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1. Definition :

Analytical exposition text is a text that elaborates the writer’s idea about the phenomenon


2. Purpose
a. To persuade the reader or listener that there is something that, certainly, needs to get
b. To analyze a topic and to persuade the reader that this opinion is correct and supported
by arguments
3. Generic Structure
a. Thesis
Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position; Outlines of the arguments
to be presented.
- THESIS, which is your opinion about a problem. Usually starting with the sentence
I personally think, In my opinion, I believe, etc. After you write your thesis or opinion,
b. Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may
vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence).
It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument.
- Arguments or reasons which are accompanied by facts and relevant evidence so that
the listener or reader is affected by the argument you put forward. It usually starts
with Firstly, Nest, Third, The last, etc.
c. Elaboration: develops and supports each point of argument
d. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position (restates
the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented).
- Reiteration itself means the conclusion of the thesis and the arguments that have
been - presented above. So the words we can use to initiate the Reiteration part in
the text can be:
· From the argument above we can conclude that ... or
· Based on the argument above ... or
· The conclusion of the argument above is ...
· Etc.
4. Language Features
a. Focus on generic human and non human participants.
b. Use mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about
something, for example: realize, feel, etc.
c. Need material processes. It is used to state what happens, for example: has polluted, etc.
d. Use of simple present tense.
e. Use of relational processes.
f. Use of internal conjunction to state argument.
g. Reasoning through casual conjunction or nominalization

The example of Analytical Exposition:

Cars should be banned in the city

Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create

Thesis pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents.

Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in

the world.Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as
bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these
illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.Secondly, the city
is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit
pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our
roads biggest killers.

Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it
hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and
Arguments especially talk to someone.

In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons
Reiteration listed.
1. Definition :
a. Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain
the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done.
b. Hortatory exposition text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines,
newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc.
c. Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and
educated people.
d. To strengthen the explanation, the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the
fundamental reasons of the given idea. In other words, this kind of text can be called
as argumentation.
2. Purpose
a. To persuade the readers or listeners that something should or should not be the case
or be done.
3. Generic Structure
a. Thesis
Statements or announcement of issue concern. (Contains issues or topics of
issues raised as issues, as well as the position of the author on the issue)
- Thesis is similar to tentative conclusion which needs to be proven by certain
fact and argument. In the end, it can be true or false Argument: Reasons for
concern that will lead to recommendation.
b. Arguments
Reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation.
This is the phase which try to examine and support that the thesis stated above
is true.
c. Recommendation
Statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given
arguments. (this is what should or should not be done in the hortatory text. This
recommendation is differentiating from analytical exposition).
Usually we will use the words below to give advice to others, they can be:
· You should ..., we must ......, you should be ..., and etc. if we recommend
something that is permissible; and
· You shouldn't ..., you must not ..., we ought not to ..., etc. if we recommend
that is not allowed or not recommended.
4. Language Features of Hortatory Exposition:
1. Focusing on the writer.
2. Using action verb.
3. Using modal adverb; certainly, surely, etc.
4. Using temporal connective ; firstly, secondly, however, therefore, etc.
5. Using evaluative word ; important, valuable, trustworthy, etc.
6. Using passive voice.
7. Using simple present tense.
8. The use of modals and adverbs ; may, must should, etc.
9. The use of emotive words ; worried, alarmed, etc.
10. The use of words that qualify statements ; usual, probably, etc.
11. The use of subjective opinions using pronouns I and we.

Example of Hortatory Exposition Text:

Mobile Phones Should Not be Banned in School (Title)

Mobile phones is not used just for calling, but sending text, taking pictures, accessing
internet, and mush more. Many students bring their phones to school. For them, mobile phones
has many uses. So, mobile phones should not be banned in school. Why do I said that? (Thesis)

Firstly, students call their parents for another needs. By mobile phones, student can call
their close relative of they need something to be brought to school. In addition, mobile phones
can be used to call their children when one of their family were hit by disaster suddenly. An
then, student can called their parent to pick her up when want to go home. (Argument)

Secondly, increased of knowledge among students. When trying to find answer of

difficult task at school, mobile phone can be used as a connecting to search the answer through
GPRS or Wi-Fi networks. (Argument)

Finally, expand the network of friendship among students. School is the right place to
find friends. Average, student been at school about 7 hours or more. So that, a lot of students
found their friend in the school environment. Therefore, communication between friends
should be kept on of which using a mobile phone. (Argument)

So, I think mobile phone should not be banned in school. But, use your phone in the
time and right place so that no one was disturbed. (Resommendation)

Hortatory is similar to analytical exposition but if we have to differentiate both from one to
each other, we have one useful tool by making analysis on the generic structure. What makes
hortatory different from analytical exposition is the last finalizing step which analytical
exposition is ended by a reiteration while hortatory exposition is finalized by certain a

In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of
“How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his
examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student
do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing
should be done.