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Name of the Examination : IV B.

Tech I Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,


October / November-2017.
Name of the Subject : Energy Audit Conservation and Management
Subject Code : RT41024
Name and Official Address of the Expert : HARI MADHAVA REDDY Y
Assistant Professor, Department of EEE,
Universal College of Engineering & Technology
Dokiparru, Guntur Dist. A.P., India.
Contact Number : 9493854163, 7287070712
Question Paper Set No. : 4
Q.
Part-A Marks
No.

1. a). List the Check list for energy audit in general. [4]

Ans Inputs: plant description , utility supply data, electricity, fuel & steam,
Energy consuming system information and score card responses. 2M

Outputs: Overall picture of plant energy usage, Summary of energy


cost distributions, energy cost reduction potential, energy 2M
efficiency improvement and comparison of data.

1 b). Explain about white light LED. [4]


Ans Light Emitting Diodes are made from exotic semiconductor compounds.
1M
LEDs, due to the materials available and the limited number of energy
gaps, only give off light in certain wavelengths; they do not give off white
light naturally.

Two different methods are used to generate white light


3M
RGB system: Mix Red, blue, and green LEDs together to create white
light.
Phosphor system: Coat LEDs in a phosphor that shifts the color into the
white spectrum.

1 c). Explain the working principle of a data logger. [4]

Ans Data logger is an electronic device that automatically records, scans and 2M
retrieves the data with high speed and greater efficiency during a test or
measurement, at any part of the plant with time.

A data logger works with sensors to convert physical phenomena and


stimuli into electronic signals such as voltage or current. These
electronic signals are then converted into binary data. The binary data is 2M
then easily analyzed by software and stored on memory for post process
analysis.

Explain how wastage of energy is curbed w.r.t. residential energy


1 d) consumption. [3]

 Use most efficient lights available.


Ans  Always turn lights off when they are not needed.
 Use day light hours to maximum. 3M
 Prefer BEE labelled Energy star equipment.
 Use heat transfer luminaries to utilize heat from lights in cold
weather and to remove heat from warm weather.

Define the term Air conditioning w.r.t HV AC System. [3]


1 e)

Ans Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A.C., or A/C) is the process of
removing heat from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the 3M
comfort of occupants. Air conditioning can be used in both domestic and
commercial environments. This process is most commonly used to achieve
a more comfortable interior environment, typically for humans or animals;
however, air conditioning is also used to cool/dehumidify rooms filled with
heat-producing electronic devices, such as computer servers, power
amplifiers, and even to display and store artwork

Explain the term probability analysis in incorporating risk in


f) capital investment projects. [4]
1
Probability may be described as a measure of someone’s opinion about the
Ans likelihood that an event will occur.
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The probability estimate, which is based on a very large number of observations,
is known as an objective probability.

Such probability assignments that reflect the state of belief of a person rather than
the objective evidence of a large number of trials are called personal or subjective 2M
probabilities.

PART- B

2 a). Explain the terms Energy Index and Cost Index along with their
significance. [8]

Ans Energy Index (EI) :


It is a useful parameter to monitor and compare energy 2M
consumption whenever the industry / firm is producing a specified product.

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑢𝑠𝑒


𝑬𝑰 = 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡
Significance of Energy Index 2M

Cost Index :
 Another parameter which is useful in monitoring and assessing
energy use of a facility is cost index. 2M
 It is defined as the ratio of the cost of energy to the production
output.
 Any changes in energy consumption which can be investigated and
remedied are indicated by comparison of cost indices. The trends
and fluctuations are clearly visible with such comparisons.

Significance of Cost Index 2M

2 b). Discuss the Role of pie charts, Load profiles and Sankey
diagrams in Energy' Management with a suitable example of each
type. [8]

Ans
PIE CHART:
 Energy usage is plotted on a circular chart where the quantity of a
particular type is represented as a segment of a circle.
 The size of the segment being proportional to the energy 2M
consumption using a particular fuel relative to total fuel usage. The
energy units must be rationalised to the same units.

LOAD PROFILES :
3M
 Load profile is an alternative method that is used for monitoring
energy consumption on a time dependent basis.
 The usage of oil, coal, gas and electricity, considering all the
months are shown as cumulative monthly load profile.
 The results illustrate seasonal variations. After a period of time,
energy consumption patterns emerge and it is possible to indicate at
a glance whether an area is exceeding its predicted energy use.

SANKEY DIAGRAM:
 It represents all the primary energy flows into the factory. The
widths of the bands are directly proportional to energy 3M
production, utilization and losses.
 Sankey diagrams are very difficult to construct since they involve
accurate measurements for all energy flows i.e., inputs,
throughputs, and outputs.
 Considerable metering and instrumentation are needed in this
regard.
 This construction or drawing of sankey diagram is an excellent
exercise in energy management.

3. a). Define the following terms w.r.t Electric Lighting:


(i) Luminous efficiency (ii) Utilization factor
(iii) Space height ratio (iv) Depreciation factor [8]

Ans (i) Luminous efficiency :


Defined as the ratio of luminous flux to the
power input. 2M
(ii) Utilization factor :
Proportion of light reaching working plane to light
output of lamps. It depends on room index, room reflectance and type 2M
of luminaire used.
(iii). Space height ratio :
𝐻𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑡𝑤𝑜 𝑎𝑑𝑗𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑙𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠 2M
𝑺𝑯𝑹 =
𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒

(iv) Depreciation factor :

𝐼𝑙𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠


𝑫𝑭 = 2M
𝐼𝑙𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑦𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑖𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑙𝑦 𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑛

𝐼𝑙𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠


𝑫𝑭 =
𝐼𝑙𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑦𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑖𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑙𝑦 𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑛

A lamp taking 3.8A at 110V emits 6200 lumens. Calculate


3 b).
its efficiency in lumens per Watt and mean spherical candle
Power in Watts . [8]

V = 110V
Ans
I = 3.8 A
FLUX = 6200 Lumens
4M
Efficiency = 6200/(110*3.8) = 14.83 lumen/watt 4M
MSCP = 6200/4π = 493.38 C.P

4. a).
List the causes of Low Power factor. [8]

Ans  Most of the motors used in industries are of induction type, which
have low lagging pf 2M
 Lamps, discharge lamps operate at low lagging pf 2M
 Transformer system work at low lagging pf 2M
 Load on the system is varying which results in decreasing or low pf 2M

A Synchronous motor improves the power factor of a load of


4 b). 200 KW from 0.7 lag to 0.9 lag and at the same time
carries an additional load of 100KW. Find (i). the leading
KVar Supplied by the motor (ii). KVA rating of motor
(iii). Power factor at which the motor operates. [8]

Ans 2M

2M

2M

2M

5. a).
Discuss the different processes by which heat is transferred
from a hot body to a cold body. [8]

Ans
Heat transfer takes place through walls, windows and roof in buildings
from higher temperature to lower temperature in three ways

1. Conduction
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2. Convection
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3. Radiation
3M

5 b). Explain t h e following types of Electric room or space heaters in


detail. [8]

Ans (i) Low temperature convection heater

A heating convector consists of a fined-tubed element in a vertical 4M


enclosure design to act as chimney and provide air flow over the element.
The convection air flow and heat output is affected by the height of
enclosure. The higher the enclosure greater the heat output. Convectors
are used in a variety of configuration for a steam, hot water and electric
heating.
Drawbacks:
 Convectors at an exterior wall may have high heat loss to outdoors if
the wall is poorly insulated or sealed against air leakage.
 Periodic cleaning of the finned element is required to maintain the
heating output.

(ii) Thermal storage heaters


Electric Thermal Storage (ETS) heating was developed in Europe in the
1940s, and was introduced to the United States market in the 1980s. This
type of space-heating system is capable of providing all of a home’s 4M
heating requirements by storing heat produced during the night, when
utilities generally offer lower off-peak rates.

The ETS central furnace consists of a storage medium (usually called the
core) and controls, which detect when it is necessary to accumulate a
charge during the off-peak period. Elements within the storage core heat
ceramic bricks, crushed rock, or water to a predetermined temperature
level to provide the heating requirements for the entire on-peak period.
Room storage units are smaller versions of central ETS furnaces. They
come in a variety of sizes, from 2.0 to 7.2 kilowatts and supply the heating
for individual rooms. Larger rooms in the home may sometimes require
more than one storage heater.

6. a). Explain in detail about electric water heating systems. [8]

Ans Depending on the type of house and on the number and lifestyles of the
occupants, hot water consumption may account for more than 20 per
cent of the total annual energy consumption in the home.

An electric water usually consists of a tank, thermostats, two electric 2M


resistance elements (which are submerged inside the tank), and inlet and
outlet pipes for cold and hot water respectively. Internal thermostats
regulate the temperature of the water

2M
Working operation

Advantages and Disadvantages 4M

6 b). Explain how an energy project can be considered as economically


justifiable. [8]
Ans
Project worth method:

i). Present worth PW > 0


4M

ii). Annual worth AW > 0

4M
7. a). Explain in detail about Return on Investment method (ROI). [8]

Ans
Measure of Worth:
Investment Rate of Return

Description:
An interest rate, ROI, is determined which yields a present
worth of zero. ROI implicitly assumes the reinvestment of recovered 4M
funds at ROI.

Calculation Approach:

4M
Decision Rule:

If ROI is unique and ROI =MARR, then the investment is


attractive.

7 b). Explain the concept of profitability index for benefit cost ratio. [8]

Ans
Measure of Worth: Benefit cost ratio.

Description:
The ratio of the present worth of positive cash fl ows to the 4M
present worth of (the absolute value of) negative cash fl ows is formed
using i=MARR.

Calculation Approach:
Present value of cash inflow
𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐟𝐢𝐭𝐚𝐛𝐢𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐢𝐧𝐝𝐞𝐱 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐁𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐟𝐢𝐭 𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐭 𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨 = Present value of cash out flow 4M

Or

Decision Rule: If BCR ≥ 1, then the investment is attractive.