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International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research (IJSTER)

ISSN: 2617-6416 Vol. 1 (1) 109-119, November, 2018


www.oircjournals.org

Effect of Utilization of Media Resources Policy


on Management of Public Early Childhood
Development Education Centers in Elgeyo-
Marakwet County, Kenya
Betty Jebet Cheruiyot
Moi University

Type of the Paper: Research Paper.


Type of Review: Peer Reviewed.
Indexed in: worldwide web.
Google Scholar Citation: IJSTER

How to Cite this Paper:


Cheruiyot, B. J. (2018). Effect of Utilization of Media Resources Policy on
Management of Public Early Childhood Development Education Centers in
Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and Technological
Research (IJSTER), 1 (1) 109-119.

International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research


(IJSTER)
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109 | P a g e
Cheruiyot (2018) www.oircjournals.org
International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research (IJSTER)
ISSN: 2617-6416 Vol. 1 (1) 109-119, November, 2018
www.oircjournals.org

Effect of Utilization of Media Resources Policy


on Management of Public Early Childhood
Development Education Centers in Elgeyo-
Marakwet County, Kenya
Betty Jebet Cheruiyot
Moi University

ARTICLE INFO Abstract


The fourth schedule of the Kenyan constitution
Received 29th September, 2018 (2010) places Pre-Primary education and
Received in Revised Form 19th October, 2018 child care facilities under the County
government. To effectively execute this role,
Accepted 1st November, 2018 County governments in Kenya need to put in
Published online 8th November 2018 place appropriate policy frame-work to
govern this programme of education. The
Key words: Utilization, Media Resources, Early purpose of this study was to investigate the
Childhood, Development Education Centres, utilization of media resources policy that
affect management of public ECDE centers in
Elgeyo-Marakwet County. A descriptive
survey research design was adopted and the systems theory guided this study. The study targeted 573 head-
teachers, 1146 ECDE teachers and 5 ECDE officials in the county. Random sampling was used to select 521
respondents of whom, 172 were head teachers, 344 were ECDE teachers and all the 5 ECDE officials were
purposely sampled. The data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedule and observation checklist.
The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and the findings presented using frequency
tables. The study found that infrastructure in the ECDE centers are of low quality and needs concerted efforts
between the County Government and the National Government to improve the learning facilities as well as the
physical facilities in the ECDE centers. The study established that there was a significant relationship between
utilization of infrastructure, teaching and learning resources policy and the management of public ECDE centers
in Elgeyo-Marakwet County ( 𝑥 2 =768.807, df=81 and sig=0.000). There should also be deliberate efforts to
ensure that all ECDE centers have facilities which can be used by children with special needs or disabilities. The
learning compound should be made secure for the leaners and the teachers by constructing fences around the
facilities. The county government in collaboration with the national government should avail more physical
infrastructure, operationalize the school feeding program in all ECDE centers.
Introduction education system in the life of a child. According to
The development of children in the early stages of Morrison (2013), ECDE is a domain of education
life has a strong effect on their progress later in life, theory which relates to the training of young
including further education and employment children (formally and informally) up to and until
(Christie et al., 2007). Therefore, there is need to the age of eight. This age bracket presents crucial
provide children with an environment that will opportunities for the development of children’s
enable them to develop in all dimensions of life. academic, behavioral, psycho-motor and social
Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE) competencies (Gordon and Browne, 2013). This is
is the bedrock and foundation for all other levels of the formative age of children. These skills have been

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International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research (IJSTER)
ISSN: 2617-6416 Vol. 1 (1) 109-119, November, 2018
www.oircjournals.org

shown by researchers to be vital for later academic (PEP), supported by the Bernard van Leer
success of the child and thus ECDE is crucial in Foundation (Moncrieff, 1993); Presidential Circular
stimulating child development and success in later Number One in 1980 education; and reports by
life of schooling and also in the labour market Gachathi and Kamunge (Republic of Kenya, 1976;
(Wortham and Hardin, 2015). 1988) that emphasized the importance of quality
Early childhood education thus should focus on service and infrastructure provision in ECDE
children's learning through play, based on the centers. Before the promulgation of the new
research and philosophy of Jean Piaget (Piaget, constitution, the national ECDE service and
2013). The challenge thus lies in the integration of infrastructure provision system established by the
the various play activities and play resources to government was decentralized and, within the
achieve a holistic development of the children Ministry of Education, program co-ordination
encompassing all three learning domain; cognitive, occurred at all levels of government. At the national
affective and psychomotor. This fact poses a level, co-ordination was located in three units: the
challenge of provision of the various kinds of play ECDE unit of the Directorate of Basic Education,
infrastructure to the ECDE centers by the various the ECDE unit of the Directorate of Quality
stakeholders the key provider being the national and Assurance and Standards and the ECD section in the
county governments. All sorts of childhood play, Basic Education Division at the Kenya Institute of
from fantasy to rough-and-tumble, have a crucial Education (KIE). The latter unit was the one tasked
role in children’s development (Fromberg, 2002). with the role of determining the much needed
Play has been described as the lens through which resources and services and facilitating their
kids experience their world, and the world of others provision.
(Ailwood, 2003). Deprivation of play to children At the Provincial level, the Provincial Director of
can cause both short and long-term deleterious Education co-ordinates all programs including Early
effects. Childhood and Development Education. At the
Different kinds of play require different levels of district level, it is the District Education Officer who
cognitive, social, mental and physical co-ordinates all programs, but with the support of a
sophistication, and that is why different types of District Centre for Early Childhood Education
play should be featured in ECD canters to cater for (DICECE) officer who specifically oversees the
different stages of childhood development District ECD programming and, supported by other
(Bandura, 2001). Taking a lead in showing the staff, is responsible for training, curriculum
important role of outdoor play in the development development and research. At the community level,
of social skills, several studies have been carried. most ECD centers have management committees
Psychiatrist Stuart Brown (2009) discovered that the that oversaw daily management. Decentralization of
absence of social play during childhood stages was the ECD program had played a critical role in
a common link among murderers in prison. They enhanced accountability, sustained community
lacked the normal give-and-take skills necessary for participation and increased access to services by
learning to understand others’ emotions and marginalized communities. Government
intentions, and the self-control that one must learn commitment had led to the inclusion of ECDE as
to play successfully with others. All these activities one of 23 investments in the Kenya Education
can be done if educational policies provide room for Sector Support Programme (KESSP), a sector-wide
play in educational institutions. The facilities should approach to planning that focuses on identified
also be available to enable the learners play and priorities developed through extensive consultation
therefore interact well with each other in the pre- (Republic of Kenya, 2005). It has also led to
schools. leveraging of resources to finance community
Even with community involvement and ownership, support grants, which were used to assist in the
large-scale implementation of ECDE could not have procurement of different services and infrastructure
been achieved without government involvement. in the ECD centres. However, with the promulgation
Impetus was provided by the successful of the new constitution and the subsequent
implementation of several ECDE service and devolution of the ECDE program, the management
infrastructure delivery frame-works such as the 10- of the centers and thus procurement of the different
year (1972–1982) Pre-school Education Project

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International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research (IJSTER)
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www.oircjournals.org

infrastructure for instruction now lies in the hands systems within systems within environment, all of
of the County governments. which are regulated through a set of relationships.
The 2010 Constitution of Kenya is supreme law in The systems theory was relevant to this study as it
the country’s educational frame-work. It has sought to understand the level of expertise of the
provisions that have various implications on the staff in implementing policy on the management of
education sector. Article 43(f) of the constitution public ECDE centers.
states that every person has a right to education, In order to meet the aims and objectives of the study,
53(i) (b) every child has a right to free and a descriptive survey research design was adopted.
compulsory basic education (Cheserek and The target population for this study comprised
Mugalavai, 2012). The education sector is also ECDE officials, all the head-teachers and teachers
governed by the Basic Education Act 2013 and the in all the public ECDE’s in Elgeyo-Marakwet
Sessional Paper No. 14 of 2012 on reforming County. The county has a target population of 573
education and training sectors in Kenya. The Basic ECDE centers, 1146 ECDE teachers, 573 head
Education Act 2013 aims at giving effect to article teachers and seven ECDE officials (Elgeyo-
53 of the constitution and to promote and regulate Marakwet DICECE, 2015). The study used
free and compulsory basic education, provide for stratified sampling to stratify Elgeyo- Marakwet
accreditation, and registration, governance and County into sub-counties that form 155 ECDE
management of institutions of basic education. The schools from Keiyo North, 144 ECDE schools from
Basic Education Act 2013 of the constitution places Keiyo south, 118 ECDE schools from Marakwet
Pre-Primary education and child care facilities East and 156 ECDE schools from Marakwet West.
under the County governments (Eisemon, 2012). Simple random sampling was used to select 47
These roles are further specified by section 26 of the ECDE schools from Keiyo North, 43 from Keiyo
act which states that “the roles of the county South, 35 from Marakwet East and 47 from
government will include the provision of funds Marakwet West sub-counties. Simple random
required for the development of the necessary sampling was used to select 2 ECDE teachers from
infrastructure for institutions of basic education and each of the selected schools. This implied that 344
training used for conducting pre-primary education, ECDE teachers and 172 head teachers participated
childcare facilities home craft centers and village in the study. The 5 ECDE officials were purposely
polytechnics. Unfortunately, in the absence of included in the study sample. Data collection was
clearly spelled-out policies governing the provision done using a combination of sets of questionnaire,
of these infrastructures, many ECDE centers have interview guides and checklists. Data was analysed
continued to suffer due to lack of the much needed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Chi-
assortment of teaching and learning resources. It’s square test was used to find the relationship between
on this basis that, this research sought to investigate the variables investigated. Data was presented using
the utilization of media resources policy that affect frequency tables.
management of public ECDE centers in Elgeyo-
Marakwet County. The hypothesis tested was: Findings and Discussions
HO1: there is no significant relationship between Teaching Experience of Respondents
utilization of media resources policy and the Teaching experience in terms of years provides a
management of public ECDE centers in Elgeyo- variety of exposures to teachers. It also determines
Marakwet County. the quantity and quality of competences a teacher
has. Teachers who are more experienced in early
Methodology childhood development education have positive
This study was guided by systems theory as relationship with their ECDE children as compared
espoused by Bertalantfy (1968). This is a theory that to their colleagues who are less experienced (Gakii,
concerns systems, wholes and organizations. 2003). Experience plays a very vital role in
According to Herylighten and Juslyn (1992), the understanding the kind of pupils a teacher is
world is made of interacting components which handling. This enables such a teacher to select
have properties and viewed as a whole and do not appropriate approaches and suitable method to
exist within any of the smaller units. Systems theory teaching. In this study, teacher experience was
reveals a multi-faceted world which comprises sub- investigated and the findings tabulated in Table 1.

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International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research (IJSTER)
ISSN: 2617-6416 Vol. 1 (1) 109-119, November, 2018
www.oircjournals.org

Table 1: Experience of ECDE teachers


Number of Years Taught
Frequency Percentage
<1 year 38
1-5 years 144 7.4
5-10 years 122 27.9
11-15 years 70 23.6
Over 16years 142 13.6
27.5

Total 516 100.0


Source: Field data

From the findings tabulated in the table, it is found teachers had teaching experience of over 5years,
that out of the total number of teachers involved in (40%) of teachers had teaching experience of
the study, 7.4% of ECDE teachers had taught for between 1 and 5 years, while (10%) of the teachers
less than 1 year while 27.9% of the teachers had had less than 1 year of teaching experience. Mudaki
taught between 1-5 years, 23.6% of the teachers had (2011) found that (84.4%) of the pre- primary school
taught for 5-10 years, 13.6% of the teachers had teachers had worked for two years and above, while
taught 11-15 years, 27.5% of the teachers had taught the remaining (15.6%) had less than 1 year of
over 16 years. The results implied that most of the working experience. This clearly actualize the fact
teachers were experienced hence the reason for that experience of the ECDE teachers plays a great
evident increased enrollment of preschoolers in this role in performance and well nurturing of the
study. Teaching experience provides a variety of preschoolers. However majority of teachers also
experiences to teachers in terms of years and lack crucial skills to handle and facilitate the
exposures. It also determines the quality and learning of children. Interviews with teachers
quantity of competences a teacher has. These indicated that they lack knowledge and skills in a
teachers have more positive relationships with number of areas that they would like to be addressed
ECDE children as compared to those colleagues to enable them to implement in the policy of
who are less experienced (Gakii, 2003). Experience curriculum. They also need additional and new
plays a vital role in understanding the kind of pupils skills in how to offer comprehensive holistic ECDE
a teacher is handling. Beeby (1966) concurs by services.
arguing that many years of practice are meant to Utilization of infrastructure, teaching and
present a variety of experience to teachers. learning resources policy
Similar results were reported by Murundu, The researcher sought to find out from the
Chisikwa, Indoshi, Okwara and Otieno (2012) who respondents their honest opinion on some
conducted a study on teacher based factors statements relating to utilization of infrastructure,
influencing the implementation of Early Childhood teaching and learning resources policy on ECDE.
Development and Education (ECDE) curriculum in The respondents were to indicate by ticking in the
Gem District. The results revealed that 4.6% of the appropriate check box by stating they strongly
teachers had a teaching experience of below 2 years, agree, agree, undecided, disagree or strongly
23.1% had a teaching experience of 2-5 years, while disagree. All the 516 respondents answered the
the remaining teachers had 72.3% with a teaching questions. The responses were coded as 1, 2, 3, 4,
experience of five years and above. Gillian, (2010) and 5 respectively for purposes of analysis only. The
in his study on challenges faced in the provision of numbers have no other value other than for coding.
quality of Early Childhood Education in Kitui Table 2 shows the mean of the responses together
District. Results revealed that (50%) of the ECDE with their standard deviations.

Table 2: Utilization of infrastructure, teaching and learning resources policy


Statement Mean Std. Deviation
Classrooms are enough for all the children in the centre 3.35 .997
Enrolment of children has overwhelmed they available classroom capacity 2.36 .841

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International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research (IJSTER)
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Adequate lighting system within the classroom 3.27 1.081


Floors are well designed and cemented for easy 3.00 1.199
mobility of children
Classrooms are accessible for use by children with special needs
3.81 1.022
and have ramps, rails and low door handles
Desks and chairs are enough for all the children 3.26 1.019
Teacher`s chair, table and cupboard are available in the ECDE 2.99 1.017
classroom
School provides safe drinking water for drinking and 2.57 .920
washing hands
Pre-school have toilets/latrine for boy-child, girl-child and teachers 2.52 .968
Toilet is specifically designed for young children 3.35 1.103
Toilet child ratio is as recommended (1:25) 3.69 .973
Toilet teacher is as recommended(1:12) 2.50 .828
Pre-school have toilets for children with special needs 3.72 1.166
Adequate play and learning equipment within the pre-school 3.34 1.199
Equipment are safe and securely fixed to protect children 3.19 1.061
from injury
Materials are regularly serviced and maintained 3.55 .995
Outdoor play area is large enough for children to play and
2.71 .941
run around safely
Pre-school compound is fenced off and have a lockable gate for
3.45 1.161
the security of the pupils
2.91 1.029
Pre-school compound is regularly cleared, clean and maintained
ECDE centre has a children feeding program 2.42 1.005
Source: Field data

From the table 2 we find out that the respondents Moreover the government has not been very timely
agreed that there exist school feeding programs in in disbursing the funds allocated to the school,
the schools (2.42). There was disagreement on the delaying procurement and payments of money
statements that; pre – school compounds were meant for development and infrastructure. Since
fenced (3.45), Materials were regularly serviced and Kenya gained independence in 1963, however,
maintained (3.55), toilet ratio is as recommended access to early learning and care services has
(3.69) and classrooms are accessible to children expanded massively. From a low base, the numbers
with special needs (3.81). This may be because of children enrolled in centers leapt to over 800,000
classrooms are not very accessible for use by in 1990, 1.1 million in 2000 and 1.7 million in 2008
children with special needs since they don’t have (Republic of Kenya, 2009). The number of early
ramps, rails and low door handles making the childhood development centers (ECDC) shot up to
children with disabilities to be disadvantaged over 15,469 in 1990, 26,294 in 2000 and 37,954 in 2008.
the other preschoolers. It was generally established Kenya’s Pre-school gross enrolment ratio (GER)
that the school have very poor infrastructure and grew year on year from 2003 to 2008 to 60.2%
urgently need support and capital for development (Ministry of Education, 2009), one of the highest
of classrooms and furniture acquisition. Most of the growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest
communities are poor and very uninterested in expansion in early childhood education programs
supporting the school and blame the government for came shortly after Kenya's independence in 1963, in
not taking special interest in community. The ECDE response to the late President Jomo Kenyatta's call
centers have not been able to actively engage for Harambee ("pulling together"), which promoted
parents and explain what free education mean and community participation for accelerated education
expected parents’ roles. development (Githuthwa, 2013). The motto of

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Harambee has been evident ever since in the


development of many self-help projects, including Level of infrastructure since devolution shows
community-funded, community-built Pre-schools responses
and other services. Such community-supported Pre- The level of infrastructure in the schools was
schools still far outnumber those built by the established. Infrastructure includes buildings, fields,
government or donors; approximately 80 percent of teaching and learning resources, ablution facilities
Kenyan Pre-schools are run by local communities. among others. The table 3 shows the responses on
level of infrastructure since devolution.
Table 3: Level of infrastructure since devolution
Level Frequency Percentage
Poor 317 61.4
Fair 155 30.0
Good 44 8.5
Total 516 100.0
Source: Field data

From the table above the level of infrastructure in children to play. The classrooms are small and not
the study since devolution is termed as poor with well equipped and arranged compared to most
317 respondents and a percentage of 61.4%. Those private ECDE centers in urban areas. An ECDE
whose response was fair were 155 with a percentage center should have toilets/latrine for boys, girls and
of 30%.while those who responded that the level of teachers and those designed or children with special
infrastructure was good were 44 (8.5%). With the needs.
results above, it shows that many of the respondents In this study, sanitary facilities are generally in poor
believed that the level of infrastructure has not state in the school in Elgeiyo-Marakwet County.
improved since devolution. This evidently shows The sanitary facilities are not taken seriously by the
that most of our ECDE centers have the same stake holders, even in a situation where an NGO has
infrastructure that were before even devolution funded the building of and ECDE classroom. The
which should not be the case either since devolution storage condition for the snacks that children carry
was meant to bring more development in ECDE to school is also very poor if not a health hazard.
centers. In this study, upon mapping the condition Most ECDE have no kitchen or storage facilities,
of infrastructure in the ECDE centers, the researcher thus the food boxes that children carry to school are
looked at the conditions of classrooms, toilets, water squeezed into some corners of the children’s
facilities, play and learning equipment. This was classroom. About 99 per cent of all the
basically in terms of availability, good condition and public/community ECDE centers share toilet
adequacy. facilities with primary school. Besides the facilities
The analysis reveals that in the centers sampled, the are located far from the classrooms about 200Metres
classrooms and physical environment in general are away. These facilities are not suitable for 3-5 years
not in good condition and not suitable for the young old children and worse still for children with special
children learning and safety. Most of the ECDE needs. Example of physically and mentally
centers, public and community ones in particular, do challenged children.
not meet the national Early Childhood Development Schools feeding program
Service Standard and guidelines. Most of the centers School feeding program is a government initiative
are squeezed and dilapidated. Most are subject to in conjunction with other partners, to provide food
renovation or new construction. Apart from being in to children in school. The feeding program,
a poor state, they are also characterized by poor especially for children in early years is important
ventilation and insufficient lighting. Observation because children are motivated to attend school and
also during the visit to the school confirmed that get nutrition as well. The research sought to find out
about 80% of the school compound and physical the state of affairs in the ECDE centers as far as
environments do not look good and attractive for all feeding program is concerned. The findings are
small children in the ECDE centers. Very few presented in Table 4.
schools have trees and well-kept grass and sand or

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Table 4: Existence of school feeding program


Response Frequency Percentage
No 373 72.3
Yes 143 27.7
Total 516 100.0
Source: Field Data

The study found out that majority of the that Most of the parents enquire about the meals
respondents, out of the 516 respondents, provided to make a decision of whether to enroll the
373(72.3%) indicated that their ECDE centers had children in the centre or not. Further, according to
no feeding program while 143(27.7%) had feeding the study findings; School feeding program increase
programs. Feeding program to majority of the pupils participation in class assignment duties and
respondents said that feeding programme in the discussion, there are only a few meals provided
centre enhance enrolment to a very great extent. The during the day hence pupil do not fully participate
ECD service Standard Guidelines state that “ECDE in class work rendering to low performance, the
centers shall provide children with a snack, healthy pupils in the centre are always active and
preferably enriched porridge at break time. Where perform well in the exam hence feeding program is
the center is full day, in addition to the snack, lunch important also towards the performance of pupils in
comprising balanced diet shall be provided.” (RoK, the centre.
2003).meeting this objective is another big The study found out that majority of the respondents
challenge the ECDE subsector is facing. said that there were transfer cases in the ECDE
In private or community schools where there is a centers. Majority of them indicated that most
formal feeding program comprising a balanced diet parents take their children to private schools citing
(enriched porridge, beans, rice, meat, fish, and fruit), many reasons which range from poor performance
such a program is expensive and is optional. The in public early childhood education centres, poor
cost ranges from kshs.600 to 2500 across the county. teaching methods, lack of skilled staff in public
It was indicated by head teachers/teachers that such centers, and to a great extent due to lack of feeding
a program is optional to parents. Thus those who programmes in the ECDE centers.
cannot afford opt to be left out of it hence Playground availability for play by pupils
disadvantageous to other pupils. On regards to Play for children are important for their physical and
enrollment also, majority of the respondents social wellbeing. Availability of a playground for
indicated that most of the parents are always willing children in the ECDE centers was established. The
to bring their children in the centre where dietary responses are tabulated in table 5.
meal are provided Other respondents fairly agreed

Table 5: Availability of playground


Response Frequency Percentage
No 373 72.3
Yes 143 27.7
Total 516 100.0
Source: Field data

In the table 5,the number of those who say there is substantial research showing the clear link between
availability of playground are 143 (27.7%) while play and brain development, motor-skills, and social
those who say there is no play ground in the ECDE capabilities. All learning—emotional, social, motor
centers are 373 (72.3%). This shows that most and cognitive—is accelerated, facilitated, and
ECDE centers do not have well-structured fueled by the pleasure of play. Playgrounds that
playgrounds. Playgrounds provide crucial and vital promote different types of play are vital for a child’s
opportunities for children to play. There is cognitive, emotional, physical, and social

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development the more specific ways in which them in terms of color, texture and smell. These are
playgrounds and play equipment, similar to those good opportunities to construct scientific
being installed in Shasta County, promote growth knowledge. Children also engage in activities such
are described below. as sorting, matching and ordering which are
Child’s play is not just all fun and games. The act of important basic mathematics concepts.
play is a crucial component in the successful growth Information collected from the checklist showed
of the brain, body, and intellect. Playing promotes that ten centers had plants within their outdoor
brain development and helps lay the neural grid for environment. This means that during play time
a successful mind through repetitive play actions children can observe touch , smell and experiment
that reinforce that grid. Playing promotes physical on the different types of plants, thus creating
success by allowing the child to explore, test, and knowledge that form the basis of scientific
expand the limits of the growing body. And playing knowledge and skills in later years. There were no
promotes social, intellectual, and oral skills by plants in the outdoor play environment in ten ECD
allowing the child to interact with their peers and centers. Therefore children did not have the
environment. Playgrounds by their very name are opportunity to learn anything about plants in these
grounds on which to play. But they are more than ECDE centers.
that, playgrounds provide a safe environment Seeds were also seen in very few ECDE centers. The
designed specifically to foster and enhance the 4 seeds can be used by children to do counting,
opportunities for a child to play alone, with a sorting, ordering and matching important activities.
caregiver, or with other children. Given the These are very important concept in mathematics
importance of play in the development of a child, activities. Children can also make patterns and from
any space which gives a child free reign to do just shapes using seeds thus acquiring a good foundation
that should be seen a crucial component in a child’s for mathematics at an early stage of learning circle.
life. Playground equipment and space can meet the Over one hundred ECD centers had no trace of a
needs of children 0-5 by providing different seed in the entire outdoor play environment. Pearson
opportunities to engage in appropriate Chi-Square was computed to test the significant
developmental play. Playgrounds are, it is important relationship between utilization of media resources
not to forget, fun for children and this fun will have policy and the management of public ECDE centers
lasting positive effects on their development. in Elgeyo-Marakwet County:
Literature on outdoor play indicates that children HO1: there is no significant relationship between
learn many things while playing outdoors. Learning utilization of infrastructure, teaching and learning
outdoors depends on whether the environment resources policy and the management of public
provides affordances that will enable children to ECDE centers in Elgeyo-Marakwet County.
develop cognitively. Results from this study Table 6 presents the findings on Pearson Chi-Square
indicate that very few teachers and head teachers computation of the significant relationship between
have an idea on the importance of outdoor play utilization of infrastructure, teaching and learning
environment as a good resource for children’s resources policy and the management of public
learning. Results from the checklists of children’s ECDE centers in Elgeyo-Marakwet County.
development showed that more than half of the ECD Pearson Chi-Square computation of the significant
centers had plants in the outdoor play environment. relationship between Utilization of infrastructure,
However, they were scattered and few. These plants teaching and learning resources policy and the
were mainly flowers and other small plants that management of public ECDE centers in Elgeyo-
grew naturally. Children can examine the various Marakwet County. Table 6 shows the results of the
leaves, flowers, pods and seeds thus distinguishing test.

Table 6: Chi- Square test


Test Value Degree of Freedom Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 768.807a 81 .000

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Table 6 indicates that the calculated Chi-square was health and nutrition, limited or poor quality of
768.807 at 81 degrees of freedom with a ECDE service provision to the under 8 year old
significance value p=0.000 <0.05. The calculated p children, child labor, child abuse, rape and high rate
value was less than the critical value 0.05. This of mortality rates.
shows that there was significant relationship Further, the analysis shows that the classes were
between Utilization of infrastructure, teaching and large and overcrowded. Also the numbers of
learning resources policy and the management of teachers were few and children shared facilities and
public ECDE centers in Elgeyo-Marakwet County. some even lacked essential facilities such as chairs,
Evidently, in terms of infrastructure as the number play equipment, feeding program and learning
of preschoolers is increasing, facilities also should resources. In addition to our findings because of
be improved to face-lift the resources and give a high enrollment of preschoolers teachers cannot
conducive environment for learning. apply the child-centered method because of the large
Correlating the findings, the Government class sizes and the limited learning resources in most
commitment had led to the inclusion of ECDE as of the ECDE centres. This does not concur with
one of 23 investments in the Kenya Education (NAEYC, 1991), which asserts that there should be
Sector Support Programme (KESSP), a sector-wide one teacher for every seven to ten children and no
approach to planning that focuses on identified more than twenty per classroom.
priorities developed through extensive consultation
(Republic of Kenya, 2005). It has also led to Conclusion
leveraging of resources to finance community The research sought to find out the availability and
support grants, which were used to assist in the level of development of resources in the ECDE
procurement of different services and infrastructure centers. It was noted that teacher chairs and tables
in the ECD centers. However, with the promulgation were available, however, the teaching learning
of the new constitution and the subsequent resources were inadequate and even the available
devolution of the ECDE program, the management resources were not regularly maintained. Some of
of the centers and thus procurement of the different the ECDE centers were not fenced and have no
infrastructure for instruction now lies in the hands lockable gates. The playgrounds, which are
of the County governments. Unfortunately, in the important for children were found to be inadequate
absence of clearly spelled-out policies governing the in the ECDE centers. The research found out that the
provision of these infrastructures, many ECDE ECDE centers did not provide for children with
centers have continued to suffer due to lack of the special needs because there were no special toilets
much needed assortment of teaching and learning as well ramps leading to class rooms which can be
resources. Hence this finding was coherently used by children with disabilities.
articulate to the fact that teaching and learning From the findings, it was noted some ECDE centers
resources should be well established to ensure an had feeding programs for the children which is a
environment for preschoolers to have a fair and motivating factor for the children to attend school as
conducive study. well as maintain good health. The teacher pupil ratio
In Kenya, although different ministries are expected was found to be wanting in that there were few
to provide direct and/or indirect services to children, teachers to cater for the enrolled pupils. Further a
the extent to which such ministries coordinate their conclusion made from this study is that there existed
various activities that target children and run joint relationship between utilization of infrastructure,
programmes/projects remains one of the biggest teaching and learning resources policy and the
challenges facing realization of children’s rights in management of public ECDE centers in Elgeyo-
the country. Stakeholders interviewed indicate that Marakwet County. The study findings revealed that
coordination is currently still difficult. This is utilization of infrastructure teaching and learning
because the current administrative/management resources policy played a significant role in
context, where accountability for meeting effective management of public ECDE centers. The
measurable objectives is restricted to specific null hypothesis (HO2: there is no significant
individual ministries frameworks. Respondents relationship between utilization of media resources
argue that partnership frameworks for ECDE policy and the management of public ECDE centers
services is still lacking because it’s a new concept in Elgeyo – Marakwet County) was tested and
and way of offering services to children. 𝑥 2 =768.807, df = 81 and sig=0.000 at significance
Due to this disjointed and uncoordinated level of 0.05 was found. Therefore the null
programmes and activities, children care and hypothesis was rejected which implied that there
development in the country faces major was a significant relationship between utilization of
challenges/problems including the following: child infrastructure, teaching and learning resources
International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research (IJSTER)
ISSN: 2617-6416 Vol. 1 (1) 109-119, November, 2018
www.oircjournals.org

policy and the management of public ECDE centers ii. School heads and managers should allocate
in Elgeyo-Marakwet County. In this study it is the limited resources appropriately in order
concluded that ECDE utilization of infrastructure, to ensure that structural aspects are
teaching and learning resources is inevitable for improved to the required level. In addition,
effective and proper management of ECDE centres. they should make sure play grounds,
teaching and learning materials are
Recommendations available for effective teaching and
Based on the findings of the study, the following learning.
recommendations were made: iii. It is recommended that the County
i. The ECDE administrators in collaboration Government and the national Government
with parents and both the County and through MOE should allocate more
National Government should ensure that financial resources to ensure that structural
all ECDE centers have physical facilities to and process features of ECDE centres are
cater for children with special needs improved.
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