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Earth Metals - Aluminium

The elements of the third main group are named as earth metals having an s2px valence-shell configuration. Typically they can form three covalent bonds, their oxidation number is +3 in compounds. The earth metals in their compounds can be considered as electrondeficient, because with the formation of three covalent bonds they do not reach the electron octett characteristic for noble gases. Therefore they behave as Lewis acids and are able to form complexes.

(B) the earth metal of the lowest atomic number, is perhaps one of the most

special element of the periodic table, but it arouses rather the interest of the chemists, not that of the physicians... Boron is a very hard high-melting substance present in network crystal lattice. It occurs in the Nature in deposits of minerals, the most important ones are borax (Na2B407) and boric acid

Both of them are

crystalline, water-soluble solids. The aqueous solution of boric acid is slightly acidic, but contrary to the other oxoacids boric acid is not a proton donor, but it acts as a Lewis acid, binding OhTions: H3B03 + H20 ======= [B(OH)4]"+H+ The most important earth metal is aluminium (Al); aluminium is the third most abundant element of the Earth's crust. It occurs in the nature in silicates or in hydroxides, its most important ore is bauxite that is mostly the mixture of AIO(OH) and Al(OH)3. Cryolite (sodium hexafluoro-aluminate(lll), Na3[AlF6]) is also an important mineral, applied in the manufacturing of aluminium (electrolysis). Aluminium is a bluish silvery soft metal of low density (2.7 g/cm 3, light metal). It is an excellent thermal and electrical conductor. Therefore and because of its advantageous mechanical properties it is applied as structural material in construction of vehicles, as well as because its good electrical conductivity as electric cables. Generally for these purposes its alloys are used. It can be drawn to very thin foils (aluminium foils) that can be utilized for the packing of food. Aluminium has very advantageous properties, but its manufacturing is rather expensive (made by electrolysis), the objects made of aluminium cost much more than that of made of iron (Between 1970 and 1980 coins were made of aluminium, too). Gallium (Ga) and indium (In) are applied in the semiconductor industry for the production of transistors, LEDs, they do not have biological importance. Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are rather toxic, their contact with skin is dangerous, they are very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed. (It can be found in the periodic table between the very toxic mercury and lead.) Previously its sulphate

(TI2S04) was applied as rat poison, but this tasteless and odourless substance is too dangerous, therefore nowadays it is not used for this purpose.

at high temperature it reduces other metal oxides. too. Compounds of aluminium In its compounds aluminium has oxidation number of +3. thus the metal undergoes oxidation. because they contain mostly potassium hydroxide. The acidic limescale remover liquids can damage the aluminium objects. an aluminium-amalgam (alloy) forms on its surface inhibiting the development of the protecting layer of aluminium oxide. too. Cr203 + 2 Al = Al203 + 2 Cr Aluminium dissolves in both acids and bases generating hydrogen gas. 4 Al + 3 02 = 2 Al203 Aluminium has a high affinity toward oxygen. this reaction is an appropriate method for the preparation of certain metals (thermite method). In order to protect aluminium from oxidation more effectively it is oxidized by electrochemical methods (anodizing) forming a passivation layer on the surface of the metal. it is amphoteric. it can form both ionic and covalent compounds. AICI3 + :NH3 = CI3AI^-NH3 AI(OH)a +OH" = [AI(OH)4]~ . The pure aluminium is a very reactive metal with reducing property.5). (This happens at the treatment with mercury(ll)chloride. two more electrons are needed to reach the octet configuration. i. Thus the aluminium compounds behave as strong Lewis acids forming complexes with electron pair donor.The chemical properties of aluminium It has a medium value of electronegativity (1. so the objects made of aluminium are resistant to corrosion.e. 2 Al + 6 H+ = 2 Al3+ + 3 H2 2 Al + 2 OH" + 6 H20 = 2 [AI(OH)4]" + 3 H2 Therefore it is not advisable to clear the objects made of aluminium with cold degreasing agents. A thin protective surface layer of aluminium oxide forms when the metal is exposed to air. preventing further oxidation. In covalent compounds it is strongly electron deficient. If aluminium is treated with mercury.) At higher temperature the aluminium burns yielding aluminium oxide in an exothermic reaction.

crystalline substance. their colour is connected to the metal contaminations. Al203 + 6 H+ = 2 Al3+ + 3 H20 Al203 + 2 OH" + 3 H20 = 2 [Al(OH)4]" (complex formation) Different network crystal structures of aluminium oxide occur in Nature as semiprecious stones (ruby. Some special . It is not water soluble (neutral oxide) but it is soluble in acids or in bases (amphoteric). turquoise).Aluminium-oxide (Al203) is a colourless. sapphire.

(See equilibria and complexes).in the so-called Friedel-Crafts reactions. AKOHK + 3 H+ = Al3+ + 3 H20 AKQHU +OH" = [Al(OH)4]" Aluminium hydroxide is also used in dyeing of textiles by mordant because the aluminium hydroxide precipitated can adsorb dyes. In chemical practice aluminium oxide (alumina) is used as a polar stationary phase in adsorption chromatography. Aluminium sulphate (AI2(S04)3) and alum (potassium aluminium sulphate. [AI(H20)6]3+ + 3 Cf ======= [AI(H20)5OH]2+ + H+ + 3 CI" (hydrolysis) In the preparative organic chemistry it is applied as a Lewis acid catalyst electrondeficient molecule . The growth of the plants is retarded by the contaminations caused by aluminium compounds. They are not harmful to the human organism. KAI(S04)2) are colourless crystalline compounds. The dilute solution of boric acid is a decontaminant at accidents caused by alkali burns (in Red Cross bottle in the lab). Therefore they are constituents of disinfective baby powders and ointments. because it is a very hard material. Medical and biological importance of the earth metals Boron is a trace element in our organism. In addition it is used in vaccines and in toxins to absorb the active drugs. The human organism does not require aluminium. Aluminium sulphate has a role in waste water . At the Alzheimer patients in the grey matter of the brain there are plaques composed of aluminium silicates but probably this is a symptom of the disease. it plays a role in the regulation of the calcium metabolism.forms as corundum are utilized as grinding powder (sandpaper). The solutions of borax in glycerine have a role in the treatment of the soar of infants. their solutions is acidic because of hydrolysis. The aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) a colourless powder. Its aqueous solution is acidic because of hydrolysis. If it is exposed to air it deliquesces (forms a solution). Both boric acid (H3B03) and borax (Na2B407) are used in the medical practice. insoluble in water. very hygroscopic having covalent structure. In our environment the acid rains wash out the aluminium from aluminium silicates and we ingest them with food. because it has a strong affinity for moisture. Boric acid is also applied in eye drops and artificial tears. whereas they act as bacteriostatic agents. but it is an amphoteric substance. and not its cause. Both of them are applied as astringent that is for the precipitation of proteins and for cauterization. Aluminium-chloride (AICI3) is a colourless crystalline substance. Toxicity of aluminium compounds was described in the 1970s.

Alum is an astringent contracting the blood vessels.treatment. . it is applied in aftershave hemostatic sticks.

AI2(S04)3. Give the oxidation number of aluminium in its compounds. Then decant the solution and rinse the metal sometimes with distilled water. there are only 6 valence electrons around the aluminium). Then add some water to the pre-treated aluminium to cover it. 5. because it precipitates in the intestines at pH=7 as aluminium hydroxide polymer. Why do not aluminium objects undergo corrosion? 3. Self-test questions 1.Aluminium oxide (Al203) is utilized as an antacid to neutralize the excess of gastric acid. 20% NaOH . What do you know about the application of aluminium in the every day life? List three different items. 20% hydrochloric acid. Write formula for aluminium sulphate and alum. The amphoteric character of aluminium Materials: aluminium filings. For what purposes is aluminium oxide applied in the medical practice? What kind of advantages does its application have? 9. Write equation to demonstrate the Lewis acid character of aluminium chloride 8. What can you observe? Why do you have to pre-treat the metal with mercury(II) chloride solution? Comments: After a while the solution will turn turbid because of the AI(OH)3 precipitate. 4. 7. AICI3. Aluminium chloride and its hydrates are the active ingredients of antiperspirants. Al203. Let the mixture stand for 1-2 minutes. Write two equations to demonstrate the amphoteric character of aluminium. it binds the basic amine components of sweat having intense odour (see complexes). Name the following compounds: H3B03. Place the test-tube into hot water bath and let it there for 5 minutes. mercury(ll) chloride solution. 6. What kind of advantageous physical properties does this metal have? 2. For what purposes are they applied in the medical practice? Write equation for the dissociation of alum. KAI(S04)2. Its advantage is that it does not produce gases and it is not absorbed. Write the atomic symbol of aluminium and its valence electronic configuration. Write two equations to demonstrate the amphoteric character of aluminium hydroxide. water Procedure: Place a piece of aluminium sheet into a test-tube and add a small amount of 1% mercury(ll) chloride solution to it. Since AICI3 is a highly electron deficient molecule (Lewis acid. What do you know about the physiological effect of aluminium compounds? Experiments Dissolution of aluminium in water Materials: a sheet of aluminium. Define the term of Lewis acid.

Fill into one test tube 5 cm3 of 20% hydrochloric acid. into the .Procedure: Put a small amount of aluminium filling (or a sheet of aluminium) into two test-tubes and place them into the test-tube rack.

therefore it is not supposed to take other medicaments together with antacids (aluminium hydroxide can adsorb the active ingredients). hydrochloric acid solution Procedure: Add dropwise 5 % of sodium hydroxide solution to 1-2 cm 3 of concentrated alum solution. What do we observe? Write equation. When the surface of the sheet turned gray. the finely dispersed aluminium hydroxide is able to adsorb several substances on its surface (see colloids). . (http://www.other one 5 cm3 of 20% NaOH solution. They can react with both acids and bases. sodium hydroxide solution. How can you characterize the acid-base properties of aluminium? Why is it not supposed to clean objects made of aluminium with cold degreasing agents or limescale removers? Comments: Proteins are also amphoteric. to the other one hydrochloric acid solution. That is why aluminium oxide or hydroxide are used as antacids. What can you observe? Write equations for these reactions. Add some more sodium hydroxide to one test tube. Comments: At high temperature aluminium burns throwing out sparks. Amphoterism of aluminium hydroxide Materials: alum solution. (The drop of mercury(ll) chloride solution is dropped with a pipette onto the aluminium sheet. However. Divide the reaction mixture into two test-tubes.youtubexom/watch?v=4EviwhG2nU8). It has a very high affinity to oxygen. What do you observe? Write equation. shake off the drop of solution and disperse the remained liquid with cotton wool or a piece of filter paper. After some minutes observe the surface treated with mercury(ll) chloride solution and touch the back side of the sheet (the not treated side). and not with hand!) Let the sheet stand on air. since they contain both acidic and basic functional groups. Comments: In the slighly basic medium of small intestines aluminium hydroxide precipitates and it is not absorbed. Oxidation of aluminium Materials: sheet of aluminium. which is the basis of the so-callet thermite reaction used for the preparation of pure metals. Add a drop of mercury(ll) chloride solution onto the clean metallic surface. thus they have a role in the regulation of constant pH of the body (See chapter 'Buffer systems'). mercury(ll) chloride solution Procedure: Clean the aluminium sheet with a piece of sandpaper.

Their reaction with water is very vehement yielding hydrogen gas: K + H20->KOH + 1 /2H2 This reaction is rather exothermic and the hydrogen evolved can even burst into flame.7 (27. Their typical feature is the flame test.97 0. it is a non-metal.9 28. therefore they have very low electronaffinity and ionization energy. Releasing one or two electrons they reach the noble gas electron configuration. are soft metals of low density and low melting point. it is discussed elsewhere. Hydrogen is an exception in this column. Their reactivity increases in the column from the top to the bottom.53 1. exposed to the air they immediately undergo oxidation. They are very reactive elements.7 38. In their compounds the alkali metal cations always have the oxidation number +1.53 0.(radioactive) melting point (°C) 180. this way decreases the ionization energy and the electronegativity.s-block elements The elements of the s-block (alkali metals and alkaline earth metals). These metals behave as strong reducing agents having the highest negative standard electrode potential (see electrochemistry). they do not occur in nature in elementary state only in their compounds having mostly ionic character.8 63.5 97. Because they have a closed electron shell and a stable octet in their compounds they are colourless with low . The valence electrons of the atoms can be excited easily thus the non-luminous flame of the Bunsen burner is coloured by these substances (except magnesium and beryllium). These metals show a tendency to form monovalent cations. To prevent it they are stored under mineral oil. element lithium Li sodium Na potassium K rubidium Rb cesium Cs francium Fr density (g/cm3) 0.0) reactivity Y They are very reactive.90 .86 1. Alkali metals Elements of the first main group have s1 valence-shell electron configuration.

the corresponding potassium mineral is salpetre (KN03. sodium and potassium compounds are of biological importance. The oxides of alkali metals are base anhydrides. An important mineral of sodium is Chile saltpetre (NaN03. washing soda or natron (Na2C03).reactivity. Medical and biological importance of the alkali metals Some lithium salts are used in the treatment of maniac depression. The alkali hydroxides react with acids or acid anhydrides forming salts. sulphates. potassium nitrate) formerly applied for the manufacturing of gunpowder. signal transductions and some active transport processes. they act as strong bases. Only lithium. so they should be stored in an airtight container in order to prevent the formation of carbonates: 2 KOH + C02 —► K2C03 + H20 (reaction of an acid anhydride with a base) Alkali metals occur in nature as salts. Sodium and potassium ions are responsible for the electrical properties of the cell membranes. In case of severe diarrhoea or application of diuretics there is a significant loss of . potassium as potassium chloride or muriate of potash (KG) found in the top layer of salt mines. carbonates and phosphates) have good water solubility. In mineral waters there can be an important amount of Glauber's salt (Na2S04. Sea water contains about 3% NaCI so the evaporitic deposits formed by the evaporation of inland seas. while potassium give a faint blue flame test. and in addition they are caustic and corrosive compounds. NaOH-+Na+ + OH~ They sodium and potassium hydroxides are ingredients of cold degreasers and drain cleaning unblockers. with water they yield the corresponding hydroxides: Na20 + H20 -> 2 NaOH Their hydroxides are ionic compounds of very good water solubility. They are hygroscopic and readily absorb water and carbondioxide (acid anhydride) from air. Sodium exists as table salt (NaCI). sodium nitrate). Their ionic compounds (halogenides. the Na+/K+ proportion between the living cell and its environment serves as a base of the membrane potential. Nowadays it is used to prepare artificial fertilizers. because they hydrolizes fats yielding water soluble compounds (see organic chemistry). sodium sulphate) showing a mild laxative effect in higher amount. The detection of the alkali metals can be performed in an easy way using their flame test: sodium colours the nonluminous flame of the Bunsen burner intense yellow.

potassium of the organism that must be supplied with medicines containing potassium chloride. .

The solubility of the hydroxides increases as the column is descended: Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 are precipitates of low solubility. calcite or chalk). The carbonates and sulphates of strontium and barium also occur in nature. alabaster).0 (radioactive) reactivity T They form mostly ionic compounds. element beryllium Be magnesium Mg calcium Ca strontium Sr barium Ba radium Ra density (g/cm3) 1. but beryllium and magnesium can occur in covalent molecules.74 1. marble. Calcium is covered by a thin calcium nitride (Ca3N2) layer avoiding oxidation. water and alcohols.6 3. In compounds their characteristic oxidation number is +2. The saturated solution of calcium hydroxide is the lime water. therefore it can be stored in air. The in earth's crust their compounds are very abundant: CaC03 (calcium carbonate: limestone. They react with acids. the other hydroxides are well soluble in water. Their electronegativity decreases from the top to the bottom while the atomic radius increases.55 2.Alkaline earth metals Elements in the second main group have s2 valence-shell electron configuration.85 1. in small amounts they occur in the uranium ores. Contrary to the other alkali and alkaline earth metals its flame colouration is not in the visible region of the . while their carbonates are not soluble in water. Mg + 2 HCI MgCl2 + H2 Ca + 2 CH3OH Ca(CH30)2 + H2 Their most important compounds are the hydroxides acting as strong bases. too. though they are less reactive than the alkali metals. They are metals of low electronegativity and ionization energy having reducing properties.5 5. CaC03 ■ MgC03 (dolomite). CaS04 ■ 2 H20 (gypsum. Solubility of their sulphates decreases as the column is descended. Magnesium is protected by its tough oxide layer. Magnesium and calcium Both of them are silvery light metals. All of the isotopes of radium are radioactive. On ignition magnesium burns with a brilliant white light. MgC03 (magnesite).

electromagnetic spectrum. Calcium's flame test is brick-red. . that of strontium is crimson and that of barium is green.

In addition calcium hydroxide is used for the softening of water. in tartar. especially avoid the contact of eyes with it. applied in building industry. (slaked lime. is a base anhydride. CaO+ H20 = Ca(OH)2 (lime slaking) It is a starting material in building industry. quick lime. It is a colourless caustic solid. calcium hydroxide in a very vehement exothermic reaction. ceramic industry and in manufacturing of cement. Ca + 2 H20 = Ca2+ + 2 OH" + H2 Mg + 2 H20 == MgiOH^ + H2 Calcium compounds Calcium oxide (CaO). which is an indispensable material for the building industry. it is a colourless water insoluble crystalline substance. in pearl and in scale. at an elevated temperature the reaction is faster. in bones. By dissolving copper(ll)sulphate (CuS04 • 5 H20) in lime water Bordeaux mixture forms having fungicide effect used as a fungicide spray in agriculture. snails and corals. Calcium hydroxide. CaC03 ====== CaO + C02 (~8-900°C. In the laboratory practice the saturated solution of Ca(OH)2 is used to detect carbon dioxide: Ca(OH)2 + C02 = CaCOq + H20 (a base reacts with an acid anhydride) The same reaction happens at the hardening of lime and mortar (mixture of lime and sand). Thermal decomposition of limestone (calcium carbonate) yields slaked lime. Ca(OH)2. In addition it is widespread in the teeth. Lime water is a corrosive. Calcium reacts with water vigorously. in egg-shell.Metallic magnesium is applied as a reducing agent. Metallic calcium has an importance in the preparation of anhydrous organic solvents. it destroys the tissues. lime burning) Acids dissolve it releasing carbon dioxide. CaCQ3 + 2 H+ = Ca2+ + H20 + C02 (strong acid liberates the weaker one from its salt) . caustic agent. With water it yields the corresponding base. Calcium carbonate is the main component of solid skeleton of shells. Calcium carbonate (CaC03) occurs in nature as a mineral. its aqueous solution is the lime water) is a strong base with low water solubility. while magnesium reacts only slowly at ambient temperature. manufacturing of paper and steel. in the organic chemical practice it is used to prepare organometallic compounds.

Calcium carbonate is also applied to neutralize the excess of gastric acid. CaCQ3 + H2C03 ===== Ca2+ + 2 HC03" . Calcium carbonate also dissolves in carbonic acid forming calcium hydrogen carbonate. in the household the most widely used scale removing agents contain phosphoric or citric acid.This is the theoretical base of the scaling.

The temporary hardness of natural waters is bought about by their calcium hydrogencarbonate and magnesium hydrogencarbonate content. Magnesium compounds The magnesium oxide or magnesia (MgO) is a colourless powder. in dentistry for mounting casts and in addition for making statues. On heating hard water the equilibrium above is shifted to the left.In this way carbon dioxide containing ground water can excavate holes and caves in the limestone mountains. i. It reacts with the carbon dioxide content of the air yielding magnesium carbonate. the traditional soaps also form a scum. mouldings. 2 CaS04 • J4 H20 + 3 H20 = 2 CaS04 • 2 H20 It is applied in surgery for plaster casts. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is a colourless crystalline water-soluble compound. insoluble calcium carbonate (limescale) forms. On heating it yields a derivative. gypsum or alabaster is a colourless crystalline water insoluble mineral. . This process has a role in the formation of stalagmites and stalactites. Ca(HC03)2 ===== CaCO. In winter streets it is applied as an defrosting agent harmless to the environment. It is used as a desiccant for drying liquids and gases (see Drying p. in addition athletes apply it as a grip improving agent. insoluble in water. They play important role in the organism as components of the bone. This substance when mixed with water liberates heat and then hardens.e. fur) forms. calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaS04 • 1/4H20) containing half mole of crystalline water.13. + H20 + C02 The permanent hardness of waters arises from other dissolved calcium and magnesium salts (chlorides. but it is less appropriate for household and industrial purposes: on heating precipitate (scale. Though drinking of hard water (till 30 German degrees*) physiologically is preferable. Calcium sulphate (CaS04 • 2 H20). as well as mixed with ice it forms freezing mixtures (the CaCl2-ice mixture has as low temperature as -50°C). baby powders and antacids. Special mortars also contain plaster (CaS04 • 34 H20). sulphates) that can not be broken down by heating. MgO + C02 = MgC03 (reaction of a base anhydride with an acid anhydride) MgO is an ingredient of tooth-pastes. The calcium phosphates are not soluble in water. precipitate with calcium ions without cleaning activity.). while in the chromatographic practice it is used as a basic stationary phase.

.78 ■ 10"2 mmol Ca2+ and/or Mg2+-ion). 1 GD° hardness of water means the amount of calcium or magnesium salts in 100 g water equivalent with 1 mg of CaO (i.The water hardness is expressed in German degrees (GD°). it contains 1.e.

the isotope is a (B-emitter causing bone sarcoma. It serves as a starting material for the preparation of the other magnesium compounds. Calcium ion plays a vital role in several physiological processes.g. It can reduce the cramps. it has a similar application. The majority of calcium of the body is deposited in the bones or in the teeth as water insoluble hydroxyapatite (Ca5(P04)3OH) or fluorapatite (Ca5(P04)3F). because it is a secondary messenger and activator of several enzymes. Magnesium ion is the constituent of the prosthetic group of chlorophyll playing essential role for the green plants. The water soluble barium compounds are toxic. It can substitute for calcium in bone. Medical. muscle contractions. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the phosphates (e. an important component of mineral waters. Calcium carbonate (CaC03) has a medical role as calcium supplement and antacid. e.g. This solution . The basic magnesium carbonate (3MgC03 • Mg(OH)2 • 3 H20) is a water insoluble powder acting as a base. blood clotting. it has a mild laxative effect.Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) is a water insoluble colourless crystalline material acting as a strong base. see. the 90 Sr is a by-product of nuclear fission of uranium (explosion of uranium bomb). is applied as a laxative in medicine. The toxic effect of beryllium(ll) probably connected to the fact that it replaces magnesium in the magnesium containing enzymes. while magnesium and calcium ions are essential for the living organisms. too. muscle contraction. biological importance of the alkaline earth metals The water soluble compounds of beryllium and barium are toxic.g. Bioinorganic chemistry). Acids dissolve it by releasing carbon dioxide. The water insoluble barium sulphate (BaS04) suspension is used as an X-ray contrast medium (barium-cocktail) of the gastrointestinal system. e. ATP. Magnesium sulphate (bitter salt. Strontium has radioactive isotopes. The magnesium sulphate (MgS04. At an important loss of liquid or at surgical event the so called Ringer solution -in infusion. The alkali and alkaline earth metals ions are excreted from the body through the urine and sweat. In the humans it functions as an activator of enzymes and takes part in the electrolytic balance of the body fluids. MgS04 ■ 7 H20) is a colourless crystalline water soluble salt of bitter taste. bitter salt). Anhydrous magnesium sulphate is applied as a drying agent for liquids. it absorbs X-rays but it is not absorbed from the stomach at all. nucleotides and phosphoproteines. Strontium and its compounds have no chemical and biological importance. therefore it is recommended a higher intake for sportsman and pregnant applied as a supplement of these ions.

.has a physiological osmotic pressure and contains Na+. Ca2+ and Mg2+-ions with chloride and hydrogencarbonate counterions. K+.

For what purposes are calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide applied in the everyday life? 10. Compare the electronegativity. 11. Describe the solubility and the chemical properties of the alkali metal hydroxides. 7. 12. Write equation for the reaction of calcium with water. 13. acid)? Write an equation. Write equation for the reaction of sodium and water. 15. 14. Characterize the reactivity of the s-block elements. ionization energy and atomic radii of the s-block elements. 16. What happens to sodium hydroxide stored in the air? Write the equation. 12. Give the valence shell configuration of the alkali metals. Which alkaline earth metal compounds are applied as antacids (names How does limestone react with carbonic acid? Write an equation. How does calcium carbonate react with the gastric juice (hydrochloric equation. How is it possible to detect the products? 9. Which ions Write equations for the reactions describing the formation and dissolution of Write equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. How is it possible to detect carbon dioxide in the laboratory practice? Write an What kind of reaction occurs.Self-test questions 1. What is and formulas)? are responsible for the temporary hardness of water? limescale. if the mortar hardens? Write an equation. sulphates and carbonates of the s-block metals. Describe of the chemical properties of the s-field elements. Write names and chemical symbols for alkali metals. the practical importance of the product? . Give the valence shell configuration of the alkaline earth metals. Write equation for the reaction of calcium oxide with water. Write names and chemical symbols for alkaline earth metals. Characterize the water solubility of the hydroxides. What kind of forms of calcium carbonate can be found in the nature or in our organism? 13. 6. water solubility hydroxiodes sulphates carbonates alkali metals alkaline earth metals 5. How many valence electrons do they have? 3. 8. How many valence electrons do they have? 2. What is their characteristic oxidation number? 4. Write name and empirical formula for three minerals of calcium and magnesium.

chalk. gypsum. 18. Bordeaux mixture. quick lime. . Give an equation showing its reaction with water.17. What is calcium sulphate hemihydrate applied in the medical practice for? Give the chemical composition of the following substances: lime water.

Only dry-powder estinguisher can be used (burning magnesium reacts with C02/ thus estinguisher with carbon dioxide are not convenient!) Reaction of calcium with water Materials: metallic calcium. distilled water Procedure: Fill half a crystallisation dish of ~25 cm diameter with water and add some drops of Phenolphthalein solution to it. Phenolphthalein solution. kálium-klorid oldat. since it just adds fuel to the fire. strontium chloride and barium chloride solutions. Place the crucible onto a clay triangle supported by an iron tripod (see . 20% hydrochloric acid. Write equation. What do you observe? What is the turbidity caused by? Explain your observations. zinc granules Procedure: Pour 1-1 ml of the corresponding sample into a porcelain crucible and fulfill it almost with 20 % hydrochloric acid solution. Take a small piece (pea size) of sodium and remove sodium oxide coat from it. What kind of conclusions can you draw connected to the density and melting point of sodium? Comments: In case of fire caused by alkali metals water is forbidden to use for firefighting. Place 1-2 granules of zinc into the crucible. Reaction of magnesium with water Materials: magnesium strip. Observe the reaction mixture for some minutes. its situation. calcium chloride.Experiments Reaction of sodium with water (demonstration) Materials: metallic sodium. distilled water. Comments: The reaction is less violent than with sodium or potassium. potassium chloride. Then start heating it on hot plate. Calcium has to be stored not under petroleum only in a well sealed bottle. Flame test with alkali metals and alkaline earth metals Szükséges vegyszerek: nátrium-klorid oldat. When the water is hot enough finish heating and extensively study again the reaction mixture. Phenolphthalein solution Procedure: Fill a beaker to about half with distilled water and add 1-2 drops of Phenolphthalein solution. Drop the shiny piece of sodium into the dish. distilled water. its change in shape. Observe the behaviour of the sodium. What can you observe? Explains your observations. Phenolphthalein solution Procedure: Fill a test tubes to about half with distilled water and add some drops of Phenolphthalein solution and a small piece of calcium (pea size). stroncium-Materials: sodium chloride. write equations. kalcium-klorid oldat. write equation. Burnish a piece of magnesium strip shiny (by sandpaper) and drop it into the beaker.

) The nonluminous flame of the Bunsen burner held horizontally above the intensively bubbling solution.19.figure 5. What do you observe? Observations: Na: K: Ca: Sr: Ba: Mg: .

What do you notice? e. distilled water. write equations. In everyday life sodium lamps of very intense yellow light are used for the night illumination of busy road-crossings. What do you observe? Based on the experiments performed what is your conclusion connected to the composition of the eggshell? State your reason. Into a test-tube pour 2-3 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid solution and place a Hold a piece of marble with tweezers into the darting flame of Bunsen burner piece of marble into it. What do you experience? Why? b. dilute hydrochloric acid Procedure: a. Place a piece of marble into a porcelain dish and pour onto it some water and 2 drops of indicator. Heat a piece of eggshell thoroughly with Bunsen burner. . After cooling place it into a test-tube containing distilled water with one drop of Phenolphthalein. c. distilled water and distilled water with one drop of Phenolphthalein solution. Flame test (The figure was drawn by Sachie Saito 1st year medical student) Comments: Light emitted by excited alkali metal atoms has a characteristic line spectrum. By investigating the spectrum in atomic absorption spectrophotometry the elemental composition of a sample can be established. What do you notice? for 2-3 minutes. respectively. eggshell. To each test-tube add one-one piece of eggshell. d.Figure 5. Cool it down in the air and drop it into a test-tube containing distilled water and add some drops of Phenolphthalein solution to the test-tube. Phenolphthalein solution. Into three test-tube pour small amounts of dilute hydrochloric acid solution. Examination of the composition of egg shell Materials: marble. This is used in sodium lamps (polarimetry). Explain your experiences.21. which can be made monochromatic by appropriate filters.

the procedure is referred to as lime slaking. . Its product .quick lime .Comments: The thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate occurs during limeburning. too.reacts with water affording slaked lime.

Heating of the formed calcium hydrogencarbonate solution yields again calcium carbonate (scale). What can you observe? Give the reacton equation.Reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide Materials: lime water. Comments: The dissolution of limestone and the formation of cave decorations (stalactites and stalagmites) are based on the same principle. Pour 5-6 ml distilled water into a beaker about and introduce into the water carbon dioxide from Kipp's apparatus by a gas inlet tube. b. . What do you observe? Give the reaction equation. Then heat the reaction mixture on a hot plate for 5 minutes and notice the change. How could you clean the beaker? Suppose a reagent with reaction equation. Write equation to each step. Explanation: Calcium hydroxide as a strong base reacts with carbon dioxide (acid anhydride). carbon dioxide (from Kipp's apparatus) Procedure: a. Continue the gas introduction until there is a no more change (~ 2 min). calcium carbonate will be converted to a water soluble compound by the further treatment with carbon dioxide (carbonic acid). The first product.