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A STUDY ON THE ASSOCIATIVE MEANINGS

OF THE JAKARTA POST WEEKENDER MAGAZINE

THESIS

By:
Nur Laili Yusuf
05320084

ENGLISH LETTERS AND LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT


HUMANITIES AND CULTURE FACULTY MAULANA
MALIK IBRAHIM STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF
MALANG 2010
A STUDY ON THE ASSOCIATIVE MEANINGS
OF THE JAKARTA POST WEEKENDER MAGAZINE

THESIS

Presented to:
Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra (S.S)

By:
Nur Laili Yusuf
05320084

Supervisor:
Drs. Langgeng Budianto, M.Pd.
19711014 200312 1001

ENGLISH LETTERS AND LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT


HUMANITIES AND CULTURE FACULTY MAULANA
MALIK IBRAHIM STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF
MALANG 2010
STATEMENT OF THE AUTHENTICITY

I declare that this thesis entitled “A Study on the Associative Meanings of

the Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine” is truly my original work. It does

not incorporate to any materials previously written or published by another

person, except those indicated in quotations and bibliography. Thus, I am

the only person who is responsible for the content of this thesis if there are

any objections or claims from others.

Malang, 17 April 2010

The Writer
APPROVAL SHEET

This is to certify that Nur Laili Yusuf’s thesis entitled A Study on the Associative

Meanings of the Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine has been approved by the

thesis advisor for further approval by the Board of Examiners.

Malang, 17 April 2010

Approved by Acknowledged by

The Advisor, The Head of

English Letters and Language Department,

Drs. Langgeng Budianto, M.Pd Galuh Nur Rohmah, M.Pd., M.Ed


NIP. 19711014 200312 1001 NIP. 19740211 199803 2002

The Dean of

The Faculty of Humanities and Culture,

Drs. KH. Chamzawi, M.HI


NIP. 19510808 198403 1001
LEGITIMATION SHEET

This is to certify that Nur Laili Yusuf’s thesis entitled A Study on the Associative
Meanings of the Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine has been approved by the

Board of Examiners as the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra


(S.S) in English Letters and Language Department, Faculty of Humanities
and Culture at Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang.

The Board of Examiners Signature

1. Ika Farikha Hentihu, M.Pd (Chairwoman) -----------------


NIP.19700307 199903 2002

2. Drs.H.Djoko Susanto, M.Ed., Ph.D (Main Examiner) -----------------


NIP.19670529 200003 1001

3. Drs. Langgeng Budianto, M.Pd (Advisor) ------------------


NIP.19711014 200312 1001

Malang, 17 April 2010

Approved by
The Dean of Humanities and Culture Faculty
Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang,

Drs. KH. Chamzawi, M.HI


NIP. 19510808 198403 1001
MOTTO

The words or sentences which comes from your mouth, uncover the secret

meanings to your life.


DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to:

My parents and my brother who have given me their prayers, encouragements,

and unfailing supports to go throughout this long journey. I love you all.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful. I would

like to address my deepest thank gratitude You for giving me the strength to

complete this thesis entitled ”A Study on the Associative Meanings of the

Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine” as the requirement of Sarjana Satra

(S.S) Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang. May

Sholawat and Salam always be given to our prophet Muhammad (Peace be

upon Him) who has already given us much goodness for our future life.

It is a pleasure to thank to all those who have given me the

possibility to complete this thesis. First and foremost, my sincere gratitude

and appreciation goes to my advisor, Drs. Langgeng Budianto, M.Pd for his

constructive ideas, criticism, guidance, and patience throughout the long

duration of preparing this thesis. He has successfully guided me through

some stressful times. Then, he is always willing to sharpen my

understanding of this thesis and other academic activities.

I am also greatly indebted to all lecturers who have guided me at

every phase of the undergraduate program, especially Drs. H. Djoko

Susanto, M.Ed, Ph.D, Ika Farikha Hentihu, M.Pd, and Drs. H. Nur Salam,

M.Pd for their valuable insights, comments, ideas, and suggestions in the

course of improving and completing this thesis.

I wish to remember my family for their continous prayers, supports, and

advices which encourage throughout my time in Maulana Malik Ibrahim State

Islamic University of Malang, especially to my beloved mother Dra. Hj. Supatmi,


father Drs. H. Yusuf Abdurrahman, M.A; my brother Imaduddin Yusuf,

S.E and my sister Ase Sarniati, S.Pd.

A note of thanks also goes to all my dearest friends of Mr. Langgeng’s

thesis advisor who always give me supports and advices throughout doing this

thesis, all my friends in flit flat girls KS7 who never give up encourage me during

the time doing this thesis, all my friends of Wizard English Clubs who always

accompany me from the early enter this university until finished of doing this last

work of my study, all my friends in IPNU-IPPNU Maulana Malik Ibrahim State

Islamic University of Malang who always in togetherness and as my inspiration to

finish this thesis, all my friends in Advanced Debate Community who always

patience in support me, and all my friends in English Letters and Language

Department whom I cannot mention one by one in which little or more for your

advices and supports are very important to complete this thesis.

Lastly, I would like to extend my gratitude and affection to my lifelong

greatfriends: Ana Aulia, Muh. Hamiduddin, Nanang Z., Nur Faidah S., Nanang

H.P., Hosen, Novita, Mamlu’, Durroh, T. Wahyudi, and Furqon. Thank you for

providing me the support with your patience, love, encouragement, and

inspiration that has greatly facilitated the completion of this chalenging efforts.

Hopefully, the people for mention above, and people whom I

cannot write one by one, May Allah always give Mercies and Blessings for

everything they have already done to help me learn.

The Writer
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE SHEET ................................................................................................. i


STATEMENT OF THE AUTHENTICITY ................................................. ii
APPROVAL SHEET ...................................................................................... iii
LEGITIMATION SHEET ............................................................................. iv
MOTTO ............................................................................................................ v
DEDICATION ................................................................................................. vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................. vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................. x
LIST OF TABLE ........................................................................................... xii
LIST OF TABLE FIGURE ........................................................................... xiii
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................... xiv
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study....................................................................... 1
1.2. Problems of the Study........................................................................... 4
1.3. Objectives of the Study......................................................................... 5
1.4. Significance of the Study...................................................................... 5
1.5. Scope and Limitation of the Study........................................................ 6
1.6. Definition of the Key Terms.................................................................. 6
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1. Meaning................................................................................................. 8
2.2. The Definition of Associative Meaning................................................ 11
2.3. The Types of Associative Meanings..................................................... 14
2.3.1. Connotative Meaning ................................................................ 14
2.3.2. Stylistic Meaning ....................................................................... 15
2.3.3. Affective Meaning ..................................................................... 17
2.3.4. Reflected Meaning..................................................................... 18
2.3.5. Collocative Meaning ................................................................. 20
2.4. Word Meaning...................................................................................... 22
2.5. Sentence Meaning............................................................................................23
2.6. Language of Journalism.................................................................................23
2.7. Previous Study...................................................................................................25
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design................................................................................................29
3.2 Data Source..........................................................................................................30
3.3 Research Instrument.........................................................................................31
3.4 Data Collection.....................................................................................................31
3.5 Data Analysis........................................................................................................33
3.6 Triangulation..........................................................................................................33
CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Findings...................................................................................................................35
4.2 Discussions...........................................................................................................51
4.2.1 The Types of Associative Meanings............................................52
4.2.2 The Functions of Associative Meanings....................................53
4.3 Implications............................................................................................................54
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
5.1 Conclusion.............................................................................................................55
5.2 Suggestion.............................................................................................................56
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES
Appendix 1 List of Data Selected

Appendix 2 List of Data

Appendix 3 List of Profile Section of

The Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine

Appendix 4 The Texts of Profile Sections of

The Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine

CURRICULUM VITAE
LIST OF TABLE

Table 1 The Types of Associative Meanings ....................................... 13


LIST OF TABLE FIGURE

Figure 1 Meanings...............................................................................................11
Fifure 2 Data Collection Process.................................................................32
ABSTRACT

Laili Yusuf, Nur. 2010. A Study on the Associative Meanings of The Jakarta
Post Weekender Magazine. Thesis, Linguistics, English Letters
and Language Department, Humanities and Culture Faculty,
Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang.
Advisor : Drs. Langgeng Budianto, M.Pd.
Keywords : associative meanings, functions of associative meanings

Studying meaning including studying associative meanings is the


way to understand how words or sentences convey meaning in everyday
situation of speech or writing. It is very crucial to know how language could
be understood, interpreted, stated, and processed by language user. This
reflects the meaning of words associate with another words and the
condition beyond the language. It is also has to do with individual mental
understanding of the speaker as stated by Leech.
This research in general aims to study associative meanings in written
text since sometimes comprehend the meaning of the text is more difficult or
more ambiguity than in speech. The researcher determines the types and
functions of associative meanings based on Leech’s theory that was gathered
from the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine which published from October until
November 2009. Furthermore, it was focused on the Profile section of the
magazine since there are many associative meanings are found.
A descriptive qualitative method is used to give comprehensive
descriptions and discover functions of associative meanings in the text. Then,
the data was analyzed by classifying into words, phrases or sentences.
The result of this study shows that there are types of associative
meanings and its functions. They are connotative meaning is used to deliver
the experience in the real world to associate with the expression when
someone heard it or used it; stylistic meaning is used to deliver the stylistic
style which appears in language; affective meaning is used to communicate
the feeling or emotion of the speaker or writer itself; reflected meaning is
used to deliver the new sense of a word that relates to another phenomenon
in the same expression; then collocative meaning is used to convey the
associate of words which tend to occur in the environment.
In conclusion, different types elicit different functions. Certainly,
the speaker or writer uses the associative meanings to perform their
functions which are related to the world since it is very appropriate to
influence the addressees or readers.
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the background of the study, problems of

the study, objectives of the study, scope and limitation of the study,

significance of the study, and definition of the key terms.

1.1. Background of the Study

When learning language, it will be more understandable for people to

learn the meaning of language (semantics) (Crystal, 1987: 100). Semantics is the

study of the way in which words and sentences convey meaning. The study of

semantics has been of interest to a great number of researchers since C.K.

Odgen and A. Richard in 1923 who had written “the meaning of meaning” as one

of the way in understanding meaning until nowadays. According to Crystal

(1987:100) that they were able to list no less than sixteen different meanings of

the words ‘mean/meaning’ were distinguished. Here are some of them:

• John means to write ‘intends’

• A green light means go ‘indicates’

• Health means everything ‘has importance’

• His look was full of meaning ‘special import’


• What is the meaning of life? ‘point, purpose’

• What does ‘capitalist’ mean to you? ‘convey’

• What does ‘cornea’ mean? ‘refer to in the world’

It is the last kind of use that comes closest to the focus of linguistic

semantics which becomes the most ambiguous term and

controversial in the theory of language.


1
The researcher chooses Geoffrey Leech ’s Theory to understand meaning.

Generally, it is classified into seven types of meanings in which five of them are

identified as associative meanings. The seven types of meaning are conceptual

meaning, thematic meaning, (associative meaning: connotative meaning, stylistic

meaning, affective meaning, reflected meaning, and collocative meaning).

The definition of associative meaning is unstable of meaning and has

variants of individual experience (Leech, 1974: 21). The associative meaning of

an expression has to do with individual mental understanding of the speaker.

They, in turn, can be broken up into five subtypes are connotative meaning,

stylistic meaning, affective meaning, reflected meaning, and collocative

meaning. In the other hand, it is the meaning of words that has connection to the

relationship of word with the condition beyond the language. For examples, the

word “white” associates with the word of “holy,” the other way, the word “black”

associates with the word “darkness, sadness, and badness.”

1 He was Professor of Linguistics and Modern English Linguistics at Lancaster University


from 1974 to 1996. He then became Research professor in English Linguistics. He has
been Emeritus Professor in the Department of Linguistics and English Language,
Lancaster University, since 2002 (http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/profiles/296).
This study investigates associative meanings in the Jakarta Post Weekender

magazine because it is relevant. It is related to meaning of words, phrases, or

sentences which are appropriate with the context. To understand meaning, we need

to know how words or sentences convey the meaning. The idea is that when we read

texts; we try to know how words are put together to convey meaning so that it can be

understood. It differs when we understand the meaning of speaking since sometimes

it has ambiguous meaning which makes the reader thinks more deeply to convey the

meaning. Shortly, the researcher in this study focuses on analyzing written

expression by using associative meanings.

A study on associative meanings has been conducted by some

researchers but using different analysis, method and object of study. Hardhini

(2003) has conducted “Cognitive and Associative Meaning Analysis of Body

Care Advertisement on TV Commercial.” It is descriptive quantitative approach

because it is done by numbering then continued with specific conclusion. From

findings and discussions, the writer finds that there are thirty nine words which

classified into cognitive and associative meaning. Then, she finds the

phenomenon characters in the Body Care advertisement which is used the

associative lexical items or phrases for soften their speeches.

Yuniawan (2007) has investigated “Fungsi Assosiasi Pornografi Dalam

Wacana Humor” (Pornographic Associative Meaning Function in Humor Texts). It is

also descriptive qualitative approach by recording humor texts containing

pornographic associative meaning and the context on the data cards or corpus data.

The result, there are several points can be drawn as the conclusions as regard
to the pornographic association functions in humor texts including: demanding

attention, entertaining, evoking curiosity, euphemism, and deceiving readers.

Another researcher is Sarifah (2008) by the “Associative Meaning in the

Headlines of the Jakarta Post.” In her methodology, she uses qualitative approach

by using Geoffrey Leech’s theory. The result, she finds some types and ways of

associative meaning which is used in the Headlines of the Jakarta Post.

Different from those previous studies, the present study aims to

investigate the types and the functions of associative meanings in the Jakarta

Post Weekender magazine. Beside that, this study chooses the Profile section of

magazine to understand the meaning of the content of text which finally brings us

to examine how words or sentences convey meaning. To analyze this study, the

researcher uses Geoffrey Leech’s theory which is divided into five types:

connotative, stylistic, affective, reflected, and collocative meaning.

To sum up, the main aim of this study is to understand the meaning of

the “Associative Meanings of the Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine.”

1.2. Problems of the Study

Based on the background above, this study is undertaken to

answer the following questions

1. What are the associative meanings used in the Jakarta Post

Weekender magazine?

2. What are the functions of associative meanings used in the

Jakarta Post Weekender magazine?


1.3. Objectives of the Study

Related to the problems stated above, the objectives of this

study are formulated as follows:

1. To describe the associative meanings are used in the

Jakarta Post Weekender magazine.

2. To show the functions of associative meanings are used in the

Jakarta Post Weekender magazine.

1.4. Significance of the Study

This study describes the associative meanings. This study gives two

contributions: theoretically and practically. Theoretically, this study enriches

sources of studying meaning from mass media as the integral part in

semantics knowledge, particularly for associative meanings. Practically, it will

give three contributions. First, this study will provide references for the next

researcher who will investigate the study of associative meaning particularly.

Second, this study will be useful for the students learning associative

meanings. The last, it provides comprehensive discussions about obstacle of

meaning for the students who find difficulties in understanding the concept

and the problems of associative meanings particularly.


1.5. Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study focuses on examining the Profile section of the Jakarta

Post Weekender magazine which is published from October to November,

2009. The reason is that it expresses associative meanings when used to

refer people’s private life by formal or informal language to influence the

readers. The goal is to get information easier in understanding the meaning

of the text in the Profile section since it must convey the maximum of the

information with a minimum of language symbol. This category has

represented the associative meanings which happen in the Profile sections of

monthly magazine. Therefore, the Profile section of Weekender magazine

gives valuable contribution in using associative meanings.

1.6. Definition of the Key Terms

Associative Meaning : it is unstable of meaning and has

variants of individual experience

(Leech, 2003: 33).

The Jakarta Post Weekender magazine: it is the one of the media in

Indonesia, involved in monthly

magazine which has been issued

by the Jakarta Post team on

January, 2007
(http://theunspunblog.com/2007/

01/30/the-jakarta-posts-

weekender/).
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter reviews related literature explaining theories used in this

study and references supporting this study, including the definition of

associative meaning, the types of associative meanings, word meaning,

sentence meaning, and the language of journalism. Moreover, the researcher

also describes previous studies that become the step stone for the study.

2.1. Meaning

Studying meaning is a goal for studying semantics including lexical and

grammatical meaning. It is not only looking for meaning in the dictionary but also

understanding idioms, expressions, figures of speech and proverbs. As Lyons

(1984:33) and Palmer (1981:24) stated that meaning cannot leave from another

word’s meaning. The term meaning is used in many ways. Meaning as a concept

is more difficult to define than you might think (Palmer, 1981:3).

Djajasudarma (1999: 5) stated that the essence of studying meaning is

to understand each other. So that, each person knows what the speaker

means and what will be received by the hearer. Bloomfield (1969: 139) states

that “the linguistic meaning forms the situation in which the speaker utters it

and the response which it calls forth in the hearer which as illustrated followed:
Speaker’s situation speech hearer’s response

The illustration above gives sign that we usually will explain or tell

something in terms of the stimulus of the speaker.

A different use of meaning is found in such sentences as “it wasn’t

what he said, but what he meant” (Palmer, 1981: 4). Clearly, it is different

between saying and meaning so that it gives many curiosities to the hearer.

It could be that there are some other meanings besides literal meaning of the

words. Perhaps, it gives familiarity to be understood. There are some

different ways for understanding the meaning such as through intonation,

sense, feeling, and intention (Richards cited on Aminuddin, 1988: 90).

In addition, there are three main ways in which linguists and

philosophers have attempted to construct explanation of meaning in

natural language (Kempson, 1977: 9):

a. By defining the nature of word meaning. It means that meaning of

word is taken as construct in terms of which sentence meaning and

communication can be explained. For example:

• Supererogatory, means ‘superfluous’

• Spinster means ‘unmarried man’

b. By defining the nature of sentence meaning. It means that the meaning

of sentences is taken as basic, with words are characterized in terms of

systematic contribution they make to sentence meaning. For example:

• James murdered Max


It means that someone called James deliberately killed

someone called Max

c. By explaining the process of communication. It means that both

sentence and word meaning are explained in terms of the ways in

which sentences and words are used in the act of communication.

So that, it is closely related to what the speaker is intended to

convey in acts of communication. For example:

A: Are you going to bed soon?

B: What did you mean?

A: It means that I am tired and sooner you go to bed, the sooner I can.

The last way is related to Leech’s theory (cited on Partana, 2003: 36) in

which relevance to meaning in communication of speaking stated the

important thing of meaning for the linguist that is neutral between the

speaker and the addressee. We can investigate easily the difference

between how to convey the meaning and what he intends to.

Leech’s seven types division of meaning can be illustrated

based on the diagram below:


Figure 1:

MEANINGS

Conceptual Meaning Associative Meaning Thematic Meaning

Connotative stylistic affective reflected collocative

(Based on Leech’s theory, 1974)

2.2. The Definition of Associative Meaning

It has been explained that connotative meaning, stylistic meaning, affective

meaning, reflected meaning, and collocative meaning according to Leech (1974: 21)

are unstable meaning and have variants of individual experience. Associative

meaning is different from conceptual meaning (Yule, 1985: 92). It is the words

meaning that is still related to other words. Conceptual meaning is the lexical or literal

meaning. Sarifah (2008: 11) emphasizes that associative meaning is the sense

associations that are not part of a world’s basic meaning and have variants meaning

based on individual experience or the context of the sentences.


In other words, it is the meaning of words that has connection to the relationship

of word with the condition beyond the language. For instance, the word “jasmine”

is associated with the meaning of holy; the word “black” is associated with the

meaning of darkness and sadness; the word “red” is associated with the meaning

of brave; the word cendrawasih is associated with the meaning of beautiful.

Besides that, this associative meaning has the same meaning with some

symbols used by the society to convey other concepts such as using of word

Srikandi to refer to a symbol of a heroic woman.

Finch (1998: 141) stated that this kind of meaning is extra resonance, or

echo, can be employed to powerful emotive effect. It is also acquired considerable

from the social and cultural context in which they are used. In fact, connotation,

collocation, stylistic and reflected meaning have represented more than affective

meaning. Then, associative processes affect the meanings of words.

Finally, considering the classification of associative meanings

based on Leech’s theory, five meanings can be illustrated on the table

of associative meanings below:


Table 1: The Types of Associative Meanings

Connotative What is
Meaning communicated
by virtue of
what language
refers to
Stylistic Meaning What is
communicated
of the social
circumstances
of language
use
Affective What is
Meaning communicated
of feelings
and attitudes
of the
speaker/writer
Associative Meanings Reflected What is
Meaning communicated
through
association
with another
sense of the
same
expression
Collocative What is
Meaning communicated
through
association
with words
which tend to
occur in the
environment
of another
word
(Based on Leech’s Theory cited on Reimann, 2004)
2.3. The Types of Associative Meanings

Based on Geoffrey Leech’s theory, there are five types of associative

meanings are connotative meaning, stylistic meaning, affective meaning,

reflected meaning, and collocative meaning. The explanation of them is followed:

2.3.1. Connotative Meaning

Leech (1974: 14) stated connotative meaning refers to what is

communicated by virtue of what language refers to, over and above its purely

conceptual content. It is something more than the dictionary meaning which

embraces putative properties of reference due to the viewpoint of personal,

social, or communities. Further, he stated (1974:15) that talking about

connotative, actually talking about the real world which associates the expression

when someone used or heard it in their speech. This meaning is relatively

unstable from age to age, society to society, and personal experience. It is more

open-ended, and indeterminate rather than conceptual meaning. In any ways, it

describes something that goes beyond mere referent of a word and hints at its

attributes in the real world. The real-world value is perceived in terms of tacit

socio-cultural principles, norms, and rules. These terms are only the same in the

conceptual meaning but have difference in those senses. At least, the meaning

will be recognized when appropriate with the time to time and condition of people

that reflects to the real world. For examples: the word “woman” conceptually it is

human, female, and adult. Then, it reflects to the real-world as experienced in

cookery, skirt-or-dress wearing, emotional, motherly, kind-hearted, and friendly).


Finch (1998: 142) stated that connotative meaning is consistently

exploited by writers who wish to engage our emotions, stimulate our

imagination, or enlist our prejudice. It causes that behind the word of

connotative which hints attribute in the real world have something valuable.

For example: the word “smile,” “smirk,” and “beam.” Purely, it overlaps with

conceptual sense so that they are all types of “smile” but in associative

meanings, “beam” means a smile which connotes happiness and “smirk”

means a smile which connotes gloating of some kind. Furthermore, Finch

(1998: 141) said that connotation equal with the word “connotes” which much

less stable and more indeterminate than what it “denotes.”

2.3.2. Stylistic Meaning

Language which we use in communication is related to the social

circumstance of the speaker’s culture. This is because the dialects appear

from variety background’s life. The difference of tone, style or choice of words

will be influenced in their speaking. Due to that, this stylistic meaning was

defined as social meaning that it is a piece of language conveys about the

social circumstance of language use (1974: 16). The English style has

recognized some main dimensions of stylistic variation. Further, Leech also

stated that here is the category of the main dimensions of stylistic variation to

distinguish on each dimension which shows something from the different style

(which taken from Davy and Crystal about Investigating English style)

(1974:16-17). Perhaps, it occurs in certain language. There are:


A. Relative Permanent of Language Style

Individuality (the language of Mr. X, Mrs. Y, etc)

Dialect (geography language area, or social class)

Period (language in XVIII century,etc)

B. Delivery of Idea

The medium (speech, writing, etc)

Participation (monologue, dialogue, etc)

C. Relative Temporary of Language Style

Occupation area (law language, scientific, advertisement,

etc)

Status (polite language, slang, colloquial, etc)

Modality (language of memoranda, lecturers, jokes,

etc)

Satirical (the style of Dickens, Hemingway, etc)

Then, Reimann (2004:136) also explained that the stylistic meaning is a

branch of affective meaning. This type of meaning reflects the personal feelings or

attitudes of the speaker towards the listener. This is influenced by the intonation,

voice timber, or the use of interjection such as when we say,”I hate you!”

Whereas, Mwihaki (2004: 131) concluded that this type of meaning

emphasizes to the experiences of fellowship and the participation in social

linguistic rituals as found in greetings, apologies, blessings or condolences.


It is rather difference when Finch (1998: 144-145) stated that there is

no real difference in conceptual sense between the term used of stylistic

variation. The differences have to do with levels of formality. It is to be able to

use the language effectively that is the ability to switch between the levels

when it is socially appropriate to do so. Such the example of words: steed,

horse, nag, gee gee; they are in the same conceptually but actually they

belong to context. Steed is poetic in style and would be appropriate in a

literary work about the “Knights of the Round Table”; nag is slang and is

normally used only in colloquial English; gee gee belongs to the nursery and

is used with children. In other words, these terms are stylistically marked. The

last marked is horse since it can be used in any context.

2.3.3. Affective Meaning

In affective meaning, language is used to express personal feelings

or attitudes to the listener. For Leech (1974:18), it is a kind of language

which reflects the personal feelings of the speaker or writer including his

attitude to the listener or his attitude to something that is uttered. It is

expressing or communicating emotion or feeling of the speaker about

something that is happened according to its situation. Mostly, it forwards to

explicit, conceptual, connotative, or stylistic of the uttered used. Therefore,

it is related to show the real meaning of the speaker indirectly.

The main function of affective meaning is to express the emotion since it is

relatively closer to emotive devices. As Ulmann stated (2009: 166) that there
are three categories of emotive devices are Phonetics, lexical, and syntaxes

devices. In other word, those are to express the personal feeling of the speaker

or writer. The tone of voice is really important to show the emotion since the

listener will understand when we are angry, bad, sad, or happy through the

intonation of the speaker. It will seem clearly as the example below:

“Excuse me, I think, it would be better if you open the window.”

That utterance is supposed to be polite impression. However, it would be

sarcasm if the intonation used is stressed, then it would be turned into a

playful remark between intimates if delivered with the intonation of a mild

request, and it would be a casual tone to express friendliness. As Mwihaki

(2004: 134) stated that they are normally expressed through such forms

of language use as insults, flattery, hyperbole, or sarcasm.

2.3.4. Reflected Meaning

According to Leech (1974:19) conveyed that what is communicated through

association with another sense of the same expression or the meaning which arises

in case of multiple conceptual meaning when one sense of word forms part of our

response to another sense. It means that one sense of a particular word affects the

understanding and usage of all the other senses of world. This is usually caused

when familiarity with one sense of a word affects of our interpretation of another

sense. For instance, in the church ceremony, when we hearing the synonymous

expression of The Comforter and The Holy Ghost which shows both are the Third

Person of the Trinity. However, that term in my reaction


seems non religious meaning from comfort and ghost. The comforter

sounds warm and comforting (although in religious context, it means the

strengthener or supporter), while The Holy Ghost sounds scary and

awesome. So that, based on the context, a word sense seems to “rub off”

on another sense. It could be by the dominant suggestive power whether

through relative frequency, familiarity, or strength of its associate.

Then, Finch (1998: 146) explained that reflected meaning bedevils

words to do with sexuality. Such as the terms of “gay,” “intercourse,”

“queen,” and “fairy”; are often very difficult to use precisely. That is, the

capacity to be used with more than one conceptual meaning. Leech

(1974: 19) also stated that reflected meaning much often found in poem

since it describes the highest sense of language and it works in the

vague condition. For instance to the line of this poem,

Are limbs, so dear-achieved, are sides,

Full-nerved-still warm-to hard to stir?

The poem is written above is to show a soldier who has died in the warfare,

Wilfred Owen. The poet uses exaggerated words, dear, means

“expensive(ly)” however, in another case it also defends to the people, then;

other feels the context of “beloved.” So that, the reflected meaning here is

comes with emotive power and give the new meaning based on the context.
2.3.5. Collocative Meaning

Collocative meaning communicated through association with word

tends to occur in the environment of another word (1974:20). It refers to

associate of a word since its usual habitual co-occurrence with certain

types of words. Then, collocative meaning is not only caused by co-

occurrence events but also by stylistic and conceptual differences.

Simply, it has an idiosyncratic property of certain words.

For example: the word “pretty” and “handsome”

“pretty” tends to collocate with “girl, woman, villages, garden, and flower.”

“handsome” tends to collocate with “boys, man, car, and overcoat.”

The words “handsome woman” and “pretty woman” might happen in

linguistics since both have the same meaning but still be considered that

both have different attractive performance because of association to

collocation. Another example is the words “tremble” and “quiver.” Those

words are in the same meaning but in different concept that is “tremble”

when someone is in frightening; “quiver” when someone is in chilled.

In other word, Finch (1998: 143) adds the meaning of collocation

from the verb “collocate” which means “to go with;” and one of the ways

by which we know the meaning of a word. For instance, the words “clear”

in clear conscience, clear sky, and clear case. Clear conscience means

without guilt; clear sky means free from clouds; clear case means

unmistakable. So those, the meaning of collocation words have different

meaning based on the linguistic context in which it is used.


Mwihaki (2004: 135) explained that collocative meaning is a term for the

various instances of co-occurrence of meaning. It refers to sense a lexeme may

acquire the meanings of lexemes that tends to co-occur in similar environments

and covers all utterances which are encoded and decoded as unitary whole of

expressions. At least, it describes words that regularly appear together in

common use (within certain context) as collocative on the lexical association

which refers to the particular sense of general attribute, on account of given

referent. Such as the examples below taken from Mwihaki (2004: 135):

mtoto mzuri “a good child”

kazi nzuri “a good job”

ardhi nzuri “a good land”

maisha mazuri “a good life”.

The word “good” of those sentences have different sense in cases of

noun-adjective association. “A good child” shows one who is respectful and

generally obedient. “A good job” would be considered that it comes with

comfortable salary and attractive side benefit. “A good land” would be definable in

terms of soil composition and water retention properties. Then, the last is the

sentence of “a good life” seems that something which abundance both in material

or spiritual wealth. In addition, it could be patterned in many forms such as on the

idiom expressions, usage of proverbs, figures of speech, and riddles since the

language used in speaking forward to instances of meaning collocation recently.


2.4. Word Meaning

When working with texts, we generally only have access to words, not to

things. The group of words makes the meaning of the sentences. Therefore, it

would be better if we could determine the meaning of a word by using its relations

to other words. Define a word is one of the basic units of semantics (Palmer,

1981: 32). In other words, it expresses a unified semantic concept. The meaning

of words represents category of things which the words stands for. Yet, there are

difficulties since not all words have the same kind of meaning as others. Some

seem to have little or none. For example “Boys like to play,” from the sentences,

we might to consider the meaning “boys, like, and play”; except, the word “to”

since it has no meaning at all. In another case, meaning implies choice so that it

could be changed “girl, hate, fight” except “to.” Then, we use words to refer to

objects and actions such as cup, glass, swimming etc.

We must notice that some whole groups of words must be taken

together to establish meaning. Truly, the word meaning could be given the

independent of characterization (Kempson, 1977: 28). Since it must be in

terms of the systematic contribution a word creates to the truth condition of

sentences when it occurs. In other words, it is taken as the construct in

terms of which sentence meaning and communication can be explained in

which they are categorized into the concept of meaning.


2.5. Sentence Meaning

Palmer (1981: 37) stated that sentence as the expression of a complete

thought. It is a basic unit of meaning. Here, words which are apart of our thought

united one another to make a larger unit to produce the complete meaning or

thought. So that, a word is needed to construct the complete meaning besides it

could be stated that words are also as part of sentences. Moreover, the meaning

of the sentences can be predicted from the meaning of the words it contains.

Each sentence has a meaning or a literal meaning or it could have

two or more meanings (which is called as ambiguous meaning). Michaelis

stated that theories of sentence meaning are designed to describe the

relationship between the meaning of a sentence and the meaning of the

words of that sentence, both lexical and grammatical.

In addition, Lyons (1984) also stated that the meaning of a sentence

depends upon the meaning of its constituent lexemes including its phrasal

lexemes and the meaning of an utterance including the meaning of the

sentence that is uttered. In general, the meaning of an utterance will be richer

than them of the sentence from which is derived. Therefore, it can be said the

utterance meaning is the product of sentence meaning and context.

2.6. Language of Journalism

Journalism and language both are important points for mass media.

Journalism must use the language for delivering information since language

function as a device in expressing our thought or ideas. Journalism needs the


presence of media to spread out the information to the people around the

world since the media can do nothing without the help of language. It can

be drawn that language holds primary role in reporting the news, the

events, or the phenomena (Rahardjo, 2002: 144).

Talking about journalism, a language of mass communication seems in

daily newspaper, magazines, journal, and so on. One of the characteristics of

the language of journalism is that it will be easier to be understood by society

or the illiterate people (Wojowasito cited on Romeltea, 2008). It means that

the language used by the reporter in writing the journalisms must follow the

development of culture in society since people do not have enough the time

for reading of the mass media such newspaper or magazines. Perhaps, they

need 30 minutes in a day to read the newspaper or magazine.

The journalism language features have different characters based on the

written texts which will be published. The language for investigation is more

accurate than for features written. The principles of language for journalism are

brief, clear, solid, simple, and interesting (JS Badudu cited on Romeltea, 2008).

Suroso (2001) stated on his article about “Bahasa Jurnalistik

Sebagai Materi Pengajaran BIPA Tingkat Lanjut” are:

• Spot news

It is used to reveal the important events which have been known for

readers, such as political views, economical views, and other events

which belief are important.


• Soft news

It is used to reveal an interesting thing for human life that forward to the

readers’ emotion, for instance the features: profile feature, science

feature, and human interest feature.

Generally, the language of journalism is the language which is used by

the journalist in writing the news. This is one way to deliver the information in

mass communication. Sometimes, it considers as a mirror of our society since

many gossiping refers to the mass media. At least, the language of journalism is

also open property that implied as one of the variety of language.

2.7. Previous Study

Besides using theories from books, the researcher also uses the

study from the previous researcher as a supporting theory. The writer

chooses some previous studies related to associative meaning.

In “Cognitive and Associative Meaning Analysis of Body Care Advertisement

on TV Commercial,” Hardhini (2003), the student of Petra Christian University

Surabaya investigates two kinds of meanings are cognitive and associative meaning

on TV commercial Body Care advertisement. The researcher is interested in

studying them because both are mostly influenced to persuade the people on TV

commercial. In her methodology, she uses descriptive quantitative research. She

collects the data by applying directly listening to the dialogues of the TV Indonesian

commercial Body Care advertisement. The data is classified based on cognitive and

associative meaning of the lexical items or


phrases. The result of her study shows that there are thirty nine words in

the utterances which contain of lexical items or phrases with both

cognitive and associative meaning taken from TV Indonesian commercial

of Body Care advertisement. Unfortunately, she does not explain the

types of associative meanings itself. In analyzing, she establishes the two

theories are: cognitive meaning by Richard, Platt, and Weeber; and

associative meaning by Geoffrey Leech but it does not explain clearly.

Then, the data is written in Indonesian which is interpreted into English.

Then “Fungsi Assosiasi Pornografi Dalam Wacana Humor” by Kuniawan

(2007), the student of The State University of Semarang. He is interested in

investigating the pornographic associative meaning which focuses on its functions

considers that many utterances of humor texts implied the pornographic statements.

The data on his research is written in Indonesian which has pornographic association

as well as their context. The researcher uses the descriptive qualitative approach in

his research design based on Chaire’s Theory. He obtains the data by taking-notes in

humor texts that contain pornographic associative meaning as well as the context on

the corpus data. The result, there are several points which can be drawn as the

conclusion of pornographic associative meaning function, they are: menarik

perhatian (demanding attention), menghibur (entertaining), membuat rasa penasaran

(evoking curiosity), memperhalus (euphemism), and mengecoh pembaca (deceiving

readers).

In “The Associative Meaning on the Headlines of the Jakarta Post,”

Sarifah (2008) analyzes the types and the ways of using associative meanings
based on Leech’s theory. Her research design is descriptive qualitative approach

which directly applied collecting the utterances from the Headlines of the Jakarta

Post newspaper. Since it covers or represents to its content of the whole text in the

newspaper. The result of her study shows that there are some types of associative

meanings (connotative, stylistic, affective, reflected and collocative meaning); and

some ways uses of associative meanings in the Headlines of the Jakarta Post are:

• by bringing the experiences and the expressions of human thoughts,

feelings, or emotions of word in the sentences of Headlines

• by depending on the situation of the context of sentences that

occurs in that time

• by depending on the situation of the context of sentences

• by communicating emotion or feeling of the speaker or writer

about something that is happened according to its situation

• by arising sense in the case a multiple conceptual meaning of word

that is described clearly by presenting the word that has a new

sense which has an associative with the context of sentence

• by communicating true association of a word which tends to

occur in the environment of another word

• and by referring to the particular sense of general attributes

which is exemplified in noun-adjective phrase).

In fact, her analysis does not only refer to one theory (Leech’s theory) but

also she uses Mwihaki, and Finch so that analyzes are extended. Then, she does

not explain the associative meanings details in her review of related literature.
Then, the recent study entitled “A Study on the Associative

Meanings of the Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine” focuses on describing

the types and functions of associative meanings based on Leech’s theory.

Here, the researcher chooses the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine in

which focuses on the Profile section. This research is relevant to study or

comprehend the content of text magazine since it can describe information

of text in detail. In addition, she mentions the truth-conditional approach to

support her validity data in her research design besides it is involved in

descriptive qualitative approach. It is believed that this study of associative

meanings to continue the previous study above. Therefore, it is very

important to develop knowledge of associative meanings particularly.


CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

The chapter discussed the methodology of this study which included the

approach and the way to analyze the data. After knowing briefly about the

methodology of this study, it came to the next chapter that would analyze the data.

3.1 Research Design

In analyzing the associative meanings of the Jakarta Post Weekender

magazine, the researcher used a descriptive qualitative research approach. This

method was used based on several reasons. First, this research concerned the

words, phrases, or sentences of the associative meanings without using any

samples or numbers. Second, this research used Geoffrey Leech’s theory without

using any hypothesis. The last, the characteristics of descriptive qualitative research

could be found in the process of data gathering. The type of the data was

descriptive data, it did not need any treatments and ready to analyze. The

characteristics also found in the process of analysis that was done inductively.

Then, this research used truth-conditional approach which tended to the

meaning of sentences, the conditions in the world which would have to be met for

the sentence to be true (Goddard, 1998: 7). So that, you had to understand how
the world would have to be for that sentence to be true. Related to this

study, the researcher analyzed associative meanings into words, phrases,

or sentences which was tried to give the true meaning or the true reason

by using the associative meanings itself. The aim to this study was to

seek the types and the functions of associative meanings.

3.2 Data Source

In this study, there was only one single data source that was the Jakarta

Post Weekender magazine. It was one of the English magazines in Indonesia

2
which was published on January, 2007 . The data of her research were

all the statement of the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine in the


Profile section issued from October up to November, 2009.

This data source was taken as the consideration of some reasons that this

kinds of magazine was categorized as new English magazine in Indonesia which

published by the Jakarta Post team. Then, there were many associative meanings of

the Weekender Profile section used to interest the readers. The last, the form of data

which would be analyzed were words, phrases, or sentences of the text of Profile

section were usually express of associative meanings.

2
http://theunspunblog.com/2007/01/30/the-jakarta-posts-weekender/
3.3 Research Instrument

A research instrument was a facility or equipment that was used by

the researcher to collect the data in order to make research process done

easily, systematically, and completely. The researcher used human

instrument in her study. She herself became the research instrument who

participated directly in data collection and data analysis.

3.4 Data Collection

The data of this study was taken from the Jakarta Post Weekender

magazine. In collecting the data, the researcher gathered every data needed

through the following steps. First, she collected the Jakarta Post Weekender

magazine which was published from October to November, 2009. Second, she

found out one text of the Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender

magazine. Third, she read the whole sentences. Then, the words or phrases

which contain of associative meanings: connotative meaning, stylistic meaning,

affective meaning, reflected meaning, and collocative meaning were underlined.

The last, the conclusion of the collected data was drawn to be continued in data

analysis. The process of the data collections were described as following sketch:
Figure 2:

Data Collection Process

STEP I
Collecting the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine

STEP II
Finding the Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender
magazine

Meanings:
1.connotative
STEP III 2.stylistic
Reading and choosing the 3.affective
sentences contained of associative 4.reflective
meanings 5.collocative

STEP IV
Selecting and underlining the words or
phrases of the sentences involved to the
associative meanings

STEP V
Drawing conclusion

(Adapted from data collection by Laela Sarifah’s thesis research design)


3.5 Data Analysis

After obtaining data, the researcher used some steps to analyze

data listed as followed:

• Data classification. The researcher classified words, phrases, or

sentences that contained of associative meanings

• Analyzing and classifying. She analyzed and classified the data

based on Leech’s theory of associative meanings. These aim was

to answer the research problems

• Describing and explaining the findings

• Formulating research conclusions based on data findings and analysis.

3.6 Triangulation

Triangulation was the techniques investigate the validity data to exploit

another thing (Moleong, 2005: 330). Therefore, this technique was used as the

accumulation of the research method to strengthen the data and support findings.

As explained by Denzin 1978 (cited on Moelong) there were four

classifications of the triangulation types were data sources, methodological,

investigator triangulation, and theory. In this study, the researcher chose the

two types of triangulation were data sources and methodological

triangulation since it had represented the validity of the data.

Related to the data sources triangulation, the researcher collected the data

from the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine especially the Profile section. Then,
she also compared to what she had explained in her research with the

explanation from another person or informant who expert in this study. Here,

she chose the lecturer from Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University

of Malang, who had sufficient knowledge in Linguistics especially, in

Semantics to give comments and critics on the appropriateness of this thesis.

Besides, the researcher discussed and checked the data from the Jakarta

Post Weekender magazine especially the Profile section appropriate to the

data collection of this study. Therefore, she was used the methodological

triangulation to investigate related to the data collection.


CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

This chapter presents analysis of the data based on Leech’s theory.

The researcher structures writing are categorized into some steps. First,

the researcher classifies the data description based on the research

problems. The data of the text will be provided in the appendix page.

Second, the result of this study is discussed in the discussion section.

Then, the researcher gives implications for strengthen the data.

4.1. Research Findings

The researcher presents the findings of this study based on facts

found in the data based on Leech’s theory. The data employed in this

research were taken from the Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender

magazine which is issued on October up to November, 2009.

After selecting all sentences consist of associative meanings in the Profile

section of The Jakarta Post Weekender magazine, the researcher reduces from 50

data to 7 data that have represented the types and the functions of associative

meanings. The data has been provided in the appendix page. Then, the data are

analyzed by using the following steps. First, the researcher classifies the sentences

consist of associative meanings which taken from the sources of the Profile section

of the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine (consists of date, profile, title,


and set up of the paragraph). Second, the researcher underlined or chosen

the words, phrases, or sentences which will be analyzed based on the types

of associative meanings and its functions. They are analyzed as followed:

Datum 1:

The following data was taken from the data sources of the

Jakarta Post Weekender magazine:

On October, 2009
Profile : Irwan Ahmett, 34, a self-professed unhappy artist, has been trying
to get happy which his art project has been running since 2007.
Title : Portrait of an unhappy artist
nd
At 2 paragraph, line 2-3

Millions of people stream into Jakarta every day just to find happiness.
(see in appendix 1 no.2)

The underlined word in the sentence above is called reflected meaning

because the meaning of word “millions” here is not indicated to “the number of

1.000.000,” however, it represents the meaning of “much, many, most of, or a lot

of.” Based on the context of the sentence above, this word does not show us

about something counted but it shows something uncounted. This sentence

refers to “most of people stream into Jakarta every day just to find happiness.”

The function is used to deliver the new sense of a word that relates to

another phenomenon in the same expression. The new sense here is the new

meaning comes to the expression of the same words. The new sense comes

because of removes another sense in the same expression. Shortly, the word

“millions” usually people know seems to the meaning of “the number of


1.000.000.” However, the word “millions” in the sentence of “Millions of

people stream into Jakarta every day just to find happiness” means

“most”. So that, the word “millions,” which means “most” seems to

remove another sense, “the number of 1.000.000,” by the dominant

suggestive power especially by the strength of its associate.

Then, according to Leech (1974: 19) that reflected meaning is

communicated through the association with another sense of the same

expression. This happens in multiple conceptual meaning when one sense of a

word forms part of our response to another sense. Further, he said that a word

sense seems to “rub off” on another sense by the dominant suggestive capacity

whether through relative frequency, familiarity, or strength of its associate.

Next, the underlined word “millions” in the sentence above is also called

connotative meaning because the word “millions” is also connotes to something

“much, many, a lot of, or most of.” It connotes to other things based on the

experience, phenomenon, and society. The word “millions” here is not the real

meaning used from people to others, “the number of 1.000.000,” it has something

value and other sense which means “much, many, a lot of, or most of.”

The function is used to communicate the experience in the real world to

associate with the expression when someone heard it or used it since it brings

something value and other sense in hints the attribute of the real world. When

someone heard or used the word “millions” in the sentence above connotes the

meaning “most of,” and does not refer to the meaning “the number of 1.000.000”

since it relates to the experience or phenomenon of someone and society used it.
According to Leech (1974: 14-15) connotative meaning is

communicated by virtue of what language refers to. It is considered based

on individual experience, society, age to age, indeterminate, open-ended,

and relatively unstable. So that, it refers to the “real world” experience which

associates to the expression when someone heard it or used it.

Datum 2:

The following data was taken from the data sources of the

Jakarta Post Weekender magazine:

On October, 2009
Profile : Irwan Ahmett, 34, a self-professed unhappy artist, has been trying
to get happy which his art project has been running since 2007.
Title : Portrait of an unhappy artist
nd
At 2 paragraph, line 5-6

Lately, capitalism has come up with its own definition of happiness to


tempt consumers to buy products. (see in appendix 1 no.3)

Based on the sentence above, the underlined word “capitalism” belongs

to the stylistic meaning since this word involves in the Relative Temporary of

language style especially in the ‘occupation area’ of its usage. Related to the

sentence above, the word “capitalism” here is associated with the sense of the

Western economic system which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by

owners for profit, rather than by the state. This word usually used based on the

social circumstance of language use that in related with economics. To sum up,

the word “capitalism” here tends to the category of its usage.

The function is to deliver the stylistic style which appears in language since it

concerns the social circumstance of the use of linguistic expression. In this


case, this kind of meaning is used to deliver the occupation style which

appears in language due to the word “capitalism” involved in style of Relative

Temporary, especially in occupation area of economics. Therefore, the writer

here only performs that the word “capitalism” belongs to the stylistic meaning

used to deliver the stylistic style which appears in the sentence above.

According to Leech (1974: 16-17) that stylistic meaning is communicated

of social circumstance of language. Then, he stated there are some categories of its usage to

differentiate between each dimension which shows something from the different style (which

taken from Davy and Crystal about Investigating English style). Perhaps, it occurs in certain

language are:

D. Relative Permanent of Language Style

Individuality (the language of Mr. X, Mrs. Y, etc)

Dialect (geography language area, or social class)

Period (language in XVIII century, etc)

E. Delivery of Idea

The medium (speech, writing, etc)

Participation (monologue, dialogue, etc)

F. Relative Temporary of Language Style

Occupation area (law language, scientific, advertisement,

etc)

Status (polite language, slang, colloquial, etc)

Modality (language of memoranda, lecturers, jokes,

etc)
Satirical (the style of Dickens, Hemingway, etc)

Datum 3:

The following data was taken from the data sources of the

Jakarta Post Weekender magazine:

On October, 2009
Profile : Irwan Ahmett, 34, a self-professed unhappy artist, has been trying
to get happy which his art project has been running since 2007.
Title : Portrait of an unhappy artist
th
At 12 paragraph, line 1-2

They look like happy people to me, but they have to try pretty hard to
make themselves happy. (see in appendix 1 no.24)

Based on the sentence above, the phrase “pretty hard” is called

collocative meaning because the adjective word “pretty” in the phrase “pretty

hard” has different character when it is going together with another noun.

Perhaps, we know that pretty have the same meaning with handsome. They

could be interchanged to each other such as handsome hard. However, they will

have different sense when they to co-occur with another noun since mostly

people using pretty hard than handsome hard especially for this context.

Therefore, the phrase pretty hard is used in the context of the sentence above. It

is caused by co-occurrence happens in linguistics. Here, pretty hard means an

activity which has to do in seriously to reach their satisfying.

The function here is used to convey the associate of words which tend to

occur in the environment. It refers to the common use words going together in the

environment. Here, the phrase “pretty hard” is more appropriate to be used “pretty
hard” rather than “handsome hard” since handsome hard sound

awkward to use related with those context of sentence.

Leech (1974: 19-20) stated that collocative meaning intends to what is

communicated through association with words which tend to occur in the

environment of another word. It refers to associate word since its usual habitual

co-occurrence with certain types of words. The collocative meaning is not only

caused by co-occurrence events but also by stylistic and conceptual differences.

Next, this sentence belongs to the affective meaning because it comes

from the feeling or emotion of the speaker. The words “to me” in clause “they

look like happy people to me….” means that this word comes from feeling or

emotion of the speaker. Here, Irwan Ahmett, we know from his profile that

he is an artist who has found yet the real happiness in his life since he has

found many problems in which makes him unhappiness. He actually wants

to show that people around him seems as a happy people. Then, his

statement remembers him to unhappiness life, “they look like happy

people to me but they have to try pretty hard to make themselves happy.”

This statement described that the speaker’s condition is in sadness.

Here, we know that from the sentence above brings us to the main function

that is to communicate the feeling or emotion of the speaker or writer itself. It arises

from the personal feeling or attitude of the speaker or writer that is dedicated to the

addressees or readers. On the sentence “they look like happy people to me, but they

have to try pretty hard to make them happy.” has represents


that the speaker wants to show her feeling, emotion, or attitudes to the

readers or addressees.

Leech said (1974: 18) that affective meaning is communicated of

feelings and attitudes of the speaker or writer. The sentence of this

affective meaning is expressing or communicating emotion or feeling of

the speaker about something that is happened according to its situation.

Datum 4:

The following data was taken from the data sources of the Jakarta Post

Weekender magazine:

On Nopember, 2009
Profile : Melissa Karim who is an entertainment all-rounder, turning her
hand to everything from radio, screenwriting for TV and film and
now as part of the panel of a popular prime-time magic show.
Title : Tall order
th
At 7 paragraph, line 2-3

“I may be short, but I have good skin.” (see in appendix 1 no.32)

Based on the sentence above, the phrase “good skin” is called

collocative meaning since the adjective word “good” conveys meanings when

it is going together with others noun, such as “good job,” “good land,” etc. In

this case, the adjective word “good” in the phrase “good skin” means “it is

smooth, soft, glittering, none of anything scratch or hurt on it, and does not

fast to be wrinkle.” Therefore, this kind of meaning tends to occur since it is

caused by co-occurrence differences in linguistics.


This kind of meaning can be used to convey the associate words which

tend to occur in the environment. It tends to have variants meaning when it co-

occurs with another noun. Based on the sentence above, the phrase “good

skin” occurs in the environment because of the usual habitual co-occurrence

with certain types, the adjective followed by noun (adjective+noun). Therefore,

it has some meanings when going together with other nouns.

Leech (1974:19) stated that collocative meaning is communicated

through association with word tends to occur in the environment of another

word. It consists of associate words since its habitual co-occurrence emerges

in certain types of words. Besides that, the collocative meaning could be

caused by the difference of stylistic and conceptual.

Next, the underlined phrase on the sentence above is also called

affective meaning because the sentence “I may be short but I have good skin”

refers to the speaker who shows her condition. This utterance comes from the

speaker’s feeling or emotion. In this case, the speaker is Melissa Karim who

has only 148 cm height of her body. She believes that although she has a

short body, she has a good skin as which is as her special quality. Here, it can

be concluded that the speaker is really thankful to her condition.

The sentence above brings us to the main function that is to communicate

the feeling or emotion of the speaker or writer itself. It arises from the personal

feeling or attitude of the speaker or writer that is dedicated to the addressees or

readers. On the sentence “I may be short, but I have good skin” represents the
speaker wants to show her emotion, feeling, or attitude to the readers or

addressees.

As Leech (1974:18) stated that affective meaning, what is communicated

of feelings and attitudes of the speaker or writer. It is expressing or

communicating emotion or feeling of the speaker about something that is

happened according to its situation.

Datum 5:

The following data was taken from the data sources of the Jakarta Post

Weekender magazine:

On Nopember, 2009
Profile : Melissa Karim who is an entertainment all-rounder, turning her
hand to everything from radio, screenwriting for TV and film and now as
part of the panel of a popular prime-time magic show. Title : Tall order
th
At 11 paragraph, line 1-4

Melissa, who grew up in what she describes as a “typically Chinese


family” of a father who was used car salesman and a mother who runs a
small home catering business, does not go for the naïve if well-intentioned
viewpoint. (see in appendix 1 no.33)

Based on the sentence above, the word “runs” is called reflected meaning

because this word meaning does not intends to the sense of “moving visible thing”

as usually people know, but the word “run” here is associated with the sense of

“do the work.” In other word, the word “runs” has another sense of the same

expression. It gives the new meaning of words in the sentence which relates to

another event or a phenomenon that is “do the work.”


The function is used to deliver the new sense of a word that relates to

another phenomenon in the same expression. The new sense here is the new

meaning comes to the expression of the same word. The new sense comes because

of removes another sense in the same expression. Clearly, the word “runs” that

usually people know seems to the meaning of “moving visible thing.” However, the

word “runs” in the sentence of “Melissa, who grew up in what she describes as a

“typically Chinese family” of a father who was used car salesman and a mother who

runs a small home catering business, does not go for the naïve if well-intentioned

viewpoint” means “do the work.” So that, the word meaning “runs” means “do the

work” seems removes another sense “moving visible thing” by the dominant

suggestive power especially, by the strength of its associate.

Leech said (1974: 19) that reflected meaning concerns, what is

communicated through association with another sense of the same expression. This

happens in multiple conceptual meaning when one sense of a word forms part of our

response to another sense. Further, he said that in reflected meaning, a word sense

seems to “rub off” on another sense by the dominant suggestive power whether

through relative frequency, familiarity, and strength of its associate.


Datum 6:

The following data was taken from the data sources of the Jakarta Post

Weekender magazine:

On Nopember, 2009
Profile : Melissa Karim who is an entertainment all-rounder, turning her
hand to everything from radio, screenwriting for TV and film and now as
part of the panel of a popular prime-time magic show. Title : Tall order
th
At 12 paragraph, line 3-4

I used to get mad when people would call me Amoy (a term for ethnic
Chinese women), but the thing is I am Amoy. (see in appendix 1 no.35)

Based on the sentence above, the underlined word “women” is called

connotative meaning since the word “women” is defined purely conceptual as

“human, female, and adult.” However, the word “women” physically connotes to

“having maternal instinct and gregarious.” Then, typical (rather than invariable) of

womanhood connotes (frail, prone to tears, emotional, friendly, motherhood,

experience in cookery). So that, “women” have varies meanings more than in

dictionary or conceptual meaning.

The function is used to communicate the experience in the real world to

associate with the expression when someone heard it or used it since it brings to

something valuable to the real world. When someone heard or used it, the word

“women” in the sentence above connotes to the meaning “having maternal instinct

and gregarious.” Certainly, the word “women” brings different meaning from age

to age and society to society in the real world due to that relates to one’s

experience, phenomenon, and the society which uses it.


Leech (1974: 14-15) stated that connotative meaning here is what is

communicated by virtue of what language refers to. It is considered based

on individual experience, society, age to age, indeterminate, open-ended,

and relatively unstable. So that, it refers to the “real world” experience which

associates to the expression when someone heard it or used it.

Next, this sentence is called affective meaning since it represents one’s

feeling. The statement was uttered by the speaker, Melissa Karim, who has short

body besides she has Chinese family heritage. The clause “I used to get mad….”

showed her feeling. She showed that she disliked when there was someone

calling her as Amoy. Although at the end of the sentence she said “but the thing

is I am Amoy” still it does not show that she liked to be called as Amoy. Then, we

will know the condition of the speaker from the statement that is uttered.

The sentence above brings us to the main function that is to communicate

the feeling, emotion, or attitudes of the speaker or writer itself. It arises from the

personal feeling or attitude of the speaker or writer that is dedicated to the

addressees or readers. On the sentence “I used to get mad when people would call

me Amoy, but the thing is I am Amoy” represents the speaker wants to show her

emotion, feeling, or attitude to the readers or addressees.

As stated by Leech (1974:18) that affective meaning deals with

what being communicated that include feelings and attitudes of the

speaker or writer. It is expressing or communicating emotion or feeling of

the speaker about something that happens according to its situation.


Datum 7:

The following data was taken from the data sources of the Jakarta Post

Weekender magazine:

On Nopember, 2009
Profile : Melissa Karim who is an entertainment all-rounder, turning her
hand to everything from radio, screenwriting for TV and film and
now as part of the panel of a popular prime-time magic show.
Title : Tall order
At 12th paragraph, line 3-4

Educated people won’t say things like that – they realize we’re
different, so what?. (see in appendix 1 no.36)

The underlined phrase “so what?” is called stylistic meaning because

this phrase is involved in Relative Temporary language style especially in ‘status’

category of its usage. The words “so what?” is categorized into “slang, colloquial

or expressions that commonly used in spoken language.” This phrase means to

request something. It can be said as rhetorical question to which the speaker

does not expect an answer from the addressees. It is the same with the

speaker’s question, “We are different, right?”

The function is to deliver the stylistic style which appears in language

since it is concerned with the social circumstance of the use of linguistic

expression. This kind of meaning is used to deliver the occupation style which

appears in language since the phrase “so what?” is considered as style of

Relative Temporary, especially in status of slang language. Therefore, the writer

only performs that the phrase “so what?” belongs to the stylistic meaning used

to deliver the stylistic style which appears in the sentence above.


As indicated by Leech, stylistic meaning concerns what is

communicated of the social circumstances of language use (1974:16-17). We

know it from the dialects or the language usage of “status” as the category of its

usage to differentiate between each dimension which shows something from

the different style. Perhaps, it occurs in certain language are:

G. Relative Permanent of Language Style

Individuality (the language of Mr. X, Mrs. Y, etc)

Dialect (geography language area, or social class)

Period (language in XVIII century, etc)

H. Delivery of Idea

The medium (speech, writing, etc)

Participation (monologue, dialogue, etc)

I. Relative Temporary of Language Style

Occupation area (law language, scientific, advertisement,

etc)

Status (polite language, slang, colloquial)

Modality (language of memoranda, lecturers, jokes,

etc)

Satirical (the style of Dickens, Hemingway, etc)

Next, this sentence also belongs to affective meaning because this sentence

comes from the speaker’s feeling and emotion. We will know from the clause “they

realize we are different…” shows that this clause represents the speaker’s
feeling or emotion toward the addressees or readers. What the speaker’s feeling

is related to the statement before (datum 7). She does not care about what

people called to her. She believed that educated people won’t say things like that

since we are different. So, the speaker here only wants to show that she and

other people around her have different family background or life style.

The function is to express the speaker’s feeling or emotion which

arises from the personal feeling or attitude of the speaker or writer to the

addressees or readers. Clearly, we know the condition of the speaker

from the speaker’s uttered whether her feeling, emotion, or attitudes.

As stated by Leech (1974:18) that affective meaning deals with

what being communicated that include feelings and attitudes of the

speaker or writer. It is expressing or communicating emotion or feeling of

the speaker about something that happens according to its situation.

4.2. Discussions

Following the analysis of the data, the researcher finds there are

types of associative meanings and its functions used in the Jakarta Post

Weekender magazine. The different types elicit different functions.


4.2.1. The Types of Associative Meanings

From the data of Weekender Profile section issues from October up

to November 2009, the researcher finds the types of associative meanings

are connotative meaning, stylistic meaning, affective meaning, reflected

meaning, and collocative meaning. However, the researcher finds different

distribution of associative meanings in the data. There are several steps to

analyze each data. The researcher finds each data consisting of one type

of associative meanings such as in datum 2 and datum 5. Then, she finds

the data consisting of two or more associative meanings such as in datum

1, datum 3, datum 4, datum 6, and datum 7.

Then, the types of associative meanings which have been identified in the

Jakarta Post Weekender magazine based on Leech’s theory are:

1. Connotative meaning can be described on the following sentences

in the Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine.

• Millions of people stream into Jakarta every day just to find happiness.
• I used to get mad when people would call me Amoy (a term for
ethnic Chinese women), but the thing is I am Amoy.

2. Stylistic meaning can be described on the following sentences in the

Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine.

• Lately, capitalism has come up with its own definition of


happiness to tempt consumers to buy products.
• Educated people won’t say things like that – they realize we’re
different, so what?.

3. Affective meaning can be described on the following sentences in the

Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine.


• They look like happy people to me, but they have to try pretty
hard to make themselves happy.
• I used to get mad when people would call me Amoy (a term for
ethnic Chinese women), but the thing is I am Amoy.
• Educated people won’t say things like that – they realize we’re
different, so what?.
• “I may be short, but I have good skin.”

4. Reflected meaning can be described on the following sentences in

the Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine.

• Millions of people stream into Jakarta every day just to find happiness.
• Melissa, who grew up in what she describes as a “typically Chinese
family” of a father who was used car salesman and a mother who
runs a small home catering business, does not go for the naïve if
well-intentioned viewpoint.

5. Collocative meaning can be described on the following sentences

in the Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine.

• They look like happy people to me, but they have to try pretty
hard to make themselves happy.
• “I may be short, but I have good skin.”

4.2.2. The Functions of Associative Meanings

This study finds several functions of associative meanings: connotative

meanings is used to deliver the experience in the real world to associate with the

expression when someone heard it or used it; stylistic meaning is used to deliver

the stylistic style which appears in language; affective meaning is used to

communicate the feeling or emotion of the speaker itself; reflected meaning is

used to deliver the new sense of a word that relates to another phenomenon in the

same expression; then collocative meaning is used to convey the associate of

words which tend to occur in the environment.


4.3. Implications

Associative meanings can be elicited according to each function. This

study is appropriate to interest the addressees or readers in formal or non

formal situation. In other word, associative meanings can be found in both

oral and written expressions. This study found that it has a little relation

between the types and the functions of associative meanings because the

functions of associative meanings is the reflection of the types of associative

meanings itself. The result, the writer or speaker uses associative meanings

to perform its functions which are related to the world.


CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter presents conclusions of the study about the types

and functions of associative meanings. This part also presents

suggestions for future researchers who are interested in this study.

5.1. Conclusion

Based on the findings and discussions in the previous chapter, the

researcher concludes that there are several types of associative meanings in the

Profile section of the Jakarta Post Weekender magazine: connotative meaning is

communicated by virtue of what language refers to; stylistic meaning is

communicated of the social circumstances of language use; affective meaning is

communicated feelings and attitudes of the speaker or writer; reflected meaning

is communicated through association with another sense in the same expression;

and collocative meaning is communicated with words which tend to occur in the

environment of another word. All five associative meanings are performed in the

text of Profile section in which each magazine is issued.

Then, there are also several functions from the associative meanings in the

Profile section of Weekender magazine. The researcher finds different functions of

associative meanings based on different types of associative meanings: connotative

meaning function to deliver the experience in the real world to associate the

expression when someone heard it or used it; stylistic meaning


function to deliver the stylistic style which appears in language; affective meaning

function to communicate the feeling or emotion of the speaker itself; reflected

meaning function to deliver the new sense of a word that relates to another

phenomenon in the same expression; and collocative meaning function to convey

the associate of words which tend to occur in the environment.

5.2. Suggestion

After doing this research, the researcher admits that there are some

weaknesses of this study since there are limitations of this study. Therefore,

there are some suggestions for the next researchers to continue this study in

order to give contributions concerning associative meanings.

This study is related to other linguistic knowledge such as discourse

or sociolinguistics since meaning can be explored in that knowledge

especially associative meanings which can be found in spoken or written

language. Then, to understand the associative meanings it can be analyzed

using different theories. Future researchers can use other objects related to

spoken or written language either formal or informal language.

Hopefully, this research can be guidance or inspiration for the next

researchers who are interested in studying meaning especially

associative meanings. They should be more patience, carefulness, and

seriously doing the research since it needs hard efforts and onward

process. The more data and theories of associative meanings collected,

the more meaningful discussions will be.


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APPENDICES
Appendix 1

List of Data selected

No. Months The Sentences of associative meanings


1 October, 2009 It was, naturally, an unhappy undertaking for him – it
included watching the thousands of motorcycles that
passed by his office every morning and watching an
infinite loop of Spongebob Squarepants – but he found
that people in Jakarta, other than himself, are mostly jolly
crowd, whatever the city’s shortcomings.
2 Millions of people stream into Jakarta every day just to
find happiness.
3 Lately, capitalism has come up with its own definition of
happiness to tempt consumers to buy products.
4 When I first started the project I did not have any clue
what happiness meant.
5 But I later found out that happiness has some indicators.
I learned from this project that happiness is something
that can be learned the same way we learn to play ping
pong or use the computer.
6 If we exercise a lot, we can easily be happy.
7 But I also believe that happiness is what we make of it.
8 Christiano Ronaldo may be the richest soccer player in
the world, but I believe he is as happy as the kid I play
futsal with when both score goal.
9 I believe the past has an important role in building our
happiness.
10 We should also be able to tell the difference between
what we need and what we want; this is one step to reach
happiness.
11 And I began to think that the true source of happiness is
in fact our happiness.
12 I also found that we can happy about other’s
unhappiness.
13 In this country, there are too many people living well
below the poverty line, but these people manage to
survive.
14 In the late 1990s, we suffered the greatest financial crisis,
which I think would take the United States 50 years to
recover from.
15 As a big city, Jakarta is practically uninhabitable but we
merrily crowd together.
16 In terms of material advancement, Singapore is ahead of
us, but to me it’s like a dead city.
17 I don’t think it will do much to increase happiness level
18 I believe the unpredictable nature of life here has helped
the ferment of creativity.
19 But I also believe that happiness can be found in the most
unlikely places, bars, brothels, soccer stadiums or rock
concerts.
20 I don’t always pray but I get really serious in my prayer
after I neglect it for some time.
21 The reason I started this art project is because I am an
unhappy person.
22 I am easily depressed and have problems concentrating.
23 I am also an ambitious person
24 They look like happy people to me, but they have to try
pretty hard to make themselves happy.
25 Nopember, I know I’m short – live with it!
2009
26 It’s being a short person that fuels her determination to
succeed among the big boys and girls, she says.
27 It’s not just in my work, but also in sports.
28 So I wanted to be on the basketball team even though
people said I couldn’t hello!
29 The other short part of her is her temper; she admits it is
clear to everybody around her when she is not in good
short.
30 Regardless of her height, or short and fiery personality
traits, she also has the good looks that are essential in the
entertainment business.
31 “I always think that God is fair,” she says.
32 I may be short, but I have good skin.
33 Melissa, who grew up in what she describes as a
“typically Chinese family” of a father who was a used car
salesman and a mother who runs a small home catering
business, does not go for that naïve if well- intentioned
viewpoint.
34 For me, we are different.
35 I used to get mad when people would call me Amoy (a
term for ethnic Chinese women), but the thing is I am
Amoy.
36 Educated people won’t say like that – they realize we’re
different, so what?
37 So he must have recognized the nascent potential in the
young, then overweight, college student, or perhaps a
kindred spirit of someone with smarts and sass.
38 “Basically that was where I learned everything,” says
Melissa.
39 I learned about writing scripts, the formula for putting
together a show.
40 I was doing my running away from home thing at the
time, and living in the Kebon Kacang low-cost
apartments.
41 “Don’t you dare tell clients you live there, it’s too
embarrassing, just say you live in Peanut Garden
apartments if they ask.”
42 I was puzzled in a way, because I have no background
whatsoever in writing.
43 I mean, I love writing, but my only experience was
writing emcee scripts for Indra or sometimes articles.
44 I said, “well, if you’re willing to teach me from minus 10,
and you have the time and the patience, I’m willing to
learn, because I always want to learn something new.”
45 I’ve been so lucky that I’ve had the best mentors.
46 I salute them as having the courage that I don’t.
47 I don’t sleep a lot, so I read, do a lot of research, I’m
basically a workaholic.
48 We’re mature enough to realize marriage is a partnership,
it takes a lot of work to make it work… if it was hard for
my friends to imagine me getting married, even Ralph.
49 “So I could just walk not to talk.”
50 “Wherever he is, I just hope he’s having a blast,” she
says.
Appendix 2

List of Data

The Types of Associative Meanings


No. Sentences Connotative Stylistic Affective Reflected Collocative Functions
Meaning Meaning Meaning Meaning Meaning

1 Millions of people • To communicate the


stream into Jakarta experience in the real
every day just to find world to associate with the
happiness. expression when someone
heard it or use it.
•To deliver the new sense of
a word that relates to
another phenomenon in the
same expression.

2 Lately, capitalism has To deliver the stylistic style


come up with its own which is appears in language.
definition of
happiness to tempt
consumers to buy
products.

3 They look like happy • To communicate the


people to me, but they feeling or emotion of the
have to try pretty hard speaker or writer itself.
to make themselves •To convey the associate of
happy. words which tend to occur
in the environment.

4 “I may be short, but I • To communicate the


have good skin.” feeling or emotion of the
speaker or writer itself.
• To convey the associate of
words which tend to occur
in the environment.

5 Melissa, who grew up To deliver the new sense of a


in what she describes word that relates to another
as a “typically phenomenon in the same
Chinese family” of a expression.
father who was used
car salesman and a
mother who runs a
small home catering
business, does not go
for the naïve if well-
intentioned viewpoint.

6 I used to get mad • To communicate the


when people would experience in the real
call me Amoy (a term world to associate with the
for ethnic Chinese expression when someone
women), but the thing heard it or use it.
is I am Amoy. • To communicate the
feeling or emotion of the
speaker or writer itself.

7 Educated people •To deliver the stylistic


won’t say things like style which is appears in
that – they realize language.
we’re different, so • To communicate the
what ?. feeling or emotion of the
speaker or writer itself.
Appendix 3

List of Profile Sections of the Jakarta Post Weekender Magazine

No Months Profile Title


1 October, 2009 Irwan Ahmett, 34, a self- Portrait of an
professed unhappy artist, has been unhappy artist
trying to get happy which his art
project has been running since
2007.
2 Nopember, Melissa Karim who is an Tall Order
2009 entertainment all-rounder, turning
her hand to everything from radio,
screenwriting for TV and film.
Now, she is as part of the panel of
a popular prime-time magic show.
Appendix 4

The Texts of Profile Sections of the Jakarta


Post Weekender Magazine
CURRICULUM VITAE

I. PERSONAL IDENTITY

Name : Nur Laili Yusuf


th
The Place & Date of Birth
Address : Jl. Kelud no.67 Karangsari-Lumajang
Sex status : Female
Marital Status : Single
Religion : Islam
Nationality : Indonesian
Occupation : Student
Email : leily_veil@yahoo.com
Mobile number : 085749506007

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

NO SCHOOL/UNIVERSITY FROM YEAR TO YEAR


1 MI Miftahul Ulum Maliki Duren- 1993 1994
Dauhan Lor Lumajang
2 MI Miftahul Ulum Wonorejo-Lumajang 1994 1999
3 MTS Miftahul Ulum Wonorejo- 1999 2000
Lumajang
4 MTS Putri Nurul Masyithoh Lumajang 2000 2002
5 SMA Negeri 03 Lumajang 2002 2005
6 Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic 2005 2010
University of Malang

III. ORGANIZATIONAL EXPERIENCES

nd
1. The 2 chief of Musola Teenagers (REMUSH) Asy-Syuhada’
Senior High School 03 Lumajang from 2003 to 2004.
2. Dakwah department of The Students Association of Glorious
Lumajang (HIMALAYA) at The State Islamic University of Malang
from 2005-2006.
3. The secretarial department of Advance Debate Community (ADC)
at The State Islamic University of Malang from 2006-2007.
4. Development of intellectual activity of The Students Associations
of Department (HMJ), English Letters and Language Department,
at The State Islamic University of Malang from 2007-2008.
5. The secretary of The Unity of Female Students Nahdlatul Ulama
(IPPNU) at Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of
Malang from 2008-2009.
CURRICULUM VITAE

INFORMANT

I. PERSONAL IDENTITY

Name : Drs. H. Nur Salam, M.Pd


Home- Address : Jl. Gambuta III-H9-Tidar Permai-Malang
Email : stiba_01@yahoo.com
Phone number : (0341) 568684 / 0816555097
Education : a. English Department – IKIP Malang
(1981)
b. Polytechnic Education Development
Center (1983)
c. Australian Language Center (1987)
d. English Language Education of
Graduate Program –Islamic University
of Malang (2005)
Profession : English Lecturer at State Polytechnic of
Malang (1982 – up to now)
Position :
a) Head of General Department – State Polytechnic of Malang
(1987 – 1993)
b) Director of “Akademi Manajemen Informatika dan Komputer”
– Pusat Pendidikan Indonesia – Amerika (1997 – 2000)
c) Care-taker of “Akademi Perbankan dan Keuangan – Nitro”
Malang (1998 – 2000)
d) Educational Consultant at “Applied Business – Central Service
Network “ –Brawijaya University Malang (2000 – up to now)
e) Assistant Dean for Academic affairs of “STIBA MALANG” (2000
– 2005)
f) Team Leader of Instructional Support System at State
Polytechnic of Malang (up to now)
g) Head of Language Service Unit of State Polytechnic of
Malang (up to now)
h) Program Director of D-pro TOEIC Representative (up to now)
i) Coordinator for Foreign Students Language Program (up to now)
j) Head of Institute for Human Resources Studies and Development
“LAKPESDAM” – DPC NU Kodya Malang (1996 – 2000)
k) General Secretary of Association of Schools of Foreign
Languages in Indonesia (2003 – up to now)
l) Coordinator of “Job Interviewers” in CSN – Brawijaya
University (up to now)
m) Head of Translation Verification Team in some companies
n) Vice General Head of Yayasan Masjid Al-Amien Tidar
Permai Malang (2005 – up to now)
o) An Academic Advisor in SD Islam Klojen Kidul Malang (1990
– up to now)
p) Bilingual Program Responsible at Maulana Malik Ibrahim
State Islamic University of Malang (up to now)
q) Part-time Lecturer in Brawijaya University, in the Maulana Malik
Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang, College of Foreign
Languages Malang, and in IKIP BUDI UTOMO Malang (up to now)