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Term 1 Definition 1

The ____ __ ___ ______ (___) allies the

Harmonic model to the bass voice
Rule of the Octave (RoO)
generating specific harmonies and
inversions for each note of the scale.

Term 2 Definition 2

The ____ __ ___ ______ (___) is a fixed

harmonization for ascending and
descending scales that dictates Rule of the Octave (RoO)
harmonies and inversions that are to
be used for each degree of the scale.

Term 3 Definition 3

the conclusion or punctuation point in

Cadence a musical phrase; the formula upon
which such a conclusion is based
Term 4 Definition 4

Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC) (also

called authentic, final, full, or closed) Soprano: 7-1 or 2-1
Melodic motion?

Term 5 Definition 5

Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC) (also

Root position V-I
called authentic, final, full, or closed)
Bass: 5-1
Harmonic motion?

Term 6 Definition 6

Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC) (also Reserved for the end of a phrase, a
called authentic, final, full, or closed) period, or the end of a piece. They are
Function? the most conclusive cadence.
Term 7 Definition 7

Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC)

Soprano: 2-3, 4-3, or 5-5.
Melodic motion?

Term 8 Definition 8

V-I or V-i.
Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC)
Most often in root position, but V may
Harmonic motion?
be inverted.

Term 9 Definition 9

Often appear internally in phrase

groups. When scale degrees other
Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC)
than the tonic appear in the soprano
voice, the cadence is less conclusive
than PAC.
Term 10 Definition 10

Half Cadence (HC)

2 or 5 are common at the chord of the
Phrygian Half Cadence
Melodic motion?

Term 11 Definition 11

Any chord leading to the V of the key

Half Cadence (HC)
(x-V). Phrygian half cadence uses iv6-
Phrygian Half Cadence
V in a minor key. Half-step (Bass: b6-5)
Harmonic motion?
gives the cadence its name.

Term 12 Definition 12

HC's appear at the ends of phrases

Half Cadence (HC)
where continuation is implied. They
Phrygian Half Cadence
are inconclusive with respect to the
home key.
Term 13 Definition 13

Plagal Cadence
No specific requirement. Soprano is
often 1.
Melodic motion?

Term 14 Definition 14

Plagal Cadence IV-I or iv-i

(Plagal) Plagal cadences may employ root
Harmonic motion? position or inverted chords

Term 15 Definition 15

Plagal Cadence May embellish the final arrival of the

(Plagal) tonic. "Amen" cadence. Considered
Function? less conclusive than PAC or IAC.
Term 16 Definition 16

Deceptive Cadence (DEC)

Tones of V or V7 resolve as if going to
Sometimes called Interrupted
I except bass 5-6
Melodic motion?

Term 17 Definition 17

V-vi or V-VI
Deceptive Cadence (DEC)
Deceptive resolution of V-vi usually
Sometimes called Interrupted
employs root position chords (Bass:
Harmonic motion?
5-6 or 5-b6)

Term 18 Definition 18

The unexpected resolution from V to

Deceptive Cadence (DEC)
vi/VI gives the cadence its name. DEC
Sometimes called Interrupted
often precede IAC or PAC interrupting
the arrival of the Tonic chord.
Term 19 Definition 19

___ are any authentic cadence (V-I/i)

that does not follow the PAC formula.

Term 20 Definition 20

When the _______ ____ (_) is an outer

voice (soprano or bass) it must always leading tone (7)
be resolved to the tonic (1).

Term 21 Definition 21

_________ and ____ ________ are the Authentic

2 most common cadence types. half cadences
Term 22 Definition 22

In the _________ cadence the

dominant (V) moves to vi instead of I.

Term 23 Definition 23

In practice, the _________ for each

voice is in the middle of the given tessitura
range except for the bass.

Term 24 Definition 24

Voice range for Soprano?

Term 25 Definition 25

Voice range for Alto?

Term 26 Definition 26

Voice range for Tenor?

Term 27 Definition 27

Voice range for Bass?

Term 28 Definition 28

Stems go __ for top voice on each

staff (soprano, tenor).

Term 29 Definition 29

Stems for the bottom voices (alto,

bass) go ____.

Term 30 Definition 30

Distribute the notes of a chord on the

staff so that there is an ______ or less
between adjacent Soprano, Alto, and
Tenor voices.
Term 31 Definition 31

The interval between Bass and Tenor

may exceed an ______.

Term 32 Definition 32

an octave or less between adjacent

Open voicing voices, and more than an octave
between an octave

Term 33 Definition 33

an octave or less between the soprano

Close voicing
and tenor
Term 34 Definition 34

The interval between Bass and Tenor

may exceed an ______.

Term 35 Definition 35

an octave or less between adjacent

Open voicing voices, and more than an octave
between an octave

Term 36 Definition 36

an octave or less between the soprano

Closed voicing
and tenor
Term 37 Definition 37

The interval between the bass and

tenor often exceeds an ______.

Term 38 Definition 38

The interval between the bass and

tenor generally does not exceed ___ two

Term 39 Definition 39

If the interval between adjacent voices

exceeds an ______, whenever
possible re-voice the chord by octave
"switching"chord members between
Term 40 Definition 40

Three types of motion Contrary, parallel/similar. oblique

Term 41 Definition 41

Voices move in opposite directions

(ascending or descending); preferred
Contrary motion
in most cases; in particular between
outer voices (soprano bass)

Term 42 Definition 42

On voices moves against a stationary

note. Used when chords share
Oblique motion
common tones and frequently at
Term 43 Definition 43

When voices move in the same

direction, by the same interval
Similar motion
(parallel); or same direction, by a
different interval (similar).

Term 44 Definition 44

Avoid ________ motion when

approaching or leaving perfect parallel

Term 45 Definition 45

________ (stepwise) motion is

preferred for note-to-note connections Conjunct
in one voice.
Term 46 Definition 46

Parallel perfect octaves, fifths, and

unisons are to be _______.

Term 47 Definition 47

Approach and leave perfect intervals

using ________ motion.

Term 48 Definition 48

Double the ____ voice except when it

is a tendency or chromatically altered bass
Term 49 Definition 49

Double the ____ as an alternate to

doubling the bass.

Term 50 Definition 50

Leading tone, chordal seventh, or a

Tendency tone
chromatically altered tone

Term 51 Definition 51

In four-part writing, avoid ________

one voice over another y keeping
voices in their appropriate ranges, and crossing
avoiding leaps into the register
formerly occupied by another voice.
Term 52 Definition 52

When connecting ______ one to the

next, keep common tones in the same
voice, and move other voices by step
whenever possible.

Term 53 Definition 53

Conjunct smooth

Term 54 Definition 54

Disjunct opposite
Term 55 Definition 55

Consecutive leaps of a _____

(arpeggio) in one voice may be used third

Term 56 Definition 56

Leaps of a ______ or greater must be

followed by a step in the opposite fourth

Term 57 Definition 57

____ motion by ascending

fourth/descending fifth is the most
common harmonic motion in tonal Root
music and all chords in the key can be
related by that interval.
Term 58 Definition 58

keep common tones in the same voice

When connecting triads related by the move other voices by step in contrary
interval of a fifth: motion to the bass if possible
resolve tendency tones

Term 59 Definition 59

keep common tones in the same voice

When connecting triads related by the
move the other voices in contrary
interval of a third:
motion to the bass whenever possible

Term 60 Definition 60

The V7 chord has two tendency tones: the leading tone and the chordal 7th
Term 61 Definition 61

A non-chord tone that passes between

two chord tones connecting them
Passing tone through ascending or descending
motion; can occur on weak or strong

Term 62 Definition 62

A non-chord occurring a step above or

a step below a chord tone whose
resolution is to the same chord tone;
Neighbor tone
may also be referred to as upper or
lower depending on their relationship
to the chord tone they embellish

Term 63 Definition 63

Three stages of realization of
Resolution by step
Term 64 Definition 64

Retardation Upward resolving suspensions

Term 65 Definition 65

Occurs when a melodic line leaps to a

dissonance and resolves by step (in
opposite direction) to a consonant
chord tone

Term 66 Definition 66

Occurs when a line steps to a

Escape tone dissonance and then leaps to a
Term 67 Definition 67

The incidence of a tone before the

arrival of its supporting harmony

Term 68 Definition 68

The _____ pitch is the most common

tone employed as an anticipation.

Term 69 Definition 69

Sometimes the anticipation is an

entire harmony. This is called a rhythmic
________ anticipation.
Term 70 Definition 70

The chordal seventh often arises as a

_______ tone.

Term 71 Definition 71

Criteria for chordal seventh or passing

tone: (1) the roots of the two fifth
harmonies must be separated by a fourth
descending _____, an ascending second
______, or an ascending ______.

Term 72 Definition 72

Criteria for chordal seventh or passing

tone: (2) the chordal seventh must downward
resolve ________.
Term 73 Definition 73

Occurs as the middle chord of a three

Passing 6/4 pitch scalar ascent or descent in the
bass voice

Term 74 Definition 74

Cadential 6/4 Part of an authentic cadence

Term 75 Definition 75

The _______ and _________ 6/4 are

the two most common uses of second
inversion triads.
Term 76 Definition 76

The bass voice is typically the root of

the tonic chord, and the second
Pedal 6/4 inversion IV chord comes about by
raising the 3rd and 5th of the tonic
chord by on step

Term 77 Definition 77

The second inversion triad arises

Arpeggiated 6/4 when the bass voice arpeggiates a