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10/11/2011

Reproduction
Instinct, Pleasure or Emotions
Propagation of a Species

Reproduction
External Female Genitalia

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Reproduction
Significance of hymen

–Imperforate

–Elastic

–Avascular

Reproduction
Internal Female Genitalia

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Reproduction
Internal Female Genitalia

Reproduction
External & Internal Male Genitalia

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Reproduction
Ovulation and Sperm Formation
Female Ovarian Cycle
Ovulation

Follicular Phase Luteal Phase

menses menses
0 14 28

Reproduction
Nature of Egg versus Sperm

– Egg : XX

– Sperm : XY

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Reproduction
Sexual Act Stages:

1. Excitement
2. Plateau
3. Orgasm
4. Resolution

Orgasm

Plateau

Resolution
Excitement

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Reproduction
Clitoral vs. Vaginal Orgasm
G. Spot

Reproduction
Fertilization and Implantation

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Contraception
Past and Present

Contraception: World Population
1830 1 billion

1930 2 billion

1975 4 billion

1999 6 billion

2020 9-12 billion

?

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Hormonal Contraception: History

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Contraceptives
Before the Pill

Contraceptives Before the Pill

Abortion

Sterilization

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Contraceptives Before the Pill
Natural methods:

– Prolonged lactation

– Coitus interuptus

– The safe period

Reproduction
Breast Feeding

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Female Ovarian Cycle
Ovulation

Follicular Phase Luteal Phase

menses menses
0 14 28

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Contraceptives Before the Pill

The Cap & Diaphragm

Intrauterine Devices e.g. Multiload

Condoms for Males

Cervical Diaphragm and Cap

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Intrauterine Devices

Condom

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Contraception

Combination Oral Contraception
(C.O.C.)
Estrogen Plus Progesterone

Contraception

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Oral Contraceptive Use
> 200 million women in the world use or
have used the oral contraceptive pill

Approximately 65 million women in the
world are using the pill

30% of women aged 15-44 years of age
use the pill

Working Mechanism of COCs

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Contraception
Mechanism of action

Estrogen
Progesterone

Day 1 Day 5 Day 25 Day 28

Contraception
Benefits of C.O.C
Most effective and reversible
Decrease blood loss
Decrease pain
Decrease breast disease
Prevent ovarian cyst

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Contraception
Adverse Effects of C.O.C.
Increases risk of hypertension
Increases risk of deep vein thrombosis
Increases risk of myocardial infarction
Increases migraine attacks
Increases water retention (breast engorgement)
Increases pre-exciting diabetes

Contraception
Contraindication to C.O.C.
Hypertension
Diabetes
Smoking
Age above 40
Estrogen dependent cancer
Deep vein thrombosis

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Contraception
Effect of C.O.C.
on reproduction

Truth or Fiction

Pearl Index of Different Methods
PI
Coitus interuptus 16-23
 No method 80-90
 Fertility awareness techniques 2-24
Condom 3-10
IUD 0.5-4
POP 0.7-4
COC 0.1-1
 Sterilization 0.04-0.15

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