
w. gen., to love (ar-
, to see.

hungry,
to rush, advance,
to hunger, or be
understood) to die.

prevail
to dare, venture,
upon oneself.

." dently).

. .
. . .-
.. , .-
,,,.,,,. .
.'
'.
,.-
. . ]

."--
;

Children love their (the) parents. Either be silent (pi.) or speak better.
With the mind (dot.) we see and hear. Youths should be silent (imp.). We
will love virtue. All citizens fear (fear holds all citizens) that (, w. subj.) the
enemies will advance against the town. It is well to love our parents. We
pity those who die (pait.) in the bloom of youth (). The soldiers ad-
vanced courageously against the town. The army is often hungry and thirsty.
All the citizens feared, that the enemies would rush against the town. May
you always, boy, love your parents
§ 97. "1 CONTRACT PURE VERBS.