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O rd e r N u m b e r 9305302

Ornamentation in the music o f J. S. Bach: A study of formal
design, m otivic continuity, and aesthetic value

Lewis, Gary Wayne, D.M.A.
University of Oregon, 1992

Copyright ©1992 by Lewis, Gary Wayne. All rights reserved.

UMI
300 N. Zeeb Rd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48106

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ORNAMENTATION IN THE MUSIC OF J. S. BACH:
A STUDY OF FORMAL DESIGN, MOTIVIC
CONTINUITY, AND AESTHETIC VALUE

by
GARY WAYNE LEWIS

A DISSERTATION
Presented to the School of Music
and the Graduate School of the University of Oregon
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Doctor of Musical Arts

August 1992

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ii

APPROVED:
Dr. Richard Trommey

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© 1992 Gary Wayne Lewis

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An Abstract of the Dissertation of
Gary Wayne Lewis for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts
in the School of Music to be taken August 1992
Title: ORNAMENTATION IN THE MUSIC OF J. S. BACH: A STUDY
OF FORMAL DESIGN, MOTIVIC CONTINUITY, AND
AESTHETIC VALUE

A pproved:
Dr. Richard Trombley

There has been much written about the use o f specific ornaments
in the music of J. S. Bach, and a few writers have discussed Bach's use
of free ornamentation. There remains, however, a need for a better
explanation of the way in which his embellishments function as a
significant and integral part of a movement, and of their exceptionally
high aesthetic quality. This paper identifies and investigates many of
the elements which make Bach's ornamentations exceptional, and
which allow his ornamentations to function as an integral part of a
movement rather than as mere embellishment.
Material for analysis has been selected from instrumental slow
movements. In each ornamentation the rhythmic density, rhythmic
complexity, and placement of specific ornaments has been analyzed to
identify relationships between these elem ents and the formal design of
the movement. Material from these analyses are presented in the
format of a graph. Motivic relationships within an ornamentation, and

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V

between the ornamentation and the fundamental material of the
movement, have been analyzed and presented using the format of tables
and time-lines. Ornamental contributions to the aesthetic value of a
movement have been investigated using concepts derived from the works
of Beardsley, Meyer, and Donington. The results of the preceding
analyses were then reinterpreted in terms of their aesthetic
im plications.
It w as found that a significant number of Bach's ornamentations
exhibit some or all of the following attributes: (1) a strong sense of
continuity generated by the reuse of ornamental material; (2) a high
level of complexity generated by the alteration of, and the unexpected
reappearance of, ornamental motives; (3) an enhanced sense of style or
affect created by the use of a homogeneous and carefully chosen body of
ornamental material and; (4) an enhanced sense of overall unity
generated by a use of ornamental rhythmic density and rhythmic
complexity which parallels the formal structure of the movement. It
has been concluded that many of Bach's ornamentations do not simply
embellish a melody, but actually contribute significantly to the
substance, effectiveness, and overall aesthetic value of a movement.

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VITA

NAME OF AUTHOR: Gary Wayne Lewis
PLACE OF BIRTH: Santa Clara, California
DATE OF BIRTH: February 15,1960

GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE SCHOOLS ATTENDED:
University of Oregon
University of California at Santa Barbara

DEGREES AWARDED:

Doctor of Musical Arts, 1992, University of Oregon
Master of Musical Arts, 1984, University of Oregon
Bachelor of Musical Arts, 1983, University of Oregon
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering, 1981, University of
California at Santa Barbara

AREAS OF SPECIAL INTEREST:
Flute Performance
Music H istoiy
Flute Construction

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:

Teaching Assistant and Instructor, School of Music, University of
Oregon, Eugene, 1992

Teaching Assistant in Music Analysis and Music History, School of
Music, University of Oregon, Eugene, 1984-86

Principal Flute, Eugene Opera, Eugene, 1984-86.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Page

I. BACH'S STYLE OF INSTRUMENTAL
ORNAMENTATION: ITS PRECURSORS AND
DEVELOPMENT............................................................................1

Introduction...............................................................................1
German F a c to r s........................................................................2
Introduction.........................................................................2
The North German S c h o o l................................................3
The South German S c h o o l..............................................13
The Central German S c h o o l...........................................18
French F a cto r s........................................................................ 21
Introduction.................................................................. 21
The Development of A g re m e n ts.................................... 23
The French Harpsichord School of the Seventeenth
and Early Eighteenth C en tu ries....................... 27
The French Organ School of the Seventeenth
and Early Eighteenth C en tu ries....................... 34
The Orchestral Style of L u lly .................................... 34
Italian F a c to r s........................................................................ 35
Introduction.................................................................. 35
The Bologna School: Corelli and T o r e lli......................36
The Venetian School: Albinoni, Vivaldi,
and the M arcellos................................................. 37
B on porti..............................................................................41
Transmission to Germany: P is e n d e l............................42
The Development of Bach's Style of Instrumental
O rnam entation............................................................46
Introduction.................................................................. 46
E ise n a c h ........................................................................ 46
Ohrdruf: Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721) . . . 47
Liineburg: Georg B o h m ................................................... 50
Hamburg: R e in k e n ...........................................................53
Arnstadt: Mo and A B B .................................................... 55
Liibeck: B u xteh u d e.......................................................... 57
Organ Works after French and North German
M a ste r s............................................................... 59

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viii

Italian Trio sonatas and Reinken's H ortus
m u s ic u s................................................................... 62
Weimar: Johann Gottfried W a lth e r ..............................64
French A g re m e n ts............................................................ 66
Italian Concerto A rran gem ents.....................................69
Dresden: P ise n d e l............................................................. 89

II. FORMAL D E S IG N .................................................................. 92

The Enhancement of Structure Through
O rnam entation............................................................ 92
The Need for Formal D e s ig n .......................................... 92
The Purpose of O rnam entation..................................... 93
The Classification of Bach's Ornamentations . . . 94
Elements of Ornamentation which Enhance Formal
D e s ig n ............................................................................96
Introduction................................................................... 96
Rhythmic D e n s ity ......................................................... 98
Rhythmic C om plexity.....................................................103
Specific O rn am en ts.........................................................108
E x a m p les.......................................................................... I l l
C onclusions...................................................................... 173

III. MOTIVIC CONTINUITY.......................................................... 176

An Economic Approach to O rnam entation.....................176
Introduction......................................................................176
E xam p les...........................................................................179

IV . AESTHETIC V A L U E .................................................................216

Introduction........................................................................... 216
Aesthetics and the Music of B a c h ............................... 216
A Theory of Aesthetic V a lu e ...............................................217
A Definition of Aesthetic V a lu e ................................... 217
Content and M ea n in g .................................................... 220
Meaning and Aesthetic V a lu e ......................................225
The Enhancement of Aesthetic Value Through
O rnam entation...................................................... 227
Introduction..................................................................... 227
Aesthetics and Formal D e s ig n .....................................227
Aesthetics and Motivic C on tin u ity..............................230
Aesthetic Value in Bach's O rnam entations...................232
Introduction..................................................................... 232
Examples R ev isited ........................................................ 237
Vivaldi and B a c h .............................................................245

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ABBREVIATIONS 249

APPENDIX A CATALOG OF MUSIC KNOWN OR POSSIBLY
KNOWN TO B A C H ........................................................ 253

Music Known to B a c h ..................................................... 253
Music Owned by B a c h .............................................. 253
French Music in Bach's H a n d ..................................... 253
Italian Music in Bach's H a n d ...................................... 254
German Music in Bach's H a n d ................................... 256
Anonymous Music in Bach's H a n d .............................258
French Music Used by B a c h .........................................259
Italian Music Used by B a c h ......................................... 259
German Music Used by B a c h .................................. 262
Music Possibfy Known to B a c h ..................................... 263
French Music Possibly Known to B a c h ..................... 263
Italian Music Possibly Known to B a c h ................. 265
German Music Possibly Known to B a c h ................... 267
Tables of Ornamentations Known, or
Possibly Known, to B a c h ................................... 280
Free Ornamentations Known, or Possibly
Known, to B a c h ................................................... 282
Additional Information Regarding Music
Known, or Possibly Known, to Bach . . . . 284
The Eckelt Tabulature Book of 1692 .......................... 291
Chorale Preludes from Walther's Collection . . . 293

B IB L IO G R A P H Y ................................................................................................. 304

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X

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1. Significant French Tables of Agrements of the
Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth C en tu ries..................27

2. Selected German Tables of Agrem ents and German
Copies of French Tables of Agrements from the Late
Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth C en tu ries..................09

3. Concerto Arrangements by B a c h .............................................. 75

4. Categories of O rnam ents................................................... 110

5. Material and C on tex t......................................................... 178

6. Contributions to Aesthetic V a lu e ...................................... 229

7. Aesthetic Contributions of Material and Context . . . 231

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

1. German Predecessors to and Influences upon J. S. Bach . . 3

2. Selected Lute and Keyboard Composers of Seventeenth-
and Eighteenth-Century F r a n c e ............................................... 22

3. Structural Ornamentation (from Example 2, p. 96) . . . . 101

4. Static Ornamentation (from Example 3, p. 9 4 ) ..........................102

5. Static Ornamentation (from Example 4, p. 9 4 ) ..........................102

6. Alternating Ornamentation (from Example 5, p. 95) . . . . 102

7. Rhythmic Density (Above) and Rhythmic Complexity
(Below) for the Adagio of the Oboe Concerto in C minor
by Alessandro M arcello............................................................. 118

8. Rhythmic Density (Above) and Rhythmic Complexity
(Below) for the Adagio of Harpsichord Concerto No. 3
in D minor (BWV 974) by J. S. B a c h .......................................119

9. A Simplified View of Rhythmic Density (Above) and
Rhythmic Complexity (Below) for the Adagio of
Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in D minor (BWV 974) by
J. S. B a c h ......................................................................................120

10. Rhythmic Density (Above) and Rhythmic Complexity
(Below) for the Largo of Violin Concerto in G minor
(RV 316a) by V iv a ld i.................................................................. 129

11. Rhythmic Density (Above) and Rhythmic Complexity
(Below) for the Largo of Harpsichord Concerto No. 4
in G minor (BWV 975) by J. S. B a c h .......................................130

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12. A Simplified View of Rhythmic Density (Above) and
Rhythmic Complexity (Below) for the Largo of
Harpsichord Concerto No. 4 in G minor (BWV 975)
by J. S. B a c h .................................................................................131

13. Rhythmic Density (Above) and Rhythmic Complexity
(Below) for the Sarabande of the "English" Suite
No. 2 in A minor, (BWV 807), by J. S. Bach. The
Upper Graph is Derived from the Simple Version
and the Lower Graph is Derived from the
Ornamented V e r s io n ..................................................................139

14. A Simplified View of Rhythmic Density (Above) and
Rhythmic Complexity (Below) for the Ornamented
Version of the Sarabande of the "English" Suite
No. 2 in A minor, (BWV 807), by J. S. B a c h ..........................140

15. Rhythmic Density (Above) and Rhythmic Complexity
(Below) for the Sarabande of the Partita No. 4
in D major, (BWV 828), by J. S. B a c h .....................................148

16. A Simplified View of Rhythmic Density (Above) and
Rhythmic Complexity (Below) for the Sarabande of
the Partita No. 4 in D major, (BWV 828), by J. S. Bach . . 149

17. Rhythmic Density (Above) and Rhythmic Complexity
(Below) for the Andante of the Concerto nach
italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971),
by J. S. B a c h ................................................................................ 159

18. A Simplified View of Rhythmic Density (Above) and
Rhythmic Complexity (Below) for the Andante of the
Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major
(BWV 971), by J. S. B a c h ........................................................... 160

19. Rhythmic Density (Above) and Rhythmic Complexity
(Below) for the Sinfonia (Adagio) for Oboe and Strings
from Ich steh m it einem Fuss im Grabe (BWV 156)
and the Largo of Harpsichord Concerto in F minor
(BWV 1056), by Bach. Left Column: BWV 156. Right
Column: BWV 1056 .................................................................. 169

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20. A Simplified View of Rhythmic Density (Above)
and Rhythmic Complexity (Below) for the Largo
of Harpsichord Concerto in F minor (BWV 1056),
by J. S. B a c h ................................................................................ 170

21. Ornamental Motives in the Largo of the Harpsichord
Concerto No. 4 in G minor (BWV 975), by J. S. Bach . . . 185

22. Recurring Ornamental Motives in the Grave of the
Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003),
by J. S. B a c h ................................................................................ 193

23. Five Primary Recurring Motives in the Grave of the
Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003),
by J. S. B a c h ................................................................................ 194

24. Types of Recurring Motives in the Grave of the
Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003),
by J. S. B a c h ................................................................................ 195

25. Occurrences of Motives A, B, C, E, and I in the
Sarabande of the Partita No. 4 in D major
(BWV 828), by J. S. B a c h .......................................................... 198

26. Occurrences of motives D, E, F, G, H, and I in
the Sarabande of the Partita No. 4 in D major
(BWV 828), by J. S. B a c h ...........................................................199

27. Recurring Motives in the Largo e dolce (Siciliano)
of the Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord
in B minor (BWV 1030), by J. S. B a c h ................................... 206

28. Types of Recurrence in the Largo e dolce (Siciliano)
of the Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord
in B minor (BWV 1030), by J. S. B a c h ................................... 207

29. Recurring Motives in the Andante of the
Concerto nach italianischen Gusto
in F major (BWV 971), by J. S. B a c h ......................................212

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xiv

LIST OF EXAMPLES

Example Page

1. Georg Bohm, Praeludium in G minor, Bars 85-92 ................... 11

2. Type 1, Structural. Harpsichord Concerto No. 3
in D minor (BWV 974), A d a g io ..................................................95

3. Type 2a, Static-Consistent. Violin Concerto
in A minor (BWV 1041), A n d a n te........................................ 95

4. Type 2b, Static-Varied. Violin Concerto in E major
(BWV 1042), A d a g io .....................................................................95

5. Type 3, Alternating. Violin Sonata in E major
(BWV 1016), A d a g io .....................................................................96

6. Rhythmic Density C alculation........................................................99

7. Rhythmic Complexity C alculation............................................... 107

8. Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in D minor,
(BWV 974), Adagio, by J. S. Bach (Above),
and Oboe Concerto in C minor, Adagio,
by A. Marcello, Transposed to D minor (B e lo w )..................112

9. Fully Realized Specific Ornaments for the Adagio of
the Oboe Concerto in C minor by Alessandro Marcello . 116

10. Melody of the Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in D minor,
BWV 974, Adagio, with Ornaments Fully Realized . . . 117

11. Upper Melody and Bass from the Harpsichord
Concerto No. 4 in G minor, (BWV 975), Largo, by
J. S. Bach. Lower Melody from the Violin Concerto
in G minor, (RV 316a), Largo, by V iv a ld i............................. 124

12. Fully Realized Specific Ornaments from the Largo of
Vivaldi's Concerto for Violin in G minor, RV 316a . . . 127

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XV

13. Melodic Line with Fully Realized Specific Ornaments
from the Largo of J. S. Bach's Concerto for
Harpsichord in G minor, BWV 975 ..................................... 127

14. Ornamented, Simple, and Reduced Melody and Bass
from the Sarabande of the "English" Suite No. 2
in A minor, (BWV 807), by J. S. B a c h .................................... 135

15. Fully Realized Specific Ornaments from the Simple
Version of the Sarabande of the "English" Suite No. 2
in A minor, (BWV 807), by J. S. B a c h .................................... 137

16. Fully Realized Specific Ornaments from the
Ornamented Version of the Sarabande of the "English"
Suite No. 2 in A minor, (BWV 807), by J. S. B a c h ............... 137

17. Partita No. 4 in D major, (BWV 828), Sarabande,
by J. S. Bach. Original Melody (Above) and
Reduced Melody (B elo w )........................................................... 143

18. Fully Realized Specific Ornaments for the Sarabande of
the Partita No. 4 in D major, (BWV 828), by J. S. Bach . . 147

19. Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major
(BWV 971), Andante, by J. S. Bach. Original
Melody (Above) and Reduced Melody (B elo w )...................... 153

20. Fully Realized Specific Ornaments for the Andante
of the Concerto nach italidnischen Gusto
in F major (BWV 971), by J. S. B a c h ...................................... 158

21. Harpsichord Concerto in F minor (BWV 1056),
Largo, by J. S. Bach (Top Voice). Sinfonia (Adagio)
for Oboe and Strings from Ich steh m it einem Fuss
im Grabe (BWV 156), Transposed from F Major
to Ab Major, by J. S. Bach (Second Voice). Reduced
Fundamental Melody (Third V o ic e )........................................164

22. Fully Realized Specific Ornaments for the Melody
of the Sinfonia (Adagio) for Oboe and Strings from
Ich steh m it einem Fuss im Grabe (BWV 156)
by J. S. B a c h ................................................................................ 167

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xvi

23. Melody with Fully Realized Specific Ornaments
for the Largo of Harpsichord Concerto in F minor
(BWV 1056), by J. S. B a c h .................................................... 168

24. Recurring Motives Common to the Slow Movements
of BWV 977, 973, and 975 ....................................................... 180

25. Harpsichord Concerto No. 6 in C major (BWV 977),
Adagio, by J. S. B a c h ..................................................................181

26. Bach, Harpsichord Concerto No. 2 in G major
(BWV 973), Largo (Upper Voice and Bass).
Vivaldi, Violin Concerto in G major (RV 299),
Largo, cantabile (Lower M elod y)......................................... 183

27. Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003),
Grave, by J. S. Bach. Original Melody (Top Voice),
Reduced Melody (Middle Voice), and Multiple Stops
(Bottom V o ic e )............................................................................. 187

28. Recurrences of Motivic Material in the Grave
of the Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin
(BWV 1003), by J. S. B a c h .................................................... 190

29. Three Primary Motives from the Sarabande of the
Partita No. 4 in D major (BWV 828), by J. S. Bach . . . . 198

30. Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord in B minor
(BWV 1030), Largo e dolce (Siciliano), by J. S. Bach.
Original and Reduced Melody (Upper Voices), 202
and Obbligato Harpsichord (Lower V o ic e s).........................

31. Four Primary Motives in the Largo e dolce (Siciliano)
of the Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord in B minor
(BWV 1030), by J. S. B a c h .................................................... 205

32. Recurrences of Motivic Material in the Andante
of the Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major
(BWV 971), by J. S. B a c h ...........................................................210

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1

CHAPTER I

BACH'S STYLE OF INSTRUMENTAL ORNAMENTATION:
ITS PRECURSORS AND DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

The term ornamentation may be used to describe virtually any type of
embellishment, whether improvised, indicated by a sign, or fully notated.
Baroque instrumental ornamentation includes the following:
1. French agrem ents {i.e., specific ornaments indicated by a sign).

2. Renaissance-style Italian diminution {i.e., improvisatory, and
often unnotated, passage work between the primary notes of an
existing melody).

3. Baroque-style Italian free ornamentation {i.e., improvisatory, and
often unnotated, additions and alterations to an existing melody).
4. Compositions in the style of Italian free ornamentation (in which
an underlying, fundamental melody is merely implied).
5. Variations in the style of the English virginalists {i.e., patterned
figurations over an existing melody or harmonic progression).
6. Variations on a chorale melody in the style of the German
organists.

7. Preludes, toccatas, and fantasias {i.e., improvisatory and often
unmeasured works).
The present study will focus on Bach's fully-notated instrumental
ornamentations of types three and four above. The majority of Bach's
works in the style of Italian free ornamentation are not based on a pre­
existing melody. Furthermore, there is no clear separation between

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2

embellishment and composition in these works (as in his ornamentations
of an existing melody). The character of these embellishments is so similar
to Bach's free ornamentations on a pre-existing melody that both types may
be considered as Italian free ornamentation in full notation. Various
schools of composition and types of ornamentation which may have
influenced Bach's style will be considered in the following chapter.

German Factors

Introduction

The following section will serve to introduce the primary
seventeenth- and eighteenth-century German predecessors to Bach's style
of ornamentation. These composers may be grouped into three general
categories by their location in north, central, or southern Germany. Each
of these areas maintained its own school of composition but was also
influenced by popular composers from nearby France and Italy: countries
whose progressive fashions were often imitated in the courts of Germany.
This amalgamation of foreign influences by German composers
contributed significantly to the development of German musical style
during this period. Figure 1 below summarizes the essential pattern of
potential influences within seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century
Germany. The fact that these influences appear to converge upon Bach is
largely a by-product of the focus of this discussion.

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3

Germany
South Central North
(Amsterdam)

England —

(Rome) S. S cheirtt
Frescobaldi (1576-1654)
(1583-1643) Scheidemann
(1595-1663)
France
( 1 6 1 6 -1 6 67 ) ! ' Reinken
(1623-1722)
| Kcrll I]
l(1627-1693)r
P achelbel
(1653-1706)
B JL hm — France
(1661-1733)
Bruhns
France J. C _ F. FisctLgrl Johann Christoph Bach
(c. 1670- 1746) I ( 1 6 7 1 - 1 7 2 1 ) ________
(16 6 5 - 1 6 9 7)

J. S. Bach
(1685-1750)

FIGURE 1. German predecessors to and potential influences upon J. S.
Bach.

The North German School

Sweelinck of Amsterdam

German organists and composers of the early seventeenth century
were particularly influenced by two powerful foreign composers whose
careers bridged Renaissance and Baroque styles: Jan Pieterszoon
Sweelinck (1562-1621) of the Netherlands, and Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-
1643) of Italy. It is only natural that Sweelinck's influence was felt most

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4

heavily in northern Germany and that Frescobaldi's influence was felt
most heavily in southern Germany.
Sweelinck, of Amsterdam, was renowned for both his organ and
harpsichord improvisations and for his teaching. His reputation attracted
many students from Germany, including the founders of the north
German organ school. His compositions, which were widely circulated by
his students, reflect a thorough knowledge of both English and Italian
styles. Sweelinck's variations on secular tunes, such as his Balletto del
granduca,1 are clearly indebted to the variation form of the English
virginalists, and his variations of psalm tunes and chorales combine this
technique with the austerity of the Reformed Church.2 His fantasias and
toccatas, on the other hand, reflect the Italian influence of Andrea Gabrieli
and Claudio Merulo.3
Sweelinck adopted much of the virtuoso figuration of the Italians and
the English virginalists; his keyboard music often contains extended
passages of virtuoso divisions, and even long trills fully notated in
sixteenths or thirty-seconds, in which it is clear that little, if anything, has

1 Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Werken voor orgel en clavicimbel ed. by Max SeifFert,
2nd, enlarged edn., 1943 reprinted and enlarged as Works for Organ and Keyboard
(Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc. 1985), p. 237-9.

2 These chorales marked the beginning of the chorale variation genre, a type of chorale
prelude used by central and north German organists (including Samuel Scheidt, Georg
Bohm, Pachelbel, Buxtehude and Bach) throughout the Baroque period.

3 These fantasias are generally extended monothematic fugues whose craftsmanship
and formal clarity have been considered second only to the fugues of Bach. See Manfred F.
Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1947), p. 77.

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been left to the performer's invention.4 Sweelinck apparently preferred the
Italian tradition of fully notating divisions to the shorthand symbols of the
English virginalists.

Scheidem ann

Heinrich Scheidemann (cl595-1663), who studied with Sweelinck
from November 1611 until November 1614 and later succeeded his father as
organist at St. Catherine's in Hamburg, is considered to be a founder and
one of the greatest early members of the north German organ school.5
Scheidemann's style is founded upon that of Sweelinck, but his works
exploit the contrasting tonal capabilities of the new German Baroque organ
more fully. Scheidemann added two important forms: the monodic organ
chorale (similar in texture to the solo song with continuo) and the chorale
fantasia. H is fantasia on Jesus Christus, unser Heiland6 is an example of
this large, rhapsodic, musically sophisticated, and virtuosic type of organ
chorale (or chorale prelude) which was later developed by Buxtehude,
Liibeck, Bruhns, and Reinken. Scheidemann also developed the

4 See, for example, the last bars of Sweelinck's secular variations on "Soil es sein" (in
the Dover edn., p. 230), or the sequenced long trills of bars 57-61 of his Ionian toccata (p. 117-
9 of the same collection).

5 Werner Breig, "Scheidemann, Heinrich," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980), XVI, 601-2.

6 Heinrich Scheidemann, Orgelwerke, Bd. I, ed. by Gustav Fock, (Kassel: Barenreiter,
1967), p. 64-73.

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Preambulum, a short improvisatory fantasy which makes use of either a
fugal or an imitative middle section.7
Although Scheidemann’s music appears to be fully notated, his
music rarely exhibits the virtuosic divisions and written-out trills of
Sweelinck. His Toccata in G major, WV 43, may be his most extended and
virtuosic composition, employing melismatic flourishes of sixteenth notes
over pedal chords. In spite of the virtuosic appearance of these passages
they remain essentially linear and rhythmically static, and contain little of
the rhythmic variety and keyboard virtuosity of Sweelinck. This approach
to ornamentation reflects Scheidemann's general movement away from
keyboard oriented figuration towards a more lyrical, vocally inspired style
of embellishment which was further developed by Buxtehude.8

Reinken

Johann Adam Reinken (1623-1722) began his study with
Scheidemann in 1654; in 1658 Reinken became his assistant and in 1663
succeeded him as organist at St. Catherine's church. Reinken was greatly
respected as a performer and contributed to the development of the

7 Some of these works approach the later form of prelude and fugue by employing a
lengthy fugal middle section and a very short concluding, non-fugal section. A
particularly good example of this type is the Preambulum in D minor, WV 41 in which a 22-
bar opening section and a 47-bar fugal middle section, employing a chromatic
countersubject, are followed by a brief 4-bar concluding section. This work is in Heinrich
Scheidemann, Orgelwerke, vol. Ill, ed. by Werner Breig, (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1971), p.
24-26.

8 Robert Marshall, “Chorale settings," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) IV, 332. This is particularly evident in his monodic
chorales, such as the second verse of Erbarm dich mein, o Herr Gott [in Heinrich
Scheidemann, Orgelwerke, Bd. I, ed. by Gustav Fock, (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1967), p. 22-
24],

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distinctly north German virtuosic chorale fantasia.9 Reinken's music
reflects both the lyricism of Scheidemann and the keyboard figuration of
Sweelinck. His melodic qualities may be seen in some of the slow
movements of his Hortus musicus ,10 and some of the monodic sections of
his chorale fantasia An Wasserfliissen Babylon. His virtuosic keyboard
figurations are evident in his Toccata in G major,11 and much of An
Wasserfliissen Babylon. Reinken's organ works, and most of his keyboard
variations, appear to leave little or nothing to the performer's invention.12
Reinken's suites for keyboard and the sonatas of his Hortus musicus
are works from outside of the north German organ tradition, and reflect a
different approach to ornamentation. The slow movements and sarabandes
of these works clearly require additional ornamentation from the
performer, as is exemplified by Bach's reworkings.13

9 His 327-bar chorale fantasia An Wasserfliissen Babylon (in Joh. Adam Reincken:
Samtliche Orgelwerke, ed. by Klaus Beckmann, (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1974) p.
4-21.) has been called "a compendium of the compositional and performing techniques of
the north German organ school, a fine work in its own right and a memorial to Reinken’s
powers of execution" by G. B. Sharp. See Sharp's article, "Reincken, Johann Adam" in
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) XV, 717.

10 Johann Adam Reinken, Hortus musicus (Hamburg, 1687), 6 suites for 2 violins, viola
da gamba, and basso continuo.

11 Johann Adam Reinken, Toccata in G major, in Samtliche Orgelwerke ed. by Klaus
Beckmann (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1974), p. 38-44.

12 As with Sweelinck and S. Scheidt, Reinken often fully notates the trills in his organ
compositions, and may even employ the trill as a motivic device, as may be seen in the
trills of the first bars of his Toccata in G major, or the trill motive in bars 179-180 and bar
191 of An Wasserfliissen Babylon.

13 Compare, for example, the opening of the Adagio of the first sonata from Hortus
musicus (reprinted in Spitta, Johann Sebastian Bach, III, 36G-7) with Bach's transcription,
BWV 965.

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Buxtehude

Dieterich Buxtehude (el637-1707), organist at St. Mary's Church in
Lubeck from 1668-1707, was one of the most important figures of the north
German organ school. His training probably included study with
Scheidemann in Hamburg during the years 1654-57 when Reinken was also
a Scheidemann pupil.14 Buxtehude's output includes a variety of keyboard
works, of which the highly individualistic chorale preludes are the most
progressive. These short, lyrical, settings of a single stanza of a chorale
employ the solo texture of Scheidemann's chorale monodies and have been
likened to Buxtehude's vocal arias.15 Buxtehude's chorale variations
continue the tradition of Sweelinck and S. Scheidt, and his chorale
fantasias continue the tradition established by Scheidemann.16
Buxtehude's organ works almost always appear to be fully notated, with
little or nothing left to the invention of the performer. Full, varied, and
generally melodic ornamentations, including the occasional use of French
agrements, often appear in his chorale fantasias and free preludes.17

14 Kerala J. Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, (New York: Schirmer Books, 1987), p. 25-6.

15 Kerala Johnson Snyder, "Buxtehude, Dietrich," in The New Grove Dictionary of
Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980), III, 531. The lyrical nature of these
ornamentations may be seen in the opening five bars of the chorale prelude Voter unser in
Himmelreich, BuxWV 219, or the opening 29 bars of the chorale prelude Durch Adams Fall
ist ganz verderbt, BuxWV 183. Printed in Dietrich Buxtehude: Organ works, a new edn. of
Dietrich Buxtehude: Werke fur Orgel, ed. by Spitta and Seiffert, 1903-4, (Dover
Publications Inc., 1988).

16 Robert Marshall, "Chorale settings," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980), IV, 333.

17 Full and varied ornamentations may be seen in portions of his Prelude in A, BuxWV
151, and his chorale fantasia Te Deum laudamus, BuxWV 218. The BuxWV 151 example
is particularly interesting as the lyrical ornamentation of bars 62-3 is abruptly

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Buxtehude was probably familiar with the music of Froberger and
Frescobaldi, and sometimes displays the latter composer's interest in
motivic relationships. A particularly striking example of thematic
transformation may be seen between the themes of the two fugues of
Buxtehude's Praeludium in G minor, BuxWV 149, in which the pitches are
rearranged as the rhythm is altered to produce a new and stronger
them e.18 Buxtehude's interest in ostinato forms is another indication of his
familiarity with the southern repertoire.19
As with the suites and sonatas of Reinken, Buxtehude's keyboard
suites and chamber sonatas are from outside of the north German organ
tradition and often reflect a different approach to ornamentation. With the
exception of the suites BuxWV 229 and BuxWV 240,20 which employ a
number of agrements, the sarabandes of the keyboard suites appear to
require additional ornamentation.21 Several of the chamber sonatas for
violin, gamba, and cembalo {e.g., BuxWV 253) contain slow movements

discontinued in a fashion which suggests that the performer was expected to maintain the
ornamentation through improvisation in a similar style. See Snyder, Dieterich
Buxtehude, p. 291-3. Modern edn. in Dietrich Buxtehude: Organ works, (Dover, 1988).

18 Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 243-5. Another example of motivic relationships
noted by Snyder is the derivation of the Ciaccona theme of the Praeludium in G minor,
BuxWV 148, from the development of the subject of the second fugue (which occurs in the
free ending of that fugue).

19 These forms were used mostly in southern Germany and Italy, and appear only
rarely in north German compositions. Ostinato techniques may be found in Buxtehude's
vocal works (BuxWV 38, 57, 62, 64, 69, 70, and 92), keyboard works (BuxWV 137,146,148,
149,159, 160, 161, and 218), and chamber works (BuxWV 254, 255, 261, 262, 263, 271, and 272J.

20 Dieterich Buxtehude, Sonata No. 4 in C major, BuxWV 229 and Sonata No. 17 in G
major, BuxWV 240 in Klaviervserker, ed. by Emilius Bangert (Copenhagen: Wilhelm
Hansen, 1942/ second edn., 1944).

21 Buxtehude actually writes out a varied repetition to the second Sarabande of his Suite
in E minor, BuxWV 237

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10

which clearly require additional ornamentation. Other chamber sonatas,
such as BuxWV 261 and 263, include highly ornamented slow movements
which appear to be fully notated in the patterned figurations of English
division viol playing.22 Others (e.g., BuxWV 257) include improvisatory
sections in the stylus phantasticus of Buxtehude's praeludia.23

Bohm

Georg Bohm (1661-1733) lived in Hamburg between 1693 and 1698,
where he was greatly influenced by, if not actually a pupil of, Reinken. In
1698 he assumed the position of organist of the Johanniskirche at
Liineburg, which he retained until his death. While in Hamburg, Bohm
may have been subject to a variety of influences, including that of Johann
Sigismund Kusser. Kusser, a pupil of Lully, directed both French and
Italian works at the Hamburg Opera between 1693 and 1695.24 While in
Liineburg, Bohm may have been subject to various French influences: the
famous orchestra of the court at Celle (about 50 miles from Liineburg),
which played music in the French style and included many French
musicians; the Liineburg Ritterakademie, where young noblemen were
taught French language, etiquette, and music; and the visit in 1701 of

22 Dieterich Buxtehude, Sonatas: op. 1 no. 2 in G major, BuxWV 253; op. 2 no. 3 in G
major, BuxWV 261; and op. 2 no. 5 in A major, BuxWV 263. In Instrumentalwerke:
Sonaten filr Violine, Gamba und Cembalo, ed. by Carl Stiehl in DDT 11 (Wiesbaden:
Breitkopf & Hartel, 1903/ reprinted, 1957).

23 Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 290-2. Dieterich Buxtehude, Sonata No. 6 in D minor,
op. 1, BuxWV 257, ed. by Carl Stiehl in DDT 11 (1903).

24 Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, (New York: W. W. Norton & Co.,
1947) p. 309.

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J. C. F. Fischer, a leading proponent of the French style in Germany.25
Bohm was the first major composer of the north German school freely to
incorporate these French influences into his music. He did so to such an
extent that it has been said that his compositions were "considered more
French than German."26 His Praeludium in G minor,21 one of his greatest
works, "successfully combines French grace and charm with north
German intensity and depth of feeling,"28 as may be seen from the opening
of the fugal section (bar 85ff), presented below.

EXAMPLE 1. Georg Bohm, Praeludium in G minor, bars 85-92.

dv' /V

ji)
^ AW
- - . AV

J- / L H H i n j t •<

-
1^ > * r j .
> •
1 1
jl
FTtaf cj-
mm?---
89
J— J T T i t ^ T r f T l f e S
p
r fgrGr f

25 Hans-Joachim Schulze, "The French influence in Bach's instrumental music,"
translated by Derek McCulloch in Early Music, vol. 13 no. 2, May 1985, p. 180.

26 Putnam Aldrich, Ornamentation in J. S. Bach's Organ Works (New York:
Coleman-Ross Co. Inc., 1950) p. 8-9.

21 Georg Bohm, Samtliche Werke fur Klavierf Cembalo, ed. by Klaus Beckmann
(Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1985), p. 39-44.

28 Hugh J. McLean, "Bohm, Georg," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) II, 852.

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12

Spitta has said of this work that "in the fugue especially, a grace such as at
that time belonged only to the French, pervade[s] this very lively piece,
which would of itself suffice to set its composer in the rank of the greatest
creative talent of his day."29 Bukofzer concurred with Spitta in referring to
Bohm as "a composer noteworthy equally for his thorough command of the
French agrements and of the resources of tonal harmony."30 French
influences may be seen in numerous other works by Bohm, such as his
Overture in D major,31 an early German example of the French orchestral
suite adapted to the harpsichord, and many of his keyboard suites.
Although the majority of Bohm's chorale-based works are in the
form of the chorale partita (a form similar to the secular variations of
Reinken and Buxtehude), his remaining chorale preludes often reflect the
monodic texture and expressive, lyrical style of Buxtehude. Unlike
Buxtehude, however, Bohm makes extensive use of.the restatement,
alteration, and transformation of themes. Spitta has even suggested that
"he must have been the first composer who availed himself in instrumental
music of that development of the melodic constituents of a subject-using
them as independent themes and motives to form the component elements
of a tone structure on a larger scale-w hich played a principal part in the

29 Philipp Spitta, Johann Sebastian Bach (1880), trans. by Clara Bell and J. A. Fuller-
Maitland (1889, reprinted, New York: Dover Pub., Inc., 1951), I, 210.

30 Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, (New York: W. W. Norton & Co.,
1947) p. 264.

31 Georg Bohm, Samtliche Werke fur Klavierf Cembalo, ed. by Klaus Beckmann
(Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1985), p. 30-38.

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13

musical art of Beethoven's time."32 Bohm may not have achieved what
could be considered true thematic development, but his use of motivic
relationships to produce a tightly constructed and homogeneous work, such
as his chorale prelude Vater unser im H immeireich,33 was exceptional at
the time.

The South German School

Frescobaldi of Italy

Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643), the famous Italian organist of the
late Renaissance and early Baroque, was the most powerful foreign
influence on south German composers of the early seventeenth century. He
was known for the highly developed contrapuntal technique and abstract
intellectual feats of his ricercares, canzonas, capriccios, magnificats, and
kyries, and the improvisatory style of his toccatas, as well as his generally
rich harmonic language. These were transmitted to the organists of
southern Germany through his many students and publications.
Frescobaldi was in many respects a traditionalist, but the essentially
full notation of his toccatas was sufficiently original that he felt it necessary
to include an introduction in which he made it clear that the rhythms of
these largely improvisatory works were not to be performed literally as

32 Spitta, Bach, I, 206.

33 Georg Bohm, chorale prelude Vater unser im Himmeireich in Samtliche Orgelwerke,
ed. by Klaus Beckmann (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1986) p. 100-1.

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14

written.34 The expressive ornamentations of these toccatas often display an
intensity and motivic continuity not found in the works of his
predecessors.35
Frescobaldi's Fiori musicali of 1635, consisting of pieces for use
during the mass, is his largest and most famous publication.36 This
collection contains some rare early examples of the pairing of toccatas and
fugues (ricercares). Although these toccatas are less heavily ornamented
than those of his second book of toccatas (1627), the ricercare are "marvels
of concentration and complexity of thought."37 His interest in motivic
economy and continuity can be seen in works such as the Bergamasca from
this collection.

Froberger

Johann Jacob Froberger (1616-1667) studied with Frescobaldi in Rome
in the late 1630’s and later served as court organist in Vienna. He also

34 Girolamo Frescobaldi, introduction to [12] Toccate e [3] partite d'intavolatura di
cimbalo . . . libro primo (Rome, 1615), trans. in Edward Dannreuther's Musical
Ornamentation (London: Novello and Co., Ltd., 1899) part I, p. 48-49.

35 The ninth toccata of his second book, in which an opening ornamental figure is
restated in its original and modified form throughout the work, is a good example of this
motivic and sometimes imitative approach to ornamentation. See Toccata No. 9 from
Girolamo Frescobaldi's II secondo libro di [11] toccate, [6] canzone, [4] versi d'hinni, [3]
Magnificat, [5]gagliarde, [6] correnti et altre [4] partite d'intavolatura di cimbalo et organo
(Rome, 1627). Modem edn. in Girolamo Frescobaldi: Orgel- und Klavierwerke ed. by
Pierre Pidoux (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1967), IV, 34-37.

36 Girolamo Frescobaldi, Fiori musicali di diverse compositioni, toccate, kyrie,
canzoni, capricci, e ricercari, in partitura, a 4 (Venice, 1635). Modern edn. in Orgel- und
Klavierwerke ed. by Pierre Pidoux (Kassel, 1949-54), V.

37 Anthony Newcomb, "Frescobaldi, Girolamo" in The New Grove Dictionary of Music
and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) VI, 832. One of these ricercare even bears the
inscription "Let him who is able understand me; I understand myself."

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15

travelled and performed throughout England, France, Germany, and Italy.
In 1652 he gave a highly acclaimed performance in Paris, which brought
him in contact with Chambonnieres, Louis Couperin, and Denis Gaultier.
Froberger's toccatas, ricercares, fantasias, capriccios, and canzonas
reflect the Italian style of his teacher Frescobaldi. As used by Froberger, all
of these forms are fugal except for the toccata, which alternates free and
fugal sections.38 The free sections of these works are heavily ornamented
in a style not unlike that of Frescobaldi, although the melodic material is
more often imitated than manipulated or transformed. Froberger's texture
and ornamentation is somewhat less varied, and his style is somewhat less
dramatic and improvisatory than that of Frescobaldi; Froberger seems to
have superimposed a level of Germanic rationality and organization onto
the spontaneous, improvisatory style of Frescobaldi. Nevertheless, the
practice of writing out essentially improvisatory music, complete with
virtuosic runs and trills in full notation, is clearly maintained in the music
of Froberger.
Froberger is better known for his keyboard suites, which display a
strong French influence. The popularity of these suites during the 1690's
may have been due at least as much to their peculiarly Germanic
amalgamation of national styles as to their actual quality.39 Froberger's

38 Some of the toccatas, such as the Toccata in F major (DTO 21, p. 36-8, no. 25, ed. by G.
Adler, 1903, p. 36-8), approach the later form of toccata and fugue by employing only one
fugal section and concluding with a brief free section.

39 George J. Buelow, "Froberger, Johann Jacob," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music
and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) VI, 862.

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16

Mayerin suite40 is one of his better known works, and is a good example of
his combining French and Italian influences to form a more distinctly
Germanic style.41 Despite their weaknesses, Froberger's suites were
highly respected by German composers and served as models for many
later works, and for the organization of French dances in one tonality.

Kerll

Johann Kaspar Kerll (1627-1693), a student of both Frescobaldi and
Carissimi,42 was a prominent south German composer and organist,
active in Munich and Vienna.43 His output includes keyboard works
without cantus ftrmus, several operas (now lost), and a variety of sacred
vocal works. The keyboard works (toccatas, canzonas, capriccios,
ricercare, etc.) follow the tradition of Frescobaldi, and are much like
Froberger's Italian based works. These works are generally imitative or

40 Johann Jacob Froberger, partita Auff die Mayerin in J. J. Froberger: Orgel- und
Klavierwerke, ed. by G. Adler in DTO 13 (Jg. 6, Bd. II, 1899), p. 13-17. This work is
actually a set of variations including dance movements such as the courante and
sarabande.

41 Bukofzer has noted that if this suite "is analyzed according to national influences the
result is truly amazing: the order of the dance movements is French, the idea of the
variation suite German, the mechanical patterns of the variation English, the inclusion of
the dance in the variation Italian." See Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, p. 110.

42 Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, p. 111, states that Kerll was a student of both
Frescobaldi and Carissimi, but Giebler states that he was a student of Carissimi and may
also have studied with Frescobaldi. See Albert Giebler, "Kerll, Johann Kaspar," in The
New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) IX, 874.

43 In his early years he served as court organist to Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in
Vienna. From 1656 to 1673 he held the important position of Kapellmeister of the Bavarian
court in Munich until his progressive tendencies impelled him to return to Vienna where
he served as organist at St. Stephen's Cathedral from 1674 to 1677 before becoming organist
to the imperial court in 1677.

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17

fugal except for the toccatas, which alternate fugal and free sections. The
free sections of these toccatas are fully notated improvisatory works similar
to those of Frescobaldi, and include many extended trills and virtuosic
passages.44 Some of the sacred vocal works, such as the mass
Renovationis,45 are notable for their highly developed fugal techniques and
their economic use of material.

Fischer

Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (cl670-1746), though technically a
member of the south German organ school, travelled extensively and was
one o f the primary proponents of the French style in Germany.46 Fischer's
works in the south German style include his Ariadne musica neo-
organoedum of 1702 which includes a set of 20 preludes and fugues in as
many keys.47 Of his works in the French style, his Le journal du printem s

44 See for example, the Toccata No. 1 in D minor from Johann Kaspar Kerll:
Ausgewahlte Werke ed. by Adolf Sandberger in DTB 3 (Jg. 2, Bd. II, 1901), p. 3-5.

46 Johann Kaspar Kerll, Missa Renovationis from Missae sex, cum instrumentis
concertantibus, e vocibus in ripieno, adjuncta una pro defunctis com seq. Dies irae
(Munich, 1689) Modem edn., J. K. Kerll, Ausgewahlte Werke, ed. by Adolf Sandberger in
DTB 3 (Jg. 2, Bd. II, 1901).

46 Fischer spent most of his career as Hofkapellmeister to the Baden court of southern
Germany, which moved east to Schlackenwerth in Bohemia (near Karlsbad in east central
Germany) during the war with France. The musical taste of the Baden court was
predominantly French at that time, and Fischer's publications reflect a very strong
French influence.

47 Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer, Ariadne musica neo-organoedum, 20 preludes
and fugues, and 5 chorale ricercare for organ (Schlackenwerth, 1702). In Samtliche
Werke fur Klavier und Orgel ed. by Ernst V. Werra (Leipzig: 1901, reprinted in New
York: Broude Bros. 1965), p. 75-98.

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18

(1695)48 is a collection of eight orchestral suites in the style of Lully, and his
Les pieces de clavessin (1696)49 is a similar collection of French orchestral
ballet suites transferred to the harpsichord, an apparently innovative
technique which may have inspired similar suites by Georg Bohm and J. S.
Bach.50 Fischer's suites include an assortment of French dances including
the popular minuet, gavotte, and bourree, and exhibit a "thoroughly French
grasp of rhythmic ambiguity and elegance, and a Lullian neatness in the
articulation of phrase structure,"51 as well as a full command of French
ornaments. The introduction to his Les pieces de clavessin even includes a
small table of agrements, based largely on that of Chambonnieres.52

The Central German School

Scheidt

Samuel Scheidt (1587-1654) of Halle, who studied with Sweelinck
sometime between 1607 and 1609, is considered to be a founder of the central

48 Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer, Le journal du printems (Augsburg, 1695). Printed
in DDT 10(1902).

49 Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer, Les pieces de clavessin, 8 suites for keyboard, op.
2 (Schlackenwerth, 1696), reprinted as Musicalisches Blumen Biischlein (Augspurg [sic],
1698). Printed in Samtliche Werke fur Klavier und Orgel, ed. by Ernst V. Werra
(Leipzig: 1901, reprinted in New York: Broude Bros. 1965), p. 1-32.

50 Susan Wollenberg, "Fischer, Johann Caspar Ferdinand," in The New Grove
Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980), VI, 608. Keyboard
arrangements of French orchestral works were, however, not uncommon, as may be seen
in the many works of Lully included in D'Anglebert's Pieces de clavecin (Paris, 1689).

51 Ibid.

52 Jacques Champion Chambonnieres, Les pieces de clavessin . . . livre premier (Paris,
1670, facsimile reprint New York, 1967), ed. by T. Dart (Monaco, 1969).

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19

(or middle) German organ school. His landmark Tabulatura nova53
influenced both central and north German organists, and was original in
its use of the Italian keyboard partitura format,54 thereby introducing a
somewhat pedagogical tradition which continued through Bach's
Musikalisches Opfer of 1747 and Die Kunst der Fuge of cl742-1749.
It is clear that much of Scheidt's style (his use of variation forms,
ornamentation, variety of rhythmic ideas, and extensive use of
counterpoint) was inherited directly from Sweelinck. A powerful sense of
formal design and the ability to combine an unending variety of abstract
patterns with a cantus firmus are two of the great hallmarks of his style.
Marshall has observed that Scheidt's variations are often carefully
organized according to the number of voices,55 and Bukofzer has noted that
the secular variations are often "conceived as leading up to a rhythmic
climax, brought about by a consistently accelerated pace of the elaboration
in ever shorter note values."56 Even within each variation there is a

55 Samuel Scheidt, Tabulatura nova continens variationes aliquot psalmorum,
fantasiarum, cantilenarum, passemezzo et canones (Hamburg, 1624). Modern edn.,
Tabulatura Nova, ed. by Max Seiffert and revised by Hans Joachim Moser in DDT 1
(Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1958).

54 Unlike the traditional letter notation of German organ tabulature, or the two six-line
staves used in England and the Netherlands, the Italian keyboard partitura reserved a
separate stave for each voice. Scheidt expected organists to copy the music into organ
tabulature for performance. See Kerala Johnson Snyder's article, "Scheidt, Samuel," in
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) XVI, 604.

55 Robert Marshall, "Chorale settings," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) IV, 331. Marshall notes that Scheidt's variations
often follow "a symmetrical pattern, generally based on the order of four-three-two-three-
four voices (with the first three-voice variation often omitted)."

56 Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, p. 106. Bukofzer notes that "in the fugues also the
drive toward a rhythmic climax is very noticeable."

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tendency to build rhythmic activity gradually towards the final cadence. As
in the music of Sweelinck, it is clear that little or nothing has been left to the
performer's invention.57

Pachelbel

Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706), a student of Kerll,58 was the most
important central German composer and organist of the late seventeenth
century. Pachelbel's music reflects a variety of influences. His organ
chorales reveal a knowledge of both new styles and the older Germanic style
of Scheidt, whereas his larger toccatas reflect the Italian influence of
Frescobaldi, Froberger, and Kerll. Some elements of his keyboard suites
and chamber suites display a French influence which he may have derived
from the works of Froberger.
Pachelbel's larger toccatas, such as his Toccata in C minor and his
Toccata in G minor, are of particular interest because of their generally
economic use of motivic material, their motivic continuity, and their

57 Scheidt often writes out cadential trills and extended passages of virtuoso divisions,
and even uses the fully notated long trill as a motivic device. Such techniques may be seen
in the sixth and seventh variations of his Passamezzo, or the eighth verse (variation) of his
Vater unser im Himmeireich (Tabulatura nova, no. 6 and no. 3 respectively).

58 It cannot be proven that Pachelbel was actually a student of Kerll, but he did study with
Kaspar Prentz, a Kerll protege, from cl670-1672, and was in Vienna along with Kerll for
several years after 1673. See Ewald V. Nolte, "Pachelbel, Johann," in The New Grove
Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) XIV, 46. Giebler states,
however, that "from 1674 to 1677 he [Kerll] was organist at St Stephen's Cathedral, where he
was assisted by Pachelbel, who was also his pupil." See Albert Giebler, "Kerll, Johann
Kaspar," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie,
1980) IX, 875.

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virtuosic, fully notated ornamentations.59 These works, which commonly
employ a texture of two florid voices above sustained pedal notes, are often
through-composed and unified by the recurrence and development of a
central motive stated near the beginning of the piece.60 This type of
construction is a striking departure from the alternating imitative and free
sections of the toccatas of Frescobaldi, Froberger, and Kerll.61

French Factors

Introduction

The following section is a brief introduction to those French
composers who may have had a direct influence on Bach and his
ornamentations. The French harpsichord school developed during the
second third of the seventeenth century out of the style of the French
lutenists. The seventeenth-century French organ school exhibited a
somewhat parallel but generally more conservative development and
includes many of the same composers. The orchestral style of Lully, which
developed towards the end of the seventeenth century, influenced and

59 Johann Pachelbel, Toccata in C minor (DTB IV/i, p. 13, no. 15); and Toccata in G
minor (DTB IV/i, p. 25, no. 23). Even some of the shorter toccatas, such as the Toccata in D
minor (DTB IV/i, p. 5, no. 8), show this tendency.

60 Ewald V. Nolte, "Pachelbel, Johann," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) XIV, 48.

61 An element of motivic continuity can, however, be seen in some of Frescobaldi's
works as well. See page 14 above.

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responded to these schools.62 Figure 2 below will serve to organize most of
the composers of the present discussion by instrument and by chronology.

France
Lute H arpsichord-------- ■(Both)* Organ
Harpsichord School Organ School
r
E. fiaultier
C ham honni& res
r , ( c .1602-1672)
D. Gaultier I
(1603-1672)1

V - --
F rob erg er• •v v L. Couperin
(c .1626-1661) N ivers
D' Angl ebert (c.1632-1714)
(1635-1691)
'- J LeBfegue
1(1631-1702)
Bovvin
(c .1649-1706)
LeRoux Raison
(C.1650-C.1706) (c.1650-1719)

Italy & ___ Dieupart M archand
G erm a n y (C.1667-C.1740) (1669-1732)
F. Couperin firi gn v
C orelli
(1668-1733) (1672-1703)

FIGURE 2. Selected lute and keyboard composers of seventeenth- and
eighteenth-century France.

French ornamentation (or improvised embellishment) may be
divided into four areas: (1) specific ornaments ([agrements); (2) unnotated
(and unnotatable) small-scale rhythmic alterations common to the French

62 D'Anglebert's inclusion of keyboard arrangements of instrumental works from
Lully's operas in his Pieces de clavecin (Paris, 1689) reflects the interest of the
harpsichordists in the orchestral style of Lully.

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23

style (e.g., coule and loure); (3) rhythmically improvisatory and essentially
unmeasured preludes; (4) and written-out embellishments and virtuosic
figurations.63 The first of these will be considered in the next section, and
the second is beyond the scope of this introduction. The third and fourth of
these will be discussed along with the French harpsichord school below.

The Development of Agrements

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the lute was a very
popular instrument in France; the theorist Marin Mersenne (1588-1648)
considered it to be the noblest of instruments and, since the king and his
noblemen were able performers of the lute, it could in fact be considered the
instrument most favored by the nobility.64 Many early lute books contained
transcriptions of vocal airs in which each section of the air was repeated
and embellished according to the tradition of the English virginalists.
During the Renaissance these embellishments were fully notated in the
lute tabulature, but during the Baroque it became the practice to indicate
these embellishments with small symbols as in the music of the English
virginalists. The Baroque lute virtuosi, such as the Gaultier family of
lutenists, sought to develop an idiomatic and purely instrumental style
which made artistic use of the lute's technical limitations. Its lack of
sustaining power was mitigated by the use of an arpeggiated style or style

63 French noel variations by Lebegue, Raison, Dandrieu, Daquin, Marchand, and
others are a type of written-out embellishment which has not been included in the following
discussion. It is possible that Bach was familiar with some of these variations, as C. P. E.
Bach mentions Marchand's "Miisetten fur die Christnact" (noel variations) in Bach's
obituary (B Dok. Ill, p. 83, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 219).

64 Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, p. 164.

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brise and the difficulty of maintaining a multi-voiced texture was
reconciled through the use of a free-voiced texture which gave only the
impression of inner lines. The lute's lack of sustaining power also
encouraged the use of ornaments to maintain a melodic line. Mersenne
presented the most complete description of lute ornaments in his Harmonie
universelle of 1637, including appoggiaturas, mordents, trills, and vibrato
{verra casse), although he included symbols for only three of these.65 Denis
Gaultier (1603-1672) also gave signs for the appoggiatura, the trill, the verra
casse, and the arpeggio in the introduction to his La rhetorique des dieux of
cl652.66 Despite the efforts of writers such as Mersenne and Gaultier, the
lute never acquired a truly standardized system of ornamental signs,
although some level of consistency did develop by the end of the Baroque
period.67
After the middle of the seventeenth century the popularity of French
lute music began to decline. The musical traditions of the lute were,
however, continued in the increasingly popular music of the harpsichord
or clavecin. The French harpsichord composers soon adopted the style
brise, free-voiced texture, variation techniques, and ornamentation symbols
of the lute. Bukofzer has noted that "this astonishing and unique transfer

65 Marin Mersenne, Harmonie universelle (Paris, 1636-7, reprinted in 1963). His table
of ornaments and discussion is translated in Edward Dannreuther's Musical
Ornamentation (London: Novello and Co., Ltd., 1899) part I, p. 59.

66 Denis Gaultier, La rhetorique des dieux (Paris, cl652); ed. A. Tessier, PSFM, vi-vii
(1932) Table of ornaments translated in Edward Dannreuther's Musical Ornamentation
(London: Novello and Co., Ltd., 1899) part I, p. 60.

67 Diana Poulton, "Lute, §6: Ornamentation," in The New Grove Dictionary o f Music
and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980), XI, 354.

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25

of idioms had no technical justification because the clavecin did not have
the technical limitations of the lute."68 Jacques Champion Chambonnieres
(cl601-1672) is often credited with this transfer of lute style to the
harpsichord, although transcriptions of lute music for harpsichord were
not uncommon, even in the early years of the seventeenth century.69
Because the harpsichord did not suffer from the technical limitations
of the lute (other than its rapid tone dampening), many new ornaments
(agrements) were soon invented to exploit its possibilities. A process of
inventing and cataloguing specific ornaments was thus begun which
continued throughout the Baroque period. Chambonnieres him self listed
seven agrem ents along with their symbols in the preface to his Les pieces
de clavessin of 1670.70 The contents of Chambonnieres' table were largely
imitated in the 1677 table by Nicolaus-Antoine LeBegue (cl631-1702), and the
1696 table by J. C. F. Fischer. The next major contribution to the
cataloguing of French agrem ents was made by Jean-Henri D'Anglebert
(1635-1691) in his Pieces de clavecin of 1689. D'Anglebert expanded
Chambonnieres' table from seven ornaments to twenty-nine and altered

68 Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, p. 169.

69 David Fuller, "Chambonnieres, Jacques Champion" in The New Grove Dictionary of
Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) IV, 123.

70 Jacques Champion Chambonnieres, Les pieces de clavessin . . . livre premier (Paris,
1670, facsimile reprint New York, 1967), also ed. by T. Dart (Monaco, 1969). A facsimile of
the table of agrements is also given in Hans Klotz Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und
Orgelwerke von Johann Sebastian Bach (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1984) p. XXIII.
Chambonnieres asserts that "by giving them [these works] with all their ornaments, as I do
in this volume, they will undoubtedly be more useful to the public, and more creditable to
me than all these unfaithful copies which appear under my name." Chambonnieres'
published works are, in fact, more carefully ornamented than his works in manuscript, or
the works of Louis Couperin (which exist only in manuscript).

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several of the symbols. The contents of this table were largely imitated in
the subsequent tables of Charles Dieupart (1701), Gaspard LeRoux (1705),
Jean-Philippe Rameau (1706), and Jean-Frangois Dandrieu (1715-20).71
The last major contribution to the cataloguing of French agrements was
made by Frangois Couperin (1668-1733) in his Pieces de clavecin of 1713 in
which he listed 23 agrements, some of which had appeared in the tables of
Chambonnieres and D'Anglebert, and some of which were new. In his
L 'art de toucher le clavecin of 1716 Couperin commented on the use and
performance of the agrements of his 1713 work and insisted that his music
be performed with strict observation of his ornamental symbols.
Couperin's system became so well accepted that in 1733 Dagincour credited
him with having standardized the French agrement system .72
The French organists also began to make use of those agrements
which could be readily applied to the organ, and although the organists
used these agrements more sparingly than the harpsichordists, they
adopted the same system of notation and made some contributions to the
cataloguing of symbols. Nivers included a table of three types of agrements
in his Livre d'Orgue of 1665; Boyvin included a table of about 7 agrements in
his Livre d'Orgue of 1689-90; and Raison included a more extensive and
relatively original table of 9 agrements, based in part on Chambonnieres'
table, in his Livre d'Orgue of 1688.

71 LeRoux's table is virtually identical to Dieupart's. The Rameau and Dandrieu tables
are shorter, and somewhat more original.

72 Edward Higginbottom, "Couperin, (4) Francois (ii)," in The New Grove Dictionary of
Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) IV, 869.

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Table 1, below, chronologically lists of the more significant tables of
agrements by French composers of the seventeenth and early eighteenth
centuries.

TABLE 1. Significant French tables of agrements of the seventeenth
and early eighteenth centuries

Medium Contents Composer and Publication
Lute 3 agrements Mersenne. Harmonie universelle (Paris, 1636-7)
Lute 4 agrements Gaultier. La rhetorique des dieux (Paris, cl652)
Organ Discussion and 3 Nivers. Livre d'orgue . . . (Paris, 1665)
types of agrements
Harpsichord 7 agrements Chambonnieres. Les pieces de clavessin . . . livre
premier (Paris, 1670)
Harpsichord 4 agrements LeBegue. Les pieces de clavessin (Paris, 1677)
Organ Discussion and 9 Raison. Livre d'orgue . . . (Paris, 1688)
agrements
Harpsichord 29 agrements D'Anglebert. Pieces de clavecin . . . (1689)
Organ Discussion and Boyvin. Premier livre d'orgue . . . (Paris, 1689-90)
about 7 agrements
Harpsichord 16 agrements Dieupart. Six suittes de clavecin . . . (Amsterdam,
1701)
Harpsichord 18 agrements LeRoux. Pieces de Clavessin (Paris, 1705 and
Amsterdam, 1706 without trios)
Harpsichord 7 agrements Rameau. Premier livre de pieces de clavecin
(Paris, 1706)
Harpsichord 23 agrements and Francois Couperin. Pieces de clavecin . . . premier
discussion livre (Paris, 1713) and L'art de toucher le clavecin
(Paris, 1716, rev. 2/1717)
Harpsichord 11 agrements and Dandrieu. Pieces de clavecin courtes et faciles de
discussion quatre tons differents (Paris, 1715-20). Introduction
and table in RMFC, XTV, 230-1.

The French Harpsichord School of the Seventeenth
and Early Eighteenth Centuries

The French harpsichord prelude developed out of the rhapsodic lute
prelude, which did not use fixed note values and was meant to be performed
in an improvisatory manner so that no two performances would sound

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identical.73 Jacques Champion Chambonnieres (cl601-1672), the first
major composer of the French harpsichord school, left no extant
preludes.74 His student Louis Couperin (cl626-1661), however, composed
many unmeasured preludes after the style of the lutenists. These preludes
are set down in whole notes, without bar lines, and use expressive slurs to
indicate groupings of notes and points of arrival. This practice was still
maintained by Gaspard LeRoux (born in the second half of the seventeenth
century; died between el705 and 1707) in his Pieces de Clavessin of 1705.75
The notation of preludes was considerably developed by the organist and
harpsichordist Nicolaus-Antoine LeBegue, a relatively progressive follower
of Chambonnieres. The five preludes of his Les pieces de clavessin of 1677
include a full range of note values (from whole notes to thirty-seconds) and
make use of occasional bar lines in all but the first prelude.76 Although
this notation allows for a much more consistent interpretation than that of
Louis Couperin, a rhythmically improvisatory style is still implied by the
simplicity of notation and inconsistent use of bar lines. Jean-Henri

73 Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, p. 168.

74 Chambonnieres was known for his imaginative embellishments and his ability to
invent fresh ornaments while performing. It is possible, then, that he improvised preludes
and did not attempt to set them down in notation.

75 Gaspard LeRoux, Pieces de Clavessin (Paris, 1705 and Amsterdam, 1706? without
trios). Facsimile of the Paris edn., Geneve: Minkoff Reprint, 1982. Edited (without trios)
with a preface by Albert Fuller as Pieces for Harpsichord (New York: Alpeg Editions,
1959). This publication is of particular interest because almost all of the pieces are
presented simultaneously in arrangement for trio (two melody instruments and
continuo). In addition, five of the dances are given a second keyboard part for
performance on two harpsichords.

76 The unmeasured opening section of the Prelude to Jean-Philippe Rameau's Pieces de
Clavecin of 1706 (which consists of a single Suite in A minor) is also notated in a fashion
much like LeBegue's first prelude.

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D'Anglebert, Chambonnieres' successor as clavecinist to the court of Louis
XIV, adopted a slightly more conservative practice in the three preludes of
his Pieces de clavecin of 1689. These preludes include occasional bar lines
and a few quick notes (mostly eighth notes), but a high level of rhythmic
ambiguity remains. The two preludes of Louis Marchand's (1669-1732)
Pieces de Clavecin, Livre Premier (1702), and Livre II (1703) provide an
interesting comparison of notational practices. The Prelude of his Livre
Premier is clearly notated, using bar lines and a full range of note values,
whereas the Prelude of his Livre II is notated in a fashion similar to
LeBegue's. The similarity of the two works would suggest that this
difference of notation reflects only a more casual attitude towards notation
in the second work, rather that any significant change in style.77 Both
works are probably meant to be performed in an improvisatory fashion. A
similar comparison may be seen in the works of Jean-Fran?ois Dandrieu.
The preludes of his first two Livres de clavecin78 are notated in a barred
fashion similar to that of Marchand's Livre Premier, but the four preludes
of his Pieces de clavecin courtes et faciles de quatre tons differents (1715-20)
returns to the earlier unmeasured practice.
Francois Couperin's works offer some clarification of this practice.
He published eight preludes for his first two books of harpsichord suites

77 Marchand's Livre II is somewhat less extended and virtuosic than his Livre Premier,
but the style remains essentially the same.

78 Jean-Frangois Dandrieu, Livre de clavecin, consisting of a single Suite in G minor
(Paris, 1715-20), and Livre de clavecin, consisting of a single Suite in D minor (Paris,
cl704, reprinted 1715-20). See Brigitte Frangois-Sappey, "L'oeuvre de clavecin de Jean-
Frangois Dandrieu (1682-1738),” in RMFC, xiv (1974), p. 154-235. The similarity of the two
suites as well as the fact that both were printed in 1715-20 with the same title suggests that a
cl704 edition of the Suite in G minor may have once existed as well.

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separately in his L 'a rtd e toucher le clavecin (revised edition, 1717).79 All of
these preludes are measured, and generally well embellished with runs
and agrements set down in detailed rhythmic notation. Couperin indicates
that four of his preludes should be played in a free, improvisatory style, but
that the other four should be played mesure (in measured time), although
even one of these includes a change of tempo and closes with an apparently
free section of runs and arpeggios. Couperin explains that one of the
reasons he chose to write out his preludes in measured notation was that
"they will be found easier, whether teaching them or learning them."80
Written-out embellishments do not figure prominently in early works
of the French harpsichord school. As with the music of Lully, elegance and
simplicity was valued over virtuosic display, and ornamentation was
essentially limited to the use of specific ornaments {agrements).
Nevertheless, even the earliest composers of this school gave particular
attention to the embellishment of allemandes: one of the oldest, and
certainly the most highly developed of the French dances. Chambonnieres'
Le moutier allemande,81 is easily one of his most embellished works, and
Louis Couperin's Allemande grave in F major and Allemande VAmiable in

79 Couperin was apparently not very concerned about matching a prelude with a
particular suite. He wrote only eight preludes for his first twelve suites, and indicates that
he has composed them in all of the tonalities required.

80 Frangois Couperin, L'art de toucher le clavecin (revised edition, 1717), ed. and trans.
by Margery Halford (Port Washington: Alfred Pub. Co., 1974), p. 70.

81 Jacques Champion Chambonnieres, Le moutier allemande, from the Bauyn
manuscript (Paris Bibliotheque nationale, Vm7 674 and 675). Modem edition in Oeuvres
completes, ed. by Brunold and Tessier (1925, reprinted 1967), p. 54.

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A minor82 contain many more written-out embellishments than is typical
of his style. This trend was continued by later French and German
composers of harpsichord suites. The allemandes of the suites of LeBegue,
D'Anglebert, Dieupart, Marchand, and LeRoux are consistently their most
developed works. The four allemandes of D'Anglebert's Pieces de
clavecin83 contain an unusually high level of written-out embellishment as
does the allemande of the seventh suite of LeRoux's Pieces de Clavessin.
In almost all French suites the word double refers to a simple type of
variation in running eighth or sixteenth notes. Louis Couperin's double to
Chambonnieres' Le moutier allemande begins in this style but includes an
unusual number of fully notated flourishes and embellishments as well.84
The seven doubles to dances by Chambonnieres which are attributed to
D'Anglebert are especially interesting as they are more like ornamented
versions than simple variations.85 The Double de la sarabande Jeunes
Zephirs, in particular, contains many written-out embellishments and
makes little use of running eighth or sixteenth notes. These doubles are,

82 Louis Couperin, No. 67 (p. 68) and No. 102 (p. 101) of Oeuvres completes, ed. by Paul
Brunold (1936), revised by T. Dart as Pieces de Clavecin, (1959).

83 The Sarabande grave of the third suite of this publication is also quite embellished.

84 Louis Couperin, Double du Moutier, edited in Louis Couperin: Oeuvres completes, ed.
by Paul Brunold (1936), revised by T. Dart as Pieces de Clavecin, (1959), p. 128-9. Also
edited in Jacques Champion Chambonnieres: Oeuvres completes, ed. by Brunold and
Tessier (1925, reprinted 1967), p. 55. His Pavanne in F# minor (Oeuvres completes No.
121, p. 117) also contains two variations with fully notated turns and runs.

85 These doubles appear in the Paris Bibliotheque du Conservatoire de Musique,
Manuscrit de la Reserve Vm7 18 233 along with many works by D'Anglebert and keyboard
arrangements, in the fashion of D'Anglebert, of works by Lully and the lutenists Pinel,
Mezangeau, and the Gaultiers. The seven doubles are reprinted in Jacques Champion
Chambonnieres: Oeuvres completes, ed. by Brunold and Tessier (1925, reprinted 1967), p.
116-122.

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moreover, unlike the printed doubles of either Chambonnieres or
D'Anglebert: works which generally make use of a running eighth- or
sixteenth-note format.86
Occasional virtuosic passages and written-out embellishments
appear in other variation forms of the French school. Louis Couperin’s
Pavanne in F# minor contains two variations with fully notated turns and
runs.87 The Variations sur les folies d'Espagne of D'Anglebert's Pieces de
clavecin is an extended and virtuosic set of variations,88 as is the Sarabande
with twelve couplets in the fourth suite of LeRoux's Pieces de Clavessin.
The four couplets of the Chaconne of Marchand's Pieces de Clavecin, Livre
Premier (1702) form a concise example of this virtuosic style. These
variations build in rhythmic activity and conclude with a rich
ornamentation for the left hand in the third couplet followed by a series of
echoing thirty-second-note flourishes in both hands in the final couplet.89
Although the publications of D'Anglebert and Marchand included a
wide range of embellishments, grace notes, and agrem ents, Frangois
Couperin's Peices de clavecin of 1713 set an entirely new standard for the
notation of embellishments. The Premier Ordre of this publication opens

86 D'Anglebert's Courante M1"de Lully, and Double de la Courante, from the second suite
of his Pieces de Clavecin (p. 43-4) is somewhat exceptional. This double is not unlike some
of those in the Paris Cons.Vm7 18 233 {e.g., the Double de la Courante Iris).

87 Louis Couperin, No. 121 (p. 117) of Oeuvres completes, ed. by Paul Brunold (1936),
revised by T. Dart as Pieces de Clavecin, (1959).

88 Jean Henry D'Anglebert, Pieces de Clavecin (Paris, 1689), p. 88-98. Facsimile edn.
(New York: Broude Bros. Ltd., 1965).

89 Louis Marchand, Pieces de Clavecin, Livre Premier (Paris, 1702), consisting of a
single Suite in d. Facsimile edn. of both Livres, (Geneve: Minkoff Reprint, 1982).

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with a richly embellished Allemande l'Auguste. The Premiere Courante,
Sarabande la Majestuctise, and Gavotte which follow are exceptional (and
unique in Couperin's four L ivres) for their inclusion of ornamented
versions of the right hand line only.90 Couperin's comments make it clear
that these were considered embellished versions rather than doubles.91
Although these embellished versions are reminiscent of D'Anglebert's
seven doubles to works of Chambonnieres, Couperin's notation is much
more elaborate than D'Anglebert's, and includes grace note flourishes,
embellishments written out in full rhythmic notation,92 and a wide range of
agrements. Although none of the remaining suites of his four harpsichord
books contain such embellished versions, his works exhibit a consistent
attention to the notation of embellishments. As with his predecessors,
Couperin's allemandes, such as those of his first book, and the La Raphaele
(8e ordre) of his second book (1717), are often his most richly embellished
works. Couperin's later books often include virtuosic and programmatic
movements, such as the Le Rossignol En-Amour and its double in the
second suite (14e ordre) of his third book (1722), and the L 'Audacieuse (23e
ordre) and La Visionaire (25e ordre) of his fourth book (1730).

90 The Menuet includes a Double du Menuet precedent in running eighth-notes which is
presented in a similar fashion (only the right hand is given).

91 Couperin describes these ornamentations with the comments: ”Dessus plus Orne sans
changer la Basse; Petitte Reprise de cette Sarabande, plus Ornee que la premiere; and
Ornamens pour deversifier la Gavotte precedente sans changer la Basse.”

92 The subtleties of French rhythm were never fully notated, but Couperin clearly sought
to be as accurate as possible in the notation of his embellishments.

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The French Organ School of the Seventeenth
and Early Eighteenth Centuries

The development of the French classical school of harpsichord
playing was paralleled by a school of French organ playing of the late
seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. This school is represented by
such composers as Nivers, LeBegue, Raison, Boyvin, F. Couperin, Grigny,
Du Mage, and Marchand. The French organists were generally more
conservative than the harpsichordists, and continued to employ the
polyphonic procedures and typical five-part texture of traditional French
organ music while adopting those aspects of the new harpsichord music,
such as some of the new agrements and even the style brise, which could be
readily applied to the organ.93

The Orchestral Style of Lully

Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687), an excellent dancer and violinist,
was the leading composer of French stage music in his day.94 His
distinctive orchestral style was favoured in many European courts,95 and

93 Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, p. 172.

94 His dominating position in France was secured not only by the success of his
compositions but by a series of oppressive patents. These eventually gave Lully nearly
complete control over the performance of large-scale works in France. Lully's patents
culminated in one of April 22, 1673 which limited the number of musicians who might
appear in productions independent of the Academie Royale de Musique to eight (two
singers and six instrumentalists). See James II. Anthony, op. cit., p. 315.

95 His operas are known to have been performed in Germany at Hamburg (1689) and
Wolfenbiittel (1685-7), and an extensive collection of Lully's operas is known to have been
kept by the Erbprinz Friedrich Ludwig of Wiirttemberg-Stuttgart. Johann Sigismund
Kusser acknowledged his debt to Lully in the preface to his Composition de musique, . .
(Stuttgart, 1682), and stated that Lully's "works at present give pleasure to all the courts of

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the style of his instrumental overtures and dances was clearly imitated in
many German orchestral suites, such as those by Georg Muffat and J. C.
F. Fischer.96 Lully introduced many new dances, and he preferred dances
such as the bourree and minuet to the more traditional courante and
galliard. His relatively conservative string writing (in a predominantly
five-part texture) reflects his concern for neatness, elegance, and precision
as opposed to virtuosic display.

Italian Factors

Introduction

The following section will serve to introduce those Italian composers
of sonatas and concertos who may have influenced Bach's style of
composition and ornamentation. The Italian use of sequences, repetitions,
and tonal drives toward cadences to produce extended slow movements
with integrity is of particular interest, as these formal devices are often
enhanced through ornamentation in many of Bach's mature works.
Sequences were common even in the early Baroque styles of Giovanni
Gabrieli (1557-1612) and Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), but their potential
for creating extended tonal drives toward cadences was not realized until
the sonatas of later Italian composers such as the Venetian, Giovanni

Europe." See James R. Anthony, "Lully, (1) Jean-Baptiste," in The New Grove Dictionary
of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980), XI, 326.

96 Georg Muffat, Florilegium primum (1695), printed in DTO 2 (Jg. 1, Bd. 2), and
Florilegium secundum (1698), printed in DTO 4 (Jg. 2, Bd. 2). Johann Caspar Ferdinand
Fischer, Le journal du printems (Augsburg, 1695), printed in DDT 10 (1902). These suites
make use of the standard French overture format, but Muffat's suites also included the new
Italian concerto principle of alternating soli and tutti sections. This stylistic difference is
due to the functional change from dance accompaniment to absolute music.

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Legrenzi (1626-1690). Legrenzi's sonatas exhibit many of the structural
devices of the late Baroque style (e.g., the use of sequences, repetitions, and
deceptive cadences to extend tonal drives toward cadences, and the use of
antecedent-consequent phrase structures) but are less developed than those
of his followers.97

The Bologna School: Corelli and Torelli

The Bolognese violinist and composer Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713)
made important contributions to the development of the sonata style. His
sonatas display a new level of simplicity, elegance, and idiomatic violin
writing. Although Corelli makes use of sequences and progressions
moving by fifths to enhance the sense of tonality, he does not depend upon
these devices to develop his forms. Indeed, the slow movements of his very
popular op. 5 sonatas make only casual use of sequences. Corelli's concerto
grosso style is largely an amplification of his trio sonata style. This style
was imitated by German composers such as Muffat and Pez, and later
Telemann and J. G. Walther. Muffat even states that his concertos may be
played as trios if no more players are available, and Gregori explains that a
trio sonata may be transformed into a concerto grosso by simply marking
'soli' and 'tutti' on the parts.98

97 Legrenzi's [18] Sonate a 2-3, libro primo, op. 2 (Venice, 1655) are representative of his
sonata style, which changed little throughout his career. See Stephen Bonta, "Legrenzi,
Giovanni," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie,
1980) X, 617.

98 Arthur Hutchings and others, "Concerto §2: Origins to 1750," in The New Grove
Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) IV, 628. Giovanni Lorenzo
Gregori's comments are from the preface to Concerti grossi a piii stromenti (Lucca, 1698).

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Giuseppe Torelli (1685-1709), a virtuoso violinist and composer active
first in Bologna and then later in Ansbach and Vienna, helped to transfer
the alia tromba style of Bolognese trumpet concertos to the string concerto.
The repeated note patterns, triadic melodies, homophonic texture, and
dominant top voice of this style became hallmarks of the fast movements of
the mature Baroque solo concerto. Although concerto slow movements
were not directly affected by this development, they often reflected the new
trend through the use of a virtuosic solo voice, sequential progressions, and
a clearly defined tonality.

The Venetian School: Albinoni, Vivaldi, and the Marcellos

Torelli’s concerto style was undoubtedly influential in Germany due
to his activities in Ansbach," but his most progressive collection of
concertos did not appear until after his death in 1709,100 long after the
appearance of Albinoni's more striking and progressive op. 2 collection.101
Torelli's op. 8 concertos may, of course, have been available some time
before 1709, but it is worth noting that it was an Albinoni concerto which the
violinist Johann Georg Pisendel, one of Torelli's own pupils, performed

The source of Georg Muffat's comments are not identified and do not seem to come from
his two Florilegium volumes.

" The concertos of the Bolognese composer Evaristo dall'Abaco, active in Munich, were
in some ways more progressive than those of Torelli, and undoubtedly helped to make the
Bologna style familiar to Germans in the early years of the eighteenth century.

100 Giuseppe Torelli, Concerti grossi con una pastorale per il Santissimo Natale, op. 8
(Bologna and Amsterdam, 1709).

101 Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni, [6] Sinfonie e [6] concerti a cinque (Amsterdam, 1700).
This collection also substantially predates Corelli's first collection of concertos, his
Concerti grossi, op 6 (Amsterdam, 1714).

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shortly after arriving in Leipzig in 1709.102 Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni
(1671-1751), a wealthy Venetian composer of operas, sonatas, and concertos,
may have been the first to adopt the new three movement concerto form
consistently. H is incisive, memorable themes and clearly articulated
sequences and repetitions are more striking than anything produced by the
Bolognese composers and must have exerted a strong influence on Vivaldi.
Furthermore, his love of opera (he is said to have composed eighty-one)
inspired him to produce impassioned slow movements in the style of
operatic arias.103 Albinoni's sonatas are more conservative and
contrapuntal than his concertos, but still exhibit a modern use of tonality
and contain many examples of sequences used to extend tonal drives
toward cadences.104
Albinoni may have worked to develop the Venetian style, but it was
brought to a new level with the appearance of Vivaldi's highly influential
L'estro armonico of 1711.105 Antonio Vivaldi (1675-1743), Alessandro
Marcello (1684-1750), and Benedetto Marcello (1686-1739) shared both
Albinoni's love of opera and his independence from the patronage system.

102 Pippa Drummond, "Pisendel, Johann Georg" in The New Grove Dictionary of
Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) XIV, 775.

103 A. J. B. Hutchings, The Baroque Concerto, (London: Faber and Faber, 1961,
reprinted 1963), p. 152. Albinoni first presented slow movements of this type in his [12]
Concerti a cinque (Venice, 1707).

104 Examples may be seen in the second Graves of the Sonatas No. 10 and No. 11 and the
first Grave of the Sonata No. 12 of his [12] Suonate a tre, op. 1 (Venice, 1694/Amsterdam,
cl695) as well as the slow movements of the Sonata No. 6 of his Trattenimenti Armonici per
Camera, op. 6 (Amsterdam, 1711).

1Co Antonio Vivaldi, L'estro armonico, op. 3 (Amsterdam: Roger, 1711) consisting of 12
concertos for one, two, or four violins and orchestra.

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Although Albinoni first brought operatic elements to the concerto, his
works never achieved the impassioned and highly ornamented style of
many of Vivaldi's slow movements. These aria-style movements often
retain the unifying force of a tutti-ritornello, and depend on sequences to
extend harmonic resolutions. Venetian composers also made use of the
sarabande and siciliano dance rhythms, and hemiola cadences to produce
unified slow movements. Many of these stylized dance movements, popular
with the Marcello brothers, abandon the binary forms of the dance in favor
of a free form based on extended sequences and hemiola cadences. Both
Vivaldi and Albinoni also composed expressive slow movements based on
free chaconne structures.106
The many embellished versions of the slow movements of Corelli's
op. 5 sonatas attest to the fact that ornamentation was expected in the
performance of these Bolognese works. Slow movements by Albinoni and
both Marcellos rarely include any written-out embellishment, but it is
probably safe to assume that these works were also intended to be
performed with ornamentation.107 Vivaldi's many slow movements
present a more complex situation. These movements range from lavishly

106 Vivaldi combines several chaconne statements with ritomellos, melodic sequences,
sarabande rhythms, and hemiola cadences in the slow movement of his RV 316/ 316a to
produce a free and expressive but well unified movement.

107 The introduction to Alessandro Marcello's La cetra, [6] concerti di Eterio Stinfalico,
for 2 flutes or oboes and orchestra (Augsburg, cl740) states that these works are to be played
as printed and should not be 'added to'. This comment may refer to the instrumentation
specified rather than to embellishment. In any case, these works are late and somewhat
unusual examples of the Venetian style and probably do not represent the common practice
of the early eighteenth century. See Hutchings, The Baroque Concerto, p. 167, and Michael
Talbot, "Marcello, Alessandro," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
(ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980), XI, 648.

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embellished to completely plain, with the majority being either
unornamented or only lightly ornamented. The movements which contain
a high level of embellishment would appear to be exceptional examples of
Vivaldi's style set down in full notation. Although some ornamented
movements appear in his printed collections, the most spectacular
ornamentations (as well as some extended cadenzas) appear only in
manuscript sources and were probably commissioned works. These
ornamented movements (which occur in about ten percent of Vivaldi's
concertos) present a substantial collection of examples of the style of
ornamentation which Vivaldi would probably have expected in the majority
of his works.108
Several features of Vivaldi's style of ornamentation are notable. His
ornamentations are freely and loosely constructed with little or no concern
for motivic continuity or structural design. These ornaments serve to
embellish and enliven the underlying structure but make no attempt to
alter or develop that structure. There is a strong tendency for the
ornamentation of sequences to remain the same as the sequence
progresses, even in such highly ornamented movements as those of RV 273
and RV 232.109 This tendency reflects Vivaldi's disinterest in using
ornamentation to enhance structure, an attitude which may also be seen in

108 The idea that Vivaldi simply did not bother to write out the majority of his
ornamentation is supported by the fact that he was highly regarded as a virtuoso violinist,
and was undoubtedly capable of improvising ornamentations to his own slow movements.

109 The sequences of RV 187 present rare examples to the contrary.

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Albinoni's lightly ornamented slow movements110 as well as in most of the
slow movements of Telemann's Sonate metodiche (1728), Continuation den
Sonates methodiques (1732), and Trietti methodici (1731).111

Bonporti

After Vivaldi, fully notated ornamentations by Italian composers
became more common. Slow movements by Locatelli, Tartini, and Leclair
(a Frenchman who composed concertos in the Italian style) are often richly
embellished in the style of the late Baroque. An earlier manifestation of
this trend can be seen in the highly embellished and somewhat unusual
works of Bonporti. Francesco Antonio Bonporti (1672-1749) based his style
upon that of Corelli and, although his works are often unconventional and
somewhat superficial, four violin sonatas of his Inventioni da camera
(Bologna, 1712) are sufficiently interesting as to have been once taken as
works by Bach (BWV Anh. 173-176). Bonporti's concern for detail led him to
produce expressive and unusual ornamentations which often include
interesting small scale motivic relationships. Some of his ornamentations
even suggest a tendency towards an overall building in activity across a
movement, although this is never clearly developed. As with Vivaldi,
Bonporti occasionally wrote ornamentations in the style of operatic

110 See, for example, the slow movements of Albinoni's Sonata No. 6 of his
Trattenimenti Armonici per Camera, op. 6 (Amsterdam, 1711), reprinted in Spitta, Bach,
in,3
88-9
8.
111 The first two of these are in Georg Philipp Telemann: Musikalische Werke , vol. 1,
Zwolf methodische Sonaten fur Querflote Cfioline) und Basso continuo, ed. by Max Sieffert
(Kassel: Barenreiter, 1950). The third (III trietti methodici e III scherzi) is ed. by M.
Schneider (Leipzig, 1948).

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recitative,112 and he generally ornamented his sequences without
change.113 Although Bonporti's ornamentations exhibit many interesting
features, his works are generally inferior to those of Vivaldi and Albinoni,
and his style is probably not representative of the mainstream Italian
performance practices of his time.

Transmission to Germany: Pisendel

The popularity of Vivaldi's music in Germany inspired several
German composers to work with him directly. Stolzel and Heinichen both
knew him, but only Johann Georg Pisendel (1687-1755) worked with him
closely. Pisendel, who was considered the foremost German violinist of his
time, had studied with Torelli in Ansbach. In 1709 he travelled to Leipzig,
stopping along the way in Weimar where he first met Bach.114 From 1712
he was a violinist in the Dresden court orchestra, and was included on
several royal tours, including a trip to France in 1715 and a trip to Italy in
1716-17.115 In the latter case, Pisendel arrived in Venice in April of 1716 as
one of four musicians of an elite Kam m erm usik. He remained in Venice

112 See, for example, the recitativo movement of the first of his Inventioni, op. 10, or of his
fifth concerto from his Concerti a quattro, op. 11 (after 1727). His late collection of [10]
Concertini e serenate con arie variate, siciliane, recitativi e chiuse, op. 12 (Augsburg,
cl745) contains several movements in the style of vocal recitative.

113 See, for example, the Largo of the third of his Inventioni, op. 10.

114 The fact that Bach and Pisendel copied Telemann's Concerto for 2 Violins in G
major together at this time attests to the musical exchange which must have taken place.
Manuscript is in LB Dresden Mus. 2392-0-35a. See Hans-Joachim Schulze, "Telemann-
Pisendel—Bach. Zu einem unbekannten Bach-Autograph", in Konferenzbericht der 7.
Telemann-Festtage; Magdeburg 1981.

113 Pippa Drummond, "Pisendel, Johann Georg" in The New Grove Dictionary of
Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) XTV, 775.

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43

for nine months and then moved on to several other Italian cities before
returning to Dresden in September of 1717, at which time he became acting
director of the court orchestra. While in Venice, Pisendel developed a close
friendship with Vivaldi. Michael Talbot has noted that "Pisendel, who
became Vivaldi’s composition pupil, appears to have been the only
musician of significance with whom [Vivaldi] ever entered into a close
relationship; he was allowed to copy numerous works by his teacher and
received the original manuscripts of others as presents."116 Indeed, these
include Vivaldi autographs of five sonatas and six concertos, all dedicated
to Pisendel, as well as seven sonatas and thirty-seven concertos in
Pisendel's own hand. Pisendel also obtained works by other Italian
composers including three autograph sonatas by Albinoni, and copies of
concertos by Albinoni and Benedetto Marcello.117 By 1730 Dresden had
become the operatic capital of Germany and, under, the influence of
Pisendel, a center for the performance of Vivaldi's concertos second only to
the Pieta.118

118 Michael Talbot, Antonio Vivaldi: A Guide to Research (New York: Garland, 1988),
p. xxxiv.

117 Michael Talbot, Vivaldi, (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1978), p. 62. All of
Pisendel's manuscripts are in LB Dresden, except for RV 19 which has found its way to the
Paris Bibliotheque Nationale. The Dresden library contains a large collection of Vivaldi
manuscripts which are derived primarily from Pisendel's own collection, and that of the
former Dresden court orchestra. See also Peter Ryom, Repertoire des CEuvres d Antonio
Vivaldi: Les compositions instrumentales, (Copenhagen: Engstrpm & Sodring, 1986).
Ryom associates Pisendel's name with Vivaldi's RV 2, 5, 6, 19, 25, 29, 112, 122, 135, 140, 147,
162,172,202,205,212,213,213a, 228,237,253,279,292,294a, 302,319,326,328,340,370,379,507,
508,521,562,568, 569,571, and 582.

118 Michael Talbot, Antonio Vivaldi: A Guide to Research, (New York: Garland, 1988),
p. xiv.

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Pisendel's role in the transmission of the Venetian style to Germany
is especially interesting due to both the great number of German Vivaldi
manuscripts traceable to Pisendel, and the impressive ornamentations of
several of these manuscripts. Pisendel's copies often contain alterations
such as additional inner voices, prominent wind parts, written-out
embellishments, altered solo passages, cadenzas, and even completely new
movements.119 While these modifications give insight into the musical
practice of the Dresden orchestra, they also render the authenticity of these
Vivaldi ornamentations somewhat suspect.120 Several of these
ornamentations exist, however, in Vivaldi autographs or in manuscripts
predating Pisendel's sojourn to Italy. Vivaldi's Concerto in D major, RV
562 is an interesting example. The Grave of Pisendel's manuscript121
contains a spectacular ornamentation in the style of a vocal recitative, and
the third movement contains an extended cadenza. The Vivaldi autograph
of this concerto does not contain the second and third movements, leaving
the possibility that these ornamentations were invented by Pisendel. The
cadenza is, however, virtually the same as that of a Schwerin manuscript
of Vivaldi's Concerto in D major, RV 208,122 which was arranged by Bach

119 Michael Talbot, Antonio Vivaldi: A Guide to Research, p. 132. See also his Vivaldi,
p. 63. Such alterations also appear in works copied by other members of the Dresden
orchestra now in LB Dresden.

120 Pisendel's ability to invent richly ornamented slow movements in the Italian style
may be seen in the opening movement of his Sonata for unaccompanied violin in A minor
(in LB Dresden Mus. 2421 R/2: modem edn. by Gunter Hausswald in Hortus Musicus, vol.
91, Kassel, 1952;.

121 LB Dresden Mus. 2389/0/94.

122 D-SW1 Mus. ms. 5565. This 106-bar third-movement cadenza is printed in NBA
IV/8, Krit. Bericht, by Karl Heller, p. 101-4, and a photograph of it is in Informazioni e

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as Organ concerto in C major (BWV 594) no later than 1714 (two years
before Pisendel met Vivaldi), and the ornamentation of the Grave is similar
in style to the Grave of RV 208, which is found in an autograph Vivaldi
manuscript.123 It would appear that both the Grave and the third-
movement cadenza of RV 562 are probably by Vivaldi, although the cadenza
may have been borrowed, by Pisendel, from RV 208. Pisendel's habit of
borrowing and reusing Vivaldi's ornamentations may also be seen in
Pisendel's addition of the richly ornamented Grave of RV 326 (op. 7/i, no. 3)
to a Dresden copy of RV 370 as an alternative slow movement, and in his
addition of two alternative slow movements and an alternative cadenza to
his manuscript of RV 212.124 Richly ornamented Vivaldi works traceable to
Pisendei include the Vivaldi autograph of the Sonata in C minor for violin,
RV 6, dedicated to Pisendel, a Dresden manuscript of the Concerto in E
minor for violin, RV 279 (op. 4, no. 2) with revisions, by Pisendel, a Dresden
manuscript of the Concerto in G minor for violin, RV 328, and a Dresden
manuscript of the Concerto in A major for violin, RV 343.125 The majority
of these works suggest that Pisendel was more interested in obtaining fully

Studi Vivaldiani 4, 1983, p. 10-11. Vivaldi's autograph does not include this cadenza, but a
126-bar third-movement cadenza in a set of parts to RV 208 in Cividale (I-CF) is attributed
to Vivaldi in the manuscript and agrees with the Schwerin version in the first 9 bars and
much of the last 22 bars (a facsimile of this cadenza is in Informazioni e Studi Vivaldiani
4,1983, p. 7-9).

123 I-Tn Giordano vol. 29, fol. 167-181. The Grave ornamentation of RV 208 exists in all
three manuscripts (Schwerin, Cividale, and the Turin autograph).

124 LB Dresden Mus. 2389-0-55a, and LB Dresden Mus. 2389/0/74. See Ryom's
(Repertoire des CEuvres d'Antonio Vivaldi, 1986) comments on RV 326, and RV 212.

123 These manuscripts are all in LB Dresden: Mus. 2389/R /10, fol. 13-17 (no. 4) contains
RV 6; Mus. 2/0/1.61 contains RV 279; Mus. 2389/0/115 contains RV 328; and Mus.
2389/0/112 contains RV 343.

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notated ornamentations by Vivaldi than in creating his own
ornamentations to Vivaldi slow movements.126

The Development of Bach's Style of Instrumental Ornamentation

Introduction

This section will present a general outline of the events leading to the
development of Bach's mature style of ornamentation. A more complete
analysis of the development of Bach's approach to instrumental
ornamentation is clearly beyond the range of this introduction.

Eisenach

Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach (in the Thuringia
region of south central Germany) on March 21, 1685 as the last child of
Johann Ambrosius Bach (1645-1695) and Maria Elisabeth Lammerhirt.
During his youth, Sebastian was undoubtedly exposed to the organ music of
his uncle, Johann Christoph Bach (1642-1703), the greatest composer of the
Bach family before Sebastian and organist and harpsichordist in the court
Kapelle of the Duke of Eisenach.127 By February of 1695 both of Sebastian's
parents had died, and so he and his brother Johann Jacob (1682-1722) were

126 'j’hjg j(jea js supported by the fact that none of these highly ornamented works have
been found in a simple Italian version.

127 Johann Christoph was a colleague of Sebastian's father, who is said to have served the
former as a copyist on many occasions. See Christoph Wolff, "Johann Christoph Bach," in
The New Grove Bach Family (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1983), p. 32. Sebastian is known to
have copied out works by Johann Christoph in his later years and, in 1735, he described him
as a "profound composer." See the "Genealogy of the Bach Family" (1735) in The Bach
Reader, ed. by Hans T. David and Arthur Mendel (New York: Norton & Co., 1945, revised
edn., 1966) no. 13, p. 206.

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taken in by their elder brother, Johann Christoph (1671-1721), in Ohrdruf
(below Gotha in Thuringia).

Ohrdruf: Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721)

Johann Christoph had studied with Pachelbel in Erfurt and was
probably Bach's first keyboard teacher.128 Bach's obituary states that "in a
short time [Sebastian] had fully mastered all the pieces his brother had
voluntarily set before him."129 It then goes on to describe Sebastian's
surreptitious efforts to copy "by moonlight" a book of "clavier pieces by the
most famous masters of the day—Froberger, Kerll, Pachelbel" which his
brother had undoubtedly amassed during his studies with Pachelbel and
denied Sebastian access.130 The obituary states that Johann Christoph
confiscated Sebastian's copy of the book, but that it was returned to him
after the death of Johann Christoph, at which time Sebastian moved on to

128 Pachelbel had become acquainted with Ambrosius Bach, father of Johann Sebastian,
while at Eisenach and Erfurt (1677-78 and 1678-90) and even served as godfather to Johann
Sebastian's sister, Johanna Juditha.

129 B Dok III, p. 81-82. Translated in The Bach Reader, p. 217-8. Bach's obituary was
written by C. P. E. Bach with the help of Johann Friedrich Agricola (a Bach student), and
was published in Lorenz Mizlers Musikalische Bibliothek, vol, IV, part I, 1754.

130 C. P. E. Bach also states in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok HI, p. 288, translated in The
Bach Reader, p. 278) that his father had loved and studied the works of Froberger, Kerll and
Pachelbel. Bach's interest in Froberger is confirmed by Jacob Adlung, a friend of Bach's,
who stated in 1758 {The Bach Reader, p. 445 or Spitta, Bach I, 323) that 'Froberger was
always held in high esteem by the late Bach of Leipzig." Furthermore, Bukofzer {Music in
the Baroque Era, p. 108) mentions that "Bach is known to have been especially fond of
Froberger's toccatas." Bach's knowledge of the music of Pachelbel is supported by the three
toccatas and a chaconne by Pachelbel which appear in ABB. Since Johann Christoph copied
most of these works into ABB himself, they must not have been part of his own collection
which Bach copied by moonlight. Bach's interest in the music of Kerll must have
continued, for in 1747-8 he copied a Sanctus in D by Kerll (formerly attributed to Bach as
BWV 241).

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Liineburg. Johann Christoph actually died in 1721, but it does seem likely
that the book was returned to Sebastian in April of 1700 when he departed
for Liineburg. This book must have offered Sebastian an important
introduction to the great composers of the south German organ school
whose style was based largely on that of Frescobaldi.131
The free, improvisatory sections of the toccatas and praeludia in this
book must have provided Bach with many good Italian free ornamentations
in the style of Frescobaldi. The larger toccatas of Pachelbel may have been
especially interesting to Bach for their motivic economy and continuity.132
These elements may also be seen in some of Frescobaldi's works, but it is
not known if Bach was familiar with his works before 1714.133>134 Bach

131 Although both copies of this book are now lost, Christoph Wolff has surmised that its
contents may have resembled those of a similar book compiled in 1692 by Johann Valentin
Eckelt (b. 1673), who, like Johann Christoph, had studied with Pachelbel in Erfurt. This
book (formerly Mus. ms. 40035 of the SPK, now in the BJK) contains ten works by
Froberger and twenty-six by Pachelbel. See the Appendix under "The Eckelt Tabulature
Book of 1692" for the contents of this book. See also Christoph Wolff, "Johann Valentin
Eckelts Tabulaturbuch von 1692," in Festschrift fur Martin Ruhnke zum 65. Geburtstag,
ed. K. - J. Sachs (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hanssler, 1986 p. 374-85).

132 Pachelbel's Toccata in G minor (DTB IV/1, p. 25, no. 23), and even his shorter
Toccata in D minor (DTB IV/1, p. 5, no. 8) both show these tendencies. The former is,
according to Christoph Wolff, included in the Eckelt book of 1692, and the latter is known to
be in the Eckelt book. See the Appendix under "The Eckelt Tabulature Book of 1692."

133 In 1714 Bach acquired a good manuscript copy of Frescobaldi's Fiori musicali di
diverse compositioni, toccate, kyrie, conzoni, capricci, e ricercari, in partitura, a 4
(Venice, 1635). This manuscript, once in the Staatlichen Akademie fur Kirchen- und
Schulmusik, Berlin, is now lost. See Spitta {Bach, 1 ,421) and B Dok I, p. 269, Anh. 5.
Schulze {Studien zur Bach-Uberlieferung im 18.Jahrhundert, p. 158, n. 617) suggests that
this may have been purchased for Bach by Prince Johann Ernst of Sax-Weimar in the
Netherlands. The Bergamasca from this publication is a good example of Frescobaldi's
economic use of motivic material and may have interested Bach. See Peter Williams, The
Organ Music ofJ. S. Bach vol. Ill (Cambridge, 1984), p. 95.

134 Bach may have learned something of Frescobaldi's music during his time with
Buxtehude in 1705-6. As the successor (and son-in-law) to Franz Tunder in Lubeck,
Buxtehude would have inherited his music which (if Mattheson is correct in stating that

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would certainly have been interested in the expressive freedom and
motivically oriented ornamentations of Frescobaldi's II secondo libro di
toccate (Rome, 1627).135 Bach may also have been influenced by Froberger's
amalgamation of French and Italian influences, and his compact and
decisive fugue themes.136
Between about 1704 and 1715, Johann Christoph copied a diverse
range of works, including many early works by Johann Sebastian, into the
manuscripts Mo and ABB, an activity which attests to the virtuosity and the
range of interests of Johann Christoph, as well as the close relationship
between the two brothers.137 It seems probable that Johann Christoph was
able to give Johann Sebastian a solid background in a variety of keyboard

Tunder was a student of Frescobaldi) must have included works by Frescobaldi. The
influence of Frescobaldi's (and Froberger's) motivic treatment is evident in many of
Buxtehude's praeludia. See Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 246-7.

135 Reinken owned a copy of this work, and it is not inconceivable that Bach could have
come into contact with some of this music through Reinken or through his cousin, Johann
Ernst Bach, who studied organ playing in Hamburg in 1701. Bach's associate at Weimar,
Johann Gottfried Walther, was a collector of historical manuscripts and may also have
owned some of Frescobaldi's editions. See Christoph Wolff, "Johann Adam Reinken and
Johann Sebastian Bach," in J. S. Bach as Organist: His Instruments, Music, and
Performance Practice (Bloomington, 1986), p. 79, note 60.

136 George J. Buelow. "Froberger, Johann Jacob," in The New Grove Dictionary of
Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) vol. 6, p. 862. Some of these themes seem
to anticipate the later great fugue themes of Bach, and it has been suggested that Bach's
supposed fondness for Froberger may be due, in part, to the thematic invention of these
fugues. Bach may also have obtained works of Froberger from Buxtehude in 1705-6.
Buxtehude undoubtedly knew of Froberger's music through Matthias Weckmann, who was
a personal friend of Froberger. See Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 246.

137 The fact that Johann Sebastian apparently dedicated BWV 993 and BWV 913 to
Johann Christoph, and that both Mo and ABB contain works in Johann Sebastian's hand,
may be taken as a further indication of this close relationship. BWV 993 is titled
Cappriccio. In Honorem Johann Christoph Bachii by J. P Kellner in Berlin P 804, and
titled Capricio. In Honorem Joh. Christoph. Bachii Ohrdruf in Berlin P 970 andP 1088. See
also Hans-Joachim Schulze, "Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721), “Organist und Schul
Collega in OhrdruP, Johann Sebastian Bachs erster Lehrer," in Bach Jahrbuch 71 (1986),
p. 81.

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styles. It should also be mentioned that Bach received a well-rounded
education in religion, reading, writing, arithmetic, singing, history, and
natural science at the Ohrdruf Lyceum.138

Liineburg: Georg Bohm

In April of 1700 Bach joined the Matins choir of the Michaeliskirche
in Liineburg (in northern Germany, near Hamburg). This was a choir of
poor boys who received board, a small stipend, and free schooling (in
Lutherism, Latin, arithmetic, history, geography, genealogy, heraldry,
German poetry, and physics) at the Michaelisschule of the
Michaeliskirche. While in Liineburg Bach was subject to a variety of
influences, including French music for both keyboard and orchestra,
Italian trio sonatas, and north German organ music.
At the nearby Johanniskirche was Georg Bohm, an excellent
organist and composer in the north German tradition who was thoroughly
familiar with French keyboard style. Bohm's impact on Bach may be
inferred from the many works by Bohm which are preserved in
manuscripts of the Bach family and from C. P. E. Bach's inclination to
refer to Bohm as his father's teacher.139 Bohm may have introduced Bach
to the north German styles of Reinken and Buxtehude, and his interest in

138 Walter Emery, "Johann Sebastian Bach," in The New Grove Bach Family, p. 46.

139 B Dok III, p. 290, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278. Almost all of Bohm's extant
keyboard suites and free compositions are contained in Mo or ABB, and almost all of
Bohm's extant chorale-based works are contained in manuscripts notated by Bach's
associate at Weimar, J. G. Walther. The fact that Bach named B5hm as the northern agent
for the sale of his Partitas No. 1 and No. 2, BWV 825 and 826, in 1727 (see B Dok II, p. 169) is
a further indication that Bach was well acquainted with Bohm, and undoubtedly became so
during his years in Liineburg.

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the restatement, alteration, and transformation of themes must have
influenced Bach.140 Bohm's chorale partitas would have introduced Bach
to the variation techniques of Reinken and Buxtehude,141 and his
expressive, monodic chorale preludes would have introduced Bach to the
lyrical style of Buxtehude. The graceful elegance and effortless use of
French agrem ents of many of Bohm's works certainly influenced Bach, as
may be seen in the theme of the first fugue of Bach's Capriccio in Bb major,
BWV 992, a work composed soon after Bach's departure from Liineburg.142
The visit of J. C. F. Fischer to Liineburg in 1701 also may also have
contributed to Bach's (and Bohm's) knowledge of contemporary French
keyboard music and performance practice.143

140 Spitta, Bach, I, 206-212. See, for example, Bohm's chorale prelude Vater unser im
Himmelreich (in Georg Bohm: Samtliche Orgelwerke, ed. by Klaus Beckmann, 1986, p.
100-1). The motivic continuity and economy of many of the works of Bohm and Pachelbel
are a hallmark of many of Bach's later works.

141 Bohm's chorale partitas seem to have been imitated by Bach in his chorale partitas
Christ, der du bist der helle Tag, BWV 766, and O Gott, du frommer Gott, BWV 767. The
former work is particularly interesting for the use of motivic continuity and development
(see Spitta, Bach, I, 212).

142 Compare, for example, the character of this theme with that of the fugue theme from
Bohm's Prelude (and Fugue and Postlude) in G minor, a work which was clearly known to
Bach, as it appears near the beginning of ABB. The Bach Capriccio, written for the
departure of his brother, Johann Jacob, appears in the early portion of Mo and is thought to
have been composed in 1703,1704, or 1706. Bach himself gives a date of 1704 for this event in
his genealogy of 1735 (see The Bach Reader, p. 207), but as he also remembered his own 1703
appointment in Amstadt to have occurred in 1704, a date of 1703 may be possible for BWV
992. This lyrical style of ornamentation may also be seen in portions of Buxtehude's
Praeludium in A major, BuxWV 151, which appears near the middle of Mo and must have
been known to Bach from his Ltibeck trip of 1705-6.

143 Fischer, a German who composed many works in the French style, is mentioned by
C. P. E. Bach in 1775 (B Dok HI, p. 288, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) as one of the
composers whose works Sebastian had studied. The eighth suite of Fischer's Les Pieces de
Clavessin, op. 2 (Schlackenwerth, 1696, reprinted as Musicalisches Blumenbiischlein ,
1698), consisting of a Prelude and Chaconne in G major, appears in J. C. Bach’s (1671-
1721) hand in the latter portion of ABB. Bach may also have known Fischer's Ariadne

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Bach's obituary states that Bach, while in Liineburg, "had the
opportunity to go and listen to a then famous band kept by the Duke of Zelle
[Celle], and consisting for the most part of Frenchmen; thus he acquired a
thorough grounding in the French taste."144 Bach probably heard this
group at one of the castles owned by the court of Celle in the Liineburg
area.145 In any case, Bach must have learned much about the French
orchestral style of Lully as well as French violin performance practice from
this excellent group of French performers.146

musica neo-organoedum (Schlackenwerth, 1702), a collection of twenty preludes and
fugues in all keys, and five chorale ricercare which makes use of typical south German
organ techniques. Bukofzer (Music in the Baroque Era, p. 266) states that "it [Ariadne]
served as the direct model for the Well-Tempered Clavier [BWV 846-893], not only with
regard to the order of keys, but sometimes even with regard to the fugue themes." Two
chorale ricercares from this work are in Walther's hand in Berlin Mus. ms. 22541II, Mus.
ms. 2254112 (same work), and Mus. ms. 2254113. One of these and and a Praeludium in G
are in Johann Christoph Bach’s (1673-1727) hand from cl709-1727 in NH L M 4983,

144 B Dok III, p. 82, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 217. Bach (and Bohm) may also
have learned something of French music through the Liineburg Ritterakademie, where
young noblemen were taught French language, etiquette, and music. See Hans-Joachim
Schulze, "The French influence in Bach's instrumental music,” in Early Music, vol. 13
no. 2, May 1985, p. 181, translated by Derek McCulloch from, "Der franzOsische Einfluss
im Instrumentalwerke J. S. Bachs," in Sludien zur Auffiihrungspraxis und Interpretation
von Instrumentalmusik des 18. Jahrhunderts, Book 16, ed. by Walter Blankenburg, 1981,
p. 57-63.

145 Celle itself is about 50 miles from Liineburg, and it is doubtful that Bach travelled
such a distance to hear the Celle orchestra. Bach's obituary merely states that he had the
opportunity to hear the orchestra. The wording of the obituary could even be interpreted to
mean that Bach heard the Celle orchestra while in Hamburg on one or more of his trips to
hear Reinken.

146 The orchestral style of Lully was popular in many parts of Germany during Bach's
youth. Hans-Joachim Schulze (Studien zur Bach-tJberlieferung im 18.Jahrhundert, p. 166)
has noted that an extensive collection of Lully's operas was kept by the Erbprinz Friedrich
Ludwig of Wiirttemberg-Stuttgart. Bach may have had a number of chances to hear good
French violin playing, although his experience with the Celle orchestra was probably his
first significant opportunity of the kind.

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Hamburg: Reinken

Bach may have learned a good deal about north German organ
playing from Bohm,147 but the virtuosic playing of Reinken must have
made a far greater impression. Reinken, a father figure of the north
German school who was already seventy-seven in 1700, was organist of St.
Catherine's in Hamburg where he commanded the most spectacular organ
in Germany. He was a diversified composer with a wide range of material
at his disposal, including works by Buxtehude and Frescobaldi.148 It is
clear from Bach's obituary that he visited Hamburg from Liineburg on
several occasions with the specific intention of hearing Reinken,149 and it is

147 It is primarily Bohm's keyboard works in the French style which appear in Mo and
ABB, suggesting that it was Bohm's knowledge of the French style which was of most
interest to Bach. This may be a distorted perspective, however, if Walther in fact derived
his many copies of BShm chorale preludes from Bach. Robert Hill considers it unlikely
that J. C. Bach (1671-1721) derived his works by Bohm from J. S. Bach. See Hill, The
Moller Manuscript and the Andreas Bach Book, diss. Harvard, 1987, p. 200.

148 Reinken owned Frescobaldi's II secondo libro di toccate (Rome, 1627). The close
relationship between Reinken and Buxtehude is attested to by a 1674 painting (now called
Hausliche Musikszene, or Domestic Music Scene) by Johannes Voorhout (in the Museum
fiir Hamburgische Geschichte, Hamburg) in which Reinken and Buxtehude are pictured
together. Buxtehude holds a manuscript in Reinken's hand of an 8-voice canon set to a
Latin text of Psalm 133 ("Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell
together in unity!") with the inscription "In hon: dit: Buxtehude: et Joh: Adam Reink:
fratres." See Kerala J. Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude (New York: Schirmer Books, 1987), p.
108-112. Snyder suggests that Buxtehude may have made frequent visits to Hamburg from
Lvibeck, and that Reinken and Buxtehude may have both studied with Scheidemann in
Hamburg between 1654 and 1657.

149 B Dok. Ill, p. 82, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 217. Bohm spent the years 1693-
1698 in Hamburg and was greatly influenced by Reinken. It is possible that Bohm
suggested that Bach hear Reinken. It seems likely that Sebastian visited his cousin and
former schoolmate from the Ohrdruf Lyceum, Johann Ernst Bach, in Hamburg. Johann
Ernst studied in Hamburg from about April to November of 1701, and the close friendship
between the cousins is evidenced by Bach's assignment of the final portion of his Amstadt
salary to Johann Ernst in 1707 (see The Bach Reader, p. 56). Wolff has suggested that
Bach's trips to Hamburg may have started during his Ohrdruf years, but the 180 or so mile
trip from Ohrdruf to Hamburg was surely beyond Sebastian's resources at that time. See

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54

known that Bach obtained Reinken works in north German, Italian, and
French styles, although it is difficult to date this material precisely.150
Whether Bach obtained Reinken's music from Reinken himself, from
Bohm, or from his cousin in Hamburg, it was most likely acquired during
his years in Liineburg. Reinken's music and performances must have
offered Bach an important introduction to the virtuosic keyboard figurations
of the Sweelinck tradition as well as the lyricism of Scheidemann.151
Furthermore, Bach may have been introduced to the music of Buxtehude,
Frescobaldi, Scheidemann, Sweelinck, and various composers of Italian
trio sonatas through Reinken.152
It is not known exactly when Bach left Liineburg, but sometime after
July 9, 1702 he successfully competed for the post of organist of the

Christoph Wolff, "Johann Adam Reinken and Johann Sebastian Bach," in J. S. Bach as
Organist: His Instruments, Music, and Performance Practice, ed. by George Stauffer and
Ernest May. (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana Univ. Pr., 1986), p. 60.

150 It is clear that Bach was familiar with many of Reinken's works. Two sets of
variations by Reinken in the Sweelinck tradition and a lengthy toccata by Reinken are
included in ABB, and two keyboard suites by Reinken are included in Mo. Furthermore,
Bach apparently knew Reinken's chorale fantasia An den Wasserflilssen Babylon (see B
Dok. Ill, p. 84, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 219), and Bach reworked portions of
Reinken's Hortus musicus, a collection of sonatas that have been described as "a North
German variant of the Italian trio sonata, standing between the Legrenzi type and the
Corelli and Albinoni models" (see Wolff op. cit., p. 69).

151 Bach's assimilation of the style of Reinken is evidenced by the fact that when Bach
improvised a lengthy fantasia on An Wasserflufien Babylon, "just as the better organists
of Hamburg in the past had been used to do," for Reinken in 1720, Reinken is said to have
complimented him: "I though that this art was dead but I see that in you it still lives." B
Dok III, p. 84, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 219.

152 Bach may also have had the opportunity to hear French and Italian works at the
Hamburg Opera during these trips. This may also account, in part, for the orchestral
suites (transcribed for keyboard) from operas by Marais and Steffani which appear about
two-thirds of the way through ABB and Mo respectively. Reinhard Reiser was the director
of the opera during Bach's Liineburg years, and a St. Mark Passion by Reiser in Bach's
hand, from 1713 and partially from 1726, exists in DSB Reinh. Reiser Mus. ms. 11471/1.

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Jakobikirche in Sangerhausen. In November, however, the Sangerhausen
position was given to an older man. Bach is next heard of as a musician at
the court of Duke Johann Ernst in Weimar (the lesser of the two Weimar
courts) in March of 1703.153 Bach's stay in Weimar could not have lasted
more than a year, for in August of 1703 he accepted the position of organist
at the New Church in Arnstadt, a position which he retained until July of
1707.154

Arnstadt: Mo and ABB

Soon after Bach's return to the Thuringia region (Sonderhausen,
Weimar, and Arnstadt) in 1702-3, his brother, Johann Christoph, began
collecting music into the two large manuscripts Mo and ABB. These
manuscripts contain many early works by Bach, some in his own hand, as
well as a variety of French, Italian, and German works.155 Many of the

153 While in Weimar, Bach may have been influenced by Johann Paul von Westhoff
(1656-1705), chamber secretary, chamber musician, and teacher of French and Italian at
the Weimar court. Westhoff had toured much of Europe, and was considered one of the
finest violinists of his day. His works include some of the first known works for
unaccompanied violin, and several sonatas in the Italian style. See Folker Gdthel,
"Westhoff, Johann Paul von," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ed.
by Stanley Sadie, 1980), XX, 376.

154 Walter Emery, "Johann Sebastian Bach (I-VI)," in The New Grove Bach Family
(New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1983), p. 52-3.

155 For a complete discussion of these manuscripts see Robert Hill's 1987 dissertation
The Moller Manuscript and the Andreas Bach Book: Two keyboard anthologies from the
circle of the young Johann Sebastian Bach. Each of these manuscripts contains a Bach
autograph (BWV 535a in Mo, and the Fantasia in C minor BWV Anh. 205 in ABB), and
several other works which include Bach's handwriting (BWV 921, BWV 531, and
Marchand's Suite in D minor). Hill (op. cit., p. 400) states that "it seems safe to assume
that Bach knew the complete contents of both books." Furthermore, (p. 461) "it seems
legitimate to regard J. S. Bach as one of JCB's principal suppliers of repertoire," and "to
judge from the consistently outstanding quality of the repertoire and texts, JCB doubtless
had access to far more repertoire than he chose to copy." Indeed, in several cases J. C. Bach

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works in these books are thought to have been derived from exemplars
provided by J. S. Bach. The works by Bohm, Reinken, Buxtehude, and
Bruhns which appear in the early portions of these manuscripts may have
been collected by Sebastian while in Liineburg or Hamburg. Many of the
published works (or manuscript copies of published works) copied by
Johann Christoph into Mo and ABB may have been deriyed from music
obtained by Sebastian during his Arnstadt years or perhaps a bit later (i.e.,
1703-cl710).156 These manuscripts give invaluable insight into Bach's
interests during the period of about 1704 to 1710, and perhaps as late as
1715.
The early portions of Mo and ABB reflect some of Bach's Liineburg
influences: French keyboard and orchestral music, and Italian trio
sonatas. The majority of the Bohm and Reinken entries are keyboard suites
in the French style. Orchestral suites (in the French style) by Coberg,
Steffani, and Pez, trio sonatas by Albinoni, and suites by LeBegue157 appear

(1671-1721) selected only the most interesting works from an entire publication. It is also
notable that Mo and ABB may be the largest compilation of manuscript copies of published
French keyboard music cl700 known outside of France.

156 These may include the works by Albinoni, Dieupart, LeBegue, Fischer, and
Marchand included in Mo and ABB. The relatively good salary which Bach received at
Arnstadt coupled with his limited commitments as a bachelor may have allowed him his
first opportunity to obtain printed or copied music in any significant quantity.

157 It has been suggested (Peter Williams, The Organ Music ofJ. S. Bach, III, p. 100) that
the omission of improvisatory French preludes from the LeBegue suites in Mo indicates
that Bach, and the Germans generally, did not understand these works. French preludes
are, however, commonly retained in the manuscripts of Walther and J. C. Bach (1671-
1721): a prelude by Marchand appears in ABB and preludes by Bustijn, Dandrieu, Nivers,
and LeRoux appear in DSB P 801. Furthermore, it is impossible to know whether the
preludes to the LeBegue suites had already been omitted in J. C. Bach's source for Mo.

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in Mo. Selections from the works of Marchand,158 J. C. F. Fischer, and
Dieupart159 appear in ABB, indicating Bach's continued interest in French
keyboard music. An orchestral suite by Marais (arranged for keyboard), as
well as an anonymous orchestral suite in five parts also appear ABB,
suggesting Bach's continued interest in the orchestral style of Lully and his
contemporaries.

Liibeck: Buxtehude

In mid-October of 1705, Bach is said to have walked about 280 miles to
Liibeck to hear Dieterich Buxtehude, the famous organist of the St. Mary's
Church. Bach's obituary states that this trip was a result of his
"particularly strong desire to hear as many good organists as he could,"
and that once in Liibeck Bach "tarried there, not without profit, for almost a
quarter of a year."160 Such an extended stay may even have allowed him to

158 Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721) may have been especially interested in the
virtuosic Chaconne of Marchand's Pieces de Clavecin, Livre Premier. His interest in
variation forms is evidenced by his copies of: Lully's Chaconne in G major from Phaeton
(LWV 61/40); the Chaconne grave and the Chaconne of LeBegue's Les pieces de clavessin;
Buxtehude's Chaicconas in C minor and E minor (BuxWV 159 and 160), Passacaglia in D
minor (BuxWV 161), and Praeludium [Prelude, Fugue, and Chaconne] in C major
(BuxWV 137); Pachelbel's Chaconne in D minor (DTB, II/l, no. 17); Fischer's Prelude
and Chaconne No. 8 in G major from his Les Pieces de Clavessin, op. 2; an anonymous
French Overture and Chaconne in C major (in Mo); and J. S. Bach's Passacaglia in C
minor (BWV 582) and Aria Variata (BWV 989).

159 The Dieupart table of ornaments appears in an early part of Mo, but since it appears
on the same page as the conclusion of Bohm's partita on the aria Jesu, du bist allzu schone,
it may have been entered at a later date in order to make use of some empty staves. It has
been suggested that the Mo copy of the Dieupart table may have been in some way associated
with the Dieupart suites copied by Bach in cl709-14 in UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538 (see
Schulze, Studien zur Bach-Uberlieferung p. 42, n. 133). This suggestion would also support
the idea of a later date.

160 B Dok III, p. 82, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 217-8. Bach had, in fact, asked
only for a four week leave of absence from the Arnstadt authorities, but was absent for

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participate in Buxtehude's extraordinary Abendm usik performances of
December 2 & 3, 1705.161 Bach may have already been acquainted with
Buxtehude's music through Reinken, but this trip allowed him to become
thoroughly familiar with Buxtehude's lyrical and expressive style of
performance. Bach was able to copy many of Buxtehude's keyboard works,
of which the nine examples in Mo and ABB represent only a small
fraction.162 Bach was undoubtedly influenced by the ornamentations in
Buxtehude's short, highly individualistic chorale preludes (settings of a
single stanza of the chorale which employ the solo texture of
Scheidemann's chorale monodies and have been likened to Buxtehude's
vocal arias) as well as the virtuosic, varied, and generally melodic
ornamentation in Buxtehude's free organ works.163 Bach may also have

almost sixteen weeks (see B Dok II, p. 19-20, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 51-2).
Clearly Buxtehude and his music must have impressed Bach greatly.

161 These programs were given on only five Sundays of the year. Buxtehude's Castrum
doloris (BuxWV 134) and Templum honoris (BuxWV 135) were performed on December 2
and 3, 1705. The latter work requires twenty-five violins, and Kerala Snyder has
suggested that Bach may have participated in this performance. See Kerala J. Snyder,
Dieterich Buxtehude (New York: Schirmer Books, 1987), p. 105. Only the librettos of these
works remain, in the Bibliothek der Hansestadt, Liibeck.

162 Bach apparently made an extensive collection of Buxtehude's preludes, and
canzonas and possibly some works by N. Bruhns, a student of Buxtehude (two preludes by
Bruhns appear near the end of Mo). A copy by Agricola of only the preludes with obbligato
pedal from Bach's collection exists in the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels, Litt
V, No. 26659. This manuscript contains eleven works by Buxtehude and two by Bruhns. A
similar collection, by an unknown copyist, containing a few different works is in the SPK
Mus. ms. 2681. See Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 317-9. Bach may also have copied
works of Buxtehude from Walther in Weimar as well. Walther stated in 1729 that he
owned keyboard works by Buxtehude which were given to him by Werckmeister sometime
after 1704. 39 choral preludes by Buxtehude are in Walther’s hand in DSB Mus. ms.
22541/1,2254112, and 22541 /3; Konigsberg Ms. 15839 (now lost); and the Hague,
Gemeentemuseum 4.G.14. See Snyder, op. cit., p. 128 and 321-3.

163 The lyrical nature of the chorale prelude ornamentations may be seen in the opening
bars of Buxtehude's Vater unser in Himmelreich, BuxWV 219, or the opening section of his
Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt, BuxWV 183, both of which exist in Walther's hand in

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been interested in the motivic treatment of many of these works, which
Buxtehude had derived from the styles of Frescobaldi and Froberger.164
Snyder has noted that, after his return to Arnstadt, Bach was reproved not
for his extended absence but for his "having hitherto made many strange
variationes in the choral, and mixed many foreign tones into it, so that the
Congregation has been confused by i t . . ."165 This excessive ornamentation
and transformation of chorale melodies following Bach's Liibeck trip
reflects "the fact that few of the Liibeck worshippers were able to recognize
the chorales from Buxtehude's introductions."166

Organ Works after French and North German Masters

Bach's obituary states that it was in Arnstadt that Bach "really
showed the first fruits of his application to the art of organ playing, and to
composition, which he had learned chiefly by the observation of the works of

The Hague, Gemeentemuseum 4.G.14 The rich, lyrical, fully notated ornamentations of
Buxtehude's free organ works may be seen in his Praeludium in E minor, BuxWV 142,
bars 11-16, his Praeludium in A major, BuxWV 151, bars 1-4, and his Praeludium in C
major, BuxWV 137, all of which were included in Bach's collection (BuxWV 142 appears
in Agricola's hand in the Brussels, Bibliotheque du Conservatoire Royal de Musique Litt
U, No. 26659, as well as in SPK Mus. ms. 2681; and BuxWV 151 and BuxWV 137 appear in
J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand in Mo and ABB). As has been mentioned (note 17, above),
BuxWV 151, bars 62-66, also contains an interesting example of lyrical ornamentation
(including agrements) which is abruptly discontinued in a fashion which suggests that the
performer was expected to continue the ornamentation through improvisation in a similar
style.

164 The thematic transformation between the two fugue themes of Buxtehude's
Praeludium in G minor, BuxWV 149 (which is contained in both Brussels Litt. U, No.
26659 and SPK Mus. ms. 2681) would surely have interested Bach. See also page 9, above.

165 B Dok II, p. 20. Translated in Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 105 and The Bach
Reader, p. 52.

166 Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 105. This sort of free and exotic approach is
described by Snyder in her discussion of the Stylus phantasicus in Buxtehude's praeludia
on p. 248-57.

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the most famous and proficient composers of his day and by the fruits of his
own reflection upon them." It then mentions that "in the art of the organ
he took the works of Bruhns, Reinken, Buxtehude, and several good French
organists as models."167 Bach's interest in Reinken and Buxtehude has
already been mentioned. Works such as Bach's Prelude and Fugue in E
major, BWV 566, and his Praeludium in G minor, BWV 535a, which he
copied into the middle of Mo, show a clear Buxtehude influence. Bruhns,
one of Buxtehude's greatest pupils, died in 1697 at age 32 and may have
been known to Bach through Buxtehude.168 Bach's interest in French
organ music may not be securely confirmed as dating from his Arnstadt
years. In July of 1707 Bach left Arnstadt and assumed the position of
organist at St. Blasius in Muhlhausen. In his request for dismissal from —
Mtihlhausen one year later (June 25, 1708). Bach wrote that he had
"acquired from far and wide, not without cost, a good store of the choicest
church compositions."169 Whether this included French organ masses is
not known, and the context of Bach's statement could suggest that he was
referring to vocal works. Hans Klotz has suggested that, despite the
indication of the obituary, Bach began composing organ works after French
models only after his arrival in Weimar.170 This, of course, cannot be
proven, but there is clear evidence of Bach's interest in this repertoire from

167 B Dok III, p. 82. Translated in The Bach Reader, p. 217.

168 See note 162, above.

169 B Dok I, p. 19. Translated in The Bach Reader, p. 60.

170 Hans Klotz, "Bachs Orgeln und seine Orgelmusik," in Die Musikforschung, 3
(1950), p. 189-203.

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his early Weimar years. In July of 1708 Bach assumed the position of
organist to the court of Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Sax-Weimar. In cl709-12 he
copied out Grigny's Premier livre d'orgue,171 and in 1710-15 Bach's student
Johann Caspar Vogler copied out Boyvin's two Livres d'orgue.112 Some of
Bach's organ works from this period show a clear French organ influence.
Bach's Passacaglia in C minor, BWV 582 (cl706-12) makes use of a theme
by Raison,173 and his Piece d'Orgue, BWV 572 (before cl712) is clearly based
on a French model, possibly by Couperin.174 Bach was probably familiar

171 Nicholas de Grigny, Premier livre d'orgue contenant une messe et les hymnes des
principalles festes de lannee (Paris, 1699). This was copied by Bach in cl709-1712 and is
in UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538. See Kobayashi in NBA series IX, Addenda, vol. 2.

172 Jacques Boyvin, Premier livre d'orgue contenant les huit tons a. I'usage ordinaire de
I'Eglise (Paris, 1689-90) and Second livre d'orgue contenant le huit tons a I'usage
ordinaire de I'Eglise (Paris, 1700). A copy of these was made by Bach's pupil from 1710-
1715, Johann Caspar Vogler (b. 1696). The manuscript (SPK Mus. ms. 2329) is on the same
type of paper as Bach's copy of the Grigny Livre d'orgue. See Victoria Horn, "French
Influence in Bach's Organ Works", in J. S. Bach as Organist: His Instruments, Music,
and Performance Practice, ed. by George Stauffer and Ernest May (Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1986) p. 256-273 for more on this and a facsimile of the first two pages.

173 Andre Raison, Livre d'orgue contenant cinq messes suffisantes pour tous les tons de
I'Eglise ou quinze Magnificats . . . et une Offerte, en action de grace, pour I'heureuse
convalescence du Roy in 1687 (Paris, 1688). The Trio en passacaille of Raison's second
mass has a theme identical to the first half of the theme of Bach's Passacaglia.

174 Hans Klotz has suggested that Francois Couperin's Mass in G major from his Pieces
d'orgue consistantes en deux messes (Paris, 1690) served as a model for Bach's Piece
d'Orgue. See Hans Klotz, "Bachs Orgeln und seine Orgelmusik," in Die
Musikforschung, 3, p. 200. Hans-Joachim Schulze has pointed out that the original title of
this work (Piece d'Orgue a 5 avec la Pedalle continu compose par J. S. Back), the titles of
the individual sections (tres vitement, gravement, and lentement), the alternation of plein
jeu and grand jeu, the spectacular manipulation of harmony, the sequences of sevenths
and ninths reminiscent of Grigny's Livre d 'orgue, and the broken chord writing as
suggested in D'Anglebert's Pieces de Clavecin all attest to the French influence in this
work. See Hans-Joachim Schulze, "The French influence in Bach's instrumental
music," in Early Music, vol. 13, no. 2 (May 1985), p. 183.

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with the organ works of Nivers and Du Mage as well.175

Italian Trio sonatas and Reinken’s Hortus musicus

Bach's interest in modem Italian music is first evidenced by the
Albinoni op. 1 trio sonatas which appear at the beginning of Mo. Bach's
many reworkings of Italian trio sonata movements by Corelli, Albinoni
(also op. 1), and Legrenzi have all been dated as before 1711, and most before
1708.176 All of Bach's works after Italian trio sonata models involve fugal
movements, but only Bach's reworkings of Reinken's H ortus musicus
sonatas include ornamentations of slow movements.177 These movements
give insight into Bach's early understanding of Italian free ornamentation.
The sequenced keyboard figurations in the Praeludium of BWV 966,
although Italianate in character, are reminiscent of the north German

175 The Suite No. 4 on the 4th tone (e) from Nivers' Livre d'orgue contenant cent pieces
de tous le tons de I'Eglise (Paris, 1665) appears in Walther's hand, after cl712 in DSB P
801. Johann Abraham Bimbaum cited Du Mage's work (Livre d'orgue, 1708) in defense of
Bach in 1738 (see The Bach Reader, p. 246), and it is assumed that Bach directed Bimbaum
to this work. See Schulze, op. cit., p. 181.

176 Bach's Fugues in C major, A major (in Mo), A major, and B minor (BWV 946, 949,
950, and 951/951a) are based on Albinoni's Trio sonatas No. 12, No. 7, No. 3, and No. 8
from his Suonate a tre for 2 vn, vc and hpd, op. 1 (Venice, 1694). Bach's Fugue in B minor
(BWV 579) is based on the Vivace of Corelli's Trio sonata no. 4 i n B minor from his Sonate
a tre for 2 vn, vle/archlute and organ, op. 3 (Rome, 1689). Bach's Fugue in C minor (in
ABB, BWV 574/574a/574b) is based on Legrenzi's Trio sonata No. 11 in G minor, "La
Mont' Albana" from his [18] Sonata a 2-3, libroprimo, op. 2, (Venice, 1655). A similar
reworking may be seen in Bach's Trio for organ in C minor (BWV 585), which is based on
the first two movements of Johann Friedrich Fasch's Trio sonata in C minor (LB Dresden
Mus. ms. 2423-Q-10). Similar reworkings by Peter Heidom may have been known to
Bach. Heidom's reworking of an unknown Reinken fugue appears in Mo, and his
reworking of a canzona by Kerll is in NH LM 5056.

177 Bach's Sonata in A minor (BWV 965), Fugue in Bb major (BWV 954), and Sonata in
C major (BWV 966) are derived from Reinken’s Trio sonatas No. 1 in A minor, No. 2 in
Bb major, and No. 3 in C major from his Hortus musicus (1687).

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tradition and might be dismissed as an application of the German tradition
to an Italianate work. The opening Adagio of BWV 965 is, however, more
distinctly Italian in character and unlike any extant ornamentation by
Reinken. It is possible that this ornamentation reflects Reinken's own
improvised performances as heard by Bach and may indicate Reinken’s
interpretation of the Italian style. This ornamentation does not, however,
appear to be a mere adaptation of the north German tradition to an
Italianate work. This movement suggests an understanding of the free
ornamentation style of the Italian string players which Bach may have
learned from Pisendel in 1709.178 Simply to date this work after 1709 does
not reconcile the similarity of the fugal reworkings of these works to Bach's
reworkings of Albinoni, Legrenzi, and Corelli: works which were probably
written several years earlier. It would, moreover, be foolish to under­
estimate Bach's resources and assume that he had no opportunity to hear
good Italian string playing during his diverse experiences in Liineburg,
Hamburg, Weimar, and Arnstadt.179 Regardless of its exact date, the
ornamentation of BWV 965 remains an impressive demonstration of the
refinement of Bach's style of ornamentation at this early time. It is inter­
esting, however, that although BWV 965 could easily pass for a later work,
it displays little concern for rhythmic density and formal design, and only a

178 The date of composition of BWV 965 (as well as BWV 966 and BWV 954) cannot be
precisely defined. Walther's copies of BWV 965 and 966 in DSB P803 have been dated as
1712 or earlier, and Wolff believes the works to have been composed before 1710 and
probably several years earlier. See Christoph Wolff, "Johann Adam Reinken and Johann
Sebastian Bach," in J. S. Bach as Organist: His Instruments, Music, and Performance
Practice, ed. by Stauffer and May (Bloomington, 1986), p. 69.

179 The playing of Johann Paul von Westhoff (mentioned in note 153, above) comes to
mind.

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minimal level of motivic continuity: elements which are significantly
developed in many of Bach's later ornamentations.

Weimar: Johann Gottfried Walther

In Weimar, Bach became friends with the organist at the Town
Church [the church of St. Peter and St. Paul], Johann Gottfried Walther
(1684-1748), who was a cousin of Bach's and a former student of Johann
Bernhard Bach (1676-1749).180 Bach's association with Walther was
especially fortuitous, not only for the material which Walther, a
lexicographer, was able to introduce to Bach, but for the many works by
Bach which are preserved in manuscripts by Walther and his students.181
The Walther and Krebs manuscripts DSB P 801, P802, and P 803 (written
cl712-15) contain works by a variety of composers, including Bach, and give
some insight into Walther's extensive music collection, which was
undoubtedly available to Bach.182 The many German chorale preludes in

180 Bach's friendship with Walther may be inferred from the extensive collection of
works which Walther obtained from Bach as well as several other facts: in 1712 Bach stood
godfather to Walther's eldest son; in 1729 Bach became the Leipzig sales representative for
Walther's Musikalisches Lexicon (the early release of the letter A section); and in 1735
Bach negotiated on Walther's behalf with the publisher J. G. KrUgner in Leipzig. See B
Dok II, p. 191, and The New Grove Bach Family, p. 61. Furthermore, manuscripts of a Baal
Missa tota in a (DSB Mus. ms. 30091 no. 11) and a Heinichen cantata (DSB Mus. ms.
30210) contain both Walther's and Bach's handwriting.

181 In a 1729 letter to Bokemeyer, Walther stated that he owned over 200 works by
Buxtehude and Bach, the former obtained from Werckmeister, and the latter obtained from
Bach himself. See Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 128.

182 It has been suggested that parts of P 801, P802, and P 803 may have been used by
Walther in preparation for his Musikalisches Lexicon of 1732. See Stephen Daw, "Copies
of J. S. Bach by Walther and Krebs: a Study of the Manuscripts P801, P802, and P803," in
The Organ Yearbook, 7 (1976), p. 33. Walther is said to have begun preparation of his
Lexicon in 1710 (see Werner Breig, "Walther, Johann Gottfried," in MGG, XTV, 209) and if
so, the extensive information in this volume may give an indication of Bach's early

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these manuscripts were probably derived, for the most part, from Walther's
ample collection.183 The French works by Dieupart, D'Anglebert, LeBegue,
Marchand, LeRoux, Dandrieu, Bustyn, and Nivers in P 801 are a further
indication of Bach's familiarity with this repertoire. The works of
D'Anglebert and Dieupart correspond with Bach's own copying
activities,184 and the LeBegue work (and, to a lesser degree, the Marchand
work) corresponds with the copying activities of J. C. Bach (1671-1721).185
Bach's familiarity with the Marchand suites is supported by the fact that
Adlung wrote in 1758 that these suites had only pleased him the one time

knowledge of various composers. This idea does not sit weli, however, with the fact that
Walther copied works from the 1705 Paris edition of LeRoux's Pieces de Clavessin intoP
801 but mentions only the Amsterdam edition on p. 189 and p. 535 of his Lexicon. In
addition, the works by Neufville, Dandrieu, and Nivers in P 801 are not cited in the
Lexicon, and the Marchand suite in P 801 does not seem to match any of the Marchand
works in the Lexicon. See the Appendix under "French Music Possibly Known To Bach.”

183 The works by Bohm, Bruhns, and Reinken in these manuscripts may be an
exception, and may have been obtained through Bach. Some of Walther's extensive library
of chorale preludes is preserved in the manuscripts DSB Mus. ms. 22541II, Mus. ms.
2254112, Mus. ms. 2254113, and Mus. ms. 4. G. 14. See the Appendix under "Choral
Preludes from Walther's Collection."

184 Bach copied all of the suites from Dieupart's Six suittes de clavecin (Amsterdam,
1701) in UB Frankfurt Mus. ms. 1538, and Walther copied only the Suite No. 1 in A major
into DSB P 801. Bach copied the table of ornaments from D'Anglebert's Pieces de
Clavessin (Paris, 1689) into UB Frankfurt Mus. ms. 1538, and Walther copied most of the
Suite No. 3 in D minor into DSB P 801.

185 J. C. Bach copied the Suites No. 1-5 and the table of agrements from LeBegue's Les
pieces de clavessin (Paris, 1677) into Mo, and Walther copied the Suite No. 2 into DSB P
801. Hill (The Moller Manuscript and the Andreas Bach Book, p. 148) suggests that both the
Mo and P 801 copies were derived from the same manuscript copy (without preludes) of the
Baillon edition. Copies of a Heidom Fugue in G minor appear in both J. C. Bach's hand in
Mo and Walther's hand in LB Dresden, Mus. 2015/ T/ l . Hill (pp. cit., p. 161-3) suggests
that both were derived from the same tabulature manuscript. J. S. Bach is the most obvious
link between J. C. Bach and Walther, and probably provided the exemplar for both the
LeBegue and Heidom work. J. C. Bach also copied Marchand's Pieces de Clavecin, Livre
Premier, consistin of a single Suite in D minor (Paris, 1702) into ABB, and Walther copied
a 1714 publication of Marchand's Pieces de Clavecin, Livre II, consisting of a single Suite
in G minor (Paris, 1703/1714) into DSB P801.

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that Bach had played them for him .186 The ornamented Allemande of
LeRoux's Suite in G minor, copied by Walther into DSB P 801, may have
interested Bach. This Allemande is somewhat like that of the Suite in Eb
major on p. 27 of Mo,187 and may have influenced the unusually
ornamented Allemandes of Bach's P artitas, BWV 827, 828, and 1012.

French A grem ents

It is clear that J. S. Bach was quite familiar with the French
agrement system, and it may even be said that in every area of his output
Bach's usage of agrements is consistent with that of the French.188 Bach
copied the D'Anglebert table of agrements, the most extensive of the French
tables, for himself in about 1710-1712, and in 1720 he set down a table of
thirteen agrements for his son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach.189 Bach's table
is based, in part, on the contents of the D'Anglebert table with the

188 Although Adlung owned the Marchand suites and Bach simply played them for him,
Adlung's admiration of Bach's performance would suggest that Bach was already
familiar with the suites. See The Bach Reader, p. 445.

187 Suite in Eb, in Georg Bohm: Samtliche Werke fiir KlavieriCembalo, ed. by Klaus
Beckmann, 1985, Breitkopf & Hartel No. 8086, p. 48-50. This suite is anonymous in the
manuscript. G. Leonhardt ("Johann Jakob Froberger and his Music," in L ’Organo, 6,
1968, p. 15-40) has suggested that this may be a work by Froberger.

188 Hans Klotz. Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und Orgelwerke von Johann Sebastian
Bach (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1984) p. 2.

189 The D’Anglebert table is in Bach's hand in UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538 along with
Dieupart's Six suittes de clavecin (Amsterdam, 1701) and Grigny's Premier livre d'orgue
(Paris, 1699). The 1720 table Explication unterschiedlicher Zeichen, so gewifie manieren
artig zu spielen, andeilten, appears at the beginning of his Clavier-biichlein vor Wilhelm
Friedemann Bach (facsimile reprint New Haven, 1959).

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substitution of German terminology for the original French.190 His
symbols for a m ordant (pince) and for a trillo und mordant (tremblement et
pince) differ from those of D'Anglebert and may be traced to the Fischer
table of 1698.191 Bach also includes several original ornaments, such as a
double cadence und mordant which are simply combinations of other
material in the table.
Other tables of agrements which were available to Bach include the
LeBegue table of 1677,192 and the Dieupart table of 1701, both of which
appear in Mo,193 and the somewhat irregular, anonymous table on p. 78 of
ABB. It is likely that Bach was familiar with several other French tables as

190 Unlike LeRoux, who clearly set down his 1705 table with a copy of Dieupart’s table in
hand, Bach does not appear to have worked directly from D'Anglebert's table. The
similarity of many of the agrements simply indicates his familiarity with D'Anglebert's
system.

191 Bach's symbol for a mordant may be traced to a variety of tables including those of
Chambonnieres (1670), LeBegue (1677), Raison (1688), Fischer (1696/1698), Couperin (1713),
and ABB (anonymous), but his symbol for a trillo und mordant can be traced only to
Fischer. It seems plausible that Bach was familiar with the Fischer table since the eighth
suite of Fischer's Les pieces de clavessin (1696, reprinted as Musical-isches
Blumenbiischlein, 1698) appears in ABB and since Fischer is said to have visited Liineburg
during Bach's years there. In addition, C. P. E. Bach noted in 1775 (B Dok III, p. 288,
translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that his father had "loved and studied the works o f .
. . the Baden Capellmeister Fischer."

192 It is worth noting that the first two suites from the 1701 Amsterdam version of
LeBegue's Second Livre de Calvesin (1687) were once attributed to Buxtehude (BuxWV
Anh. 12 and 13), as they appear anonymously in a collection of his suites (Copenhagen, Det
Kongelige Bibliotek Mu 6806.1399, olim C 11,49, the "Ryge" manuscript). If Buxtehude
owned an Amsterdam print of this set of LeBegue suites, he may have owned a copy of
LeBegue's Les pieces de clavessin (1677) as well. If so, then Bach may have seen these in
1705-6, which would account for the LeBegue suites in Mb.

193 As mentioned above (note 159), the Dieupart table may be a late entry into Mb from
close to the time that Bach began copying the Dieupart's suites (cl709-14). See the Appendix
under "Tables of Ornaments Known, or Possibly Known, to Bach."

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well.194 Boyvin's table of 1689-90 was copied by Bach's student from cl710-
1715, Johann Caspar Vogler, and it would seem that Bach was familiar
with Couperin's table of 1713 from the fact that he often used Couperin's
versions of the symbols for ascending and descending arpeggios as well as
the fact that E. L. Gerber mentions in 1790 Couperin's "things for the
keyboard, which the great Seb. Bach thought particularly good and
recommended to his pupils," and included an "explanation of performance
techniques [Erkldrung von Spielmanieren] which Sebast. Bach him self
largely retained when playing ."195 Bach's unusual inclusion of
ornamented reprises to the Sarabandes of BWV 807 and 808 may have been
inspired by Couperin's 1713 publication.196

194 Bach may have been familiar with the tables of Raison (1688), Nivers (1665), and
LeRoux (1705). The first half of the theme of Bach's Passacaglia in C minor, BWV 582, is
taken from a movement in Raison's work. Three suites from LeRoux's publication and
one from Nivers' appear in Walther's hand in DSB P 801. The LeRoux table is the most
extensive of these, but is almost identical to Dieupart's table. See the Appendix under
"Tables of Ornaments Known, or Possibly Known, to Bach."

195 B Dok III, p. 471. Gerber undoubtedly received this information through his father,
Heinrich N. Gerber, who was a student of Bach. A Leipzig periodical also mentions Bach's
esteem for Couperin in 1768 (B Dok III, p. 199), and Forkel stated in 1802 (The Bach Reader,
p. 310) that Bach was "acquainted with Couperin's works and esteemed them."

196 In the Premier Ordre of his Pieces de clavecin (1713), Couperin provides an
ornamented version of the upper voice of the Premiere Courante with the comment "Dessus
plus orne sans changer la Basse." He provides an ornamented version of the upper voice of
the Gavotte with the comment "Ornemens pour diversifier la Govotte precedente sans
changer la Basse," and he supplies the Menuet with a Double du Menuet precedent, adding
the comment "Le double du Menuet oy dessus Sejoiie avec la merne basse." This practice is
similar to Bach's inclusion of ornamented versions of the Sarabandes of his 'English'
Suite No. 2 in A minor (BWV 807) and his 'English' Suite No. 3 in G minor (BWV 808),
both of which include the comment "Les agrements de la meme Sarabande." Some
manuscripts of the Suite No. 2 Sarabande present only the upper voice of the ornamented
version as in Couperin's publication.

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Bach was almost certainly familiar with the tables of LeBegue,
D'Anglebert, Boyvin, Fischer, Dieupart, and Couperin. Table 2 below lists
the German sources mentioned above in essentially chronological order.

TABLE 2. Selected German tables of agrements and German copies of
French tables of agrements from the late seventeenth
and early eighteenth centuries

Medium Contents Composer and Publication
Harpsichord 5 agrements J. C. F. Fischer. Les pieces de clavessin
(Schlackenwerth, 1696), reprinted as Musical-
isches Blumenbilschlein, (Augsburg, 1698).
Harpsichord 16 agrements Dieupart, Six suittes de clavecin . . . (Amsterdam,
1701). A copy of this table appears in J. C. Bach's
(1671-1721) hand from cl707 in Mo, p. 43.
Harpsichord 4 agrements LeBegue, Les pieces de clavessin (Paris, 1677). A
copy of this table appears in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721)
hand from cl704-1707 in Mb, p. 96.
Harpsichord 14 agrements (only Anonymous, Marques et demonstration des
8 completed) agrements. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
cl707-15 in ABB, p. 78. This table was probably
taken from the same source as the Marais suite
which follows it.
Harpsichord 29 agrements D'Anglebert, Pieces de clavecin . . . (1689). A copy
of this table in J. S. Bach's hand from cl7 10-1712 is
in UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538.
Organ 7 agrements Boyvin Premier livre d'orgue . . . (Paris, 1689-90).
A copy of Boyvin's two livres d'orgue was made by
Bach's pupil from 1710-1715, Johann Caspar Vogler.
The manuscript (SPK Mus. ms. 2329) is on the same
type of paper as Bach's copy of the Grigny Livre
d'orgue from cl709-1712.
Harpsichord 13 agrements J. S. Bach. Explication, from the Clavier-biichlein
vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1720).

Italian Concerto Arrangements

There is clear evidence of Bach's knowledge of Italian concertos from
soon after his arrival at Weimar, but his Sonata in A m inor, BWV 967
(c!705), suggests that this interest may have developed quite a bit earlier.

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This sonata, though apparently an original keyboard work, is written in a
style which clearly imitates the soli and tutti writing of Italian concertos.197
In 1709, during his move from Ansbach to Leipzig, Johann Georg Pisendel
stopped to visit Bach in Weimar. This visit must have further stimulated
Bach's interest in Italian concertos. Pisendel, a student of Torelli, was a
superb German violinist in the Italian style, and is known to have
performed an Albinoni concerto in Leipzig soon after his visit with Bach .198
Bach and Pisendel copied a Telemann concerto together in 1709 and a copy
of another Telemann concerto later transcribed by Bach (BWV 985) may
have been made at the same time.199>200 A copy in Bach's hand of a

197 Robert Hill {The Moller Manuscript and the Andreas Bach Book, p. 448-458) has
pointed out similarities between BWV 967 (which appears in Mo) and the fourth sonata of
Johann Kuhnau's Frische Clavier-Friichte (Leipzig, 1696). Kuhnau compares his sonatas
to Italian models in his introduction, but Hill states that "Bach goes considerably further
than Kuhnau in imitating the Italian instrumental idiom." This, he believes, accounts for
the fact that BWV 967 has often been regarded as a transcription of an ensemble work in the
Italian style.

198 Pippa Drummond, "Pisendel, Johann Georg" in The New Grove Dictionary of
Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980), XTV, 775.

199 The Telemann Concerto in G major for two violins with parts in the hands of both
Bach and Pisendel is in LB Dresden Mus. 2392-0-35a. See Hans-Joachim Schulze,
"Telemann—Pisendel—Bach. Zu einem unbekannten Bach-Autograph," in
Konferenzbericht der 7. Telemann-Festtage: Magdeburg 1981. A manuscript (LB Dresden
Mus. ms. 2332-0-17a+b) of the Telemann concerto which Bach arranged as Harpsichord
concerto in G minor (BWV 985) is in the same hand as some parts for the Telemann
concerto mentioned above. See Schulze, Studien zur Bach-Uberlieferung im 18.
Jahrhundert, p. 165.

299 Bach's friendship with Telemann developed while Telemann was at Eisenach (1708-
1712) and may be inferred from the many works of Telemann in Mo, ABB, and P 801, as
well as the fact that Telemann stood as godfather to C. P. E. Bach in 1714. C. P. E. Bach
stated in 1775 (B Dok III, p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his last
years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly . . . Telemann," and that "in his younger days he
saw a good deal of Telemann, who also stood godfather to me." Bach's continued
friendship with Telemann is also supported by the Telemann cantatas in Bach's hand
from 1725 and 1734, and the fact that Telemann wrote a sonnet on Bach after his death
(translated in The Bach Reader, p. 227).

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concerto from Albinoni's op. 2 has also been dated to about the same
tim e .201
Bach was certainly familiar with Italian concerto style of Albinoni
and Torelli (and Telemann) after cl709, but his encounter with the
progressive style of Vivaldi in the middle of 1713 may well have influenced
him more deeply .202 In February of 1711 the young Weimar prince, Johann
Ernst, travelled to Utrecht to study. The Prince was an excellent violinist
interested in the latest French and Italian music. After the completion of
his studies, the Prince first travelled from Utrecht to Dusseldorf in
February of 1713 to hear the opera, and then on to Amsterdam, before
returning to Weimar in July of 1713. In Amsterdam, a European center for
music publishing, the Prince quite probably purchased a good deal of recent
Italian and French music ,203 and may have heard the famous blind
organist of the New Church, Jacob de Graaf (cl672-1738), who gave
excellent performances of the latest Italian concertos and sonatas on his

201 Albinoni's Concerto No. 2 in E minor from his op. 2 (Venice, 1700), BWV Anh. 23.
An incomplete copy of the continuo part from this concerto, made by Bach in cl710 or before,
is in the MB Lpz, Go. S. 301. Bach's continued interest in the music of Albinoni is seen in a
1725 manuscript (DSB Mus. ms. 455) of an Albinoni op. 6 sonata (Amsterdam: Roger,
cl712), with bass realization by Bach's pupil Heinrich N. Gerber and corrections by Bach.
Gerber's son, Ernst Ludwig Gerber, described Bach's teaching methods in 1791 (The Bach
Reader, p. 265) by stating that "the conclusion of the instruction was thorough bass, for
which Bach chose the Albinoni violin solos."

202 Schulze has pointed out that there is no evidence that Vivaldi's works were known in
Weimar before 1713. See Hans-Joachim Schulze, "J. S. Bach's Concerto Arrangements
for Organ - Studies or Commissioned Works?" in The Organ Yearbook 3, (1972) n. 29, p.
12 .

203 The Weimar court records show extra expenses paid to Gregor Christoph Eylenstein,
the courtier in charge of travel and violin teacher of the Prince, for costs incurred in
Amsterdam. The detailed expenses for binding and copying of music after the Prince's
return confirms the purchase of a large quantity of music. See Schulze, op. cit., p. 7-8.

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organ .204 A statement made by Bach's pupil Philipp David Krauter on
April 10th of 1713 suggests that the Prince was expected to bring both
French and Italian works with him on his return. Krauter states that "the
Weimar Prince here, who is not only a great lover of music but him self an
incomparable violinist, will return to Weimar from Holland after Easter
and spend the summer here; much fine Italian and French music can be
heard, particularly profitable to me in composing Concertos and
Ouvertures ."205 In July of 1714, one year after his return to Weimar, the
Prince, whose health was rapidly failing, departed for Bad Schwalbach,
Wiesbaden, and Frankfurt.206 It was very probably during this one year
period, from July 1713 to July 1714, that Walther and Bach arranged a
variety of Italian concertos for keyboard. Schulze has put forward the idea
that these arrangements were commissioned by the Prince, who may have
been inspired by de Graafs performances.207 The circumstances under

204 Johann Mattheson wrote in 1717 (Beschiitztem Orchestre, p. 129fl) that de Graaf
"knows by heart all the most recent Italian concertos, sonatas, etc. with three to four parts
and played them in my presence on his wonderful instrument with uncommon neatness of
finger." See Schulze, op. cit., p. 6. Schulze believes that Mattheson's comments stem from
the period after 1710, and may be associated with a diplomatic journey made by Mattheson
in 1712-13.

2°5 Friedrich Stadtler, "Ein Augsburger als Schuler bei Joh. Seb. Bach," in Gottesdienst
und Kirchenmusik, 1970, p. 165-7, translated by Peter Williams in Schulze, op. cit., p. 7.
This was part of a petition by Krauter to the Evangelical School Board of Augsburg for
extended study with Bach.

206 -phe Prince died on August 1, 1715 at age 19. During his last year Telemann
dedicated a set of 6 violin sonatas to him, and in 1718 Telemann brought out a set of six of
Prince Johann Ernst's concertos in publication.

207 Robert Hill (and others) have pointed out that keyboard arrangements of this sort
were not uncommon in middle Germany during the early eighteenth century. De Graafs
performances in Amsterdam may, then, have nothing to do with Bach's concerto
arrangements. Hill (The Moller Manuscript and the Andreas Bach Book, p. 255) has

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which they were performed remains uncertain, but it seems clear that it
was only after the departure of the Prince in mid-1714 that these works
began to be used as study pieces for the students of Walther and Bach .208
The French overtures purchased by Prince Johann Ernst remain
unknown, but the keyboard arrangements by Bach and Walther give some
indication of the Italian concerto repertoire which arrived in Weimar in
June of 1713.209 Walther's arrangements show an emphasis on Bolognese
composers (three works by Torelli, and one by Corelli210) and lesser-known
Italian composers (Gentili, Gregori, Manzia, and Taglietti), though he also
arranged two concertos by Vivaldi's Venetian predecessor, Albinoni. The
only known arrangement by Walther of a Vivaldi concerto is attributed to
Meek in Walther's manuscript, suggesting that Walther himself did not
know that it was by Vivaldi. Walther also arranged concertos by Telemann
(two to four)211 and some lesser-known German composers (Blamr and

suggested that the Telemann overture transcribed for keyboard in ABB could have been
arranged by Bach or Walther around 1708-9, long before the Prince's visit to Amsterdam.

208 Schulze, op. cit.. The facts that Walther and Bach did not arrange the same works,
and that both men had the opportunity to study the concertos in their original form support
this hypothesis. Schulze compares the functional transformation of these arrangements to
that of Bach's Orgelbiichlein of the same period, a work which was originally Bach’s own
book of preludes but which later acquired a title-page suggesting that it was written "to give
instruction to a beginning organist on how to work out a chorale in every style."

209 The Weimar records suggest that much of the music arrived in Weimar before the
actual arrival of the Prince.

210 Two of the three Torelli concertos are from his Concerti grossi con una pastorale per
il Santissimo Natale, op. 8 (1709), and Walther used the Adagio of the eleventh sonata from
Corelli's op. 5 as a basis for his Alcuni Variationi sopr'un Basso Continuo del Sigr. Corelli
in E, LV 129. It is probable, then, that Walther and Bach also knew some of the other
concertos and sonatas of these publications, each of which contains 12 works.

211 In addition to the two arrangements of Telemann concertos in Walther's hand in
DSB Mus. ms. 2254114, are a keyboard arrangement of a Concerto in B minor, TWV Anh.

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Meek). The fifteen to seventeen extant arrangements by Walther may not
give a valid picture of his activities, as he stated in his autobiography that
he had arranged seventy-eight instrumental works for keyboard.212 It is
notable, however, that none of the extant arrangements by Walther
contains an ornamentation as interesting as those of Bach's Vivaldi and A.
Marcello arrangements, BWV 594, 975, 974, 973, and 972.
The extant arrangements by Bach from this time consist of five works
arranged for organ (BWV 592-596), and sixteen works arranged for
harpsichord (BWV 972-987). One of the organ works (BWV 595) is simply a
different arrangement of the first movement of one of the harpsichord
works (BWV 984), leaving a total of twenty different works. Schulze has
broken this down into four categories of five works each as shown in Table 3
below .213

33:1 in Walther's hand in P 801, and an arrangement for organ of a Concerto in Bb major,
possibly in Walther's hand in P 804.

212 Walther's autobiography is included in Johann Mattheson's Grundlage einer
Ehren-Pforte (Hamburg, 1740), p. 389. The list of works and Walther's comment
. . ingleichen noch einige wenige Instrumental- u. Clavier-Sachen; die von andern
Verfafiern gesetzte u. von mir aufs Clavier applicirte Stiicke, 78. an der Zahl, nicht mit
gerech.net" are reprinted in MGG, XIV, 209.

213 Hans-Joachim Schulze, Studien zur Bach-tJberlieferung im 18.Jahrhundert, p. 164.
Bach's arrangement of Vivaldi's op. 3, no. 10 (BWV 1065) has not been listed here as it is
an arrangement for four harpsichords, and was apparently not written until cl 730.

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TABLE 3. Concerto arrangements by Bach

1. Works from Vivaldi's L'estro armonico, op. 3 (1711)
BWV 978 Op. 3, no. 3, RV 310
BWV 593 Op. 3, no. 8, RV 522
BWV 972 Op. 3, no. 9, RV 230
BWV 596 Op. 3, no. 11, RV 565
BWV 976 Op. 3, no. 12, RV 265

2. Works from manuscript Vivaldi concertos:
BWV 594 RV 208 (printed version: op. 7/ii, no. 5, RV 208a)
BWV 980 RV 381 (printed version: op. 4, no. 1, RV 383a)
BWV 975 RV 316 (printed version: op. 4, no. 6, RV 316a)
BWV 973 ? (printed version: op. 7/ii, no. 2, RV 299)
BWV 977 Indirectly attributed to Vivaldi in P 804, and P 280.

3. Works from the Weimar/Thuringia region:
BWV 982 Ernst, op. 1, no. 1 (D-ROuXVII.18.51.39a).
BWV 987 Ernst, op. 1, no. 4 (D-ROu XVII. 18.51.41)
BWV 592 Ernst (D-ROu XVIII.66.39)
BWV 984/595 Ernst
BWV 985 Telemann (LB Dresden 2392-0-17a+b)

4. Other works (primarily by Italian composers):
BWV 979 Torelli (RV Ahn. 10)
BWV 986 unknown (the Bach-Gesellschaft suggests Telemann)
BWV 981 Benedetto Marcello (12 Concerti a Cinque, no. 2 in e)
BWV 983 unknown
BWV 974 Alessandro Marcello (Oboe concerto in c)

Bach’s arrangements of Vivaldi’s op. 3 are particularly clear
examples, since the source of these arrangements is the printed version
(Amsterdam: Etienne Roger, 1711) which was probably purchased by the
Prince in Amsterdam. The twelve works in this publication are evenly
divided into concertos for one, two, and four violins .214 The works for four

214 Nos. 1, 4, 7, and 10 are for four violins; nos. 2, 5, 8, and 11 are for two violins, and
nos. 3, 6, 9, and 12 are for one violin.

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violins were apparently considered impractical for a single keyboard, and
were not arranged by Bach. Of the remaining eight concertos only five are
known in arrangements by Bach. The remaining three slow movements
include two fairly short movements for one violin (Concertos No. 5, and
No. 6), fully ornamented in patterned figurations and arpeggiations, and
one lengthy, lightly ornamented movement for two violins (Concerto No. 2).
It is, of course, possible that Bach arranged some of these works as well.215
In any case, he was certainly aware of their ornamentations.
One of the most striking features of Bach's arrangements of Vivaldi's
op. 3 concertos is the lack of alteration to the ornamentations of the slow
movements. The two voices of op. 3, no. 8 (BWV 593) are sometimes
crossed, or displaced by an octave, and one small change occurs, but even
in this concerto there is clearly no attempt to rework the existing
ornamentations. Only one of these works, op. 3, no.. 9 (BWV 972), contains a
particularly full ornamentation. This ornamentation contains patterned
figurations in an idiomatically violinistic style, much like the
ornamentations of op. 3, no. 5 and no. 6 .

215 In particular, Vivaldi’s op. 3, no. 5 in A major, RV 519 (a very popular work) exists
in six different keyboard arrangements, one of which appears anonymously in SPK
22396/15 (transposed to G major). Before World War II, a copy of this concerto existed in
Darmstadt along with the model for BWV 975 (RV 316), an early copy of BWV 974, a copy of
BWV 976, a copy of the Telemann model for BWV 985, an altered version of the model for
Walther's LV 133 (RV 275a), and two concertos from Vivaldi's op. 4 (no. 5, RV 347; and no.
10, RV 196). These manuscripts were LB Darmstadt 4445,4443, Mus. ms. 66,5067,1033/91,
Mus. ms. 411 no. 1, 4446, and 3883 no. 3 respectively. Other Vivaldi concertos in
Darmstadt (all lost in WWII) were RV 253, RV 343, RV 349, and RV 573 (LB Darmstadt
3883 no. 1 ,4444,4447, and 3883 no. 2, respectively). The large number of works in
Darmstadt which can be associated with Bach and Weimar clearly suggest a connection
between Weimar and the Darmstadt collection. If Bach knew the other Vivaldi
manuscripts of this collection, then the slow movement ornamentations of RV 347, RV 343,
and RV 253 (op. 8, no. 5) are of particular interest in this connection.

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The next group of concertos, taken from manuscript versions of
Vivaldi works, form a more complex and difficult situation. This group is
especially important because three of the concertos (BWV 594, 973, and 975)
contain exceptional slow-movement ornamentations. Schulze has included
BWV 977 in this section because it is indirectly attributed to Vivaldi in
Berlin P 804 and P 280, and is not contained in any of Vivaldi's printed
collections.216 The sale of Vivaldi works in manuscript form was by no
means uncommon. In 1733 Vivaldi explained to the English traveller
Edward Holdsworth that, because his trade in manuscripts was more
profitable than the returns from his published music, he would not have
any more music printed .217 The alteration or replacement of slow
movements (and last movements) among Vivaldi's manuscript concertos is
also not uncommon.218 The fact that at least two of the manuscript Vivaldi
concertos arranged by Bach were later published with altered (and
consistently simpler) slow movements may stem from some as yet
unknown circumstances surrounding Prince Johann Ernst's source for
this material.219

216 Bach’s source for this concerto remains unknown. The Bach Gesellschaft has
suggested Marcello as a composer for this work. The indirect attribution to Vivaldi in P
280 is not of great value since this collection contain works, indirectly attributed to
Vivaldi, which are not by Vivaldi. Nevertheless, Vivaldi remains a plausible composer of
the model for BWV 977, and the inclusion of BWV 977 in this category may be appropriate.

217 Vivaldi did not, in fact, consent to the publishing of any more music after that time.
See Michael Talbot, "Vivaldi, Antonio (Lucio)," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music
and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie, 1980) XX, 34

218 Compare, for example, the differing slow movements in RV 198/198a, RV 212/212a,
RV 224/224a, RV 275/275a, RV 294/294a, and RV 562/562a.

23.9 Vivaldi's preoccupation with money was well known (see Talbot, op. cit., p. 35).
Perhaps the extra cost of engraving and printing florid ornamentations, such the slow

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The model for Bach's BWV 594, Vivaldi's RV 208, contains a slow
movement with a spectacular ornamentation in the style of a vocal
recitative .220 The fact that this exceptional ornamentation is included in
Bach's arrangements may reflect the interests of both Bach and the Prince
in Italian violin ornamentation .221 The published version of this concerto,
RV 208a (op. 7/ii, no. 5) contains an entirely different and relatively
unornamented slow movement. Bach's changes to the slow-movement
ornamentation of RV 208, although greater than anything in his op. 3
arrangements, are essentially trivial (primarily changes in rhythmic
notation) except for the addition of a few ornaments in the last four bars.
Bach's substitution of short separated notes for long held notes in the
accompanying chords to this movement agrees with contemporary vocal
performance practice and confirms that Bach understood this movement to
be in the style of a vocal recitative .222 The first and third-movement
cadenzas of BWV 594 are found in a Schwerin manuscript of the parts to
RV 208 copied by Peter Johann Fick, who is known to have copied many of

movement of RV 208, encouraged him to substitute simpler material in his printed
editions.

220 Although the cadenzas to the first and third movements are not included in Vivaldi's
incomplete autograph of this work (I-Tn Giordano vol. 29, fol. 167-181), the slow movement
is included, so there can be no doubt of its authenticity.

221 This interest may also be seen in the ornamented slow movements of many of
Johann Ernst's concertos. The Prince was surely aware of Vivaldi's reputation as a
virtuoso violinist and may well have wished to study his style of ornamentation as set
down in some of these concertos.

222 Luigi Ferdinando Tagliavini, "Bach's Organ Transcription of Vivaldi's “Grosso
Mogul” Concerto," in J. S. Bach as Organist: His Instruments, Music, and Performance
Practice, ed. by Stauffer and May (Bloomington, 1986) p. 255. Tagliavini cites Bach's fair
copy score of the St. Matthew Passion as another example of this practice. Bach notates
long, held notes for the bass part of the Evangelist's recitatives in this score, but the
original continuo part contains short, separated notes.

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Vivaldi’s concertos.223 The lack of a true Basso d i concertino part in this set
of parts also supports the idea that Bach worked from this, or a very
similar, source .224
The model for Bach's BWV 980, Vivaldi's RV 381, contains a slow
movement with a moderate level of ornamentation and several arpeggiated
sections .225 The published version of this concerto, RV 383a (op. 4, no. 1),
contains entirely different second and third movements.226 Although
Bach's slow-movement ornamentation is essentially the same as Vivaldi's,
it diverges from the original much more substantially than any of his op. 3
arrangements and clearly reflects a more casual attitude towards the

223 D-SW1 Mus. ms. 5565. Fick is known to have copied Vivaldi's RV 146, 206, 208, 210,
214 (op. 7/ii, no. 6), 339, 364, 377, 404, and 429, all of which are found in D-SW1 Mus. ms.
5571,5567,5565,5568,5572,5566,5564,5570,5574, and 5575 respectively (the only Vivaldi
manuscript in Schwerin not attributed to Fick is Mus. ms. 3369 containing RV 377). If
other manuscripts of the Schwerin Vivaldi collection were known to Sach, then the slow
movement ornamentations of RV 206, 339, and 404 are certainly of interest in this
connection.

224 Luigi Ferdinando Tagliavini, op. cit., p. 242. Another set of parts for RV 208 in the
Cividale (I-CF) contain a first-movement cadenza nearly identical to that in Schwerin,
and a 126-bar cadenza to the third movement designated "Cadenza del Vivaldi per il Sigr.
Pontoti" which agrees with the 106-bar Schwerin version only in the first 9 bars and much
of the last 22 bars. This cadenza was apparently written by Vivaldi for Leonardo Giorgio
Pontotti of Cividale. This manuscript, and the fact that Bach's arrangement of the
Schwerin version predates J. G. Pisendel's trip to Italy in 1716, both support the conclusion
that the cadenzas are original and not invented by Pisendel, even though the Schwerin
third-movement cadenza also appears in a Pisendel manuscript of RV 562 (LB Dresden
Mus. ms. 2 3 8 9 /0 /9 4). See also Maurizio Grattoni, "Una scoperta vivaldiana a Cividale del
Friuli," in Informazioni E Studi Vivaldiani 4, 1983, p. 2-19 for information on the Cividale
manuscript and photographs of the third-movement cadenzas of both the Schwerin and
Cividale manuscripts.

225 The only known Vivaldi manuscript of RV 381 (DSB Thulemeier Nr. 232) was
owned (or copied) by Christoph Nichelmann (1717-1762), a student of Bach's at the Leipzig
Thomas School. This concerto also exists in a version for 2 violins, RV 528.

226 The second and third movements of the published version, RV 383a, are also found in
a manuscript version, RV 383, in LB Dresden 2389/0/126.

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original text .227 Bach has ornamented the simple melody of bars 8-12, 25-
26, 36-37, and 44, has added an extra chord (and an extra bar) after bars 43
and 46, narrowed the range of several arpeggios (to suit the keyboard), and
even added an additional four bars of ornamented melody after bar 37 .228
The only known copy of Vivaldi’s RV 316, the model for Bach's BWV
975, was lost in World War II, and no hand copies or photographs of it have
surfaced .229 Bach's version contains a rich and flowing ornamentation in
a style much like that of many of Bach's own ornamentations, set against a
simple and beautiful ground bass in moving eighth notes .230 The published
version of this concerto, RV 316a (op. 4, no. 6 ) has an entirely different third
movement, and contains a slow movement which is essentially an
unornamented version of BWV 975 set against a bass line of primarily
whole notes .231 Paul Graf Waldersee, who studied the RV 316 manuscript
in about 1885, wrote the following:
The first movement is the same in both sources [RV 316 and the
published version, RV 316a], in the second movement they deviate
from one another, and in the third movements they present entirely

227 The substantial difference in the level of reworking between Bach's arrangements
from Vivaldi's op. 3 and his arrangements of manuscript concertos is difficult to account
for. Perhaps the op. 3 arrangements were made more quickly, or just earlier, than many
of the other arrangements.

228 Measure numbers refer to the Vivaldi original.

229 LB Darmstadt Mus. ms. 4443, now lost.

230 There are only three complete statements of this four-bar ground. The melodic
material of the bass line for the remainder of the movement is spun out from this ground.

231 This bass line contains three statements of a descending whole-note line which
appear to be a skeletal version of the ground of BWV 975.

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different compositions. Bach's arrangement follows the second
version, that of the manuscript copy [RV 316].232
Waldersee also makes the following comparison between the slow
movements of BWV 975 and RV 316.

Concerning the soli portions of the Largo, we may only say that the
model [RV 316] is to the reworking [BWV 975] as a skeleton is to a
complete body; if we remove the core of the melody and the
fundamental bass [from BWV 975], all of the remainder is a
contribution of the reworker [Bach ].233
From Waldersee's comments it seems clear that although the slow
movement of RV 316 was somewhat different from that of RV 316a, it did
not contain the ornamentation and moving bass line of BWV 975 .234 Since
the melody of the Largo of RV 316a is a skeletal version of Bach's
ornamentation, it is probable that the melody of the Largo of RV 316 (which
Waldersee also describes as a skeletal version of BWV 975) was virtually the
same, if not identical, to that of RV 316a. The careful attention to motivic
continuity and building of rhythmic activity in this excellent
ornamentation, as well as the beautiful bass line, would suggest that Bach
was particularly interested in this movement. Bach may well have been
attracted to the simple (but never literal) sequences and hemiola cadences

232 Paul Graf Waldersee, "Antonio Vivaldi's Violinconcerte unter besonderer
Beriicksichtigung der von Johann Sebastian Bach bearbeiteten," in Vierteljahrsschrift filr
Musikwissenschaft, I, Leipzig 1885, p. 368. "Der erste Satz ist in beiden Vorlagen gleich,
im zweiten weichen sie von einander ab, im dritten zeigen sie vollstandig
verschiedenartige Compositionen. Bachs Bearbeitung folgt der Vorlage 2, der Abschrift.”

233 Ibid., p. 370. "Von den Soli des Largo konnen wir nur sagen, dap die Vorlage sich
zur Bearbeitung verhalt, wie ein Skelett zu einem entwickelten Kbrper; rechnen wir den
melodischen Kern und den Fundamentalbap ab, so ist alles Uebrige Zusatz des
Bearbeiters."

234 There are significant differences in the length and style of the tutti sections of the
Largos of RV 316a and BWV 975. These differences probably account for Waldersee's
initial statement that the slow movements of RV 316, and RV 316a differ from each other.

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of the RV 316 melody as well as its structural use of ground bass,
ritornellos, modulatory sequences, and clearly defined tonality.
The only known model for Bach's BWV 973 is the concerto no. 2 (RV
299) of Vivaldi's op. 7/ii. This published slow movement contains almost
none of the ornamentation found in BWV 973. Although Bach's
arrangement was undoubtedly made from a manuscript source (as
Vivaldi's op. 7 was not published until cl716-17) several factors suggest that
the lost manuscript version was similar to op. 7, and that the
ornamentation of BWV 973 was contributed by Bach. The BWV 973 slow
movement contains generally more agrem ents and more Bach-like
rhythmic figures (e.g., the figures of the last beat of bar 3, and the last beat
of bar 12) than are found in Vivaldi's known ornamentations. Bach's
arrangement is embellished in a fashion somewhat like the slow movement
to BWV 975 but with more agrements and less concern for careful building
of rhythmic activity .235 Furthermore, if the lost manuscript version
contained an ornamented slow movement, it would present an extremely
unusual example of Vivaldi composing both ornamented and simple
versions of the same movement.
The source of the final concerto of this group, BWV 977, still remains
unidentified. The slow movement is a fairly short (nine-bar) fugal
movement in four voices. The ornamentation of the first two (upper) voices

235 Several Vivaldi ornamentations {e.g., portions of the slow movements of RV 99/RV
571; RV 326, op. 7/i no. 3; and RV 450) exhibit an essentially lyrical style similar to that of
BWV 973. It is not inconceivable that Bach simply reworked an existing ornamentation by
Vivaldi to produce the slow movement of BWV 973. Regardless of its source, the slow
movement to BWV 973 remains a good example of Italian free ornamentation which Bach
was well acquainted with in 1713-14.

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in the opening four bars is quite full and in a style which suggests that
Bach reworked at least these measures. The third and fourth entrances
(bars 3 and 4, in the left hand) present the theme in its simple version. Bars
5 to 7 continue to spin out the material of the theme in all voices, but without
the rich ornamentation of the opening (which would have been
inappropriate and virtually unplayable in all four parts anyhow). The
unornamented chords of the final two bars form an unornamented closing
on a half cadence .236 Although this movement forms an interesting
example, its ornamentation is of less significance than the impressive slow
movements of BWV 594, BWV 975, BWV 974, and, to a lesser degree, BWV
973.
The next group of concerto arrangements are those whose models
were composed locally in the Weimar and Thuringia region by
acquaintances of Bach. Four of these concertos are by Prince Johann
Ernst, and one is by Telemann. Walther stated in his autobiography that
the Prince had completed a total of 19 instrumental works while under his
instruction in Weimar, including six concertos which were later
published .237 Bach was probably familial' with all of these works. The

236 The fact that the ornamentation of the first four bars, which was probably contributed
by Bach, has not been carried through in any of the voices is somewhat peculiar, and may
indicate that Bach simply did not bother to write out his ornaments for the remainder of this
movement.

237 Walther's autobiography is included in Johann Mattheson's Grundlage einer
Ehren-Pforte (Hamburg, 1740), p. 389. The only published works by Ernst are his Six
Concerts d un Violon concertant, deux Violons, un Taille, et Clavecin ou Basse de Viole. .
., op. 1 brought out by Telemann in 1718. The first four concertos of this publication are in
the Rostock Universitatsbibliothek (Mus. saec. XVII.18.51.39a, Mus. saec. XVII.18.51.42,
Mus. saec. XVIII.61.7a = RV Anh. 11, and Mus. saec. XVII.18.51.41) along with the Ernst
model for BWV 592 (Mus. saec. XVIII.66.39) and another Ernst concerto (Mus. saec.
XVIII.61.7b). All of these were apparently copied by the Weimar Hofkantor and Tenor,

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ornamentations of these concertos (BWV 982 and BWV 984 in particular)
are primarily of interest as indications of the musical taste and ability of the
Prince.
Telemann's Violin concerto in G m inor, the model for Bach's BWV
985, exists in manuscripts in both Dresden and Darmstadt .238 The Dresden
manuscript is in the same hand as parts for the Telemann concerto copied
by Bach in 1709 (see above, p. 69), and may, therefore, be the manuscript
from which Bach worked. The slow movement of this concerto is only
lightly ornamented and is essentially unchanged in Bach's version.
The final group of concertos arranged by Bach includes three works
by Italian composers (A. Marcello, B. Marcello, and Torelli), and two
unidentified works, also thought to be by Italian composers, or by
Telemann. Torelli's Concerto in D minor (RV Ahn. 10), the model for
Bach's BWV 979, contains two short adagios (and one short, transitional
grave), both of which are only lightly ornamented. The unidentified

Johann Dobemitz, on paper similar to that used by Bach in Weimar in 1714-15. Kross (Das
Instrumentalkonzerte . . ., 1969) also lists six Telemann concertos in the Rostock
collection (Kross: FI. D(2) p. 124, FI. G(l) p. 127, FI. G(2) p. 128, 2 Ob. d'Am. A p. 149, 2 V.
D(l) p. 153, and FI. V. e p. 157). Most of the Rostock collection has been traced to the
Wiirttemberg Erbprinz, Friedrich Ludwig von Wiirttemberg-Stuttgart (1698-1731), a
contemporary and apparent friend of Prince Johann Ernst. A catalog of his music
collection dated 1732 is in the Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, Hausarchiv G Nr. CCXVIII,
Biischel 14 and 18. This inventory lists all of the Ernst works found in Rostock, as well as
works by many other composers, including concertos by Vivaldi, and printed parts for
most of the operas of Lully. The exact connection between the Wiirttemberg collection and
Weimar (and Bach) remains to be investigated. See Schulze, Studien, p. 165-7.

238 l b Dresden Mus. 2392-0-17a+b, and LB Darmstadt 1033191.

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concerto which Bach arranged as Harpsichord concerto in G major (BWV
986) contains a fairly short (10 bars), and only lightly ornamented adagio .239
The Benedetto Marcello concerto arranged by Bach as Harpsichord
concerto in C minor (BWV 981) contains two moderately long (40 and 50
bars respectively) slow movements in 4 with several sequences and
cadential hemiolas. The first of these contains an arpeggiated section, but
the second contains very little ornamentation.
The unidentified concerto transcribed by Bach as Harpsichord
concerto in G minor (BWV 983) also contains a moderately long (48 bars),
relatively unornamented adagio in 4 with a few sequences and many
hemiolas. This movement is more harmonically developed and motivically
unified than the two slow movements in BWV 981, and often makes use of
two active inner voices in addition to the solo part. Some ornamentation
appears near the cadences of this movement.
The Alessandro Marcello concerto arranged by Bach as Harpsichord
concerto in D minor (BWV 974) exists as a set of parts for an Oboe concerto
in C minor in a Schwerin manuscript.240 It is not known if the Schwerin
manuscript was used by Bach, but this version corresponds more closely

239 The editors of the Bach-Gesellschaft have suggested Telemann as a possible
composer for this work. If this concerto is in fact by Telemann then it would belong in the
third category of composers local to the Weimar/ Thuringia region.

240 D-SW1 Mus. ms. 3530. Putnam Aldrich ("Bach's Technique of Transcription and
Improvised Ornamentation," in The Musical Quarterly 35, 1949, p. 33) cites a manuscript
of an Oboe concerto in C minor attributed to Benedetto Marcello in the Liceo Musicale,
Bologna as the model for this concerto. This statement remains unverified and Schulze
suggests that it may stem from the version in Schwerin. See Schulze, Studien, p. 168.

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with Bach's arrangement than any other extant versions .241 Neither the
Schwerin manuscript nor a relatively early copy of BWV 974 in
Darmstadt 242 includes a first name for Marcello. In any case, all of the
manuscripts of Marcello's concerto which have been found contain the
same skeletal version of the slow movement to BWV 974, suggesting that
Bach supplied an entirely original ornamentation to this movement.243
Some distinctive features of Marcello's original may help to explain
why Bach choose to ornament this movement, rather that the somewhat
similar slow movements of BWV 981 or BWV 983. The original slow
movement is a fairly long (41 bars) and relatively unornamented movement
in 4 containing numerous sequences and hemiolas. The texture of this
movement is clearly that of solo and accompaniment; there are no active
inner voices as in the slow movement of BWV 983. The melodic material of
this very beautiful movement is more developed than in the slow
movements of BWV 981, but is not as tightly constructed (or as
harmonically developed) as in the slow movement of BWV 983. Perhaps the

241 This Marcello concerto also appears in D minor as part of a collection published by
Roger in 1716, but this version post-dates Bach's arrangement. The Schwerin manuscript
agrees more closely with Bach's version than does the Roger print. Another manuscript of
the C minor version once existed in the Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicaie, but is now
lost. See Manfred Fechner's concluding remarks to Alessandro Marcello: Konzert D-
Moll fur Oboe, Streicher und Basso Continuo, ed. by Manfred Fechner (Leipzig: Peters,
1977).

242 LB Darmstadt Mus. ms. 66. This manuscript is titled "CONCERTO de Mr.
MARCELLO accomode au Clavessin de Monsieur J. S. Bach." See Schulze, Studien, p.
168.

243 Although this movement may have existed in an unknown, ornamented version
which was simply reworked by Bach, it seems more probable that Bach actually worked
from the Schwerin version of the concerto. In any case, this ornamentation remains an
important example of Italian free ornamentation known to Bach in 1713-14.

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most striking feature of this movement, however, is the incessant use of
sequences and hemiolas. The solo voice is, in fact, involved in some sort of
sequence, repetition, or hemiola in all but two of its 33 active bars. This
feature, in combination with the clear texture and straightforward
harmonic language of this movement, may well have interested Bach .244
The material of the ornamented version (BWV 974) of this movement
contains many rhythmic (and some melodic) figures typical of Bach. The
careful building of rhythmic activity through the many sequences of this
movement is sometimes carried to excess (e.g., the first eight bars of the
solo voice). This exaggerated treatment is quite uncharacteristic for Bach,
but the fundamental material of the movement is unusual for Bach as well.
Robert Marshall has noted that Bach often reworked his own music to avoid
literal repetitions and sequences ;245 clearly Marcello enjoyed exactly the
opposite effect. Luigi Tagliavini has noted that, rather than smooth over
the extravagances of Vivaldi's cadenzas to RV 208, Bach has actually
overemphasized some of these spots in a somewhat entertaining fashion .246

244 It is notable that the slow movement to Vivaldi's RV 299, which Bach ornamented in
his BWV 973, is dominated by sequences (not always as literal as A. Marcello's) and
hemiolas as well. The slow movement of Vivaldi's RV 316, which Bach ornamented in his
BWV 975, contains no literal sequences but contains many imitative and modulatory
sections which function much like sequences, and makes use of several hemiolas. The
use of extended sequences to produce a driving sense of tonal gravity may have been new
and interesting to Bach at that time.

245 Robert Marshall, The Compositional Process o f J. S. Bach (Princeton University
Press, 1972), I, 159-60.

246 Luigi Ferdinando Tagliavini, "Bach's Organ Transcription of Vivaldi's “Grosso
Mogul” Concerto," in J. S. Bach as Organist: His Instruments, Music, and Performance
Practice, ed. by Stauffer and May (Bloomington, 1986), p. 242. Tagliavini cites the
chromaticism added by Bach to the descending arpeggio figures of the final cadenza to RV
208 as an example.

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It would not be surprising if Bach enjoyed highlighting (through
ornamentation) Marcello's excessive use of sequences in this beautiful
movement.
To summarize Bach's concerto arrangement activities, it may be
noted that his arrangements of Vivaldi's op. 3 concertos, and concertos
from the Weimar/ Thuringia region (those by Ernst and Telemann) contain
little of interest in the way of ornamentation. It is his arrangements of
manuscript concertos by Vivaldi and A. Marcello which are of particular
interest. In these works (BWV 973, 974, and 975 in particular) Bach has
clearly combined the new harmonic language of the Italians (with its
driving sequential passages which exploit the gravitational pull of tonality)
with his own structurally oriented and motivically unified style of
ornamentation. Bach's control of rhythmic activity and his use of motivic
economy in these slow-movement ornamentations is quite different from
the freely flowing style of Vivaldi's ornamentations, and is more striking
(especially in the control of rhythmic activity) than any of his own extant
previous ornamentations .247 Bach's encounter with the music of Vivaldi
appears to have marked a turning point in his style, and one which is all
the more interesting for the fact that it is preserved from its inception in
these ornamented arrangements.

247 It is worth noting that Bach may have been familiar with the highly embellished
music of Bonporti before writing some of these arrangements. The Italian violinist F. M.
Veracini is known to have included Bonporti's Inventioni, op. 10 (Bologna, 1712) on his
German tours of 1715 and four of these Inventioni are in Bach's hand from 1723 in SPK P
270. Furthermore, the Dresden library contains complete parts for Bonporti's concertos
(see Hutchings, The Baroque Concerto, p. 308). Nevertheless, it is probable that Bach did
not hear Bonporti's works until after arranging the Vivaldi and Marcello concertos
discussed above, and the motivic elements of Bach's ornamentations are more easily
traceable to German organ traditions than to the music of Bonporti.

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Dresden: Pisendel

Bach's encounter with the music of Vivaldi in 1713-14 was probably
the last, and possibly the most important, major influence upon the
development of his mature style of ornamentation. After 1717 Bach was
employed in Cothen, and after 1723 he was employed in Leipzig. His travels
and influences during these mature years are far too numerous to detail
here. Nevertheless, it may be useful to describe a few significant events
which lend some insight into Bach's mature style of ornamentation.
Shortly before his appointment in Cothen, between late September
and December of 1717, Bach was in Dresden, where he gave a "celebrated
and well-publicized recital ,"248 which was the result of his proposed contest
with Marchand .249 Pisendel, the virtuoso violinist of the Dresden Court
Chapel who had known Bach since 1709, had returned in September from a
year in Italy with Vivaldi. It is only natural that Pisendel would have
spoken to Bach about his recent experiences with Vivaldi and shown him
some of his extensive and newly acquired collection of Vivaldi (and other
Italians such as Albinoni and B. Marcello) manuscripts.250 Pisendel's

248 Robert L. Marshall, "J. S. Bach’s Compositions for Solo Flute: A Reconsideration of
their Authenticity and Chronology," in JAMS, XXXII, no. 3 (1979) p. 479. Reprinted in
Robert L. Marshall, The Music o f Johann Sebastian Bach (New York: Schirmer Books,
1989) p. 212.

249 Although accounts of this event vary (Johann Abraham Bimbaum's 1738 version,
translated in The Bach Reader, p. 443-4 is probably the most reliable) all versions agree
that Marchand, the celebrated French virtuoso, ran away from the contest: a clear
indication of Bach's command of the French style in 1717. Several accounts {e.g.,
Marpurg's 1786 version, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 453) suggest that Bach was able
to hear Marchand's playing at this time.

250 A significant portion of Pisendel's collection now forms the LB Dresden collection of
Vivaldi manuscripts. See p. 43-44 above.

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collection includes many excellent examples of Italian free ornamentation
which Bach may have seen. The slow movement to RV 562 contains a
spectacular ornamentation in the style of a vocal recitative (much like the
ornamentations of RV 208),251 and the slow movements of RV 343, 326, 6 ,
279, 328, 571, 552,15, and 508 all contain excellent ornamentations.
Pisendel may also have shown Bach his own sonata for unaccompanied
violin ,252 a work which opens with a richly ornamented slow movement in
the Italian style, and is thought to have inspired Bach's unaccompanied
works for flute and for violin .253
Bach's association with Pisendel and Dresden continued through the
1720's, 30's, and 40's. Bach gave a well received organ recital in Dresden in
1725, and became the Leipzig sales representative for Heinichen, the
Dresden Royal Kapellmeister, in 1729. Robert Marshall has shown that
Bach's interest in Dresden was particularly great between 1730 and 1742.254
Bach is said to have travelled to Dresden with his eldest son often to hear
the famous Dresden opera and in 1735 Bach was appointed Dresden Court

251 It is also interesting in this connection, and in consideration of possible connections
between Pisendel and Bach, that the third-movement cadenza of the Schwerin version of
RV 208 (arranged by Bach as Organ concerto in C major, BWV 594) is also found in
Pisendel's manuscript of RV 562.

252 Johann Georg Pisendel, Sonata for unaccompanied violin in A minor. The
autograph is in LB Dresden Mus. ms. 2421 R/ 2. Modem edn. by Gunter Hausswald in
Hortus Musicus, vol. 91 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1952). Hans Rudolf Jung ("Pisendel,
Johann Georg," in MGG, X (1962), col. 1301) tentatively dates this work as from 1716.
Marshall (The Music of Johann Sebastian Bach, p. 213) states that this work is considered
to be a product of Pisendel's Venetian sojourn.

253 Marshall, op. cit., p. 212.

254 Robert L. Marshall. "Bach the Progressive: Observations on his Later Works," The
Musical Quarterly, 62 (1976), p. 313-57. Reprinted with a postscript in his The Music of
Johann Sebastian Bach (New York: Schirmer Books, 1989), p. 23-58.

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Kapellmeister. Bach undoubtedly augmented his knowledge of Italian
music and performance practice during these years through his Dresden
associations with Johann Adolf H asse (a famous composer of Italian-style
opera and student of Scarlatti who visited Bach in Leipzig on several
occasions ),255 Pisendel, and Pisendel's students Johann Gottlieb Graun
and Franz Benda 256
The most significant aspect of Bach's association with Pisendel, and
other musicians in Dresden, is that these performers were entirely
familiar w ith Italian (and in some cases, French) performance practices.
Bach was, therefore, able not only to examine manuscripts of Italian free
ornamentation, but also to hear ornamentations freely performed and
improvised in the best possible fashion.

255 Johann Nicolaus Forkel. On Johann Sebastian Bach's Life, Genius, and Works
(1802), translated by A. C. F. Kollmann [?], 1820. Reprinted in The Bach Reader, p. 335ff.

256 C. P. E. Bach wrote in 1775 (B Dok III, p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278)
that in his last years his father "esteemed highly . . . Hasse, both Grauns, Telemann,
Zelenka, Benda, and in general everything that was worthy of esteem in Berlin and
Dresden," and that he knew all of these men personally.

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CHAPTER II

FORMAL DESIGN

The Enhancement of Structure Through Ornamentation

The Need for Formal Design

James Ackerman has observed that "it is necessary to human beings
not only to express themselves within established patterns, but to
experience the world around them in accordance with such patterns; our
perceptual mechanisms cause us to interpret what we see in terms of what
we know and expect."257 Familiar patterns, or formal structures, help both
composer and listener to organize abstract ideas into a meaningful whole.
In many cases Bach has taken particular care to make formal structures
comprehensible to the listener. Bach clearly felt it important that the
listener perceive these elements of formal design, and this may, in part,
account for his ability to create movements of great complexity which are
still understandable. In this study we will be concerned only with
instrumental slow movements. Those movements chosen are often based
on large-scale structures such as ABA form (Aria form), binary dance
form, or a combination of the two (i.e., rounded binary). Smaller scale
structures, such as phrases, cadences, areas of harmonic stability or

257 James S. Ackerman, "A Theory of Style," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 20
(1962), p. 228.

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instability, or internal dance patterns, appear within each section of the
large-scale form. We will take particular interest in the way in which Bach
has enhanced these structures through a creative use of ornamentation.

The Purpose of Ornamentation

David Fuller, in The New H arvard Dictionary o f Music, defines
ornamentation as "The modification of music, usually but not always
through the addition of notes, to make it more beautiful or effective, or to
demonstrate the abilities of the interpreter ."258 The present study will focus
on several ways in which ornamentations make music more beautiful and
effective.
It is difficult to define clearly how ornamentation makes music more
beautiful, but it is quite possible to define several ways in which
ornamentation makes music more effective. One of these ways involves the
use of an economic, uniform, and cohesive style of ornamentation. Another
involves the enhancement of formal structure, so that it may be more easily
and naturally perceived by the listener. This is not to say that a good
ornamentation will invariably support a particular style and enhance the
formal design of a movement, but most good ornamentations will show at
least one of these tendencies. Conversely, an ornamentation may detract

258 David Fuller, "Ornamentation," in The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, ed. Don
Michael Randal (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986), p. 594.
Bach's embellished compositions may be understood to consist of an underlying structure
which has been ornamented as a part of the compositional process. In this way, Fuller’s
definition may be applied to Bach's ornamented arrangements of existing works as well
as his original, embellished compositions.

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from the quality of a movement through either a lack of coherence, or by the
obscuring or contradicting of elements of formal design.

The Classification of Bach's Ornamentations

In surveying Bach's ornamented instrumental slow movements, one
is struck by the great variety of styles of ornamentations. Each
ornamentation is unique, consistent within itself, and carefully crafted to
suit the structure of the piece. It is useful, because of the diversity of Bach's
ornamentations, to group these ornamented slow movements into three
general categories. A particular ornamentation may not fit precisely
within any one category, or may shift from one category to another within
the span of a movement, but these categories still remain valuable for the
purpose of analysis. The three categories are as follows:

1 . Structural: These ornamentations enhance the design of a
movement by showing a clear sense of form. This study will
concentrate on movements of this type.

2 . Static: These ornamentations maintain a relatively consistent
level of activity. This category may be subdivided into two types:
2 a. This subcategory contains those ornamentations which
maintain an essentially constant movement of eighth,
sixteenth, or thirty-second notes.
2b. This subcategory contains those ornamentations which
retain a relatively consistent level of rhythmic activity, but
employ a variety of rhythmic figures. This is the most
common type of ornamentation employed by Bach.

3. Alternating: Ornamentations in this category will contain, for
the most part, long notes followed by a short flourish leading to the
next long note. Many clear examples of this less common but
important category may be found in the ornamentations to
Corelli's opus 5 which have been attributed to Corelli himself.259

259 Arcangelo Corelli, Sonate a violino e violone o cimbalo. Opera quinta, parte prima,
composed cl700. Ornaments appear in the fourth edition (Amsterdam: Pierre Martier)

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A number of Bach's slow movements {e.g., the Adagio of BWV
1016 in Example 5 below) exhibit this type ornamentation as well.
The following examples, from the works of Bach, will serve to
demonstrate the categories above.

EXAMPLE 2. Type 1, Structural. Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in
D minor (BWV 974), Adagio.

EXAMPLE 3. Type 2a, Static - consistent. Violin Concerto in A minor
(BWV 1041), Andante.

EXAMPLE 4. Type 2b, Static -varied. Violin Concerto in E major
(BWV 1042), Adagio.

with the comment "Quatrieme Edition, ou I'on a joint les agreemens des Adagio cet
ouvrage, composez p ar Mr. Arcangelo Corelli, comme il les joue." Modem edn., ed. J.
Joachim and F. Chrysander (London: Augner Ltd., 1890).

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EXAMPLE 5. Type 3, Alternating. Violin Sonata in E major
(BWV 1016), Adagio.

3

Although there may be small enhancements of formal structure
involved in the ornamentations of categories two and three, it is the
ornamentations of category one which show a clear sense of form and
structure. Much of the remainder of this chapter will focus on the
relationships between the various active elements of a type one
ornamentation and the formal design of a movement.

Elements of Ornamentation which Enhance Formal Design

Introduction

This section will focus on those elements of ornamentation which
have the capacity to enhance the formal structure of a movement. We may
separate these elements into two general categories: 1 ) those which help
shape the phrases and overall form of a movement through changes in
ornamental activity and tension; and 2 ) those which help to articulate

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specific points and underlying rhythmic patterns through brief moments of
ornamental activity and tension. The first category concerns, primarily,
Italian free ornamentation. The second category concerns, primarily,
French specific ornaments Gagrements). Bach makes use of, and often
combines, both of these types of ornamentation.
We must recognize activity and tension in both free ornamentation
and specific ornaments. The activity of a free ornamentation may be de­
fined as its rhythmic activity measured in notes per beat. Tension may be
introduced through rhythmic complexity, melodic complexity, and disso­
nance. Rhythmic complexity may he evaluated using a system which is
sensitive to syncopations, changes of note value from one equal division of
the beat to another, and the use of note values which are made up of two or
more levels of subdivision. The analysis of melodic complexity is an inter­
esting concept, but probably not a practical one. Examples of irregular or
exceptionally wide intervals are rare in Bach’s ornamentations, and the
majority of common melodic situations demand almost impossibly subtle
distinctions in melodic complexity. For example, we may say with cer­
tainty that a turn is more melodically complex than an appoggiatura, but it
is very difficult to distinguish between the complexity of short trill and a
port-de-voix. The majority of dissonances created in a free ornamentation
are due to diatonic passing tones and neighbor tones and are, therefore,
relatively insignificant. The long appoggiatura is an exception, but we will
consider the effects of this ornament under the category of specific orna­
ments. For these reasons, the areas of melodic complexity and dissonance
will not receive undue attention in our analysis of free ornamentation.

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The relative amount of activity and tension produced by a specific
ornament will vary with the type of ornament. A quick trill will produce a
high level of rhythmic activity, whereas an appoggiatura will produce a
high level of harmonic tension.260 The actual function of an ornament will
depend on both its type and placement within a phrase. We will investigate
the articulation of specific points and underlying rhythmic patterns
through an analysis of the type and placement of specific ornaments.

Rhythmic Density

Rhythmic density may be defined as the number of notes per beat for
any given beat. Because changes in rhythmic density, such as a shift from
eighth notes to sixteenth notes, can be readily perceived, the manipulation
of rhythmic density can be an effective way to shape an ornamentation.
This technique m ay be seen in the many Renaissance ornamentations
which show an increase in rhythmic density towards each cadence, as well
as an overall building towards the end of the piece. A similar shaping may
be seen, to some degree, in many Baroque ornamentations which enhance
formal structure.
Changes in rhythmic density are almost always involved when Bach
uses ornamentation to enhance formal design. Because of this, rhythmic
density may be used to help separate the three categories of Bach's
ornamentations described in the previous section. A "structural"

260 The amount of tension created by specific ornaments may be greatly affected by the
performer's interpretation. Even those ornaments which are fully notated by Bach may be
substantially affected by a performer's use of accents, dynamic changes, and subtle
rhythmic alterations.

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ornamentation may exhibit gradual changes in rhythmic density such as:
(1) an increase in the density of ornamented sequences or repetitions of the
fundamental melody, (2) an increase in density when approaching a
cadence; and (3) a contrast in density between phrases, or sections. A
"static" ornamentation will exhibit a relatively constant level of rhythmic
density. An "alternating" ornamentation may be recognized by
alternations in density between long notes and flourishes.
A quantitative analytical approach to rhythmic density may be easily
established. The procedure described in the following paragraphs will be
used throughout this paper for the calculation of rhythmic density.
The fundamental pulse (beat) of any given movement must first be
established. For the purpose of this study we will consider movements in 4
4 ^
or 4 to have a fundamental pulse of a quarter-note, and movements in 8 to
have a fundamental pulse of an eighth-note. The rhythmic density of each
beat is considered to be the number of notes which begin within that beat.
Example 6, below, may clarify this.

EXAMPLE 6. Rhythmic density calculation.

Original:

Rewritten to show every beat separately and analyzed:

1 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 1 0 0

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100

Appoggiatura signs and specific ornamental signs above notes must
be given special consideration in the calculation of rhythmic density. This
study will incorporate these ornamental signs by translating them into
fully notated ornaments. An accurate calculation of rhythmic density will
require a valid interpretation of these ornamental signs. Bach's own table
of ornaments from his Clavier-Biichlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach261
as well as Putnam Aldrich's article "On the Interpretation of Bach's
Trills"262 will be used to aid in the interpretation of ornamental signs.
Bach uses the terms "Accent steigend" and "Accent fallend" along
with the signs "cf" and "cp" for rising and falling long appoggiaturas in his
table of ornaments. Robert Donington states that "There are no sufficient
grounds in any contemporary evidence for doubting that the great majority
of J. S. Bach's appoggiaturas are long, however notated, and that this
example ["Accent steigend" and "Accent fallend" in Bach's table of
ornaments], so far as it goes, is characteristic of his music."263 This study
will use Bach's examples of "Accent steigend" and "Accent fallend" in
conjunction with J. J. Quantz's rules for the length of long
appoggiaturas264 for the interpretation of appoggiaturas.

261 Johann Sebastian Bach, Explication unterschiedlicher Zeichen, so gewifie manieren
artig zu spielen, andeiiten, from Clavier-biichlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (begun
in 1720 in Cothen; facsimile reprint New Haven, 1959).

262 Putnam C. Aldrich, "The Interpretation of Bach's Trills," The Musical Quarterly
49 (July 1963), p. 289-310.

263 Robert Donington, "Ornaments," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980), Vol. 13, p. 829.

264 Johann Joachim Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote traversiere zu spielen,
(Berlin, 1752) facs. of 3rd ed (Breslau, 1789) with after-note by Hans-Peter Schmitz
(Kassel: Barenreiter, 1953), p. 79 and table VI.

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101

In order to present rhythmic densities in a useful and under­
standable fashion, all calculations of rhythmic density have been presented
in the format of a graph. The horizontal axis of this graph is a time-line of
the movement showing bars, and beats within each bar. The vertical axis
represents rhythmic density. Specific ornamental symbols have been
placed along the graph whenever they occur as a reminder that these
ornaments have influenced the level of rhythmic density at that point.
As a demonstration of this graph format and how rhythmic density
may be used to separate the three categories of ornamentation mentioned
above, Figures 3-6, below, present graphs of rhythmic density for each of the
four examples given on pages 95 and 96 above.

FIGURE 3. Structural ornamentation (from Example 2, p. 94).

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FIGURE 4. Static ornamentation (from Example 3, p. 94).

IOt

FIGURE 5. Static ornamentation (from Example 4, p. 94).

FIGURE 6. Alternating ornamentation (from Example 5, p. 95).

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103

Rhythmic Complexity

Rhythmic complexity may be defined as the amount of irregularity in
a particular rhythmic figure. In this study it will be assumed that
rhythmic irregularities are produced by syncopations, changes of note
value {e.g., a shift from eighth notes to sixteenth notes), and the use of
complex note values (dotted notes and other notes which combine two or
more levels of subdivision).
Although changes in rhythmic complexity may be readily perceived
and may be used to shape an ornamentation on their own, they almost
always appear in conjunction with changes in rhythmic density. One
reason for this is that the potential for complex rhythms increases as
rhythmic density increases. Another reason is that rhythmic complexity
may appear as a consequence of gradually increasing rhythmic density.
For example, in a gradual increase from all eighth notes to all sixteenth
notes there must exist some intermediate area in which a combination of
eighths and sixteenths will appeal’ (barring the use of triplets or other odd
subdivisions). This intermediate area will have a higher level of complexity
than either of its surrounding regions of all eighth notes or all sixteenth
notes.265
In general, rhythmic density is a measure of the level of rhythmic
activity, and rhythmic complexity is a measure of the level of rhythmic
tension at any given time. In this way, a composer may clarify the formal

2 6 5 This higher level of complexity will include changes of note value, but need not
include syncopations.

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104

structure of a movement by increasing the level of rhythmic complexity or
rhythmic tension during an area of harmonic instability.
For the purposes of this study it will be useful to create a quantitative
analytical approach to rhythmic complexity. This will require a system
which identifies syncopations, changes of note value, and the use of
complex note values. Appoggiatura signs and specific ornamental signs
above notes must be given special consideration in this system. This study
will incorporate these ornamental signs by translating them into fully
notated ornaments as was suggested for the analysis of rhythmic density in
the preceding section. The ornamental symbols will be placed along the
graph whenever they occur as a reminder that these ornaments have
influenced the level of rhythmic complexity at that point.
The following paragraphs describe the system of analysis used in
this study for the evaluation of rhythmic complexity. Although there are
modest limitations to this system, these limitations will not be encountered
in the musical examples used in this study.266 This system makes use of
the following assumptions about the way in which rhythm is perceived:

1. The rhythmic significance of an event is determined, in part, by
what precedes it. Therefore, a syncopated note has its primary
impact upon the beat it leads into rather than upon the beat it
leads out of. Changes of note value between one beat and the next
will have their primary impact on the second beat, where the
change is perceived.267

266 The use of notes inegales and other subtle rythmic alterations may affect the
rhythmic complexity of a movement. These effects are subject to the interpretation of the
performer and have not been considered in the present study. See also note 268 below.

267 The effect of a syncopation may be enhanced and altered by a performer's use of
dynamics and accents. It might be argued that a syncopation can be performed in such a
way as to have an almost immediate impact. It would be better, in this case, to share the
rhythmic complexity offered by a syncopation between the beat it leads out of and the beat it

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105

2. The effective duration of a note is generally perceived to be the
length of time between the beginning of the note and the beginning
of the following note, even if there is a short silence between the
two notes. Notes which are followed by rests may, therefore, be
extended through the rests for the analysis of rhythmic
complexity.

3. The primary divisions of a measure (i.e., beats) are perceived as
points of articulation which are either confirmed by the beginning
of a note, or denied by the presence of a note which extends from
one beat into the next. Notes which extend from one beat to
another are felt to be a combination of two durations, one
preceding and one following the primary division of the measure.
The following procedure has been used throughout this paper to
determine levels of rhythmic complexity. Readers who are concerned only
with the results of this procedure may wish to skip ahead to the next
section.

1. The fundamental pulse (beat) of any given movement must first be
established. For the purpose of this study we will consider move­
ments in 4 or 4 to have a fundamental pulse of a quarter-note, and
movements in 8 to have a fundamental pulse of an eighth-note.268
2. The melodic line of the movement should now be rewritten to
incorporate the following changes:

a) All rests should be eliminated by extending the previous note
through the duration of the rest.269

b) All slurs can be removed (ties need to be left intact).
c) Appoggiaturas and specific ornament signs should be replaced
with fully notated ornaments by using Bach’s table of
ornaments, Aldrich’s article on Bach trills, and Quantz’s
rules for the length of appoggiaturas as a guide.

leads into (this would require a change in step 4 on page 106). Since changes in rhythmic
complexity are interpreted in only a general fashion in the present study, this would not
affect the conclusions which have been drawn from analyses based on the present system.

268 Dotted notes may not be used as a fundamental pulse in this system. Since this study
is concerned only with slow movements, this will not be encountered.

269 step is justified by assumption 2 on page 105 above.

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106

d) All dotted notes should be rewritten using an equivalent
combination of tied notes (without dots). Care should be taken
here to avoid the creation of syncopations within the tied
notes.270

e) All notes should be written using the largest possible note
values up to the length of the fundamental pulse, but no larger.
Any note which extends from one beat to another needs to be
separated (at the beat) into two notes and tied across.271
3. Brackets should now be placed over every beat by starting each
bracket at the beginning of the last note which appears within the
previous beat, and by ending the bracket at the end of the beat
under consideration (even if the last note of that beat is tied across
into the following beat).272

4. A one (1) can now be placed over each bracket if there is a note
under that bracket which begins within the previous beat (but not
on the previous beat) and extends into the beat under
consideration.273

5. At this point all of the ties should be removed.274

270 This step allows dotted notes to be recognized as changes of note value under a tie.
All complex note values may then be seen to be a combination of simple note values (i.e.,
note values, such as eighth notes or triplet sixteenth notes, which can be obtained by
dividing a fundamental pulse into some number of equal parts). Once this step has been
taken, the rhythmic complexity introduced by dotted notes may be calculated from the
changes of note value (see step 6).

271 This step will visually display the concept of assumption 3 on page 105 above.

272 Although the placement of brackets in this fashion may make little intuitive sense, it
will allow us to recognize syncopations and changes of note value which occur between the
previous beat and the beat under consideration. This kind of analysis will support the
concept put forward in assumption 1 on page 104 above.

273 The purpose of this step is to identify all syncopations.

274 This step will allow us to focus on changes of note value, regardless of whether those
changes were introduced by complex note values. As suggested in assumption 3 on page
105 above, notes which carry from one beat to another will be separated and considered to be
two separate values.

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107

6. A one (1) may now be placed over each bracket for every successive
change of note value which occurs under that bracket.275 If more
than one change occurs under the portion of the bracket above the
preceding beat, count a maximum of one (1) from these changes
towards the total.276

7. The number of ones (l's) above each bracket should now be totaled.
This number is a measure of the relative rhythmic complexity for
each beat.

Example 7, below, may help clarify this procedure.

EXAMPLE 7. Rhythmic complexity calculation.

Original (step 1: fundam ental pulse is a quarter note):

After steps 2, 3. and 4:

t-----— i * 1_

a ajTcjrr -

i+i

Totals (step 7):

275 Because of the actions taken in step 2d and step 5, the rhythmic complexity contributed
by either ordinary changes of note value or by dotted notes will be identified by this step.

276 This prevents counting the changes of note value involved in an overdotted note at the
end of a beat towards the complexity of two beats (the beat which includes the overdotted note,
and the following beat). This step does not need to be involved if a simple dotted note
appears at the end of a beat. This rule supports the concept that a strongly overdotted coule
rhythm has its primary impact during the beat in which it occurs rather than during the
following beat. This is not a commont rhythmic figure in Bach's ornamentations.

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108

Specific Ornaments

In order to comprehend how specific ornaments may be used to
enhance the formal structure of a movement, we must understand the
functions of the ornaments themselves. An ornament's function is
dependent upon its type and its placement, rhythmically and structurally,
within a phrase. We may first distinguish between ornaments which are
cadential and those which are not. Cadential ornaments serve to
accentuate and embellish an important harmonic resolution. They appear
on the penultimate chord of a cadence where they serve to lead into the
resolution itself.277 Non-cadential specific ornaments are used to
emphasize a particular note, introduce a sudden dissonance, connect notes
in a melodic fashion, or enliven a pedal point. Specific ornaments which
emphasize a particular note or introduce a sudden dissonance are
normally accented. Specific ornaments which connect notes or enliven a
pedal point are normally unaccented.
We may categorize specific ornaments by function into three groups:
cadential ornaments, accented, non-cadential ornaments, and unaccented,
non-cadential ornaments. We may distinguish cadential from non-
cadential specific ornaments by their placement within a phrase. Accented
non-cadential ornaments may be separated from unaccented non-cadential
ornaments by considering the nature of the ornament itself. A short, quick
ornament such as a mordent or short trill will introduce a moment of

277 A mordant or appoggiatura which appears on the downbeat of a cadence will serve to
articulate the point of resolution, and may be considered a cadential, accented, specific
ornament. These ornament are not found in any of the movements analyzed, and are not
included in Table 4.

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109

rhythmic excitement which should be accented. A long appoggiatura or an
ornament which begins with a long appoggiatura will introduce a sudden
dissonance which needs stress or accent. A long trill is normally used to
enliven a pedal point (or to maintain the sound of a long note on the
harpsichord) and is generally left unaccented. A turn will embellish the
melodic connection between two notes and is generally left unaccented.278
Table 4 below places each ornament from Bach's own table of ornaments
into the category(s) in which it most commonly appears.279
We are interested in those ornaments which can clarify formal
structures in a movement. Cadences are usually fairly well defined, even
when embellished with only a simple obligatory or implied trill.
Nevertheless, cadential ornaments help to define cadence points and allow
some cadences to be more prominent than others. In this way, cadential
ornaments may clarify somewhat the large-scale formal design of a
movement. Accented non-cadential ornaments may articulate underlying
rhythmic patterns or bring out salient points within a phrase. This enables
these ornaments to help clarify the rhythmic patterns and hemiolas found
in dances such as the saraband and siciliano. Unaccented non-cadential
ornaments cannot clearly articulate these rhythmic patterns. It is the

278 A quick, passing mordant or trill that appears on a weak beat, or in a moving
passage, will also serve as an unaccented, melodic ornament.

279 Johann Sebastian Bach, Explication unterschiedlicher Zeichen, so gewipe manieren
artig zu spielen, andeiiten, from Clavier-biichlein vor 'Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (begun
in 1720 in Cothen; facsimile reprint New Haven, 1959). Table 4 presents the most common
functions of these ornaments. Some less common uses have been mentioned in notes 277
and 278 above.

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110

accented non-cadential ornaments which are of most interest to us because
of their ability to bring out patterns which might otherwise remain obscure.

TABLE 4. C ategories o f ornam ents

Tvoical Annlication Svmbol Bach's Name Common Name
I. Cadential Doppelt-cadence Double Cadence
C/WS - same - - same -
Doppelt-cadence und Double Cadence and
/y v js
Mordant Mordent
Cwfrs - same - - same -
Trillo und Mordant Cadence Trill with
Turn
(V //
Accent und Trillo Prepared Trill
T
- same - - same -
II. Non-Cadential cr Accent steigend Rising Appoggiatura
A. Accented
V
CVW
Accent fallend Falling Appoggiatura
Accent und Trillo Prepared Trill

Iaaaa/ - same - - same -

cr Accent und Mordant Port-de-voix

v jv Mordant Mordent
Trillo (short) Unprepared Trill
/W
(short)
B. Unaccented CO Cadence Turn
fW W Trillo (long) Unprepared Trill
(long)

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I ll

Examples

Introduction

The six examples of this section will be presented in chronological
order. The first of these, BWV 974 (1713-14), may be the most
straightforward example of structural ornamentation in Bach's output.
BWV 975, from the same period, presents a much more complex situation,
and a more subtle usage of the concept of structural ornamentation. The
remaining four examples (BWV 807, 828, 971, and 1056, from 1715-25,1728,
1735, and cl738) demonstrate various aspects of Bach's mature use of
structural ornamentation.

Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in D minor (BWV 974). Adagio

This Adagio is an ornamented arrangement from 1713-14 of the slow
movement of an oboe concerto by Alessandro Marcello. Bach's ornamented
version is presented above the original oboe melody in the following
example.280

280 Although the simple melodic lines of Italian slow movements by Marcello and
Vivaldi may be original to the manuscripts in which they appear, they do not reflect the
original expectations of their composers. Marcello and Vivaldi would have expected
performers to embellish these movements in the style of Italian free ornamentation.

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112

EXAMPLE 8. Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in D minor, (BWV 974),
Adagio, by J. S. Bach (above), and Oboe Concerto in C
m inor, Adagio, by A. Marcello, transposed to D minor
(below).

n

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113

EXAMPLE 8. (continued)

.fl f) cm
F H ttfftifnrT
wm f m m

rrrrrr

(Hemiola)
(5)
^ -— -s
r~i~ r r r » t - r y ~ » h-jfa—■■ #-* \ F f m~ —F f-#-« »*#■**■■*------

C op)
f r , I —H i f
r i\=**-— L [ ------ U >cr
L:
i> -
f ■
- f . ------------- J _

-jh r ----1-----T” '1 " l 1 I - f11 1 ■■■■ 1 1 !
r t t ' i i t n ^ t t r . r i= h H t f r 1 1 t f t

I ii 111
n r- -------------------- 1
-w] .________ ^ '
2\? r rr rjj r t f

- --------.. tr
| L *-•------ f —f*-------- -------- 1 f \ f i ^ ___ f .. .

I 1 i —• ■ ' >
$ r “ ■ -
iitih ff r ? f r * r

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114

EXAMPLE 8. (continued)

___________ (Hemiola) (Hemiola)
5
=
°A —s, r_g g y f —
^ _i

* / tr.
1-------#7^---------- f ---- 1 ) ■

f 1 ^ -u =-u i— 4
-------- =
— —p . -px ~ !T~?
lj ■ a - - * - i 1 ---

(Hemiola)

tr

m u T frrr'ttU lf

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115

The many specific ornaments in this example have been interpreted
for the purpose of analysis with the aid of Bach's table of ornaments281 and
Putnam Aldrich's article "The Interpretation of Bach's Trills."282
Although the interpretation of specific ornaments in this movement
is, for the most part, fairly straightforward, a few of the more ambiguous
situations may be mentioned. The length of the upper auxiliary and the
number and speed of the battem ents (repercussions) of many trills is not
clearly defined in Bach's table or Aldrich's article. The function of each
trill has been considered in its interpretation. For example, the upper
auxiliary of the trill in bar 12 introduces an important dissonance, so it is
given some length, causing this trill to sound as an appoggiatura with an
ornamented resolution. The trill in bar 23 is an accented, non-cadential
ornament which serves primarily to accentuate the initial beat of a
hemiola. This essentially rhythmic function suggests a relatively short,
quick, ornament. The trill in bar 24 is a cadential ornament placed on the
penultimate chord of a hemiola cadence. The fact that this cadence is
deceptive is of no consequence to the interpretation of the ornament. A
longer trill which leads towards the anticipated resolution seems
appropriate in this case.
The symbol ) in bar 27 of the Bach-Gesellschaft edition (the only
critical edition currently available) does not appear in Bach's table of

281 Johann Sebastian Bach, Explication unterschiedlicher Zeichen, so gewifie manieren
artig zu spielen, andeiiten, from Clavier-buchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (begun
in 1720 in Cothen; facsimile reprint New Haven, 1959).

282 Putnam Aldrich, "The Interpretation of Bach's Trills," The Musical Quarterly, 49
(July, 1963), p. 289-310.

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116

ornaments.283 It is possible that this unusual symbol is simply a
misinterpretation of the original manuscript.284 A simple trill seems
appropriate in this situation, and has been used for the purpose of analysis.
The fully realized ornaments of the original oboe melody are
presented in Example 9, and Bach's melody with fully realized ornaments
is presented in Example 10.

EXAMPLE 9. Fully realized specific ornaments for the Adagio of the Oboe
Concerto in C minor by Alessandro Marcello.

implied double cadence

implied trill

283 A similar symbol ( /w ) ) is, however, found in the table of ornaments from
D'Anglebert's Pieces de Clavecin of 1689, which exists in a copy in Bach’s own hand. This
"tremblement et pince" is identical to Bach's ''trillo und mordant", but does not seem
particularly appropriate in bar 27. D'Anglebert's table exists in Bach's hand from cl710-
1712, in UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538, p. 69. See Klotz, Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und
Orgelwerke von Johann Sebastian Bach, p. XXVI for a facsimiles of both D'Anglebert's
table and Bach's copy.

284 No autograph manuscript survives for this work. The Bach-Gesellschaft edition is
based primarily on a manuscript (SPK P 280) in the hand of Bach’s cousin Johann
Bernhard Bach. Another important source for this work is the Kellner manuscript SPK P
804. The author has compared this source with the Bach-Gesellschaft edition and has found
many differences in specific ornaments. The ornament in bar 27 of Kellner's manuscript
is quite ambiguous. Clearly the authenticity of the unusual ornament in the Bach-
Gesellschaft edition is dependant upon the accuracy of both P 280 and the editors.

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117

EXAMPLE 10. Melody of the Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in D minor, BWV
974, Adagio, with ornaments fully realized.

v—
y

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118

The graphs of Figures 7-9 show the rhythmic density (above) and the
rhythmic complexity (below) for each beat of the movement. Figure 7 shows
this for Marcello's original oboe melody, and Figure 8 shows this for Bach’s
ornamented version. Specific ornaments which may have affected the
values of density and complexity are placed above the graphs. Those
ornaments which were fully notated by Bach are placed in brackets.

V i — Modulation V— Ii Mod.

4Ti— -— i i------- 1. 1 .... 2 .. 3 4 (5). hemiola

ll — Modulation

r hemiola
1111 AV
i
4Ti-"-m hemiola hemiola
i— ii— ii— i i— ii— ii— i
2 -

N6—Mod. V V liv—V V |V/V— V li-

FIGURE 7. Rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic complexity (below)
for the Adagio of the Oboe Concerto in C minor by
Alessandro Marcello.

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4i
-Vl i — Modulation ■ ■V— Ii Mod. -V-
(i)
IOt hemiola
1 2 3 4 (5) 1— 11— 11— 1
2 1— "-----"— "----- if :— >4^

[i

I7 —Modulation
hemiola
in_ iT tt
ii
t t t
h i m
L ' ry si rm ' i
hemiola
ii ii
hemiola
ii— ii— ii— i
■t^Tr n ir iL-U L -\L-U , /w rKl
a __hj
6--
r~j|

lN6—Mod. V V | i v —V V IV/V— V | i i

FIGURE 8. Rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic complexity (below)
for the Adagio of Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in D minor
(BWV 974) by J. S. Bach.

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120

Figure 9, a simplified version of Figure 8, will display clearly the
general tendencies of the rhythmic activity of Bach's ornamentation.

•Sequence

i i “l I -T " T“ ■r r

■1,31. 171 •9■ ■i»L
10 i I11I 12 13
* ■«- I,14
ii.

-V| i — Modulation ■ •V— Ii Mod.- -V-
(i)

-Sequence - Hemiola
-Sequence-

15 16 117■ I18I 19 20 »21» , 22
L J. J23I 24

17— Modulation- -v
/m- -v
/in

- R e p e t i t i o n - Hemiola Hemiola HemioIa

N6—Mod. V V l i v — V-------- V |V/V— V |i-
-y /

FIGURE 9. A simplified view of rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic
complexity (below) for the Adagio of Harpsichord Concerto
No. 3 in D minor (BWV 974) by J. S. Bach.

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121

The large-scale form of this movement appears to be made up of three
sections (as shown in the three lines of Figures 7-9). The first section
prolongs the tonic, and the second section consists primarily of a
modulation to the mediant which is avoided by the deceptive cadence to the
neopolitan sixth in bar 25. The third section begins with this deceptive
resolution and modulates to the dominant, which is somewhat prolonged
before resolving to the tonic. The divisions of this large-scale form are not
striking, and although there is some general increase in rhythmic density
across each section, Bach has not made any great effort to accentuate this
form with his ornamentation. The mid-scale form of the movement is
characterized by a continuous series of sequences, repetitions, and hemiola
cadences. All of these hemiolas and sequences are quite explicit and are
supported by the harmony of the movement. Bach has given great attention
to these mid-scale elements; he has clearly accentuated every sequence in
the movement through a building in rhythmic density. Changes in
rhythmic complexity generally parallel the changes in rhythmic density in
the movement, and simply contribute to the overall effect. The small-scale
elements are of less significance in this movement. All of Marcello's
sequences are literal, and Bach reflects this direct and simple style in his
relatively straightforward approach to building rhythmic density in the
various sequences.
This movement makes some use of two-bar phrasing and hemiolas
as found in the sarabande.285 Two-bar units with accents on the second

285 Although there is some dance influence in this movement, the second-beat accent
and binary structure typical of the sarabande are not present.

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122

downbeat can be seen in the first sequence (bars 4-11) as well as the
sequence of bars 15-18. The remaining sequences and repetition of the
movement use one-bar units with an accent on the downbeat, except for the
sequence of bars 18-22 in which the accent shifts to beat three. Accented
non-cadential ornaments are used to punctuate every one of these points.
The four hemiolas of the movement are also accentuated by the use of
specific ornaments. Each of these begins with an accented non-cadential
ornament and makes use of a cadential trill.286 All but the final hemiola
conclude with an accented non-cadential ornament on the following
downbeat, and the first hemiola uses an ornament to punctuate the second
stroke of the hemiola as well.
Every one of the accented specific ornaments of this movement is
used to punctuate an important point in the underlying rhythmic
structure. Almost all of the ornaments in the movement are accented.
Exceptions are the short trill on beat three of bar 12 and the mordents on the
downbeats of bars 29 and 32.287 Several trills and mordents form part of an
appoggiatura and trill (Bach's Accent und Trillo), or part of a port-de-voix
(Bach's Accent und Mordant).288 In these cases the accent naturally falls

286 In bars 29, 32, and 34 the trill is part of a two-beat cadential ornament in which the
accent falls on the initial upper auxiliary.

287 These mordents appear on short notes and are surrounded by quick notes. This
placement deprives them of much of the rhythmic accent obtained when placed on a long
note. Their function has, then, been sufficiently transformed from a primarily rhythmic
one to a primarily melodic one, so they may be considered as unaccented non-cadential
ornaments.

288 These ornaments may be found in bars 16, 18, 28, 29,and 34. In all of these, the initial
appoggiatura was fully notated by Bach.

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123

on the appoggiatura, and the mordent or trill serves an unaccented non-
cadential function.

Harpsichord Concerto No. 4 in G minor (BWV 975). Largo

This Largo is an ornamented arrangement from 1713-14 of the Largo
of the Concerto for Violin in G minor, RV 316 by Vivaldi. The only known
copy of RV 316 was lost in WWII. The Largo of the published version, RV
316a (op. 4, no. 6), is very similar and will be used in this example.289 Since
there are discrepancies between the barring of the two versions, the bar
numbers of BWV 975 will be used throughout the following discussion to
avoid confusion. The following example presents Bach's ornamented
melody above the RV 316a melody. The bass line presented here is Bach's
ornamented version of Vivaldi's original (which moves in primarily dotted
half notes and quarter notes).

289 Only the tutti sections and possibly one solo bar (bar 35 in BWV 975) differ from the
version which Bach arranged. See also Chapter I, under "Italian Concerto
Arrangements".

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124

EXAMPLE 11. Upper melody and bass from the Harpsichord Concerto No.
4 in G minor, (BWV 975), Largo, by J. S. Bach. Lower
melody from the Violin Concerto in G minor, (RV 316a),
Largo, by Vivaldi.

2

i
p
t-*- * ^ b'

Tim i

V *r*****T^Tr-r

<?

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125

EXAMPLE 11. (continued)

I2t a , cJT l

3
i r

1.5

12
\h f-y. k- r *rT V j - j - - u ^ U ^ = f - -= < p = |
T L -fl
,— j ________ _________________________ „

b#» * lirT- - - - - - - - - ’
14.'

( 1)

J9

(hemiola)
Tutti

tr
20

JL

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126

EXAMPLE 11. (continued)

(RV 3 16a only)
hemiola
Tutti
27

24

(3)
1 r

30

(4) RV 316a only
(hemiola)
BWV 975 only 2 BWV 975 only

JL

hemiola (RV 3 16a only)
Tuui

j£t.

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127

Specific ornaments have been realized in the same fashion as those
in the BWV 974 example above. The ornaments for Vivaldi's original
melody and for Bach's ornamented melody are as follows.

EXAMPLE 12. Fully realized specific ornaments from the Largo of
Vivaldi's Concerto for Violin in G minor, RV 316a.

implied trill

26

EXAMPLE 13. Melodic line with fully realized specific ornaments from the
Largo of J. S. Bach's Concerto for Harpsichord in G minor,
BWV 975.

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128

EXAMPLE 13. (continued)

Figures 10 and 11 show the rhythmic density and complexity of each
beat of Vivaldi's original melody and Bach's ornamented version. Specific

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129

ornaments which may have affected the values of density and complexity
are placed above the graphs. Those ornaments which were fully notated by
Bach are placed in brackets. Statements of the modified chaconne bass line
are numbered below the harmonic analysis in both graphs.

2 (3)

hemiola '
hemiola

( 1) (2)

V/v! Vl/ii V/ii| i i— Mod.------ V/ffl Im v/miin
tutu
hemiola hemiola hemiola

|m Mod. bn/ V
(5 inverted)
BWV 975 has one more
bar at this point.

FIGURE 10. Rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic complexity (below)
for the Largo of Violin Concerto in G minor (RV 316a) by
Vivaldi.

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V— Ii
(1) (2) hemiola
i------ 1 r — S

HI
%

V/viVT/ii- ■ — V/ i ili i— Mod.------ V/mlHI -V /m ln i-
(4)
hemiola

tutu

Im Mod. [bn/v

(5 inverted)

FIGURE 11. Rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic complexity (below)
for the Largo of Harpsichord Concerto No. 4 in G minor
(BWV 975) by J. S. Bach.

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131

A simplified version of Figure 11 is given in Figure 12 in order to
display clearly the general tendencies of the rhythmic activity of Bach's
ornamentation.

■V/iil ii— Mod.------ V/ffl|m

29 30 31 32
>■ i
33 34
i —U l.. I I i I
35 36
» I
37
I..I
38 39
..l. I • ■
40
» ■
41
_ J
42 43

|m Mod.- -ibn/v- -V li- -v—li—
(V )
(5 inverted)

FIGURE 12. A simplified view of rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic
complexity (below) for the Largo of Harpsichord Concerto
No. 4 in G minor (BWV 975) by J. S. Bach.

The large-scale form of this movement is determined by the changes
in texture from solo to tutti. Each of the three solo sections begins in a new

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132

tonal area (the tonic, the dominant minor, and the mediant) and presents
the free chaconne bass in a new transposition. The first section is
primarily a prolongation of the tonic. The second section is characterized
by a modulation to the mediant, and the third section consists largely of a
prolongation of the dominant. The tutti sections make the large-scale form
entirely clear to the listener, so it is not surprising that Bach has made little
effort to accentuate these formal divisions with his ornamentation. The
first section shows a general building in rhythmic density. The second
section builds until about bar 19 and then maintains a fairly high level of
activity. Likewise, the third section also builds in density through bars 32-
33, and then maintains a fairly high level of activity. In bars 34-37 Bach has
accompanied the prolonged dominant harmony with a very static high level
of activity, a technique which may be seen in a number of his later
ornamentations. Several changes in rhythmic complexity parallel changes
in rhythmic density, but many short regions of high complexity seem to
stem from a need to maintain interest (or tension) during long sections of
relatively constant activity (as in the second section of the form).
The mid-scale form of this movement is based largely on sequences of
melodic material and statements of the free chaconne bass line. The
harmony and melodic sequences of the first two sections follow the
statements of the chaconne so long as it lasts. Although the sequence of
bars 15-16 is based on bar 14, Bach has made it clear through his use of
rhythmic density that the material of bar 14 is part of the third statement of
the chaconne and not part of the following sequence. Beyond bar 19 the
mid-scale form is defined by the use of several sequences and cadences.

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133

Bach's building in rhythmic density during the sequence of bars 29-33 gives
direction to this harmonically unstable area. Once the deceptive resolution
in bar 34 has established the function of this area as a prolongation of the
dominant, Bach maintains a constant level of moving sixteenth notes until
the final hemiola cadence.
The small-scale form of the movement is based on the many
deviations from the initially established mid-scale form of sequences and
chaconne statements. Although the initial chaconne bass is essentially
maintained through bar 18 (except during the tutti section), the three
restatements of the chaconne are never literal. The chaconne returns,
extended and in inversion, for a final statement in bars 29-36. In the solo
areas which do not make use of the chaconne, Bach and Vivaldi provide
similar material so that the character of the chaconne is maintained.
Similarly, the various sequences of the movement are almost never literal.
As mentioned above, the sequence of bars 15-16 is based on bar 14, which
does not function as part of that sequence. Bars 17-18 of the original melody
retain the rhythm and character of the sequence, and lead into the next
sequence of bars 19-20 (bar 21 also retains the character of bars 19-20),
which is essentially an embellished version of the material of bar 17.
Bach's ornamentation helps to clarify these ambiguities through changes
in style and rhythmic density between each of these sections. He has,
nevertheless, retained the essential continuity of this section through the
use of appoggiaturas with ornamented resolutions on the downbeats of bars
17-21 (bar 16 also uses a similar ornament). Bach's use of the sequence in
bars 35-37 remains somewhat ambiguous since the first bar of the original

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134

is missing. It is, of course, possible that Bach himself inserted this bar.
BWV 975 certainly presents a much stronger and more literal sequence
than appears in RV 316a.
The rhythm of this movement is that of a stylized sarabande. Most of
the accented specific ornaments are used for downbeat accent, or to clarify
the second-beat accent of the sarabande. This second-beat accent is
immediately established by the mordents in the first bars of the first and
third sections of the form. Three cadential ornaments (double cadences)
are used in the movement. The first hemiola is articulated with
appoggiaturas on the first and third beats of bar 24, and with a double
cadence on the second beat of bar 25. The second hemiola is also given an
appoggiatura on the first beat and resolved with a double cadence. Another
double cadence is used in bar 22. Only a few unaccented ornaments
appear, such as the quick trills in bars 17 and 38. As with BWV 974, every
accented non-cadential ornament has been used to articulate an important
point in the underlying rhythmic structure of the movement.

"English" Suite No. 2 in A minor (BWV 807). Sarabande

This Sarabande, from cl715-1725, is presented by Bach in both its
simple form and again with an ornamented upper voice under the heading
Les agrements de la me me Sarabande.290 The bass line is the same in both
versions, and only small changes appear in the inner voices. The
ornamented melody is presented above the simple version in the following

290 Some manuscripts give two complete versions of the Sarabande, but others give only
an upper voice for the ornamented version. See Alfred Durr, Johann Sebastian Bach: Neue
Ausgabe samtlicher Werke series V: vol. 7, Kritische Bericht (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1981).

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135

example. The fundamental melody is presented in reduction below these
two versions.

EXAMPLE 14. Ornamented, simple, and reduced melody and bass from
the Sarabande of the "E nglish" Suite No. 2 in A minor,
(BWV 807), by J. S. Bach.

B 2

(2 )
r
(Hemiola)

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
EXAMPLE 14. (continued)

...... •• •- - "1 1—
' {5
\ ^=>------- rTlfk---------
H I 1 b - 53 1-------- 1

> r f t t f *( f t P ? f ■: ft
£ L U l i - n - pUJ— *— —-j H / 1 - - t - r r r d ------------------

\) f .....- f — - r f f - - ■ -f_____^ ------ ■f-------- ■ :f_ _ —
4 ---------------------

4 - 4 - L I 3 eee £ ee £ ee
f f f

(Hemiola)
“1 r------------------------ ii------------ V1 1

1
1 ■
- .. r.r.Ctff
r
rf
rr
? /~ tr

i/
?
r T --^ = r = ^
U ■1 — ■ k
i
J.-
1-u -
--------------------------------------- I t--------------------
M--I 1 1— 1
fr -r - t
p
m iii
r - ,

\{h = ^ = \
£ - 4 ----- r ^ - 4 ------------
= ^ = = .: .
f
“ f -------- j»--------- 3------
* ** i

k ;
/
f .......... ?
....... - 4 4 ^ = 1 ^ $ 0 - 1 fJ— 4 — f— 1

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137

Specific ornaments have been realized in the same fashion as those of
the examples above. The ornaments for the simple and ornamented
melodies are as follows.

EXAMPLE 15. Fully realized specific ornaments from the simple version
of the Sarabande of the "English" Suite No. 2 in A minor,
(BWV 807), by J. S. Bach.

JO

2
5

EXAMPLE 16. Fully realized specific ornaments from the ornamented
version of the Sarabande of the "English" Suite No. 2 in A
minor, (BWV 807), by J. S. Bach.

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138

The following graphs show the rhythmic density (above) and the
rhythmic complexity (below) for each beat of the movement. Figure 13
shows this first for the melody of the simple version and then again for the
melody of the ornamented version. Specific ornaments which have affected
the values of density and complexity are placed above the graphs. Those
ornaments which were fully notated by Bach in the ornamented version are
placed in brackets. This movement makes use of many fully-notated rising
and falling slides. Bach often indicates a rising slide by the use of two grace
notes, or with the symbol / w ^ , which is found in the works of Johann
Kuhnau.291 This symbol is used (in brackets) in Figure 13 to indicate fully-
notated rising slides. A similar symbol ( ) was introduced by J. G.
Walther in 1708 for falling slides which anticipate the beat.292 This symbol
has been adopted (for convenience, and for lack of a better symbol), in
brackets, in Figure 13 to indicate Bach's fully-notated, on-the-beat, falling
slides. A simplified version of the graph of the ornamented version is given
in Figure 14 in order to display clearly the general tendencies of the
rhythmic activity of Bach's ornamentation.

291 Hans Klotz, Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und Orgelwerke von Johann Sebastian
Bach (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1984), p. 109.

292 Robert Donington, The Interpretation of Early Music (London: Faber and Faber,
1963, corrected and revised second edition reprinted in 1979), p. 219.

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FIGURE 13. Rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic complexity (below)
for the Sarabande of the "English" Suite No. 2 in A minor,
(BWV 807), by J. S. Bach. The upper graph is derived from
the simple version and the lower graph is derived from the
ornamented version.

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140

li ........... - .......... IVI Mod.—.. V/mlMocL------V/fflllg—
' Twmj 1

::i3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 an
m- •V/vlv -v Mod- -m - •Vli—

FIGURE 14. A simplified view of rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic
complexity (below) for the ornamented version of the
Sarabande of the "English" Suite No. 2 in A minor, (BWV
807), by J. S. Bach.

The asymmetrical binary structure of this stylized sarabande
determines the large-scale form of the movement. The first section
establishes the tonic before modulating to the dominant of the mediant,
which is somewhat prolonged before resolving to the mediant. The second
section establishes the mediant before moving to the dominant minor,
which is somewhat prolonged, and then modulates past the mediant to the
final cadence. Rhythmic density and rhythmic complexity build through
the first section of the ornamented version until the dominant of the
mediant is reached. At this point a relatively static high level of density

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141

(and low level of complexity) accompanies the dominant function-a
technique which was observed in BWV 975 as well. In the second section of
the ornamented version, density builds until the prolongation of the
dominant minor is reached. Once again a high level of activity (with low
complexity--running sixteenth notes) is maintained. A considerably higher
level of complexity and a more variable level of density appears during the
subsequent modulation to the mediant, and then the previous style of
running sixteenth notes resumes. Two large-scale tendencies displayed in
this movement are the use of complexity and changing density to
accompany modulatory sections, and the use of static high density and low
complexity to accompany prolongations of unresolved harmonic areas.
The mid-scale form of the movement is based on the consistent use of
four-bar phrases. There is some building in density (and complexity)
through the first two four-bar phrases (bars 1-8) and in the first phrase of
the second section (bars 13-16) of the ornamented version. These increases
in density are essentially kept within the overall framework of each section
of the form.293 Although there are only small changes within each four-bar
phrase, there are fairly clear changes of density, and complexity (and style)
between almost all adjacent phrases. These contrasts help to accentuate
the mid-scale form of the movement.
The small-scale form of the movement is based on the two-bar units
of the sarabande rhythm, and the changes in detail in the sequences.
These small changes, as seen in the first two sequences of the ornamented

293 Each of these sections begins with primarily eighth-note motion and builds to
primarily sixteenth-note motion.

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142

version, add interest and complexity to the m ovem ent. The second
sequence (bars 5-6) makes use of a subtle but effective increase in rhythmic
density, but most of the small-scale features of the movement are developed
out of motivic alterations which enhance both the continuity and complexity
of the movement.
The rhythm of the movement is that of a stylized sarabande. Two-bar
units are used throughout (except at cadences), with an accent on the
second beat of each bar. The two cadential hemiolas are of the prepared
type (centered in their respective four-bar phrases). Although specific
ornaments are not used extensively in the ornamented version of the
movement, all of the accented ornaments are placed to articulate the
downbeat and second-beat accents of the sarabande rhythm.294 The series
of second-beat appoggiaturas in bars 20-24 provides a striking example.
The simple version of the movement also reserves the use of accented
ornaments for the structural points of the sarabande rhythm.
The preceding discussion has focused on the ornamented version of
the movement. As can be seen in the graphs of density and complexity, the
ornamented version has many similarities to the simple version. The
ornamentational use of density and complexity in the simple version,
although quite limited, parallels the ornamented version in almost every
phrase. This ornamentation is not a variation of the original, as Frederick

294 Only two unaccented non-cadential ornaments appear in the ornamented version.
The first is a short trill at the end of the opening bar, and the second is a fully notated turn
in bar 11.

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143

Neumann has suggested.295 Unlike a typical variation (or double), in
which a particular style is established and maintained (often a particular
rhythmic pattern) and in which the original melody is often obscured or
abandoned, this ornamented version clearly maintains the original melody
and freely changes it to elucidate the form of the movement at all levels.

Partita No. 4 in D major (BWV 828). Sarabande

This Sarabande was first printed in 1728, and then in 1731 in part 1
of Bach's Clavier-Ubung. The following example presents a reduction
created by the author below the original melody.

EXAMPLE 17. Partita No. 4 in D major, (BWV 828), Sarabande, by J. S.
Bach. Original melody (above) and reduced melody (below).

A< —\
s-J-J-*.
S S* S f-e- ■■* ------------- ■*. * f ~~- f m r r a
7--*
I M e -------- 1
■ —. ^ - . n -
r - .....i y \ y -J1 j i
= * ^ = L= 7 "

U j - t J T O f a l J

295 Frederick Neumann, Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music, p. 548.
Spitta {Bach, III, 153-4) points out that this movement is an ornamentation, not a variation.

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144

EXAMPLE 17. (continued)
F (D

( 1)
(2)

i .i - ^"^7 i----------- T> 1--- — A C iiC

:=:=■= i------- 1* r j r t f j j- j s
i

7 -yicr = a a y T y * ----------- #--------

Afy=iV-l- _ \ . f r i - ..r f^ -1. J- r - j s i - : --- TT — f . ---£------------ ?----------
, I T & 7- 2- 1^ I
h h

b - ^ f f A r r ..... i f r r f = f a . - f - - r Ti

D'
A
................... ""I AV
f ^ '% =r f f r _— r P * t f T 7 —

1 jfrjK i- ~" •m ---- j
- A - ------------7
. d 1^*P- ■■ I«
i
■^Vrrtj---- ---------------------------------- ]--------- y jS L . f y
Y| .. f j . _.| i V— C>.^wc== ----* —
i----------------

AV

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145

EXAMPLE 17. (continued)

G"
i F
^-r-r1 ---- 11"BD'
1
—-A'"- - - - - - rfA A' A1 A" r*---- ,
1
A
^ -i J ^ ^
_ ,_ _ _ 3_ f
f V - - - - - - - - - L- *^— r, — -f v i r~f''"
lJ—n;- -L--4
------- 'I
8"
t ^ u j J

B' B"

_T*t\ <• r• A6
r fr fr -Vfr r ^ rT “T(-f-f-f fj f tfM■•-

E g i^ r r r ee^ eee = S = - . :. rzi f e
^ — 1-------- ^ — =L=— ^ ___ f — -A~-... S f
*A ly. ------ 1----- r —r 1
--- \ \ - J ----J - - -
v— —l l l l —

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146

EXAMPLE 17. (continued)

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147

The specific ornaments of the movement have been realized in the
same fashion as those of the examples above. These ornaments are as
follows.

EXAMPLE 18. Fully realized specific ornaments for the Sarabande of the
Partita No. 4 in D major, (BWV 828), by J. S. Bach.

Figure 15, below, shows the rhythmic density (above) and the
rhythmic complexity (below) for each beat of the movement. Specific
ornaments which may have affected the values of density and complexity
are placed above the graphs. Those ornaments which were fully notated by
Bach are placed in brackets. A simplified version of Figure 15 is given in
Figure 16 in order to display clearly the general tendencies of the rhythmic
activity of Bach's ornamentation.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
FIGURE 15. Rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic complexity (below)
for the Sarabande of the Partita No. 4 in D major, (BWV
828), by J. S. Bach.

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149

V- -vi- -j Mod. V/vilvi Modulation-

FIGURE 16. A simplified view of rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic
complexity (below) for the Sarabande of the Partita No. 4 in
D major, (BWV 828), by J. S. Bach.

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150

The large-scale form of this movement is established by a rounded
binary structure in which the primary theme recurs in bar 29 (at .618 of the
second half of the binary form). The first section establishes the tonic and
then modulates to the dominant. The second section is characterized by a
modulation to the region of the relative minor. The final section is a
prolongation of the tonic. This is a relatively active ornamentation in which
a fairly high level of rhythmic density and a moderate level of rhythmic
complexity are present throughout most of the movement. A clear building
in density spans the first section of the form until the arrival of the final
cadence. The second section also opens with an area of increasing density.
A slight relaxation occurs with the arrival at the relative minor in bar 20,
but the modulatory character of the section continues, and the density soon
returns to its former level. A fairly high level of complexity accompanies
most of this section. The third section of the form starts with the same
material as the first two sections, and rapidly builds in density during a
modulation to the dominant. A high level of activity is maintained through
the final cadence in bar 37, providing a strong conclusion that parallels the
ending of the first section of the form.
The mid-scale form is generated by the phrasing and harmonic
motion of each section. The first section consists of three four-bar phrases.
The initial phrase establishes the tonic and has a low level of rhythmic
complexity and a moderate level of density. The modulatory second phrase
shows some increase in density and has a much higher level of complexity.
This complexity reduces somewhat when the dominant area is reached in
the final phrase, but a high level of activity persists as this phrase

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151

modulates towards a final cadence. The second section of the form opens
with a four-bar phrase similar to the opening phrase of the first section.
Four-bar phrases are abandoned in the following area of active modulation.
A three-bar phrase (bars 17-19) leads to the relative minor and is followed by
a phrase which starts to resolve in bar 23 but becomes extended, primarily
through a series of falling fifths, until the dominant is reached in bar 28.
As would be expected, an increase in rhythmic density and a moderately
high level of complexity accompanies the modulatory three-bar phrase.
The density drops back upon arrival at the relative minor, but both
complexity and density increase again as modulation continues through
bars 22-24. It is interesting that the level of complexity seems to drop a bit in
bars 25-27 (even though modulation and a high level of density persist) as
the modulation becomes a series of falling fifths moving predictably
towards the dominant. The opening six bars of the final section consist of
three two-bar phrases which mirror, in miniature, the functions of the
three four-bar phrases of the first section. The last of these two-bar phrases
(bars 33-34) is a brief prolongation of the dominant which clearly displays a
high level of density and a low level of complexity. The final four-bar
phrase is essentially identical to the final phrase of the first section, and
again displays a high level of activity and a moderate level of complexity
until the final cadence is reached.
The small-scale elements of this movement involve primarily motivic
devices which will be discussed in Chapter III. There are only four short
sequences, all of which are literal. The stylized sarabande rhythm of the
movement makes use of a second-beat accent, but does not use any

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152

hemiolas. The typical two-bar groupings of a sarabande are evident in the
first and last sections, but are not maintained in the modulatory second
section. A few specific ornaments are used to articulate the downbeat and
second-beat accents of the sarabande, but in most cases these rhythms are
supported through motivic devices.296

Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971). "Andante"

This solo harpsichord concerto was published in 1735 in part II of
Bach's Clavier-Ubung. The following example presents a reduction created
by the author below the original melody.
The specific ornaments of the movement have been realized in the
same fashion as those of the examples above. These ornaments are given
in Example 20 on page 158.
Figure 17 (page 159) shows the rhythmic density (above) and the
rhythmic complexity (below) for each beat of the movement. Specific
ornaments which may have affected the values of density and complexity
are placed above the graphs. Those ornaments which were fully notated by
Bach are placed in brackets. A simplified version of Figure 17 is given in
Figure 18 (page 160) in order to display clearly the general tendencies of the
rhythmic activity of Bach's ornamentation.

296 See, for example, the emphasis on the second beat in the opening two-bar motive and
small repeated motives of bars 9-10. These elements will be discussed in more detail in
Chapter III.

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153

EXAMPLE 19. Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971),
Andante, by J. S. Bach. Original melody (above) and
reduced melody (below).

7

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154

EXAMPLE 19. (continued)

m

AV

i£j ,a j :G 1
Tr. fC - , ______
ty —-t* 1 U13— —*—
I •*- f --£■----------------c>

1 m 2 m
" f --------------- if-----1------ 7---
____ t ± ~ - 1 1 — “ ' ' "

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155

EXAMPLE 19. (continued)

1

22

Z ±
(hemiola)

2
4

IS
7T
1
(C/H) (A/B) r
1(D )(4)

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156

EXAMPLE 19. (continued)

2
F < A /B )(4 )

J 2
J 1

J 3

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157

EXAMPLE 19. (continued)
_____________________ (hemiola)

ir *

(hemiola)

(C/H)

ir

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158

EXAMPLE 20. Fully realized specific ornaments for the Andante of the
Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971),
by J. S. Bach.

^ ------ -
•4 CW
" i = S 3 = g i f t li -. 4\1 )« ^ f 1/ r-f r -r■f r f r j* r 1

B
1—■
—■—B •P — -—

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3Modulation- —IV— li-^ 1
hemiola

l(iv) Modulation ■IV/IIIKV/III) -iv/inim—I
hemiola

i 1Modulation - - - ...... — IV— l(V)------------- -------------- —IV I

hemiola

1(1) ------- IV H i— -1

FIGURE 17. Rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic complexity (below)
for the Andante of the Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in
F major (BWV 971), by J. S. Bach.

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160

■Modulation

1ST 19

I(iv) Modulation- -jv/mini— I

I Modulation ■iv— 1(V)

45 1 1 47
46 48 49

EE -|V-li-

FIGURE 18. A simplified view of rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic
complexity (below) for the Andante of the Concerto nach
italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971), by J. S. Bach.

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161

The large-scale form of this Andante is based on the major cadences
and harmonic areas of the movement. The first section of the form
presents a prolongation of the tonic. The second section modulates to the
dominant of the mediant, which is prolonged until a hemiola cadence
resolves to the mediant in bar 27. The third section opens in the tonic but
soon modulates to the dominant which is prolonged through the hemiola
cadence in bars 43-44. The fourth section begins with a resolution to the
tonic in major and consists of a short prolongation of the tonic and a
hemiola cadence on the tonic in minor. This is a very active ornamentation
which maintains a high level of density and complexity throughout most of
the movement. There is a clear increase in density (and, to a lesser degree,
complexity) during the first section, leading to the cadence in bars 11 - 12 .
The second section opens with a sequence which builds in density. The
activity then drops back and builds again through another sequence in bars
16-17. The third sequence of this section (bars 19-20) is fairly literal and
offers only a small increase in density. By this point the dominant of the
mediant has been established, and a relatively high density continues
through the cadence in bars 25-26. A somewhat lower level of complexity
accompanies this dominant prolongation. The third section opens with a
somewhat lower level of activity (but a constant, moderately high level of
complexity) and gradually builds through the sequence of bars 31-34 until a
moderately high level is achieved at the arrival on the dominant in bar 37.
Most of the remainder of this section consists of a prolongation of the
dominant in which a static (relatively high) level of density and a slightly

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162

lower level of complexity is present.297 The brief final section functions as
an extension and maintains a high level of activity until the final cadence is
reached. A somewhat lower level of complexity accompanies this
harmonically stable area.
Although this movement makes some use of the rhythmic patterns
and hemiola cadences common to a stylized dance, it is essentially through-
composed with little concern for any mid-scale form based on two- and four-
bar phrases as seen in the dances analyzed above. The mid-scale and
small-scale direction of this movement is more dependant upon motivic
relationships and harmonic motion than upon the articulation of
predictable phrase groupings.298 The constant pattern of the bass line
provides a stable rhythmic framework for these developments, and the
major hemiola cadences provide clear divisions in the large-scale form.
These hemiola cadences are clearly brought out by climaxes in rhythmic
density, and by the use of a distinctive cadential formula.299 The steady
bass figure may have allowed Bach to make less use of specific ornaments
to articulate rhythmic patterns, although a few examples are still to be
found (e.g., the second-beat appoggiaturas in bars 8 and 9).

297 Although low levels of complexity are sometimes associated with simple dominant
prolongations, the modulatory character of this particular prolongation may help to
explain its fairly high level of complexity.

298 The motivic elements will be considered in Chapter III.

299 The first two hemiolas use the same cadential figures, and the third uses an altered
version of this same cadential formula.

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163

Harpsichord Concerto in F minor (BWV 1056). Largo

This largo exists in two versions. The Sinfonia of the 1729 cantata
Ich steh m it einem Fuss im Grabe (BWV 156) is an F major version (titled
Adagio) for oboe and strings. A version in Ab major appears as the Largo
of the Concerto for Harpsichord in F minor (BWV 1056). This concerto
exists in an autograph manuscript from cl738 (DSB P 234). Both versions
may have been derived from a lost oboe concerto in D minor.300 The
Sinfonia represents a simpler version of the melody, and probably reflects
the original oboe concerto version (except in the final three bars). The
harpsichord version is richly ornamented. Some, if not all, of this
ornamentation was added in cl738, the date of the manuscript.301 The
following example presents the harpsichord version above the oboe version
(transposed to the harpsichord key of Ab major) and includes a reduction by
the author below both of these.

300 Joshua Rifkin,"Ein langsamer Konzertsatz Johann Sebastian Bachs," Bach
Jahrbuch, vol. 64 (1978), p. 140-7. It is generally accepted that the outer movements of BWV
1056 were arranged by Bach from a violin concerto which is now lost. Rifkin believes that
the Largo was taken from an oboe concerto which contained the same final modulation to
the dominant of the relative minor as found in BWV 1056. Some of the ornamentation at
the end of the BWV 1056 manuscript was clearly added at the time it was written (cl738), but
it is not clear if the remaining ornamentation was composed at the same time.

301 Rifkin (op. cit., p. 143) shows that the ornamentation of the final three bars was added
when the manuscript was written. The simple melody, still visible in the manuscript at
this point, corresponds with the style of the BWV 156 version (but modulates as in the
concerto version), and suggests that Bach was working from a version which used the
simple oboe melody throughout. If so, then all of the ornamentation of the BWV 1056
version was newly composed in cl738.

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164

EXAMPLE 21. Harpsichord Concerto in F minor (BWV 1056), Largo, by J.
S. Bach (top voice). Sinfonia (Adagio) for oboe and strings
from Ich steh m it einem Fuss im Grabe (BWV 156), by J. S.
Bach, transposed from F major to Ab major (second voice).
Reduced fundamental melody (third voice).

tr

(4)
7

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165

EXAMPLE 21. (continued)

r * f
| B t a m T w E f
-V-—9 < ^—>---— >-*. .,. f r fr tJ r fH
P -H -4.-r-rf
T* ------r=— ~f------ 4 r —.. -—

----------- 7—f— f —f— t ------ + y f ) f - y - y f ' "7 1 f r - 7 f= = j
m u —

ui^Toiiu

• £^ v- f ^ , r j _ T ' b * = .J«•. |l p f —

» i r
7f j1* [■■ | —j — r ■^ 1
i 1 1
\j V
,v ~ -A

a .u . , t — f—
W l - - V .......V ' - ' t 4= 1 y 1 ,= * = |

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166

EXAMPLE 21. (continued)

18 tr

(BWV 156 variants in brackets)

iW(BWV 1056)
iWBWV 156)

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167

The specific ornaments of both versions have been realized in the
same fashion as those of the examples above. The ornaments of the oboe
version are as follows.

EXAMPLE 22. Fully realized specific ornaments for the melody of the
Sinfonia (Adagio) for oboe and strings from Ich steh m it
einem Fuss im Grabe (BWV 156) by J. S. Bach.

(Inplied T rill)

(Implied Double-Cadence)
JO (Implied T rill)

19 (Implied T rill)

The complete melody of the harpsichord version with fully realized
specific ornaments is given in Example 23 below (page 168).
Figure 19 (page 169) shows the rhythmic density (above) and the
rhythmic complexity (below) for each beat of these movements. The oboe
version (BWV 156) is on the left and the harpsichord version (BWV 1056) is
on the right. Specific ornaments which may have affected the values of
density and complexity are placed above the graphs. A simplified version of
the harpsichord graph of Figure 19 is given in Figure 20 (page 170) in order
to display clearly the general tendencies of the rhythmic activity of this
ornamentation.

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168

EXAMPLE 23. Melody with fully realized specific ornaments for the Largo
of Harpsichord Concerto in F minor (BWV 1056), by J. S.
Bach.

(/) Ur )

7
7

(Implied T rillJ
. ^

(Implied Tri11)

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169

I M odulation V v/vlV I I Modulation V v /v |V

J,
4
i U M

(V /ii) Mod. V /ii ii
y^Wr(V /ii) Mod.— V/ i i l i i l

V (m odulation) Vl V-" (modulation)- ■ VI

v - v i-v /v i—

FIGURE 19. Rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic complexity (below)
for the Sinfonia (Adagio) for oboe and strings from Ich steh
m it einem Fuss im Grabe (BWV 156) and the Largo of
Harpsichord Concerto in F minor (BWV 1056), by Bach.
Left column: BWV 156. Right column: BWV 1056.

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170

1 I. 21 I , ,I. 31 1 4 5I—1 1 6
1— 7

-{Modulation V v/vlV

17 8 9 10 11:

(V/ii) Mod.-------—V /iilii

111 12 13 14 15:

V -— (modulation)------V

115 16 117
1» 18 19 20 21

H I- -VII- -V-vi-V/vi—

FIGURE 20. A simplified view of rhythmic density (above) and rhythmic
complexity (below) for the Largo of Harpsichord Concerto in
F minor (BWV 1056), by J. S. Bach.

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171

The large-scale form is created by the recapitulation in bar 15, and by
the major cadences and harmonic areas leading to that recapitulation. The
first section establishes the tonic and modulates to the dominant. The
second section is characterized by modulation, although it is essentially a
prolongation of the dominant of the supertonic, leading to the supertonic in
bar 11. Similarly, the third section prolongs the dominant but is
characterized by modulation. The last section is a recapitulation with a
cadence on the tonic in bar 19. The movement then extends through
modulation to the dominant (where BWV 156 ends), and on to the dominant
of the relative minor (BWV 1056 only). The mid-scale form is created by the
phrases and sequences within each section of the large-scale form. The
second section consists of a single phrase and has no mid-scale division.
The following discussion is concerned primarily with the harpsichord
version (BWV 1056).
The opening phrase of the concerto version establishes the active
nature of this ornamentation. The second phrase consists of a modulatory
sequence and cadence. The level of rhythmic density drops at the beginning
of this phrase and then builds through the sequence to the cadence. The
level of rhythmic complexity remains fairly low through this somewhat
predictable modulation to the dominant. The second section is a single
modulatory phrase which clearly builds in both density and complexity to
the cadence of bar 11. The beginning of this section contributes some
thematic continuity to the movement by imitating the material of the
preceding sequence. Density and complexity increase during the first
phrase of the third section. The second phrase of this dominant

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172

prolongation maintains a high level of activity and a moderate level of
complexity. The introduction of a triplet figure at this point adds interest
without significantly increasing the level of rhythmic complexity.302 The
final section of the form builds in density and maintains a moderate level of
complexity during the initial prolongation of the tonic and modulation to
the cadence on the tonic in bar 19. After this point the levels of density and
complexity build to a final climax during the modulation to the cadence on
the dominant of the relative minor. This helps to establish a strong sense of
arrival (but not resolution) at this final cadence.
The small-scale features of the movement include the changes of
detail within sequences, and the use of similar motivic material throughout
the movement. The two versions of the movement offer many interesting
comparisons on both the small and large scale. Although BWV 1056 would
appear to be simply a more active version of the movement (more idiomatic
to the harpsichord), Bach has clearly sought to enhance the mid-scale and
large-scale form through changes in density and complexity in this
ornamentation. This is not simply a consequence of the generally high
level of activity. The sequence of bars 3-5 is entirely literal, and only the
third section of the form shows any significant building in density (except at
cadences) in the oboe version. The harpsichord ornamentation, although
much more active, tends to adhere closely to the melodic line of the oboe,

302 Bach often makes effective use of an unexpected shift to triplet figures, as in the final
movement of his Sonata for Violin in E major, (BWV 1016). Such striking examples
might suggest that these changes from duple to triple division should be given more weight
in our evaluation of rhythmic complexity. Examples in which Bach uses triplet figures
more casually {e.g., the Allemande of the Partita No. 4 in D major, BWV 828) prevent us
from developing useful generalizations about the significance of these changes.

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173

retaining the motivic relationships which add strength and continuity to
the movement.

Conclusions

The preceding examples show many ways in which Bach uses
rhythmic density, rhythmic complexity, and specific ornaments to enhance
the formal structure of a movement. Three common techniques stand out
among these:

1. The use of accented, non-cadential, specific ornaments to
punctuate the underlying rhythmic pattern of a stylized dance.
This is seen most clearly in BWV 974 and BWV 975, and to a lesser
degree in BWV 807.

2. The use of rhythmic density to build through sequences and
phrases, move toward cadences, or develop through an entire
form in order to articulate and give direction to both mid-scale and
large-scale formal structures. This very common technique is
seen in all of the examples above. In BWV 974 and BWV 1056 this
method is especially effective in enhancing mid-scale structures,
whereas in BWV 975, BWV 807, and BWV 971 the same technique
is used on a larger scale as well.

3. The use of density and complexity to enhance distinctions between
stable and unstable (static and modulatory) areas as well as
between resolved (tonic) and unresolved (dominant, etc.) areas.
High levels of complexity generally accompany an unstable area,
and high levels of density generally accompany an unresolved
area. The three most common areas found are the tonic
prolongation (stable and resolved with low complexity and low
density), the dominant prolongation (stable and unresolved with
low complexity and high density), and the modulatory area
(unstable and unresolved with high complexity and high density).
This technique is seen in BWV 807 and BWV 828 and, somewhat
less obviously, in BWV 1056.
It is tempting to draw conclusions about the historical development of
Bach's style of ornamentation from the above examples, but the possibility
of inaccurate datings, the diversity of ornamentations from any given

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174

period, and the great number of lost works preclude the development of any
precise conclusions. Some general tendencies may, however, be observed.
The early works observed (BWV 974 and BWV 975) do not make use of the
third technique described above. Later ornamentations often work to
enhance more levels of the formal structure. These works are frequently
more complex and may use a variety of techniques in a subtle fashion.
Also, a technique, such as increasing density through sequences, may be
reserved for a particularly appropriate situation.
Some interesting ornamentations which were not analyzed above
may now be mentioned. Bach's Concerto for harpsichord in D minor (BWV
1052) contains an extensive slow movement based on a modified chaconne
and exists in four versions .303 The differences of detail between the four
ornamentations is fascinating. All four use about the same level of activity,
and all show a clear building in density across the large-scale form as well
as most of the mid-scale sections. This is a complex movement which
offers a significant amount of material for analysis. The Siciliano of Bach's
Concerto for harpsichord in E major (BWV 1053) is another movement
which exists in two versions (one lightly, and one more heavily
ornamented ).304

303 One of these (Berlin St 350) is in C. P. E. Bach's hand and may include some of his
own alterations. Another version (Berlin St 125) is in primarily J. P. Kellner's (one of
Bach's students) hand. The movement also appears as part of the cantata Wir miissen
durch viel Triibsal (BWV 146) in Agricola's (another of Bach's students) hand in Berlin
AmB 538. Bach's autograph of the harpsichord concerto (DSB 234) is from cl738. All four
versions are printed together in the Bach-Gesellschafi edn., vol. XVII, p. 291-7. The
versions are printed as St 350, first version (Erste Lesart); AmB 538, second version; P 234,
third version; and St 125, fourth version.

304 Both versions are found in the autograph score, DSB P 234. The two versions are
printed in vol. XVII of the Bach-Gesellschafi edition, p. 59ff and p. 314ff.

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175

Although our discussion has been limited to instrumental slow
movements, there are excellent examples of structural ornamentation in
some of the obbligato parts of Bach's arias as well. These arias generally
begin with an instrumental section featuring the obbligato instrument.
This section is usually a prolongation of the tonic that consists of a
modulation from tonic to dominant leading to a strong cadence back to the
tonic, at which point the solo voice enters. The opening section of the first
aria from the cantata Ich habe genug (BWV 82) contains a beautiful and
extensive (32-bar) structural ornamentation for the obbligato oboe solo. The
aria "Erbarme dich, mein Gott" from the St. Matthew Passion (BWV 244)
opens with an obbligato violin solo which gradually increases in density to
the cadence in bar 8 . Many other examples of structural ornamentations in
obbligato parts may be found among Bach's cantatas and m asses .305

305 See, for example, the "Laudamus te" of the Mass in B minor (BWV 232), the aria
"Achzen und erbarmlich Weinen" from the cantata BWV 13, the opening aria from BWV
32,the aria "Woferne du den edlen Frieden" from the cantata BWV 41, the aria ''Erbarme
dich'' from the cantata BWV 55, the aria "Gott, du hast es wohlgefuget" from the cantata
BWV 63, the aria "Welt adel, ich bin dein miide" from the cantata BWV 158, and the aria
"Sende, Herr" from the cantata BWV 193.

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176

CHAPTER III

MOTIVIC CONTINUITY

An Economic Approach to Ornamentation

Introduction

It should be clear to all who are familiar with Bach's ornamentations
that they do not consist of mere random formulas. His ornamentations
exhibit a sense of organization and continuity which allows them to remain
unified while still being complex. Furthermore, they are comprised of
material that seems to enhance the particular affect of a movement. Bach
enhances the affect by providing a relatively uniform ornamentation built
upon material which is especially well suited to the movement. A sense of
unity is often achieved by developing a significant portion of the ornamental
material from a few primary ideas. Complexity is achieved by providing
variety within this uniformity--a variety of material within fairly tight
rhythmic and melodic constraints (which serve to maintain a uniformity of
style and affect). The combination and extensive reuse of material with
limitations on the range of material produces an economic style of
ornamentation. Bach's great art may be seen in his ability to provide varied
and complex ornamentations within tight, economical constraints.
Continuity is developed and relationships are created whenever
ornamental ideas introduced near the beginning of a movement reappear.

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177

A motive may reappear with or without alterations in either a familiar or
unfamiliar context. An altered motive will provide continuity if it remains
recognizable. The context in which a motive appears is determined by the
intervals and function of the section of melody being ornamented.
Although the intervals themselves (the fundamental melodic motive) are of
primary concern, their function as a statement, answer, theme, transition,
or cadence may also contribute significantly to the context in which an
ornamental figure appears. A familiar context is defined as one which is
the same as, or relatively similar to, one in which the ornamental motive
has already appeared. An unfamiliar context is one which provides a new
setting for the ornamental motive.
A new relationship is created between the ornamental and the
fundamental material of a movement if an ornamental motive reappears in
an unfamiliar context. Old relationships are strengthened and continuity
is enhanced if an ornamental motive reappears in a familiar context. The
simplest and most expected situation is that in which an unaltered
ornamental motive appears in a familiar context. The most involved and
unexpected situation is that in which an altered ornamental motive
appears in an unfamiliar context.
The following table presents the possible combinations of ornamental
material and musical context discussed above.

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178

TABLE 5. Material and context

Situation Ornamental Material

Unaltered Altered
Context - 1- -2-

Fam iliar Expected Somewhat
Unexpected

-3 - -4 -

U nfam iliar Unexpected Least
Expected

In general, a type one recurrence will be the least striking; a type two
or three recurrence will be fairly notable; and a type four recurrence will be
the most striking.
An ornamental motive consists of both melodic and rhythmic
components. Because embellished material often adheres closely to the
shape of the fundamental melody, the melodic component of an ornamental
motive may not be particularly striking. The rhythm of the embellished
area will generally be quite different from that of the original melody due to
the addition of many notes. Ornamental rhythmic motives are often more
distinctive, and of more interest to us, than ornamental melodic material
(except where large leaps are involved). The range of rhythmic variation

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179

within a movement will be of particular interest in our assessment of the
overall range of ornamental material.306

Examples

Introduction

The examples in this section will be presented in essentially
chronological order. The first group of these, BWV 973, 977, and 975 are
ornamented arrangements which Bach composed at the same time (1713-
14). They provide relatively simple examples of motivic continuity which
make use of similar rhythmic figures. BWV 1003 (1720) is a more complex
example and will be given a full analysis. BWV 828 and BWV 1030 are both
from around 1728 and will be given fairly complete analyses. BWV 971
(1735) is, again, a complex work which will be given a full analysis.

Three Arrangements of Manuscript Concertos bv Vivaldi

The three harpsichord concertos BWV 977, 973, and 975 are believed
to have been arranged in 1713-14 by Bach from manuscripts of concertos by
Vivaldi .307 The three ornamented slow movements of these concertos share

306 The melodic componant of an ornamentation remains essential to the creation of a
unified affect, and strong melodic figures may enhance both the unity and variety of a
movement.

307 See Chapter I under "Italian Concerto Arrangements." The source for BWV 977 has
not been found, but it was certainly arranged during the same period as the other works,
and is indirectly attributed to Vivaldi in two manuscripts. The manuscript version of the
source for BWV 973 has not been found, but Bach undoubtedly worked from a manuscript
version since Vivaldi did not publish the concerto until cl716-17. The manuscript version
of the source for BWV 975 was lost in WWII, but is known to have been quite similar to the
published version in all but the tutti sections.

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180

several rhythmic motives, and use these motives in a similar fashion to
enhance the uniformity and continuity of the movements. These four basic
motives are presented in Example 24, below (in the fashion in which they
first appear in our analysis).

EXAMPLE 24. Recurring motives common to the slow movements of
BWV 977, 973, and 975.

(BWV 975fc ~ ~ ^ ~ a E E b EZIz — - Ec
, /vlv J
r r 1- ^ r - 1
2 ^ 25

- -

d

The Adagio of the Harpsichord Concerto No. 6 in C major (BWV 977)
is presented in the following example. This is a short, fugal movement in
four voices in which only the first two entrances are ornamented. The
motive "a" is clearly stated five times, and presented in slightly altered
versions three more times during the first three bars of the movement.
Eleven of the first twelve beats contain material based on this one figure.
This remarkably high percentage (ninety-two percent) of related material
provides a very strong sense of unity and continuity in these bars. As the
texture thickens in bars 5-7 this ornamentation is abandoned. It is not
clear whether Bach intended the style of ornamentation so clearly
established in the opening bars to continue in the upper voices (additional
ornamentation is certainly needed in the sparse final bars of the
movement).

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181

EXAMPLE 25. Harpsichord Concerto No. 6 in C major (BWV 977), Adagio,
by J. S. Bach.

1 ~ 1
<r j ]

^ 1 , 11 H ,
1 ~ ----- 1 a”
$T, ------=— = - 2 - ------- -------

pj 7j J'j jJJ J J JJ * * r , - , r ,

*r^ p — 1 T^ ' 1■
i a” ^j-.j | i ^ d J - J - ----------------------- J.

i
*#■

The Largo of the Harpsichord Concerto No. 2 in G major (BWV 973)
makes use of motives "b" and "d" primarily. Motive "b" is essentially an
ornamented version of the dotted eighth- and sixteenth-note figure which
permeates Vivaldi's original melody. Motive "d" is similar to "a". It is
notable that rhythmic figures similar to motives "a" and "d" also appear in
the Larghetto of Vivaldi's RV 230, which Bach arranged as the
Harpsichord Concerto No. 1 in D major (BWV 972), and in the Adagio e

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182

affettuoso of the Johann Ernst concerto which Bach arranged as the
Harpsichord Concerto No. 13 in C major (BWV 984). Both of these concertos
were arranged by Bach during the same period as BWV 973, 975, and
977 .30s The first half of the Largo of BWV 973, which is dominated by

sequences, makes more extensive use of recurring motives than the second
half, which is dominated by hemiola cadences. About fifty percent of the
melodic material of the first 11 bars is based on either motive "b" or "d".
Motive "d" is occasionally restated in the remaining 14 bars, but recurring
motives are not a prominent element in this part of the movement. Bach's
ornamented melody is presented above Vivaldi's original melody in the
following example.

308 The author has not had an opportunity to compare the ornamentation of BWV 984 with
that of the original Johann Ernst concerto. Bach (or J. G. Walther, who was active along
with Bach in arranging Italian concertos at this time and who is known to have tutored
Johann Emst) may, in any case, have helped with the composition of this concerto by his
young employer.

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183

EXAMPLE 26. Bach, Harpsichord Concerto No. 2 in G major (BWV 973),
Largo (upper voice and bass). Vivaldi, Violin Concerto in G
major (RV 299), Largo, cantabile (lower melody).

(l) (2 )
i------
b d
<*• rr. n
[•TO A
1 1 t' f
m
f' f “ f— f r -j-rg
^ / 1r—x” —J
i i— *■-- 4 j
U f " 7 t
kv*t *x~$ur \ i1 I- r — -1_Hi J-it-*- ’

(5)
-I r -
i b

fr».-. r . - r r 4 r J ~f" "P f t* >'
f - L i .. L -a f

-W... ' * * » |

r f- r r V

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184

EXAMPLE 26. (continued)

(hemiola)

/■/*

(hemiola1

17

(hemiola)

__

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185

The Largo of the Harpsichord Concerto No. 4 in G minor (BWV 975)
makes use of all four of the motives listed above. This example was
presented (complete with motivic analysis) as Example 11 in Chapter II
(pages 124-6) with Bach's ornamented melody above Vivaldi's original line.
Figure 21, below, indicates each of the four primary motives as they occur
throughout the movement. Motives which return with significant
alterations are given one or more primes ( ' ) after the letter designating the
motive. These recurring motives, which constitute twenty-five percent of
the melodic material, provide continuity throughout the movement and
help to unify the three sections of the form.

b a a a a’
1 2 | 3 .4 | .5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12_
a a" a d b c d b
12 1 13 | 14 | 15 16 | 17 I 18 19 20 21 22 I 23 24 25 26 I 27 I 28

b a_
b b b b c'
29 30 31 I 32 33 34 I 35 36 37 38 I 39 I 40 41 42 43

FIGURE 21. Ornamental motives in the Largo of the Harpsichord
Concerto No. 4 in G minor (BWV 975), by J. S. Bach.

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186

Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003). Grave

Bach's second sonata for unaccompanied violin appears as part of a
collection of three sonatas and three partitas for violin solo in an autograph
manuscript (SP K P 967) from 1720. The opening Grave is richly
ornamented in a free and flowing style which conceals its many motivic
relationships. Example 27, below, presents the ornamented melody above a
reduction created by the author. The additional tones created by multiple
stops are included below the melodic lines. Ornamental motives are
identified by capital letters, and recurring motives of the fundamental
melody are identified by lower case letters. Sequences are identified by
Arabic numerals. Motives which return with significant alterations are
given one or more primes ( ' ) after the letter designating that motive (e.g.,
the motive "A " may reappear with alterations as "A '" and then again
with different alterations as "A" "). If a new motive is based on a previous
motive, the source of the derivation is indicated by a superscript letter in
parentheses following the letter which designates the initial appearance of
the derived motive (e.g., the motive " G " is based on the previous motive
" C ", so its initial appearance is labelled " G(C)"). Each recurrence of a
motive is classified into the four types listed in Table 5 (page 178) using a
superscript numeral after the capital letter designating that motive (e.g., a
type 2 recurrence of the motive " C" " is labelled " C" 2 ").

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187

EXAMPLE 27. Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003), Grave,
by J. S. Bach. Original melody (top voice), reduced melody
(middle voice), and multiple stops (bottom voice).

as in bar 17

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188

EXAMPLE 27. (continued)

p V ._ ^ i >— r r f f j f
N W T # r J T 'T * ' * r \

L f . K w 1 t * r ~ \
h 'U r * ,— — — — ---------- 1
e e d1

"i < r - t \} y = r T ,J r J ^

G‘“<
D"*
1F‘*
r-1 C■
—1—i n~.
1
3

1
>
., . r ‘
tl-t
=f
=4J--L?
.
f
t
-
^ =
■=
in * i ij. m f i
G“" 2

as in bar 11

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189

EXAMPLE 27. (continued)

C" 2
+r

as in bar 6

FVE’-t G‘“" <
G/H'<

w

a s i

21
it:' r f - r r V 7- fi n l- H n f t -----------

X -----------------------------------------f ------- ' ------------J.--------------

f L i ■ C j -
H - - -1 ■.......... i i

M I ' ^ z k L - O — JI

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190

The recurring motives of this movement are presented in the
following example. The five primary motives (A, B, C, D, and E) and the
four secondary motives (F, Gtfc >, H, and I) are presented in the form in
which they first appear. Each motive and its subsequent reappearances are
then tabulated in an effort to show the way in which these motives are
developed throughout the movement. Each significant alteration of a
motive is listed in a separate column in the table. The bar number of each
reappearance is given at its left. Motive " G " is derived from motive " C ",
so its recurrences are listed immediately following those of motive " C ".309

EXAMPLE 28. Recurrences of motivic material in the Grave of the
Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003), by J. S.
Bach.
A B C

D E

309 The recurrences of motive " G " encompass a fairly wide range of connecting
material. The initial appearance o f " G " is related to " C "by the linear use of thirty-
second notes, and by the two sixty-fourth notes at the end of the motive. Many of the altered
recurrences of motive " G " have little or nothing in common with motive " C ". Motive
" G""" has the weakest relationship and may only be traced back to " G " through " G'
Motive "A' " stands in close relation to motive " C ", and highlights the similarities
between "A " and ” C ". Motive " H " stands in close relation to some of the later
appearances of motive " G " (especially the " G/H'"). In comparison to the somewhat
complex and ambiguous relationships of motives "A ", " C ", "G ", and " H ", motives
" B ", " D ", " E ", and " I " are fairly distinctive and maintain their individuality
during subsequent recurrences.

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191

EXAMPLE 28. (continued)

A A*
/ ...................... .
1 C. { + M---J-t)}. 1-------
Ni

B B'
B

— f—

c ci c*
c

G ■ <?
t 7 — " ------ ----------- (5 / / ,, 12 t=xa ____
i f ^ a P 1 fwftf .^3* Ju 1 1 n 1 J ^ J II t"
* '■ 1 ^ - r '* * ;

17

D D* D“
D u i

20

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Figure 22, below, indicates appearances of the nine recurring
motives as they occur. The function of each section of the melody is
indicated along the top of each section of the form. The harmony of the
movement is summarized in Roman numerals along the bottom of each
line of the form.

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193

Primary- 4 Transition— I Closing-----
H_ Bl_ K_ L
A B B J C F

-IModulation — 1V / 111-
Prim.—1Transition ——IClos. —IExt,
HI F__ GL
G<C) c D E U r
B
8 10 11
III Modulation • -V /v lv -V /v
Prim.—ITransition--------- ICl's.
A] G^_ F_ GH" H_
A '
G" D" H" H
12 13 14 15 16
IModulation ■ -V/iv
Pri. Transition \ Clos.— IExt.—
H" F" F’VE' FI' F G""
B *
C" L G/H' G’"" E D1 I"
17 18 19 20 21
iv Modulation- - Vl i V
C Extension-
o Primary Motives: A, B, C, D, & E
D 22 23 Secondary Motives: F, G(C), H, & I
A i Mod- IV-

FIGURE 22. Recurring ornamental motives in the Grave of the Sonata
No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003), by J. S. Bach.

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194

Figure 23, below, presents a simplified version of Figure 22 in which
only the five primary motives are included.

Primary- — ITransition— I Closing-
B'
A
A B C B C

-1Modulation — IV/ 111-
Prim.—ITransition— 4 Clos.— lExt-
F ___
B
C
D E U
8 10 11
III Modulation ■ -V /v lv -V /v
Prim.—1Transition- 4 Cl's.

A '
A1 D" C
12 13 14 15 16
4 Modulation - -V/iv
IPri. Transition— IClos.— IExt.----
F ___
g i!£^_ F'/E' D1
17 18 19 20 21
; iv Modulation- - V |i -V
C Extension-
o
D 22 23
A i Mod.- IV-

FIGUEE 23. Five primary recurring motives in the Grave of the Sonata
No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003), by J. S. Bach.

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195

Figure 24, below, indicates the type of recurrence as described in
Table 5 (page 178). Initial appearances of a motive are labelled type " 0

Primary- — 1Transition— I Closing------
0 2 0_ 0_
0 0 0 1____ 0 4 0

4 Modulation — IV/ 111-
Prim .—1Tran si tion— 4 Clos.—lExt-
±_ 4__ 4
B
0 1 0 0
8 10 11
III Modulation • -V /v lv -V /v
Prim.-4 Transition— 4 Cl's.
2___ 4_ 4_ 2_
A ’
2 4 3 1
12 13 14 15 16
IModulation ■ -V /iv
Pri. Transition— 1Clos.—4 Ext.—
1 2 4 3_ 1____ 3_
B '
2 0 4 4 3 1___• 2
17 18 19 20 21
iv Modulation - - V |i V;
C Extension-
O
D 22 23
A i Mod- IV-

FIGURE 24. Types of recurring motives in the Grave of the Sonata No. 2
in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003), by J. S. Bach.

Ornamental motives contribute to the continuity and complexity of
this movement in many different ways. The distinctive opening motive
(motive "A ") is only repeated once in an altered version as the opening
motive of the second half of the form (bar 12). Motive "B " is used quite

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196

effectively in the opening section of the form, but does not appear in the rest
of the movement. Motives " D " and " E " appear several times throughout
the form. Motive "E " is used in inversion (labelled " E '") in the composite
figure " E, E', D ". This figure is used at the end of both B sections (followed
with, in both cases, motives " G " and " I ") to enhance the clarity and
continuity of the large-scale form.
Several motives (C, G, and H) of this very active ornamentation are
based on running thirty-second-note figures. Of these, only motive " C " is
sufficiently distinctive to be considered a primary motive. The other two,
which appear with many variations, serve to give a sense of uniformity and
continuity to much of the connective, transitional material of the
movement. Motive " F " is a simple rhythmic figure which adds continuity
to the movement as it appears in various situations. The motive "F'VE'" of
bar 18 combines the rhythm o f "F" " with the melodic structure o f " E '".
Motive " I " is simply a double cadence which provides an effective
conclusion to several sections of the form.
Three of the motives identified in Example 27 (motives J, K, and L)
are never restated. The first two of these are quite striking and, although
contributing nothing to the continuity of the movement, add variety and
extend the overall range of ornamental material.
The types of recurrence displayed in Figure 24 show generally less
expected appearances in the second half of the form than in the first half.
This, combined with a higher concentration of restated material, helps the
movement to build in interest and complexity while remaining unified.
The overall form is supported by the restatement of the closing material of

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197

the first B section at the conclusion of the second B section. The subordinate
function of the short coda is affirmed by its complete lack of previously
stated material.
This ornamentation is characterized by a moderately wide range of
material, a flexible approach to the use of ornamental motives, and a very
high percentage of motivically related material (about eighty-five percent,
not including the coda). This flexible but economic approach allows Bach to
produce high levels of complexity and continuity while retaining a free and
improvisatory quality.

Partita No. 4 in D maior (BWV 828). Sarabande

The Sarabande of Bach's Partita No. 4 in D major, BWV 828 (from
1728) makes extensive use of three basic motives by combining and
extending these to produce larger composite figures, and to articulate
rhythmic patterns of the dance. This movement was presented (complete
with motivic analysis) as Example 17 in Chapter II (pages 143-6) with a
reduction created by the author below Bach's ornamentation. Motives are
labelled using the format described for Example 27 (page 186, BWV 1003).
In most cases, motives were bracketed to show the complete motive,
including tied notes (notes which extend before or after the basic rhythmic
motive under consideration) or points of arrival on the following beat. In
some cases, where motives follow directly one upon another, motives were
bracketed as if they began and ended on the beat in order to avoid
overlapping motives. The three basic motives (" A ", " B ", and " C ") are
given in Example 29 below.

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198

EXAMPLE 29. Three primary motives from the Sarabande of the Partita
No. 4 in D major (BWV 828), by J. S. Bach.

A - B ■ ■ C

Figure 25, below presents these three motives as well as motive " E "
and the cadential motive "I " (neither of which are composite motives) as
they occur throughout the movement. Figure 26, below, presents
occurrences of the composite motives " D ", " F ", " G ", and " H ", as well as
of motives " E " and " I ".

P r im a r y ----------------- 1T ra n sitio n ---------------1C losing--------------------
E B B A "'A (7 C. A' C.
A A A' A' A" A' A’ C C I
: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 •
1-----------------------------Im od.------- V /V --------- IV-----------------------------
P rim a ry ----------------- 1T ran s.— IC los.-lT ransition------ 1Clos. 4 Exten sion (tra n s itio n )-----
E A" A"’ A "' A' A" R"
B A Ay Ay AJ A T A y 'B _ a : A y B1 B B A""
: 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 | 22 23 24 | 25 26 27 ! 28
V v i------------Imod. V/vilvi m o d u latio n -------------------------------------- V
P r i m a r y -4 T ra n sitio n ---------------1C losing--------------------
B_ Ay c . a : c_
( A 1) A A' A" A" A' C C I'
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 381
I ------------- Im od.------- V -------------11 ----------------------------

FIGURE 25 Occurrences of motives A, B, C, E, and I in the Sarabande
of the Partita No. 4 in D major (BWV 828), by J. S. Bach.

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199

P r im a r y ----------------- 1T ra n s itio n --------------- 1Closing
E____________ F_ H
D F G H I
: 1 I 2 3 | 4 5 6 | 7 8 | 9 io 11 12:
I ----------------------------- m o d .--------V /V --------- IV----------------------------
P r im a r y ----------------- 1T ra n s.— IClosH T ra n s itio n ------ 1Clos.—!Exten sion (tra n s itio n )-----
E F
EX G’ G" G"’
: 13 14 15 | 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 | 25 26 27 28
V v i ----------- Im od. V/vilvi m o d u latio n -------------------------------------- V
P rim a ry —1T ra n s itio n ---------------1C losing--------------------
F H
( A ’) D G"" H I'
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 | 36 37 38!
I -------------Im o d .--------V------------- I I ----------------------------

FIGURE 26 Occurrences of motives D, E, F, G, H, and I in the
Sarabande of the Partita No. 4 in D major (BWV 828), by J.
S. Bach.

Motive " D " is used as an opening statement for all three sections of
the form. It consists of motive "A " plus an extension, or "A + x ". Motive
"E " forms a response to motive " D " in the first two sections of the form.
The third section of the form uses an abbreviated version of this opening
combination, omitting two bars of motive " E ". Motive " F " consists of an
extension of motive "A '" plus motive " B ", or "A' + B + y ". Motive " G "
consists of a sequence of " A " motives in the form " A" + A'" + A' +A""".
These two motives are often combined into the larger figure "F + G ".
Motive "H " consists of the motives "A 1+ C + C ". This figure serves to
bring out the second-beat accent of the sarabande, and is consistently

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200

combined with cadential motive " I " into the larger closing figure of
"H + H + I
This sarabande is a highly structured movement in which each of
the composite motives serves a specific function. Motives " D " and " E " are
used exclusively as primary thematic material in an arsis/thesis
arrangement. Motives " F " and " G " are used exclusively as transitional,
modulatory material. Motives "H " and " I " are used exclusively as
closing material. The form of the movement is equally structured. Both
halves of this rounded binary dance use the same four-bar opening and
closing phrases. The recapitulation in the second half of the dance (section
A' of the form) uses virtually the same succession of motives (with the
omission of motive " E ") as the first half of the dance. Four-bar phrases are
used throughout, except during the modulatory area of bars 17-28.
The overall range of ornamental material is largely determined by
the range of the three primary motives (" A ", " B ", and " C "). These three
motives are quite different and allow for a moderate level of diversity within
the tight economic constraints of the movement. By forming composite
motives with specific functions from these three motives Bach has produced
a very high level of continuity (about seventy-eight percent of the material of
the ornamentation is related to a recurring motive) while clearly
articulating the structure of the movement.

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201

Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord in B minor (BWV 1030). Largo e dolce

The Largo e dolce of the Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord in B minor
(BWV 1030) is a highly structured binary movement which is ornamented
in a very economic fashion. This sonata was probably first composed in G
minor in 1729-31.310 The manuscript of that version (Berlin P I008, from
cl795, in the hand of C. P. E. Bach's copyist Anonymous 300) contains only
the keyboard part, in which the slow movement is labelled Siciliano. The B
minor version stems from the el736 autograph manuscript, SPK P975.
Example 30, below, presents the ornamented melody above a reduction
created by the author, over the complete keyboard part. In bars 2 and 4 an
intei’mediate level of reduction has been included. Motives are labelled
using the format described for Example 27 (page 186, BWV 1003).

310 Robert L. Marshall, "J. S. Bach's Compositions for Solo Flute: A Reconsideration of
their Authenticity and Chronology," in JAMS, XXXII, no. 3 (1979) p. 483. Reprinted in
Robert L. Marshall, The Music of Johann Sebastian Bach (New York: Schirmer Books,
1989) p. 216.

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203

EXAMPLE 30. (continued)

lb)

lit A.

(b)

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204

EXAMPLE 30. (continued)

r
c ir c
A'VfrC*

A'"*B< iC 1
D1 2.
y . q ' . . . .... 7
j
f r
L_r v|
]
. . . _ ij
"* * • m* f <K- --

V a- ^ -fa
*
M - f
fe1
-f_ r
~ ^ = : L ---- !
r f r- = = jhhJ r: = 1f. -
-T? --------------------------------
r - r-H
E=

d dJ , _m-u . dJ. . t* r p - j '
t L- * r X lJ f f
i > a r r ~ i - .... r » J 1
.... ^ _ 1 — j - • p r ■■

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205

This movement makes extensive use of four primary motives, all of
which are introduced in the opening two bars of the movement. Motive
"A " is essentially melodic and harmonic while the others (" B ", " C ", and
"D ") are essentially rhythmic in nature .311 The four motives are
presented in Example 31, below, in the form in which they first appear.
Motives " B " and " D " are taken from the harpsichord part, where they are
introduced. Motive "A " is also presented in its reduced form, " a " to show
its basic melodic structure.

EXAMPLE 31. Four primary motives in the Largo e dolce (Siciliano) of the
Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord in B minor (BWV 1030),
by J. S. Bach.

A(simplified) B fromharpsichord) C D(from harpsichord)
- i= J iiU f 1y ;•
7. f # f-f f - f - f ->------^—I-

■:A(as written!

311 The repeated four-note figure of bars 5 and 7 could be considered the melodic
component of motive "B ". Since motive "B " is referred to as a rhythmic figure in much
of the rest of the analysis it might seem proper to give a separate designation to this melodic
figure (e.g., motive " E For simplicity, however, (and because this figure always
appears with the rhythm of motive "B ”) it has been labelled " (b )" in the fundamental
melody.

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206

Figure 27, below, indicates the recurring motives of this movement.
Figure 28, below, indicates the type of reappearance of each of these motives
as described in Table 5 (page 178). Several motives from the right hand of
the harpsichord part contribute significantly to the motivic relationships of
the movement, and have been included in these graphs.

Primary- |
A A'+B+C A A'+B+C
A D B D' D" B U
: 1 2 3 4
I ----------- — I Modulation-----ii---- 1
Transition- HClosing— I
B_____ B+C
D'” D" D

V7(modulation) V- •V
Primary ITransitionl Closing—I
D_ B'__________
B A_______ D"" D .""
: 9 10 li 12
V Modulation—ii/V •ii/V
Transition---------------------- HClosing— I
B A''+B+C A"’+B
D___ D "<
D C
13 14 15. 16
Modulation - ■V 7- -I —

FIGURE 27. Recurring motives in the Largo e dolce (Siciliano) of the
Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord in B minor (BWV 1030),
by J. S. Bach.

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207

r > „ : , i
i x y 1
0 4 1 1
A 0 0 2
' ■ -i ■ i 2
r . .. f
1i i ,1 i ■ i
: i 2 3 4
I -------------------------------------------- — I Modulation-----ii---- 1
Transition- 4 Closing— 1
3_____
2

V7 (modulation) V- •V
Primary 4 Transition I Closing H
1_ 4______
B 1________
: 9. 10 li 12
V Modulation—ii/V •ii/V
Transition— 4 Closing— 1
1____ 4.
1____
13. 14. 15 16
Modulation- ■V7-

FIGURE 28. Types of recurrence in the Largo e dolce (Siciliano) of the
Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord in B minor (BWV 1030),
by J. S. Bach.

The structure of this 16-bar symmetrical binary dance falls into strict
two-, four-, and eight-bar divisions. Motives " A ", " B ", and " C " are
combined in various ways to form the primary material of the movement.
Motive " D " appears in a variety of forms but always serves as a connecting
flourish of thirty-second notes. The solo voice of the second bar combines
the melodic structure of motive " A " with the rhythmic structure of motive
" B " (first stated in the harpsichord part) to form the intermediate, reduced
motive " a' + b ". This motive is embellished with the small-scale rhythmic

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208

motive " C " to produce the composite motive "A' + B + C ”.312 This results
in a tightly coupled "A, A '" structure for the first two bars, which makes
use of contrasting styles to enhance the arsis/thesis function of these
measures. Bars 3 and 4 parallel the thematic arrangement of the first two
bars but move away from the tonic harmony. The syncopated, repeated
notes of motive "B " give a sense of forward motion to the opening of the
transitional section of bars 5-8. This figure is used with added
embellishment from motive " C " (composite motive " B + C ") to mark the
beginning of the second two bars (bars 7-8) of this section.
The second half of the form opens in a similar fashion to the first.
Motive " A " in bar 9 is followed by a thirty-second-note figure in bar 10
which maintains the contrasting styles and arsis/thesis arrangement of
bars 1 and 2. Motive "B ", in bar 13, gives a sense of forward motion to the
beginning of the second four bars of this section much as it did in bar 5.
The composite motive "A' + B + C " of bar 2 returns slightly altered in the
new context of bar 14. This placement creates a new arsis/thesis
relationship between motive " B " and this composite figure. Bar 15
introduces a new combination of the syncopated rhythm of motive " B " with
a descending version of the arpeggiated melodic structure of motive "A ".
This highly structured and economic ornamentation is remarkably
effective. The four primary motives provide a moderate level of diversity
which is augmented by the many recombinations of this material. A very
high level of continuity is maintained as eighty percent of the melodic

312 Unlike the sequentially formed composite motives of BWV 828, the composite
motives of this movement consist of rhythmic and melodic figures that are superimposed
upon one another.

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209

material is derived from the primary motives. A high level of complexity is
created by the many combinations of motives, and by the arsis/thesis
relationships between motives in several of the two-bar units of the form.
The first half of the ornamentation serves to enhance the two- and four-bar
units of the form in a clear and obvious fashion. The second half is more
loosely structured, but it retains both interest and clarity by presenting new
combinations of motives (and motives in new contexts) while paralleling
some of the construction of the first half of the form. The less expected types
of recurrence (indicated in Figure 28) that appear in the second half of the
movement reflect the somewhat unpredictable character of this section.

Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971). Andante

The Andante of the Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major
(BWV 971) is presented with a reduction created by the author and complete
motivic analysis in Example 19 of Chapter II (pages 153-7). The ornamen­
tal motives in Example 19 are labelled using the format described for
Example 27 (page 186, BWV 1003). This movement is essentially through-
composed and, as with the Grave of BWV 1003, is ornamented in a fashion
which appears to be free and unstructured. Much of the range of material
may be seen in the five primary motives (" A ", "B ", " C ", " D ", and " E ").
Four of these motives include the melodic structure of a turn. Various
forms of fully-notated turns pervade this movement and may be seen in
three of the four secondary motives (" F ", " G ", " H ", and " I "), which are
derived from the primary motives above. The nine motives and their recur­
rences are given in Example 32, using the format of Example 28 (p. 190).

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210

EXAMPLE 32. Recurrences of motivic material in the Andante of the
Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971),
by J. S. Bach.

B‘ B“ B'“ B’

— 1---------------------- 1--------------------------------- 1--------------------1------------- 1
L 23 =*. _
1 21 -

^ 25 ^ V JO

1 -J- * *- \ A - 1- — — - - ■ 1 - — J
i>f J r i ---- :------- ^ = r = --------- - - -1- :--------- = . - ■
6' -O 1..-----r H M = - J : =z. = - 1 = = A

- 40 41-tL
■4r f f \
' H ............... ~ - - ......... ~~ "
c— VI
y _ _ - - - ~ ~

■) ' - ------------------------------------------------- "■

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211

EXAMPLE 32. (continued)

18 ***

u
G<C) 10 K -
Fjl 1 ^ ^ ^ = - ■= r - -
^ — ? H : ------ =------:-----------------A------------------------r------: r — =----- .... ■_ .. :

m f ^ r r — rT r ^ r - ----------------------------- - =
!$ ■ = » £ ■ ? ■ , i
^ = = U t e N - - l > ^ - -- ■ = = ■ = : - =
y 1 f 'J S S '

H(C) . 19

P
^38
m

D' D"
D ■H

3! _
— r fT c r 1 f f +—|— —
---------(—
f- r f f-r -Z1—
.. ^ ..

T

¥=*
rtF=
T - 38
f+F= -----
s

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212

EXAMPLE 32. (continued)
I I’ l
1(D) ^29 ^ ______________

E E'
E

(Vw fWV

Figure 29, below, presents the nine motives as they occur in the
movement. Figure 30, below, indicates the type of recurrence as described
in Table 5 (page 178).

P r im a r y - -I T r a n s itio n - -I C lo sin g —

1 I 2 | '3 | 4 | 5 | 6
| 7 1 8 | 9 1 10 | 11 | 12
-I M o d u latio n - -IV — li
P r im a r y -----------iT ra n s itio n ----- IClos.— lE x te n sio n - C lo sin g -
a: D D L_ B_ C"
B A" C_ G H C' B' E
13 1 14 1 15 1 16 1 17 1 18 | 19 1 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 I 26 1 27
(iv) M odulation - - iv /m im —
P r im a r y - -iT ra n s itio n - -I Clos.— I E x ten sio n - -(C losing—
B" D" C B F I" H H H G" B" C"
C,M B B C"' C I I' D" 17 B"’ B"” E
28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 1 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 1 43 | 44
IM o d u la tio n — ................. IV----- l(V) ■ - - —-------- 1v -
E x te n sio n IC lo sin g —
C F’ Bl'"
o C"" E'
P rim ary M otives: A, B, C, D, & E
D
A 45 46 47 48 49 S eco n d ary M otives: F(A/B)(g(C), h(C), & 1(D)
( I )- -IV—li

FIGURE 29. Recurring motives in the Andante of the Concerto nach
italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971), by J. S. Bach.

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213

P rim ary - -I Transition- -iClosing—

Q- 2_ (4 )
1 I 2 | 3 | 4 1 5 I 6 1 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12
-iModulation- -IV-
P rim ary----------iTransition— lOos.—lExtension- Closing-
1_ 1 2 1_ 4__
B L_ 1_ 4_ 3 0
13 | 14 | 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 I 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27
(iv) Modulation- jv/iin^wmv -iv/rnlm—
Primary- -iTransition- -I Clos.—IExtension- -IClosing-
_ 4_ 1 1 _ (4 ] 2 1 1 1 2 1 1
(4) 4_ 3_ 1 _ 2_ 1_ 1_ 2_ 2_ 1___ 1 2 4
28 | 29 | 30 1 31 | 32 1 33 | 34 35 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44
-I Modulation - -IV l(V)- -IV-
Extension IClosing----------
4 3_
4 2
45 I 46 I 47 I 48 I 49
(I)- -IV—li-

FIGURE 30. Types of recurrence in the Andante of the Concerto nach
italianischen Gusto in F major (BWV 971), by J. S. Bach.

Several of the primary motives are introduced during the first section
of the form. Recurring material does not, however, contribute significantly
to this ornamentation until well into the second section of the form. The
falling fifth figure " m " of the fundamental melody is used for two
sequences during this opening section, but these do not make use of
recurring ornamental motives .313 The sequence of bars 13-15 gives
direction to the opening of the second section of the form, but again, adds
little to the motivic continuity of the movement. From bar 18 onward,
recurring motives play an important role and comprise almost seventy
percent of the melodic material of the movement.

313 Falling fifths provide a unifying element throughout this movement and may be
seen in bars 4, 8 , 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, (29), and 31 of the author's reduction of the melody.

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214

The three composite motives (" J ", " K ", and "L ") described below
are included in Example 19, but have been omitted from Figure 29.
Motive " D " first appears in bar 11 as part of the closing figure " J ",
which is based on the fundamental leaping motive "j ". The sequences of
bars 19-20 and bars 37-39 also make use of motive " J ", and serve to extend a
closing figure through modulation. Motive " D " first appears in
combination with motive " H " in bar 19, a composite figure which appears
again during the sequence of bars 37-39.
Motives " C '" and " B " are combined into the figure " K " which
appears during the modulatory sections of bar 21 and bars 32-33. Motives
" C" " and " E " are combined into motive " L " and used consistently as
closing material for the three hemiola cadences of the movement (bars 25-
26, 43-44, and 47-48).
Motives " B " and " G " appear near the end of most sections of the
form, shortly before the closing figure. Motive " I " (based on motive " D ")
is not introduced until the third section of the form, where it appears
several times.
Despite the unstructured nature of this very active ornamentation,
there are several ways in which recurring motives work to enhance the
form of this movement. Parallels between the material of the second and
third (and, to some degree the first) section of the form are evident in the
use of the composite motive "J ", the transitional motives " B " and " G ",
and the composite closing figure "L ". There is a clear building in
concentration of recurring material through the three primary sections of
the form. Many of the motives which recur after bar 19 appear with

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215

alterations or in new contexts, adding both interest and continuity to the
movement. As with the Grave of BWV 1003, Bach has used a fairly
economic approach and introduced a high level of continuity into an
ornamentation which retains much of the unstructured character of
Italian free ornamentation.

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216

CHAPTER IV

AESTHETIC VALUE

Introduction

Aesthetics and the Music of Bach

There is a tendency to avoid making aesthetic judgements when
presenting an analysis and commentary on a work. This is only natural
since such judgements are often founded upon personal taste and opinion
rather than the objective qualities of a work. Nevertheless, aesthetic
judgements remain both necessary and routine to the practicing musician,
who m ust often select and prepare performance material using little more
than intuition and past experience as a guide. The ornamented music of
Bach is commonly acknowledged as being aesthetically superior to that of
his contemporaries. This superiority is rarely questioned or investigated--it
is simply felt to be true. As a justification for this feeling, one can easily
point to Bach's precise notation of ornaments and his careful integration of
ornamentation into the fabric of a piece—describable features which are
readily investigated using conventional techniques. This explanation,
however, remains tied to the intuitive assumption that careful work and
attention to detail will create an aesthetically superior work. Since this
assumption remains only intuitive, most explanations of the aesthetic

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217

merits of Bach's approach to ornamentation remain essentially intuitive as
well.
The following chapter presents a rational investigation into the
intuitive sense that Bach's approach to ornamentation produces results
which are often not just different, but aesthetically superior to that of his
contemporaries. This chapter is divided into three sections. The first
section will acquaint the reader with a generalized theory of aesthetics.
The second section will apply this theory to the musical ornamentations,
and the third section will develop a practical system for arriving at
aesthetic interpretations of the analytical techniques used in the preceding
chapters.

A Theory of Aesthetic Value

A Definition of Aesthetic Value

Monroe Beardsley has defined aesthetic value as follows:

"X has aesthetic value" means "X has the capacity to produce an
aesthetic experience of a fairly great magnitude (such an
experience having value)." And, "X has greater aesthetic value
than Y" means "X has the capacity to produce an aesthetic
experience of greater magnitude (such an experience having
more value) than that produced by Y ."314
This leads to the following questions: what is an aesthetic experience, and
what determines the magnitude of an aesthetic experience? Beardsley
maintains that there can he no absolute definition of an aesthetic
experience, but that there are several describable properties common to all

3 14 Monroe C. Beardsley, Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism, second
edition (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1981), p. 531.

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218

such experiences that may help us to better understand an aesthetic
experience:

1. "It is an experience that hangs-together, or is coherent, to an
unusually high degree" and "it is an experience that is unusually
complete in itself .”315

2. "An aesthetic experience is one in which attention is firmly fixed
upon heterogeneous but interrelated components of a
phenomenally objective field-visual or auditory patterns, or the
characters and events in literature ."316

3. "It is an experience of some intensity ."317
The m agnitude of an aesthetic experience is determined by the combined
level of influence upon the percipient of the three properties described
above. We may note that the first property refers, essentially, to the unity of
the experience, the second refers to its complexity, and the third property is
concerned with the level of intensity of the experience. Beardsley's
aesthetic value is, in this way, determined by the levels of unity, complexity
and intensity involved in an aesthetic experience.
In order to identify more clearly those aspects of an object which
produce aesthetic value, we need to develop a system of critical evaluation.
Beardsley describes critical evaluation with this sentence:

X is good
bad
better or worse than Y,
because . . ,318

315 Ibid., p. 527.

316 Ibid., p. 527.

317 Ibid., p. 527.

318 Ibid., p. 456.

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219

Some sort of reason is required to complete this sentence. Beardsley divides
the range of possible reasons into three areas: cognitive reasons—reasons
which consider the information imparted by an object {i.e., is it profound,
does it have something important to say, does it convey a significant view of
life, does it give insight into a universal human problem, etc.), moral
reasons {i.e., is it uplifting, edifying, subversive, etc.), and aesthetic
reasons {i.e., is it focused, complex, subtle, imaginative, tragic, forceful,
etc .).319 Because we are primarily concerned with the abstract aesthetic
qualities of a work, rather than the cognitive insights gained or the moral
issues raised by a work, we will focus our attention on Beardsley's aesthetic
reasons. Beardsley subdivides these aesthetic reasons into three areas:
genetic reasons, affective reasons, and objective reasons. Genetic reasons
refer to the causes and conditions of the object's creation. These may
include such factors as intention--does it fulfill the artist's intentions;
sincerity-w as the artist sincere; and originality-is it an innovative work.
Genetic reasons are, ultimately, assessm ents of the artist rather than the
object and, as such, are not relevant to the present study. Affective reasons
include psychological effects {e.g., pleasure or excitement) of the object
upon the percipient. These effects are often too vague and ill-defined to be of
practical use in the analysis of a musical composition. In addition, there
may be an identifiable objective source of these subjective psychological
effects, which would be of greater analytical use. Objective reasons include
any qualities found within the work itself which enable it to evoke aesthetic
experiences. Beardsley has subsumed all of these objective qualities under

319 Ibid., p. 456.

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220

the headings of unity, complexity, and intensity. These objective qualities
generate aesthetic value in a work of art by giving it the capacity to evoke
corresponding properties in an aesthetic experience.
The qualities of unity and complexity are relatively simple, and it is
not difficult, in most cases, to identify specific objective features which
enhance either the unity or complexity of a work. The quality of intensity is,
however, more difficult to work with. Beardsley's intensity refers to the
"intensity or lack of intensity of human regional qualities"320—human
qualities (e.g., tragic, tender, aggressive, lyric, etc.) which result from a
complex of sources within the aesthetic object. In order to work with this
less tangible quality, it has proven useful to investigate the concepts of
content and meaning as discussed by other writers. The following
discussion will focus specifically on musical meaning and content using
concepts developed by Leonard B. Meyer and Morris R. Cohen.

Content and Meaning

In order to develop an understanding of musical content it will be
necessary to explore the traditional distinction between musical style and
content. The New H arvard Dictionary of Music states that, "as often used
with respect to music, the concept of style is borrowed from a rhetorical
tradition (reaching back at least to Aristotle) that distinguishes style from
content-the manner in which something is said as distinct from what is

320 Ibid., p. 462. Beardsley's concept of intensity, although somewhat difficult to define,
may be the most important of the three (unity, complexity, and intensity). The fact that a
simple but beautiful work may be of greater aesthetic value than a highly structured and
complex work may only be explained (using this system) through the concept of intensity.

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221

being said ."321 In literature, style represents the author's diction and
syntax, whereas content refers to the actual message put forward. In
technical writing the distinction between style and content can be easily
recognized. In advanced prose or poetry, however, the distinction between
style and content is less clear. Nevertheless, the importance of developing a
distinction between musical style and content is such that it will be worth
the trouble of pushing onward with our analogy.
Style, in literature, is based on those general, normative features of a
work which help us to recognize it as the work of a particular author,
period, country, or school of writing. The same may also be said of musical
style. R. J. Pascall has stated that, "Style manifests itself in characteristic
usages of form, texture, harmony, melody, rhythm and ethos ."322 Because
these are general qualities rather than idiosyncrasies of a particular work,
a musical style may be defined using descriptive terms and without
assessing its aesthetic value. The style of a composition may be defined, but
it may not be qualified as aesthetically superior or inferior to any other
style. Furthermore, it may not be said that any composition has more or
less style than another .323
Leonard Meyer has stated that, "once a musical style has become
part of the habit responses of composers, performers and practiced

321 Article "Style," in The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, ed. Don Michael Randal
(Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986J, p. 811.

322 R. J. Pascall, "Style," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. by
Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980) vol. 18, p. 316.

323 The concept of style put forward here is fairly strict. It is common to hear people
speak of a good composition as being in a good style or having lots of style, but the current
discussion requires a more careful treatment of this often ambiguous term.

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222

listeners it may be regarded as a complex system of probabilities." And,
"Out of such internalized probability systems arise the expectations--the
tendencies-upon which musical meaning is built ."324 Because the
components of a musical style are generalized and normative, a description
of a style will, to some degree, also define a qualified listener's expectations
of a composition in that style. Musical style is, to the listener, a generalized
framework of expectations with no inherent aesthetic value, around which,
and in reference to which, the meaningful substance of a composition
occurs. Or, as stated by Pascall, "Style is thus the general which
surrounds the particular and gives it significance ."325
Content, in literature, refers to the meaning or message of a work.
Content, in music, refers to the meaning or message of a composition. A
general definition of meaning will, therefore, help us define the nature of
musical content. M om s R. Cohen states that, ". . . anything acquires
meaning if it is connected with, or indicates, or refers to, something beyond
itself, so that its full nature points to and is revealed in that connection."326
By this definition, a musical event may gain meaning through its
association with other musical events. For the purpose of this study we will
be concerned with identifying those relationships which enhance the
meaning of a musical event. We will not, however, make any attempt

324 Leonard B. Meyer, Music the Arts and Ideas, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1967), p. 8.

325 R. J. Pascall. "Style," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed.
Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980) vol. 18, p. 317.

326 Morris R. Cohen, A Preface to Logic, (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1944), p.
47.

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223

actually to define the meaning of a musical event. Suzanne K Langer
suggests that it may not even be possible to define the meaning or
significance of a composition, for, as she has stated, . . music articulates
forms which language cannot set forth ."327
The development of meaning in music is an ongoing process ju st as
music itself is an ongoing process. Meaning increases as a composition
progresses-Leonard B. Meyer states that meaning is "an evolving discovery
of attributes ."328 At the beginning of a movement, a listener's expectations
of the movement are only partially defined. Any occurrence which suits the
stylistic constraints of the period, nationality, and genre will not seem
unexpected at this point. The listener will, however, begin to develop
expectations almost immediately as the style of the movement becomes
better defined. Musical meaning develops as each musical event satisfies,
to a greater or lesser degree, the listener's expectations. "Musical
meaning, then, arises when our expectant habit responses are delayed or
blocked-when the normal course of stylistic-mental events is disturbed by
some form of deviation ."329 Meyer suggests three varieties of deviation: (1)
the expected musical event is delayed; (2 ) the musical situation is
somewhat ambiguous, and; (3) the musical event is unexpected or
improbable for the particular context in which it appears. A common
deviation of the first type is the appoggiatura, in which an expected

327 Suzanne K. Langer, Philosophy in a New Key, (New York: The New American
Library, 1942), p. 189.

328 Leonard B. Meyer, Music the Arts and Ideas, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1967), p. 12.

329 Ibid., p. 10.

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224

resolution is delayed. Examples of the second type occur when a listener
expects an event to fall within a wide range of possibilities. When the
actual event occurs within that range, the listener will find it, at most, only
somewhat unexpected. Once an ambiguous situation has been clarified,
however, the listener will have more clearly defined expectations of any
similar situation to come. Deviations of the third type are the most
unexpected. These deviations usually involve an event, such as a deceptive
cadence, which seems highly improbable for the musical context in which
it appeal’s.
Any of these deviations may have the following two effects:

1. Meaning may be generated as new interrelationships are
discovered by the listener while reconciling an unexpected event.
In general, the more unexpected the event, the greater the
meaning induced.

2 . The listener's expectations may be altered or clarified by a new
event.
Expectations will, in general, become more well defined as a movement
progresses. A complete understanding of the content of a movement can
only occur after all relationships have been fully comprehended through
repeated listenings, or analysis.
Meyer has suggested that a musical style is a system of probabilities
or expectations. He feels that musical content or meaning is generated
when a musical event occurs which has a low probability (is relatively
unexpected) in this system of stylistic probabilities or expectations.
Therefore, a composition which merely conforms to a listener's stylistic
expectations will have a clearly defined style, but will lack content or
meaning. A composer who possesses a strong understanding of music

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225

theory but lacks imagination may produce such a work. Similarly, a writer
who possesses a strong command of language, but who has little to say, will
produce a work that has a clearly defined style, but lacks content or
m eaning.

Meaning and Aesthetic Value

Let us now consider the case of a composer who possesses a strong
command of compositional techniques but has a great many rather weak
musical ideas. The result will be almost identical to that of an equally
competent composer with no ideas. We can easily accept that a composition
based on one great theme may surpass, in aesthetic value, a work which
contains a multitude of uninteresting themes. In this way, a work may
have meaning as long as it contains ideas, but it will have little aesthetic
value unless the ideas themselves have significance. If we are to discuss
the aesthetic value of a work, we must consider the significance of the
material of which it is comprised.
The significance of a musical event is, in a sense, a measure of its
effectiveness--the degree to which it is perceived by the listener, and its
relative impact when perceived. This effectiveness is dependent upon two
factors: the quality and relative importance (e.g., thematic as opposed to
non-thematic) of the material of which it consists, and the amount of
musical meaning associated with the event. To understand how the
significance of musical events may affect the aesthetic value of a
movement, we must return to our definition of aesthetic value.

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226

We have mentioned earlier that aesthetic value is produced,
according to Beardsley, when the objective qualities of unity, complexity,
and intensity of a work give that work the capacity to evoke corresponding
properties in an aesthetic experience. Unity is generated by those elements
which create a sense of organization or coherence. Organization stems
from the articulation of formal elements of the style of composition.
Coherence stems from similarities of material and relationships between
events. In this way, unity may be generated by the same relationships that
create meaning.
Complexity is defined by Beardsley as "roughly, the number of parts,
and of differences between them, to be found within the aesthetic object."330
Complexity is generated when new material is introduced, when old
material is altered, or when old material is placed within a new context. If
meaning is created through the alteration of material or through the use of
old material in a new context, then complexity will also be generated.
Intensity refers to the "intensity or lack of intensity of human
regional qualities"331--human qualities (e.g., tragic, tender, aggressive,
lyric, etc.) which result from a complex of musical events. The intensity of
a work will be increased if the significance of the events which comprise it
is increased. In this way, the addition of meaning (and, therefore,
significance) may enhance intensity .332

330 Beardsley, Aesthetics, p. 205.

331 Ibid., p. 462.

332 The use of tension and relaxation may also increase intensity by creating meaning
and by functioning as a dramatic element.

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227

The Enhancement of Aesthetic Value Through Ornamentation

Introduction

We may now turn our attention to those elements of ornamentation
which contribute to the aesthetic value of a composition. These elements
may be divided into two categories: non-motivic and motivic devices. The
non-motivic elements, such as rhythmic density and rhythmic complexity,
may enhance the formal design of a movement and may develop regions of
tension and relaxation (stability and unstability). Methods for analyzing
these elements of ornamentation were developed in Chapter II. Motivic
contributions to aesthetic value occur when an established ornamental
device is restated in a new context or with alterations. Methods for
analyzing these elements of ornamentation were developed in Chapter III.

Aesthetics and Formal Design

In Chapter II we established that ornamentations which manipulate
rhythmic density and rhythmic complexity in a structural fashion will
enhance elements of the formal design of a movement. Specific ornaments
which are used to accentuate underlying rhythmic patterns and cadences
will likewise enhance elements of the formal design of a movement.
Because formal design is a great unifying force, a structural
ornamentation will add unity to a movement by strengthening this unifying
force.
Ornamentation and structure, though related, may be considered as
two distinct phenomena. The relationship between structure and

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228

ornament here is such that it may be said about each that "it is connected
with, or indicates, or refers to, something beyond itself, so that its full
nature points to and is revealed in that connection ."333 Meaning is also
generated by this close association between structure and ornament. This
sort of meaning can be seen in the use of specific ornaments to highlight a
hemiola. Although the fundamental rhythmic pattern of a hemiola may be
apparent without ornaments, the true nature of the primary beats of this
rhythm may only be apparent when accented ornaments reveal these beats
to be accented points of arrival. As discussed earlier (page 226), the
intensity of human regional qualities may be enhanced if meaning is
generated, and if the material is of a high quality and of relative
importance.
We have established that complexity is based on the number of parts
and of differences between them. A structural use of rhythmic density will
tend to add complexity to a movement by providing differences between
regions of low rhythmic density and regions of high rhythmic density such
as would not be found in a "static" or "alternating" ornamentation .334 This
effect will be augmented by the combined use of rhythmic density and
rhythmic complexity to distinguish between stable and unstable (static and
modulatory) areas as well as between resolved (tonic) and unresolved
(dominant, etc.) areas. Small scale contributions to the complexity of a

333 Morris R. Cohen, A Preface to Logic, (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1944), p.
47. See page 222 above.

334 Although there are many small scale alternations between low and high rhythmic
density in an "alternating" ornamentation, the overall effect is fairly static. See pages 94-
95 for a definition of "static" and "alternating" ornamentation.

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229

movement may be seen directly in the level of rhythmic complexity of an
ornamentation. Specific ornaments may add some complexity by providing
momentary changes in rhythmic activity, and complexity will be increased
if a variety of specific ornaments are employed.
We may summarize by saying that a structural use of ornamentation
may significantly increase the unity of a movement. Small contributions to
the complexity of a movement may also be expected if a high level of
rhythmic complexity is involved. A high level of meaning will be generated
by an ornamentation if either an architectural use of rhythmic density or
the structural placement of specific ornaments is involved. The greatest
overall contribution to aesthetic value (in this area) will be caused by a
structural use of rhythmic density: a somewhat smaller contribution can
be expected from the structural use of specific ornaments. Table 6 , below,
may help organize these ideas.

TABLE 6 . Contributions to aesthetic value

Structural Use Of:
Contribution Rhythmic Rhythmic Specific
(Level) Density Complexity Ornaments
Enhancement Unitv Moderately Some Moderate
Of: H igh
Complexity Some Moderate Some

M eaning Relatively Some Moderately
(Intensity*) High High
Aesthetic Relatively Some Moderately
V alue H igh High
* Intensity may be enhanced if meaning is generated, provided
that the material is of a high quality and of relative importance.

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230

A esthetics and Motivic Continuity

As discussed in Chapter III, there are four possible ways in which
an ornamental device may be restated. These possibilities were
summarized in Table 5 on page 178 above. We may now consider these four
possibilities in terms of their relative contribution to the aesthetic value
{i.e., unity, complexity, and intensity/meaning) of a movement. Unity is
generated by an ornamentation when ornamented material reappears in a
recognizable form. In a type 1 or type 3 situation (in Table 5) the
ornamented material returns unaltered so that a high level of unity will be
generated. In a type 2 or type 4 situation, the material is altered but
recognizable, producing a moderately high level of unity.
Monroe Beardsley has defined complexity as, "roughly, the number
of parts and of differences between them to be found within the aesthetic
object."335 In our analysis of ornamentation, we will be concerned
primarily with differences between ornamented material. Type 1 and type 3
situations offer no difference in ornamented material and, therefore,
generate no complexity. In situations of type 2 or type 4, the somewhat
altered material produces a moderate level of complexity.
Leonard Meyer has established that meaning is increased when an
event is delayed, ambiguous, or unexpected .336 For the situations in the
table above, we will be concerned with ambiguous and unexpected events
only. A type 1 situation is neither ambiguous nor unexpected and cannot,

335 Beardsley, Aesthetics, p. 205.

336 Meyer, Music the Arts and Ideas, p. 10.

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therefore, increase meaning. A type 2 situation is somewhat expected but
rather ambiguous, producing a moderate level of meaning. A type 3
situation will be relatively unambiguous but still quite unexpected,
producing a fairly high level of meaning. A type 4 situation will be both
unexpected and relatively ambiguous, producing a high level of meaning.
As discussed earlier (page 226), the intensity of human regional
qualities may be enhanced if meaning is generated and if the material is of
a high quality and of relative importance. We can, therefore, conclude that
intensity may be generated in type 2, 3, and 4 situations.
These concepts are summarized in Table 7 below; a more fully
developed version of Table 5 from Chapter III (page 178).

TABLE 7. Aesthetic contributions of material and context

Contribution Ornamental Material
Unaltered Altered
Context -1- -2 -

Fam iliar (Expected) (Somewhat Unexpected)
Unity: High Unity: Fairly High
Complexity: None Complexity: Moderate
Meaning: None Meaning: Moderate
(No Intensity*) (Intensity*)

-3 - -4 -

Unfam iliar (Unexpected) (Unexpected)
Unity: High Unity: Moderate
Complexity: None Complexity: Moderate
Meaning: Fairly High Meaning: High
(Intensity*) (Intensity*)

* Intensity may be enhanced if meaning is generated, provided
that the material is of a high quality and of relative importance.

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We may summarize by saying that any repetition or recurrence of
ornamented material will produce at least a moderate level of unity.
Complexity will be produced whenever the ornamented material is altered.
Meaning is increased when the ornamented material is either altered or
placed within an unfamiliar context. If we make the assumptions that the
material of Bach's ornamentations is generally of a high quality and that
the ornamented material which he chooses to repeat (either altered or
unaltered) is of relative importance, then we may conclude that the
intensity of human regional qualities is enhanced by both the alteration of
ornamented material and the restatement of ornamented material in an
unfamiliar context. The greatest overall contribution to aesthetic value is
produced by the use of altered material in an unfamiliar context.

Aesthetic Value in Bach's Ornamentations

Introduction

In order to make the concepts developed above practical for analysis,
it has proven useful to create a system which can be applied directly to the
results of Chapters II and III. Eobert Donington has put forward some
guidelines for generating a high quality Baroque ornamentation which will
serve as a useful point of departure .337 His system is based on the principles
of: (1) necessity; (2) economy; (3) uniformity; (4) variety; and (5) suitability.
The necessity of ornamentation in Baroque slow movements is well

337 Robert Donington, "Ornamentation," in Grove's Dictionary of Music and
Musicians, fifth edition, edited by Eric Blom (New York: St. Martin’s Press Inc., 1954),
vol. VI, p. 376-9.

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accepted and is confirmed by Bach's many fully notated examples.
Donington's concern for the use of suitable ornamental material in an
ornamentation may be related to our concern for material of a high quality
and of relative importance (for the generation of musical meaning) as
expressed above. If we assume that the material of Bach's ornamentations
is generally of a high quality, we may then focus on Donington's remaining
three principles of economy, uniformity, and variety .338 Donington treats
variety and uniformity as a contrasting pair which must be properly
balanced. "Uniformity with variety, variety within unity; these are the
perennial criteria of the creative instinct," states Donington, arguing that
"the highest art is shown in reconciling them ."339 As used by Donington,
the principle of economy is balanced against necessity to produce a
reasonable level of ornamental activity. Richard Trombley has extended
Donington's definition of economy in a most useful fashion .340 Trombley
considers an economic approach to be one in which a limited number of
strong ornamental ideas are developed throughout a movement to produce
a more diverse range of related material. His essential concept is that
economy of material is a hallmark of a style which works to provide variety
within the constraints of uniformity (which is needed to maintain the affect
of the movement).

338 Donington is also concerned that an ornamentation should be suitable for (idiomatic
to) the solo instrument. We will assume,for our present discussion, that Bach has used
material which is idiomatic to the solo instrument of each movement analyzed.

339 Ibid., p. 377-8.

340 Richard Trombley, classroom lectures on analysis, Baroque history, and Baroque
performance practice, University of Oregon, 1981-1992.

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Trombley's acceptance of the superiority of this sort of economic
approach to ornamentation may well stem from his familiarity with the
works of Bach. This principle of economy may be readily applied to many of
the examples of Chapter III, but in order to avoid judging Bach's
ornamentations with concepts derived primarily from his own
ornamentations, we must first relate the practical ideas of Donington and
Trombley to the more abstract concepts of Beardsley and Meyer.
Donington's principle of variety may be related directly to Beardsley's
concept of complexity. Donington's principle of uniformity does not,
however, relate directly to Beardsley's concept of unity. Uniformity is a
compositional constraint which helps to maintain the affect of a movement,
and therefore has the potential of enhancing the intensity of the aesthetic
experience. Beardsley's unity is generated by motivic continuity and by
elements which accentuate the structure of a movement (a unifying
element). Uniformity may result from a high level of motivic continuity,
but it will not necessarily produce motivic continuity. As a compositional
constraint, uniformity helps to develop economy in an ornamentation. In
this way, Donington's principle of uniformity may be loosely related to
Beardsley's concept of intensity and to Trombley's concept of economy, but
cannot be directly related to the concept of unity. Trombley's concept of
economy may be related to motivic continuity (a major factor in Beardsley's
unity) and (as stated) to Donington's principle of uniformity. Meyer's
concept of meaning is generated by motivic continuity (motivic
relationships) and is indirectly produced by economy (which demands the
reuse of material and the creation of motivic relationships). Beardsley's

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concept of intensity may be indirectly related to Donington's principle of
uniformity (through its enhancement of the affect of a movement), to
Meyer's concept of meaning, and (therefore) to Trombley's concept of
economy. Donington's principle of suitability can be related to intensity,
but, for our present discussion, we will make the assumption that Bach has
chosen suitable material for his ornamentations.
Those elements which may be most directly observed through
analysis are: ( 1 ) the enhancement of formal structure; (2 ) motivic
continuity; and (3) variety. The principle of economy may be readily
observed in the use of motivic continuity and variety. The principle of
uniformity may also be easily observed, but as a simple opposite of variety, it
offers little new information. The elements which are the least accessible
through analysis are Beardsley's more abstract concepts of intensity, unity,
and complexity, and Meyer's concept of meaning. It has been established
that intensity may be enhanced if meaning is generated, provided that the
material is of a high quality and of relative importance (which we have
assumed to be the case). For simplicity, we will allow the concept of
intensity to be subsumed under the heading of meaning. The following
chart (Figure 31) may help to relate the directly observable elements to the
more abstract concepts listed above.

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Concepts
Directly Observable (Beardsley and Meyer)

Enhancement of Unity
Formal Structure

Motivic Continu Meaning (Intensity)
Economy

Variety Complexity

FIGURE 31. Practical and theoretical elements in the analysis of
aesthetic value.

The enhancement of formal structures may be seen in the graphs
showing rhythmic density and rhythmic complexity (including the
placement of specific ornaments) from Chapter II. Motivic continuity may
be seen in the time-lines of motivic recurrence and the charts of motivic
development from Chapter III. The overall percentage of related material
also provides a general guide to motivic continuity. Variety may be seen in
the range of primary motives, and in the alterations of primary material.
Economy may be inferred from the way in which motives are reused,

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altered, and combined with other motives to enhance the levels of both
continuity and variety.
Beardsley maintains that high levels of unity, complexity, and
intensity (or meaning) greatly increase the aesthetic potential of a work. It
is also true that any work which is the product of intelligence alone is
unlikely to achieve a high aesthetic value .341 The devices which enhance
the formal design, motivic continuity, and variety (complexity) of a
movement must be integrated into the fabric of the composition in such a
fashion that they do not disturb its organic (spontaneous and
unpremeditated) quality (and thereby destroy its ability to invoke an intense
human response).

Examples Revisited

The movements analyzed in Chapters II and III may be divided into
two general categories: those which are based on the form and rhythm of a
dance; and those which, although they may allude to dance patterns, are
not based on the form of a dance. The first category includes the
Sarabandes and Siciliano (Largo e dolce) of BWV 807, 828, and 1030. The
second category includes the Andante, Grave, and Largo of BWV 971,1003,
and 1056, as well as Bach's arrangements of works by A. Marcello and
Vivaldi.

341 Hermann L. F. Helmholz, On the Sensations of Tone (first printing in German,
1862), second edition, translated by Alexander Ellis (New York: Dover, 1954), p. 366.
Helmholz states th a t, "Whenever we see that conscious reflection has acted in the
arrangement of the whole, we find it poor."

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The Andante of the Concerto nach italianischen Gusto in F major
(BWV 971) is a through-composed movement that is richly embellished in
the style of Italian free ornamentation. A steady bass figure provides
continuity, and repeated pedal tones generate a harmonic foundation for
the large-scale form. The rhythmic patterns and hemiolas of the
sarabande are apparent and help to define important cadences, but the
form and phrasing of the dance are largely absent. The rhythmic density
and rhythmic complexity of the ornamentation build across the large-scale
sections of this relatively long (49 bars) movement without disturbing the
improvisatory character of the mid- and small-scale form. The opening
section (bars 1- 12 ) introduces several of the recurring motives but retains
an improvisatory character by restating only one of these. The second
section (bars 13-27) makes greater use of recurring motives and introduces
some composite figures, but it is only during the third section of the form
(bars 28-44) that these elements become a dominant feature of this
ornamentation .342 In this way, motivic continuity and economy increase
through the movement until a high level of meaning is achieved in the
third section. Variety is achieved through the range of primary motives,
the developing role of these motives, and the generally varied and
improvisatory style of the ornamentation. This unstructured character is
essential to the movement, and is maintained even through the rather
economic third section. By concealing motivic devices within the changing

342 Recurring motives constitute forty-six percent of the overall material of the
movement, but this figure reaches sixty-seven percent during the third section of the form,
which includes sections (such as bars 37-41) which are made up of entirely restated
material.

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fabric of this ornamentation, Bach achieves high levels of unity, meaning,
and complexity without compromising the affect (and intensity) of the
movement.
The Grave of the Sonata No. 2 in A minor for Solo Violin (BWV 1003)
also makes use of the improvisatory style of Italian free ornamentation. All
of the recurring motives are presented in the first half of the form, but as in
BWV 971, only a few motives are restated, and a generally unstructured
character is maintained. This character is supported by the varied use of
m otives-som e seemingly important figures are never restated and others
appear in only one section of the form. As in BWV 971, some motives are
sequentially combined to provide larger, more recognizable, composite
figures which serve to clarify the large-scale form. Many motives are
altered and used in new contexts during the second half of the form,
providing a high level of meaning (as defined by Meyer) in this area. A
high level of continuity is provided by the use of eighty-five percent restated
melodic material (not including the coda section). Variety is provided by
the relatively wide range of primary motives, three distinctive motives
which are not restated, and the varied use of recurring figures. The
comparatively economic use of ornamental motives provides high levels of
unity, complexity, and meaning, but is so sufficiently obscured by the
introduction of unrelated material and by changes in the use of primary
material that the somewhat improvisatory character of the movement is
m aintained.
Bach's treatment of the Largo from the Harpsichord Concerto in F
minor (BWV 1056) is, in general, more tightly structured and less

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improvisatory sounding than the slow movements of either BWV 971 or
BWV 1003. The form of this movement is defined by several important
cadences and a recapitulation in bar 15. This structure is clearly enhanced
through a building in rhythmic density and rhythmic complexity towards
cadences and across the overall form. Rhythmic density and complexity
also help to provide some distinction between stable and unstable areas, and
between harmonically resolved and unresolved areas. The version of this
movement from the cantata BWV 156 is less ornamented and idiomatically
more suited to the sustained, vocal quality of the oboe. Both versions make
use of sequences and some recurring elements; in BWV 156 literal
sequences and stylistic uniformity work to produce a high level of continuity
and a clear affect. The rhythmic devices of the BWV 1056 version are used
in a relatively subtle fashion and serve to enhance the overall aesthetic
value of the movement (by increasing the levels of unity and complexity),
and make it more idiomatically suited to the harpsichord, without
detracting from the motivic relationships (which contribute to the meaning
and to the generally high aesthetic quality) of the simple version.
The Largo of the Harpsichord Concerto No. 4 in G minor (BWV 975)
is an ornamented arrangement of Vivaldi’s RV 316a. The rhythmic
patterns and hemiolas of the sarabande contribute to the style of this
movement and are enhanced through the use of specific ornaments, but the
form and phrasing of the dance are not used. The ritornellos of this
movement provide a clear large-scale form which needs no enhancement.
The statements of a free chaconne bass as well as a number of sequences
contribute to the mid-scale form. The rhythmic density and rhythmic

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complexity of Bach's ornamentation help to enhance this mid-scale
structure by distinguishing between stable and unstable areas, and between
resolved and unresolved areas.343 Most of the sequences are enhanced
through a moderate increase in rhythmic density. Unlike the overt
ritornello divisions of the large-scale form, the mid-scale divisions of the
form rely on underlying structures which, if overemphasized, could detract
from the flow of the movement (and actually reduce the overall level of
unity). Bach's ornamentation serves to enhance these various mid-scale
elements in a subtle fashion; although there is a fairly wide range of
density and complexity in the movement, abrupt changes occur only at the
arrival of the ritornello. Recurring motives constitute about twenty-five
percent of the ornamental material of the movement. These motives are not
altered or combined into composite figures, but they nonetheless serve to
enhance the continuity of the movement in a relatively straightforward
fashion. It seems clear that Bach took a special interest in this complex
movement by Vivaldi. This carefully crafted ornamentation works on
various levels to enhance the aesthetic quality of the movement, and is
similar in many respects to some of Bach's ornamentations of his own
compositions.
The Adagio of the Harpsichord Concerto No. 3 in D minor, (BWV 974)
is an ornamented arrangement of an oboe concerto by Alessandro Marcello.
This movement incorporates the rh y th m s , hemiolas, and some of the two-
bar phrasing typical of the sarabande but does not use the large-scale form

343 See, for example, the high density and low complexity which accompanies the
dominant prolongation of bars 34-38.

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of the dance. The specific ornaments of Bach's arrangement clearly
articulate the second-beat accents and hemiolas of the sarabande.
Although the large-scale form of the movement may he divided into three
sections, these divisions are virtually eclipsed by the unending series of
prominent sequences and hemiolas. Since there is essentially no other
large-scale unifying force, the continuity of the movement is dependent
upon the forward motion of these sequences, and Bach's ornamentation
uses marked increases in rhythmic density (and complexity) to give
direction to them. The use of such an obvious technique is, perhaps, suited
to the simple construction of Marcello's original melody. Bach's
ornamentation strengthens the large-scale unity of the movement and adds
complexity to the movement through changes in activity and the
introduction of many small-scale details. The result is a movement which
is simple but aesthetically satisfying, largely because of the variety and
unity introduced by Bach's ornamentation.
The Largo e dolce (Siciliano) of the Sonata for Flute and Harpsichord
in B minor (BWV 1030) is a highly structured movement which makes use
of an extremely economic ornamentation. All four primary motives are
introduced in the opening two bars. Three of these are recombined to form
various new motives and the fourth serves consistently as a connecting
flourish. A high level of continuity is introduced by the appearance of
related ornamental material during eighty percent of the movement. High
levels of meaning and complexity are generated by the recombination of
motives, the use of motives in new contexts, and the many arsis/thesis
relationships of the movement. There is no doubt that this ornamentation

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develops very high levels of unity, complexity, and meaning. Such a
complex and economic approach would be inappropriate, if not impossible,
in a less structured movement, such as the Adagio of BWV 971 or the Grave
of BWV 1003. These movements are dependent upon the free and
improvisatory character of their ornamentations to achieve a high level of
intensity (a distinct and appropriate affect). In this clearly structured
binary dance, however, this economic approach is entirely successful and
results in a strong aesthetic achievement.
The Sarabande of the "English" Suite No. 2 in A minor, (BWV 807) is
a clearly structured asymmetrical binary movement. Recurring motives
add a moderate amount of meaning and continuity, and variety is achieved
by a moderate range of ornamental material, small-scale changes in
ornamented sequences, and by the presentation of the movement in both a
simple and ornamented version. The large-scale form is established by a
hemiola cadence and a restatement of the primary theme, and needs no
enhancement. The mid-scale form is based on the consistent use of four-
bar phrasing. The function of each of these four-bar units (as
stable/unstable and resolved/unresolved material) is enhanced (in the
ornamented version) through appropriate changes in rhythmic density and
rhythmic complexity. This contribution to the unity of the movement is
augmented by the relatively static levels of rhythmic density and complexity
within each four-bar phrase. The relatively structured nature of this
ornamentation is appropriate and effective in this clearly formed dance
movement.

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The Sarabande of the Partita No. 4 in D major (BWV 828) is a complex
and highly structured rounded binary movement. As in the Sarabande of
BWV 807, the large-scale form is clearly established by cadences and
restatements of the primary theme and is enhanced by a moderate increase
in rhythmic density through each section of the form. The mid-scale form
makes use of four-bar phrases except during modulatory areas of the
second section and in the opening of the recapitulation (in which the four-
bar units of the first section are reduced to two-bar units). As in BWV 807,
the function of many of these mid-scale units (as stable/unstable and
resolved/unresolved material) is enhanced through appropriate changes in
rhythmic density and rhythmic complexity. Recurring motives constitute
seventy-eight percent of the material of this ornamentation and contribute
greatly to the levels of unity, complexity, and meaning. Three of the basic
motives are combined into various composite motives, each of which serves
a specific function (as primaiy, transitional, or closing material). This
technique provides variety and helps define the mid-scale form. Composite
motives also enhance the large-scale form as similar successions of
motives appear in each section of the form. Smaller motives are even
combined to articulate the second-beat accent of the Sarabande in some
cases. As in the Largo e dolce of BWV 1030, the recombination of motives
and the use of arsis/thesis relationships produces a high level of meaning
and complexity while enhancements of the formal structure at all levels
generate a high level of unity in this movement. This complex and
economic ornamentation is well suited to such a clearly structured
movement, and contributes greatly to the high aesthetic value of this work.

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Vivaldi and Bach

Bach's ornamented movements in the Italian style have often been
cited as examples of contemporary performance practice in full notation. It
is clear that by 1720 Bach was familiar with Italian concertos by Vivaldi
and others, and that by the early 1730's he was well versed in current
Italian compositional style and performance practice. It has also been well
established that Vivaldi's concertos contributed significantly to the style of
many of Bach's instrumental works from 1715 onward. Bach was probably
familiar with several fully ornamented slow movements by Vivaldi,344 and
it is certainly reasonable to assume that he was capable of writing
ornamentations in the Italian style. A comparison of Bach's style of
ornamentation with that of Vivaldi's reveals, however, several
fundamental differences which challenge the assumption that Bach's
music offers examples of the sort of ornamentation which was expected but
rarely notated by many of his Italian contemporaries.
Although the majority of Vivaldi's slow movements are
unornamented, there remain a significant portion (roughly ten percent)
which contain at least a moderate level of activity. About twenty of these
movements are richly ornamented in a style that leaves little or nothing to
the invention of the performer. Several of Vivaldi's best ornamentations
contain structural elements and may be compared directly with the
ornamentations of Bach investigated in this paper.

344 See the Appendix under "Free Ornamentations Known, or Possibly Known, to
Bach." Although Bach may have known only a few of the movements cited in the
Appendix, there are undoubtedly other Vivaldi ornamentations which he was familiar
with from his close association with Pisendel and others who were active in Dresden.

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These ornamentations include the Largo ma non molto of the Violin
Concerto in C major (RV 187), the Largo (for violin solo and strings) of the
Concerto Grosso in F major for violin, two oboes, two horns, cello, bassoon
and orchestra (RV 571),345 and the Andante molto of the Violin Concerto in
D minor (RV 243). The solo portion of each of these movements is based on
an " A B A’ " form.343 The "A " and " A '" sections (in all three
movements) show a clear building in rhythmic density, and the modulatory
" B " sections each make use of a fairly static, high level of activity leading
to a recapitulation in the following "A' " section. The sequences of RV 243
and RV 571 are entirely literal,347 and those of RV 187 contain only modest
changes. These changes seem to reflect an effort to provide variety more
than an attempt to build in density through a sequence.348 The motivic
material of RV 571 is relatively uniform and offers a modest amount of
continuity, but there is no attempt to develop specific ornamental figures.
The material of RV 243 is somewhat more diverse and makes use of three
motivic (essentially rhythmic) figures which provide continuity throughout
the movement. These motives are simply introduced as the ornamentation
builds to new levels of density (and requires a more active figure), and are
not developed or combined. Continuity is generated in this way, but there is

345 This work is known to have been performed by Pisendel in Italy. See Michael
Talbot, Vivaldi (London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1978), p. 61-2. This work also exists as
the Chamber Concerto in F major (RV 99), in which the Largo (for flute solo, oboe, violin,
and bassoon) is transposed to C major.

343 RV 187 opens and closes with a ritornello.

347 The recapitulation of the primary theme in RV 571 is, however, clearly ornamented.

348 Bar 130 (bar 14 of the Largo ma non molto) is exceptional and clearly builds in
density.

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no attempt to use motives in an economic fashion. The material of RV 187,
although more diversified, contains even less motivic continuity than that
of RV 243. The ornamental material is of a high quality, and the careful
use of rhythmic density and attention to small-scale details serve to make
this a strong movement, but motives are essentially introduced as needed
without concern for economy (and with little concern for continuity).
Although Vivaldi's style of ornamentation is not fully represented in these
three movements, they remain important examples of his use of structural
ornamentation.
It is clear from these examples that Bach's economic approach to
ornamentation is not derived from the style of Vivaldi. Elements of motivic
continuity and economy may, however, be seen in the organ works of many
of the German composers who influenced Bach, such as Pachelbel,
Buxtehude, and Bohm.349 If it is this Germanic heritage which
distinguishes Bach's ornamentations from those of Vivaldi, one would
expect similar elements to appear in the free instrumental ornamentations
of his German contemporaries. This, however, does not appear to be the
case. Economy and continuity are entirely absent, or relatively
insignificant, in such works as the ornamented opening movement of
Pisendel's unaccompanied violin sonata,350 and the ornamented slow-
movements of Telemann's Sonate metodiche (1728) and Continuation des

349 See Chapter I under "Buxtehude," "Bohm," "Frescobaldi of Italy," "Froberger,"
"Scheidt," and "Pachelbel." All of these composers made use of motivic continuity and
economy in some of their works.

350 Johann Georg Pisendel, Sonata for unaccompanied violin in A minor. Modem edn.
by Gunter Hausswald in Hortus Musicus, vol. 91 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1952). See also note
252, above.

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Sonates methodiques (1732).351 Although traces of motivic continuity and
economy occasionally do appear in the instrumental works of his
contemporaries, it seems that Bach alone was able to use these techniques
as a foundation for his free instrumental works in the Italian style.
The outstanding aesthetic quality of most of Bach's ornamented
movements may be understood partially as a result of his treatment of
ornamentation as an integral part of the compositional process. His
ornamentations may be seen to enhance the aesthetic quality of his
compositions in ways which were rarely considered by most of his
contemporaries. These ornamentations clearly do not represent typical
examples of free ornamentation in full notation.352 Rather, Bach's style of
embellishment offers an example of Baroque ornamentation brought to its
highest level--an aesthetic achievement which remains unsurpassed by his
contemporaries and followers.

351 Modem edition in Georg Philipp Telemann: Zwolf methodische Sonaten fur
Querflote (Violine) und Basso continuo, ed. by Max Sieffert in Georg Philipp Telemann:
Musikalische Werke (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1950).

352 Bach's ornamented arrangements (such as BWV 975) show, however, that a
structured and economic ornamentation could be applied with success to the works of
Vivaldi, Marcello, and others who might never have composed such an ornamentation
themselves.

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ABBREVIATIONS

[All library abbreviations are taken from the NBA unless otherwise stated]
ABA Altbachisches Archive. A collection of works by Bach's
ancestors which was owned by Bach. Part of the
collection (now lost) is ed. by Max Schnieder in Das Erbe
Deutscher Musik, Sonder-Band 1 & 2, Leipzig, 1935.

ABB Andreas Bach-Buch, MB Lpz Ms. III. 8. 4

A nh. A n h an g

B&H Breitkopf & Hartel (Leipzig)

BG Johann Sebastian Bach's Werke, 46 vol, ed. by the Bach
Gesellschaft (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1851-1900).

BJ Bach-Jahrbuch. (Leipzig, 1904--; Berlin, 1953--).
BJK Biblioteka Jagiello'nska Krakow
BuxWV Georg Karstadt, Them atisch-system atisches
Verzeichnis der musikalischen Werke von Dietrich
Buxtehude: Buxtehude-Werke-Verzeichnis (BuxWV)
(Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1974. second edition,
1985).

BWV Schmieder, Wolfgang, T hem atisch-system atisches
Verzeichnis der musikalischen Werke von Johann
Sebastian Bach: Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (Leipzig:
Breitkopf & Hartel, 1950).
Cons. Bibliotheque du Conservatoire de Musique, Paris

D-ROu Rostock, Universitatsbibliothek (from The New Grove).
D-SW1 Schwerin Wissenschaftliche Allgemeinbibliothek
[formerly the Schwerin Mecklenburgische
Landesbibliothek] (from The New Grove).
DDT Denkmaler deutscher Tonkunst.

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250

D okI Bach-Dokumente I: Schriftstiicke von der H and Johann
Sebastian Bachs, ed. by W. Neumann and H.-J. Schulze
(Kassel: Barenreiter, 1963).
Dokn Bach-Dokumente 11: Fremdschrifiliche und gedruckte
Dokumente zu r Lebensgeschichte Johann Sebastian
Bachs 1685-1750, ed. by W. Neumann and H.-J. Schulze
(Kassel: Barenreiter, 1969).
Dok III Bach-Dokumente III: Dokumente zum Nachwirken
Johann Sebastian Bachs, edited by H.-J. Schulze
(Kassel: Barenreiter, 1972).
DSB Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin.
DTB Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Bayern
DTO Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Osterreich
EDM, RD, R. I, 1 Das Erbe deutscher Musik: Reichsdenkmale, series I,
vol. 1, edited by Max Schneider.
EDM, RD, R. I, 2 Das Erbe deutscher Musik: Reichsdenkmale, series I,
vol. 2, edited by Max Schneider.
EDM, RD, R. I, 9 Das Erbe deutscher Musik: Reichsdenkmale, series I,
vol. 9, edited by G. Frotscher.
Fk Works of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach as cataloged in
Martin Falck, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (Leipzig,
1913; reprinted Lindau: C. F. Kahnt, 1956).
Go. S. Gorke collection catalog number from Katalog Der
Sammlung Manfred Gorke, edited by H,-J, Schulze
(Musikbibliothek der Stadt Leipzig, 1977).
Handel, Kl-W Hallische Handel-Ausgabe. Edited by Max Schneider
and Rudolf Steglich on behalf of the Georg-Friedrich-
Handel-Gesellschaft. Series IV: Instrumental music
(Kassel: Barenreiter, 1955).

Handel-GA Georg Friedrich Handel's Werke. Edition of the
Deutschen Handelgesellschaft, ed. by Friedrich
Chrysander. 93 vols., Leipzig, 1858-1903.
I-CF Cividale del Friuli, Archivio Capitolare (from The New
Grove).

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251

I-Tn Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria (from The
New Grove).
JAMS Journal o f the Americal Musicological Society
JLB Works of Johann Ludwig Bach as cataloged in
Yoshitake Kobayashi, Die Notenschrift Johann
Sebastian Bachs, NBA ser. EX Addenda, vol. 2 (Kassel:
Barenreiter, 1989).

Ki'it. Bericht Kritischer Bericht

LB Darmstadt Hessische Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek Darmstadt
LB Dresden Sachsische Landesbibliothek, Dresden
LV Works of Johann Gottfired Walther as cataloged in
Johann Gottfried Walther: Ausgewahlte Orgelwerke
(vol. I, II, and III), edited by Heinz Lohmann
(Wiesbaden, Breitkopf & Hartel, 1966).
LWV Herbert Schneider. Chronologisch-thematisches
Verzeichnis sam tlicher Werke von Jean-Baptiste Lully
(LWV) in Mainzer Studien zu r Musikwissenschaft, v. 14
(Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1981).
MB Lpz Musikbibliothek der Stadt Leipzig

MGG Die Musk in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. by
Friedrich Blume (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1949-67).
Mo Mollersche H andschrift (the Moller Manuscript), SPK
Mus. ms. 40644
m s. manuscript
NBA Neue Bach-Ausgabe, Johann Sebastian Bach. Neue
Ausgabe sam tlicher Werke, ed. by the Johann-
Sebastian-Bach-Institut Gottingen and the Bach-Archiv
Leipzig (Kassel, Leipzig, 1954-).
NH New Haven, Yale University Music Library
P Mus. ms. Bach P (used in DSB, SPK, and BJK
citations).
PSFM Publications de la Societe franqaise de musicologie (from
The New Grove).

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252

RMFC Recherches su r la Musique franqaise classique.
SPK Staatsbibliothek PreuBischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin
St Mus. ms. Bach S t (used in DSB, SPK, and BJK
citations).
TWV [Telem ann-W erke-Verzeichnis] Georg Philipp
Telemann: Them atisch-System atisches Verzeichnis
seiner Werke, Edited by Martin Ruhke (Kassel:
Barenreiter, 1984).
UB Frankfurt Stadt- und Universitatsbibliothek, Frankfurt am Main
WV Works of Heinrich Scheidemann as cataloged in
Heinrich Scheidemann: Orgelwerke (3 vol.), vol. 1 and 2
ed. by G. Fock; vol. 3, ed. by W. Breig (Kassel:
Barenreiter, 1967-71).

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253

APPENDIX

A CATALOG OF MUSIC KNOWN OR POSSIBLY KNOWN TO BACK

Music Known to Bach

Music Owned bv Bach:
Ammerbach, E. Nicolaus Orgel oder Instrument Tabulatur (1571), an early collection
of about 20 organ chorales in largely homophonic texture.
See Spitta, Bach, HI, 263.
Frescobaldi, Girolamo Fiori musicali di diverse compositioni, toccate, kyrie,
canzoni, capricci, e ricercari, in partitura, a 4 (Venice,
1635). In G. Frescobaldi: Orgel- und Klavierwerke, ed. P.
Pidoux (Kassel, 1949-54), vol. 5. Spitta (Bach, I, 421) says
that Bach owned a carefully handwritten copy of this on 104
pages of good paper in which he had written "J. S. Bach,
1714." This manuscript, once in the Staatlichen Akademie
fur Kirchen- und Schulmusik, Berlin, is now lost (see B
Dok I, p. 269 Anh. 5). Schulze (Studien zur Bach-
Uberlieferung im 18.Jahrhundert, p. 158, n. 617) suggests
that this may have been pm-chased in the Netherlands for
Bach by Prince Johann Ernst of Sax-Weimar.
Handel, Georg Friedrich Solo Cantata. See Spitta, Bach, II, 11.
Hurlebusch, Conrad Collected works presented, according to Spitta (Bach, III,
Friedrich 264), by the author to Bach's eldest sons.

French Music in Bach's Hand: [All dates are from NBA IX, Addenda vol. 2 \
D'Anglebert, Jean-Henri Table of agrements from Pieces de clavecin (Paris, 1689), in
Bach's hand from cl710-1712, in UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs.
1538, p. 69. See Klotz, Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und
Orgelwerke von Johann Sebastian Bach, p. XXVI for a
facsimile of this. Also see the discussion below of Dieupart's
Six suittes.

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254

Dieupart, Frangois Six suittes de clavecin (Amsterdam, 1701), copied by Bach in
UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538, p. 70-108. Kobayashi (J. S.
Bach: Neue Ausgabe samtliche Werke, series IX: Addenda
vol. 2) estimates that the suites in A, D, and e are from cl709-
1712, the suite in f is from cl713 and the suites in b and F are
from cl714. This manuscript also contains the Grigny
Premier livre and the D'Anglebert table of ornaments. Note
that Robert Hill (The Moller Manuscript and the Andreas
Bach Book, p. 142) states that only three Dieuparts are in this
manuscript. This seems to be an error since 39 pages of the
ms. are used for the suites, and only 15 pages were used by
Fuchs for his exact copy of two of the suites in DSB Mus. 8551
See also Schulze, Studien, p. 42, n. 133, for a suggestion that
the inscriptions at the end of the Dieupart suites in Mus. Hs.
1538 and the inscription at the beginning of the Dieupart table
of ornaments in Mo could imply that the table in Mo was in
some way associated with the suites of Mus. Hs. 1538.
Grigny, Nicolas de Premier livre d'orgue contenant une messe et les hymnes
des principalles festes de Vannee (Paris, 1699/1700?/1711).
This was copied by Bach in cl709-1712, apparently from a
lost 1700 edition, and is in UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538, p.
1-68 (see Kobayashi in NBA, series IX: Addenda vol. 2).
Almonte Howell states (The New Grove, VII, 731), however,
that Bach copied the Grigny Premier livre in cl703.
Marchand, Louis Pieces de Clavecin, Livre Premier, consisting of a single
Suite in d (Amsterdam: Roger, 1700-1 and Paris: Ballard,
1702). Facsimile edn. (Geneve: Minkoff Reprint, 1982). In
J. C. Bach’s (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB. The
manuscript describes Marchand as "Org: del' Eglise de St.
Benoist. a Paris" and generally agrees with the Roger
version. Hill (The Moller Manuscript, p. 277) believes that
J. S. Bach may have entered a correction in this
manuscript.

Italian Music in Bach's Hand: [All dates are from NBA IX, Addenda vol. 2]
Albinoni, Tomaso Concerto No. 2 in e (BWV Anh. 23) from [6] Sinfonie e [6]
Giovanni concerti a conque for 2-3 vn, 2va, vc, and be, op. 2 (Venice,
1700). An incomplete copy of the continuo part from this
concerto, made by Bach in cl710 or before, is in MB Lpz, Go.
S. 301.______________________________________________
Sonata No. 6 in a from Trattenimenti armonici per camera
divisi in dodici Sonate for vn, vie and hpd, op. 6
(Amsterdam, cl712). This is in a 1725 manuscript (DSB
Mus. ms. 455) by Bach's pupil Heinrich N. Gerber, with
bass realization by Gerber and autograph corrections by
Bach. See Spitta, Bach, II, 293 and IE, 388 for the original
Albinoni sonata.

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255

Bassani, Giovanni Battista Acroama Missale. The title page and the Credo of the 5th
(1657-1716) Mass are in Bach's handwriting from cl735 (title page) and
from 1747-1748 (Credo) in this manuscript (SPK Mus. ms.
1160).
Bonporti, Francesco Invenzione No. 2, No. 5, No. 6, and No. 7 (BWV Anh. 173-
Antonio 176), from Invenzioni, op.10 for vn and be (Bologna, 1712).
Modern edn., ed. by Franz Giegling (Kassel: Barenreiter,
1950). A portion of the score from this manuscript (SPK P
270) is in Bach's handwriting from 1723 (see Kobayashi in
NBA series IX: Addenda vol. 2). Malcolm Boyd, however,
states (Bach, p. 45) that Bach copied these four pieces in 1715.
Caldara, Antonio Magnificat in C. This manuscript in Bach's hand (DSB
Mus. ms. 2755 no. 1) dates from 1739-1742.
Conti, Francesco Languet anima mea. The title page and score in Bach's
Bartolomeo hand from 1716 are in DSB Mus. ms. 30098 no. 7. A violin
concertato I part in Bach's hand from 1717-1723 is in SPK
Mus. ms. 4081.
Durante, Francesco Mass in c (BWV Anh. 26). The score and title page of this
are included with BWV 242 in the Stadt-Arkiv Leipzig,
Breitkopf und Hartel Arkiv, Mus ms. 10, and date from
1727-1732.
Locatelli, Pietro Concerto Grosso No. 8 in f from op. 1 (Amsterdam: Le Cene,
1721). A handwritten copy of the parts for this concerto with
corrections by Bach, and a first-movement violoncello part
in Bach's hand, is in MB Lpz Go.S. 4. The parts and Bach's
corrections date from 1734 or 1735, and Bach's copy of the
violoncello part dates from cl748. See Schulze, Katalog der
Sammlung Manfred Gorke, p. 170 for these dates and a
facsimile of Bach's violoncello part. Kobayashi (NBA,
series IX: Addenda vol. 2) dates the manuscript as cl738-
1739. This concerto was formerly attributed to Handel (see
Spitta, Bach, II, 175 and II, 11). This mistake is clarified by
Schulze in Bach Jahrbuch, 66, p. 27-33.
Lotti, Antonio Mass in g. This work, with revisions by Bach from 1732-
1735, is in DSB Mus. ms. 13161. See also Spitta, Bach, II, 639
and III, 28.
Palestrina, Giovanni Missa sine nomine. The title page, violone part, cembalo
Pierluigi da part and organo part of this are in Bach's hand from cl742 in
DSB Mus. ms. 16714.
Peranda, Marco Gioseffo Kyrie in C. The cover and title only of this work are in
Bach's hand from 1708-1717in SPK Mus. ms. 17079HO.
Pergolesi, Giovanni Stabat Mater. Part of this work is in Bach's hand from 1746-
Battista 1747 in SPK Mus. ms. 30199 no. 14. Revisions of the organo
part by Bach from 1746-1747 are in SPK Mus. ms. 17155/16.
Riccio, Teodoro Canon in 2 parts. The album and leaf of this manuscript
(Staatsarchiv Oldenburg, Best, 297 J.) are in Bach's
handwriting.

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256

German Music in Bach's Hand: [All dates are from NBA IX, Addenda vol. 2]

Baal, Johann Mass [Missa total in a. The Kyrie of this manuscript (DSB
Mus. ms. 30091 no. 11) is in Bach's hand from cl714-1717.
The remainder of the work is in Walther's hand.
Bach, Carl Philipp Concerto in a for harpsichord and orchestra, Wq 1 (BWV
Emanuel Anh. 189). Several parts of this manuscript (BJK S t 495) are
in Bach's hand from cl 746-7.
Bach, Johann Bernhard Overture in D for orchestra. Part of this manuscript (SPK St
(1676-1749) 318) is in Bach's hand from 1730.
Overture in G for orchestra. Part of this manuscript (SPK St-
319) is in Bach's hand from 1730.
Overture in g for orchestra. Part of this manuscript (DSB St
320) is in Bach's hand from 1730.
Bach, Johann Christoph Der Gerechte, oh ergleich zu zeitlich stirbt, motet. This
(1676-1703) manuscript (from of the ABA), now lost, was in Bach's hand
from 1743-1746. In EDM, RD, R. 1 ,1, p. 101.
Es ist nun a us, aria. Portions of this manuscript (from the
ABA), now lost, are in Bach's hand. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p.
91.
Lieber Herr Gott, wecke uns a u f motet. Portions of this
manuscript, now lost (photocopy in DSB Fot Bu 42P-), are in
Bach's hand from 1748-9.
Urisers Herzens Freude . . , motet. The parts of this
manuscript (SPK P 4/ 2) are in Bach's hand from 1746-7.
Bach, Johann Ludwig 18 Cantatas, JLB 1-17 and BWV 15, copied by Bach in 1726 for
(1677-1731) performance in Leipzig. Manuscripts are in DSB (P 397, S t
302, and St 309-314), SPK (St 301, St 303-307, St 315-317, St 13a,
and P 476), and BJK (St 308).
Bach, Wilhelm Concerto in F for 2 harpsichords, Fk 10 (BWV Anh. 188).
Friedemann The parts for this concerto are in a manuscript (DSB St 176)
in Bach's hand from cl742.
Bohm, Georg Menuet in G, entered into the Klavierbiichlein fur A. M.
Bach, 1725 (SPK P 225) by J. S. Bach between 1725 and 1738 as
Menuet fait par Moris. Bohm. The authorship of this menuet
is now in question.
Froberger, Johann Jacob Keyboard works included in the book owned by Bach's
brother, Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721), and copied by
Bach in cl699. See The Bach Reader, p. 216 and 278. The
contents of this book are not known but it has been suggested
that they may have been similar to a book compiled by
Johann Valentin Eckelt (b. 1673), who, like Johann
Christoph, had studied with Pachelbel in Erfurt. See below
under "The Eckelt Tabulature Book of 1692" for a listing of
the Froberger works in this book.
Goldberg, Johann Gottlieb Durch die herzliche Barmherzigkeit. The violone part with
corrections by Bach from 1743-1746 are in SPK Mus. ms.
7918.

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257

Hfindel, Georg Friedrich A passion music with text by Brock is in DSB Mus. ms.
9002HO with the title page and first 45 pages in Bach's hand
from 1746-1747 (score) and from 1748-1749 (title page).
Armida abbandonata. The vn I, be, and some of the vn II
part in Bach's hand from 1731 are in LB Darmstadt Mus.
ms. 986.
Heinichen, Johann David Cantata. Only the attribution to Heinichen is in Bach's
hand in this manuscript (DSB Mus. ms. 30210). The rest is
in Walther's hand from cl712. See B-Dok II, #322 and p.
238. Also, Ernest May, J. G. Walther and the Lost Weimar
Autographs of Bach's Organ Works, in Studies in
Renaissance and Baroque Music in Honor of Arthur Mendel
(Barenreiter, 1974), p. 281. A facsimile of the first page is on
p. 272 of Harald Kmnmerling's Katalog der Sammlung
Bokemeyer (Kassel, 1970).
Keiser, Reinhard St. Mark Passion. This manuscript (DSB Reinh. Keiser
Mus. ms. 11471/1) is in Bach's hand, primarily from 1713,
and partially from 1726. See Schulze Studien, p. 107, and The
New Grove Bach Family, p. 50.
Kerll, Johann Caspar Keyboard works included in the book owned by Bach's
brother, Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721), and copied by
Bach in cl699. See The Bach Reader, p. 216 and 278. The
contents of this book are not known but it has been suggested
that they may have been similar to a book compiled by
Johann Valentin Eckelt (b. 1673), who, like Johann
Christoph, had studied with Pachelbel in Erfurt. See below
under "The Eckelt Tabulature Book of 1692."
Sanctus in D (BWV 241). This work, in Bach's hand from
1747-1748, is in the Kunstsammlungen der Coburger
Landesstiftung auf der Veste Coburg, V. 1109.1.
Kntipfer, Sebastian Erforsche mich, Gott, motet. Parts for this work, in Bach’s
hand from cl746-1747, are in SPK Mus. ms. 11788. The
score also contains Bach's handwriting and is in SPK Mus.
ms. autogr. Knilpfer I.
Pachelbel, Johann Keyboard works included in the book owned by Bach's
brother, Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721), and copied by
Bach in cl699. See The Bach Reader, p. 216 and 278. The
contents of this book are not known but it has been suggested
that they may have been similar to a book compiled by
Johann Valentin Eckelt (b. 1673), who, like Johann
Christoph, had studied with Pachelbel in Erfurt. See below
under "The Eckelt Tabulature Book of 1692” for a listing of
the Pachelbel works in this book.
Pez, Johann Christoph Mass in a (BWV Anh. 24). Parts (S, A, T, B, vn I, vn II, and
va) in Bach's hand from 1714-1717 are in SPK St.327. Other
parts in Bach's hand from 1714-1717 (Kyrie) and 1724 (the
remainder) are in DSB P 13 adn. 5.

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258

Schmidt, Johann Christoph AufGott hoffe ich. Parts for this in Bach's hand from 1714-
1717 are in DSB Mus. ms. 30187 no. 10. Oboe I and II and
bassoon parts in Bach's hand from 1714-1717 are in SPK
Mus. ms. 19921 / l .
Telemann, Georg Philipp Concerto in G for 2 vn, strings and be. Parts for this, in
Bach's hand from cl709, are in LB Dresden Mus. 2392-0-
35a. Some of this manuscript is in the same hand as the
Telemann concerto which Bach arranged (BWV 985-see
below). The doublets are in Pisendel's hand, and the entire
manuscript was apparently in Pisendel's possession. See
Schulze Telemann—Pisendel—Bach. Zu einem
unbekannten Bach-Autograph, in Konferenzbericht der 7.
Telemann-Festtage Magdeburg 1981, or his Studien, p. 165.
Also see The New Grove Bach Family, p. 60, and R. Hill,
The Moller Manuscript, p. 130.
Der Herr ist Konig. A manuscript of this, partially in
Bach's hand and with revisions by Bach from 1725, is in LB
Dresden, Mus. 2392-E-612.
Machet die Tore weit. The score for this, in Bach's hand
from 1734, is in DSB P 47 adn. 2.
Wilderer, Johann Mass in g. This work, partially in Bach's hand from
Hugo von probably before 1731, is in DSB Mus. ms. 23116HO.

Anonymous Music in Bach's Hand: [As listed in Kirsten BeiBwenger, "Bachs
Eingriffe in Werke fremder Komponisten, " in Bach-Jahrbuch, 77, p. 129.]

anonymous Magnificat in C (BWV Anh. 30). The score of this is in
Bach's hand from cl 742 in DSB P 195.
Mass [Kyrie and Gloria] in C (BWV Anh. 25). The score of
this is in Bach's hand from 1740-42 in the Stadtarchiv
Leipzig Mus. ms. 9 (in the possession of Breitkopf &
Hartel).
Mass [Kyrie and Gloria] in c (BWV Anh. 29). The cello
part only of this is in Bach's hand from cl714-17 in BJK St
547.
Mass [Kyrie and Gloria] in G (BWV Ahn. 167). The score
of this is partially in Bach's hand from 1732-35 and from
1738-39 in SPK P 659.
Sanctus in d (BWV 239). The score and parts of this are in
Bach's hand from 1738-41 in D SB P 13, p. 25-26 and BJK St.
113.
Sanctus in G (BWV 240). The score of this is in Bach's
hand from cl742 in DSB P 13, p. 21-24. The part are in an
unknown hand from cl742 in DSB St 115.

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259

French Music Used bv Bach:

Couperin, Frangois Trio "L'Imperiale" from Ordre [suite] No. 4 of Les nations
(1726). Arranged as Aria in F, BWV 587.

Italian Music Used bv Bach:

unknown (possibly Concerto in g. Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as
Marcello?) Harpsichord concerto in g, BWV 983.
Albinoni, Tomaso Trio Sonata No. 3 in A from [12] Suonate a tre for 2 vn, vc
Giovanni and hpd, op. 1 (Venice, 1694). Used in BWV 950, Fugue in A
on theme by Albinoni (cl 710).
Trio Sonata No. 7 in G from [12] Suonate a tre for 2 vn, vc
and hpd, op. 1 (Venice, 1694). The second and fourth
movements are used in BWV 949, Fugue in A (cl710). See
Hill, The Moller Manuscript, p. 444-6, and M. Talbot,
Albinoni (1980), p. 228.
Trio Sonata No. 8 in b from [12] Suonate a tre for 2 vn, vc
and hpd, op. 1 (Venice, 1694). The second movement is used
in BWV 951/951a, Fugue in b on theme by Albinoni (before
1710).
Trio Sonata No. 12 in Bb from [12] Suonate a tre for 2 vn, vc
and hpd, op. 1 (Venice, 1694). The fourth movement is used
in BWV 946, Fugue in C on a theme by Albinoni (cl707).
Corelli, Arcangelo Trio Sonata No. 4 in b from [12] Sonate a tre for 2 vn,
vle/archlute and organ, op. 3 (Rome, 1689). The opening
theme of the Vivace is used in BWV 579, Fugue in b o n a
theme by Corelli (probably before 1708).
Legrenzi, Giovanni Trio Sonata No. 11 in g, "La Mont' Albana,"from [18]
Sonata a 2-3, libro primo, op. 2, (Venice, 1655). A theme
from this is used in BWV 574/574a/574b, Fugue in con a
theme by Legrenzi (probably before 1708). See R. Hill in
Bach Jahrbuch, 72 (1986), p. 102-4. BWV 574b is in ABB
(cl707-1715).

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260

Marcello, Alessandro Concerto for oboe in c. Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to
July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in d, BWV 974. Bach
may have worked from the version in D-SW1 Mus. ms.
3530. This Marcello concerto also appears in D minor as
part of a collection published by Roger in 1716, but this
version post-dates Bach's arragement. See Schulze,
Studien, p. 168. Putnam Aldrich (Musical Quarterly 35,
1949, p. 33) cites a C minor manuscript of this concerto (in
which the work is attributed to Benedetto Marcello) in the
Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale as the original for
Bach's arrangement, but this manuscript is apparently now
lost. See Manfred Fechner's concluding remarks to the
1977 Peters edn. of Marcello's concerto. Bach's version,
BWV 974, existed in a relatively early copy in LB
Darmstadt Mus. ms. 66.
Marcello, Benedetto Concerto No. 2 in e from [12] Concerti a Cinque con Violino
Solo, e Violoncello obligato di Benedetto Marcello . . . Oper
Prima. A Venetia, da Gioseppe Sala MDCCVIII (1708).
Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord
concerto in c, BWV 981.
Torelli, Giuseppe Concerto in d, RV Anh. 10. Arranged by Bach in July 1713
to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in b, BWV 979. A
theme from this concerto was also used for his Fugue in a,
BWV 944 (see Hill, The Moller Manuscript, p. 131 and 445).
Vivaldi, Antonio? Concerto for violin in C. Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to
(Marcello?) July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in C, BWV 977. The
concerto is indirectly attributed to Vivaldi in Berlin, P 804
and P 280. Schulze (Studien, p. 164) has grouped this work
along with Bach's arrangements of Vivaldi's RV 381, RV
316, RV 208, and a manuscript version of RV 299. The Bach-
Gesellschaft suggests Marcello [Benedetto?] as a possible
composer for this work.
Vivaldi, Antonio Concerto for violin in Bb, RV 381. This is a manuscript
version of RV 383a (op. 4, no. 1) with different second and
third movements. Arranged and transposed by Bach in
July 1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in G, BWV
980. The only known Vivaldi manuscript (DSB
Thulemeier Nr. 232) was owned (or copied) by Christoph
Nichelmann (1717-1762), a student of Bach's at the Leipzig
Thomas School.

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261

Vivaldi, Antonio Concerto for violin in D, RV 208. This is a manuscript
version of RV 208a (op. 7/ii, no. 5) with a different second
movement. Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as
Organ concerto in C, BWV 594. Bach's version corresponds
with a manuscript of the parts (with a missing Basso di
concertino part) in Peter Johann Fick's hand (D-SW1 Mus.
ms. 5565), which contains cadenzas for the first and third
movements (34 and 106 bars respectively—both are printed
in NBA IV/8 Krit. Bericht, p. 100-104) not found in the
Vivaldi autograph (I-Tn Giordano vol. 29, fol. 167-181).
Parts for RV 208 in I-CF contain the same 34 bar first-
movement cadenza as the D-SW1 manuscript, and a 126-bar
third-movement cadenza attributed to Vivaldi and
commissioned by Leonardo Giorgio Pontotti, which agrees
with the D-SW1 version only in the first 9 bars and much of
the last 22 bars. See Grattoni in Informazioni e Studi
Vivaldiani 4,1983, p. 3-19 for information on the I-CF
version and photographs of the third-movement cadenzas of
the D-SWland I-CFmanuscripts. Also see Tagliavani in J.
S. Bach as Organist, ed by Stauffer and May, 1986.
Concerto for violin in G, RV 299 (op. 7/ii, no. 2). Arranged
by Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in
G, BWV 973. The ornamentations of the second movement
of BWV 973 do not appear in RV 299.__________________
Concerto for violin in g, RV 316. Arranged by Bach in July
1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in g, BWV 975.
RV 316 is a manuscript version of RV 316a (op. 4, no. 6) with
a slightly altered second movement and different third
movement. The RV 316 manuscript, LB Darmstadt 4443,
was lost in world war II. The rich ornamentation of the
slow movement of BWV 975 was contributed by Bach.
Concerto No. 3 in Gfor violin, RV 310, from L'estro
armonico, op. 3 (Amsterdam: Roger, 1711). Arranged by
Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in F,
BWV 978.
Concerto No. 8 in a for 2 violins, RV 522, from L'estro
armonico, op. 3 (Amsterdam: Roger, 1711). Arranged by
Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as Organ concerto in a, BWV
593.
Concerto No. 9 in D for violin, RV 230, from L'estro
armonico, op. 3 (Amsterdam: Roger, 1711). Arranged by
Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in D,
BWV 972.
Concerto No. 10 in b for 4 violins, RV 580, from L'estro
armonico, op. 3 (Amsterdam: Roger, 1711). Arranged by
Bach in cl730 as Concerto in a for 4 harpsichords, BWV
1065.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
262

Vivaldi, Antonio Concerto No. 11 in d for two violins and cello, RV 565, from
L'estro armonico, op. 3 (Amsterdam: Roger, 1711).
Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as Organ
concerto in d, BWV 596.
Concerto No. 12 in E for violin, RV 265, from L'estro
armonico, op. 3 (Amsterdam: Roger, 1711). Arranged by
Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in C,
BWV 976. A copy of RV 265, lost in World War II, existed in
LB Darmstadt 5067.

German Music Used bv Bach:
unknown (possibly Concerto in G. Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to July 1714
Telemann) as Harpsichord concerto in G, BWV 986. The Bach-
Gesellschaft has suggested Telemann as a possible
composer for this work.
Ernst, Johann, Duke of Concerto in G for violin and orchestra. Reprinted in NBA
Sax-W eimar IV/8 Krit. Bericht by Karl Heller, p. 105. Arranged by Bach
in July 1713 to July 1714 as Organ concerto in G, BWV
592/592a. Bach probably worked from a Weimar
manuscript copied by Johann Ddbemitz (D-ROu Mus
saec.XVIII.66.39). See Schulz, Studien, p. 167.
Concerto No. 1 from Six Concerts a un Violon concertant,
deux Violons, un Taille, et Clavecin ou Basse de Viole . . .
ed. by Telemann (1718), op. 1. Arranged by Bach in July
1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in Bb, BWV 982.
Bach probably worked from a Weimar manuscript copied
by Johann Debemitz (D-ROu Mus saec.XVII.18.51.39a).
See Schulz, Studien, p. 167.
Concerto. Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to July 1714 as
Harpsichord concerto in C, BWV 984. The first movement
is also arranged as Organ concerto in C, BWV 595.
Concerto No. 4 from Six Concerts a un Violon concertant,
deux Violons, un Taille, et Clavecin ou Basse de Viole . . .
ed. by Telemann (1718), op. 1. Arranged by Bach in July
1713 to July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in d, BWV 987.
Bach probably worked from a Weimar manuscript copied
by Johann Dobemitz (D-ROu Mus saecJCVII.18.51.41). See
Schulz, Studien, p. 167.
Erselius, J. C. FugainG. In BG 42, p. 298f. Arranged as Fugue in Bb,
BWV 955. A copy of the original is in the Poelchau
collection manuscript, P 247, part III (cl730).
Fasch, Johann Friedrich Trio Sonata in c. Copy in LB Dresden Mus.ms. 2423-Q-10.
Movements 1 and 2 arranged by Bach as Trio for organ in c,
BWV 585.
Reinken, Johann Adam Trio Sonata No. 1 in a from Hortus musicus (1687).
Reworked in cl701-1709 as Sonata in a, BWV 965. Entered
into P 803 by Walther in cl712 or earlier.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
263

Reinken, Johann Adam Trio Sonata No. 2 in Bb (opening Allegro only) from Hortus
musicus (1687). Reworked in cl701-1709 as Fugue in Bb,
BWV 954.
Trio Sonata No. 3 in C (Allemand only from the dances)
from Hortus musicus (1687). Reworked incl701-1709 as
Sonata in C, BWV 966. Entered into P 803 by Walther in
cl712 or earlier.
Telemann, Georg Philipp Trio. Arranged as Organ trio in G, BWV 586.
Concerto in g for violin (Kross: V. g, p. 142). No. 9 of Zwolf
Violinkonzerte ed. by Siegfried Kross, from G. P.
Telemann: Musikalische Werke (Kassel: Barenreiter,
1973), vol. 23, p. 137-150. Arranged by Bach in July 1713 to
July 1714 as Harpsichord concerto in g, BWV 985. Bach
may have worked from a manuscript (LB Dresden Mus.
2392-0-17a+b) which is in the same hand as parts for the
Telemann concerto copied by Bach in cl709 (see above). See
Schulze, Studien, p. 165. Another copy of this concerto is in
LB Darmstadt Mus. ms. 1033/91.

Music Possibly Known to Bach

French Music Possibly Known To Bach: [All of the manuscripts cited are in Berlin
except MB Lpz Ms. III. 8. 4. (ABB)}

anonymous French Overture and Chaconne in C, for five instruments
(incomplete, only outer voices notated). In score format, in
J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Mo.
Bustijn [Bustyn], Pieter Suite No. 8 from IX suittes le clavessin composees de
[Pierre] preludes, allemandes, courantes, sarabandes, gigues,
gavottes et autres airs . . . par Pierre Bustyn. (Amsterdam:
Roger, cl704-5). In Exempla Musica Neerlandica, vol 1,
1964, p. 23. In J. T. Krebs' hand in P 801.
Couperin, Francois Les Bergeries from Ordre [Suite] No. 6 of the Second livre de
pieces de Clavecin (Paris, 1717). Entered by Anna
Magdalena Bach in 1725-1730 as Rondeau into the
Klavierbiichlein fur Anna Magdalena Bach, 1725 (P 225).
Dandrieu, Jean-Frangois Livre de clavecin compose par Monsieur Dandrieu
organiste de Saint-Merry. A Paris chez Tauteur rue Sainte-
Anne pres le Palais et chez Foucault rue Saint-Honore a la
Regie d'Or, consisting of a single Suite in g (Paris, 1715-20).
A. Dolmetsch collection No. 2. See B. Frangois-Sappey,
"L'oeuvre de clavecin de Jean-Frangois Dandrieu (1682-
1738)," in RMFC, xiv (1974), p. 178 and 188-90 (Sarabande on
p. 234-5). A Suite in d was published at the same with the
same title and is known in an earlier (cl704) edition.
Perhaps an earlier edition of the Suite in g once existed as
well. In Walther's hand, after cl712 in P 801, p. 239-258.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
264

D'Anglebert, Jean-Henri Suite No. 3 in d (without Prelude or final Gavotte and
Menuet) from Pieces de Clavessin (Paris, 1689), p. 71-82. In
Walther's hand, after cl712. P 801, p. 259-274.
Dieupart, Francois Suite No. 1 in A and table of ornaments from Six suittes de
clavecin (Amsterdam, 1701). The suite is in Walther's
hand from after cl712, in P 801, p. 301-316. The table of
ornaments is in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07
in Mo, p. 43. This is combined with the LeBegue table from
Mb and printed in the Wolgast ed. of Bohm's works, vol. I,
p. XVI. The Dieupart table appears on the final page of
Bohm's partita on Jesu du bis allzu schon (an early entry in
Mo) but was probably inserted at a later date to take
advantage of some empty staves.
LeBegue, Nicolas Antoine Les pieces de clavessin (Paris: Baillon, 1677 and
Amsterdam: E. Roger, 1696-7). In Nicolas Lebegue:
Oeuvres de Clavecin, ed. by Dufourcq, (Monaco, 1956), p. 1-
45. Schulze (Studien, p. 43) states that preludes appeal* for
each suite only in the Paris edition, but Hill {The Mbller
Manuscript, p. 147) states that preludes appear in both
editions. All 5 suites (without preludes) and the table of
ornaments appear in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
1704-07 in Mo. The table of ornaments (Mo, p. 96) is
combined with the Dieupart table from Mo and printed in the
Wolgast ed. of Bohm’s works, vol. I, p. XVI. The Suite No. 2
in g /G also appears (without Prelude) in Walther's hand,
after cl712 in P 801, p. 485-496. Hill (op. cit., p. 148) suggests
that both the Mo and P 801 copies were derived from the same
manuscript copy (without preludes) of the Baillon edition.
LeRoux, Gaspard Suite No. 1 in d (without Prelude), No. 3 in a (without
Prelude, Sarabande, and Sarabande en Rondeau), and No. 7
in g (without the last 8 doubles to the Sarabande) from the
1705 Paris edition of Pieces de Clavessin. Facsimile edn.
(Geneve: Minkoff Reprint, 1982). The manuscript attributes
Suite No. 7 to Clerembouloux [Clerambault?]. The last 8
doubles to the Sarabande are missing, but the manuscript
ends with the comment "restire noch 8 Variatio/nes nebst
den 2 Violon I und Bafl." The complete title page of the Paris
edition is given before Suite No. 1 and No. 3, and the
mention of trio arrangements ("2 Violon / und Bafl") after
Suite No. 7 confirms the use of the Paris edition for this suite
as well. In Walther's hand, after cl712. P 801, p. 497-502
{Suite No. 1), p. 503-509 {Suite No. 3), and p. 423-442 {Suite
No. 7).
Lully, Jean Baptiste Chaconne in G from the opera Phaeton, 1683 (LWV 61/40).
This keyboard arrangement of Lully's work is not the same
as D'Anglebert's Chaconne de Phaeton Mr de Lully from p.
29-33 of his Pieces de clavecin of 1689, but the source (LWV
61/40) is the same. Partially in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721)
hand from 1704-07 in Mb.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
265

Marais, Marin Symphonies [orchestral suite] from the opera Alcide
(1693/1705) arranged for keyboard. The manuscript
describes Marais as "Ordinaire de la Musique de la
Chambre du Roy." Thirteen of the twenty movements of the
opera have been included. Hill {The Moller Manuscript, p.
275) suggests that the anonymous table of ornaments,
Marques et demonstration des agrements, which precedes
this suite may have been derived from the same source. In
J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Marchand, Louis Pieces de Clavecin, Livre Premier, consisting of a single
Suite in d (Amsterdam: Roger, 1700-1 and Paris: Ballard,
1702). Facsimile edn. (Genfeve: Minkoff Reprint, 1982).
The manuscript describes Marchand as "Org: del' Eglise
de St. Benoist. a Paris" and generally agrees with the
Roger version. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-
1715 in ABB. Hill {The Moller Manuscript, p. 277) believes
that J. S. Bach may have entered a correction in this
manuscript.
Pieces de Clavecin, Livre II, consisting of a single Suite in g
(Paris, 1703, reprinted in 1714). Facsimile edn. (Geneve:
Minkoff Reprint, 1982). The title page as copied in P 801
gives a publication date of 1714 and describes Marchand as
"Organiste de la Chapelle du Roy" (a position he received in
1708) rather than as "Organiste de L'Eglise des. Benoist des
RR. PP. Jesuites de la rue Saint-Jacques, & du grand
Convent des RR. PP. Cordeliers" as in the 1703 title page. In
Walther's hand from after 1714 in P 801, p. 447-462.
Nivers, Guillaume- Suite No. 4 on the 4th tone (e) from Livre d'orgue contenant
Gabriel cent pieces de tous le tons de I'Eglise (Paris, 1665). In G. G.
Nivers: Cent preludes, ed. C. Vervoitte (Paris, 1862; rev. N.
Dufourcq, Paris, 1963) p. 30-37. See W. Pruitt, "The Organ
Works of Guillaume Gabriel Nivers (1632-1714)," in RMFC,
xiv (1974), p. 64. In Walther's hand from after cl712 in P
801, p. 289-300.

Italian Music Possibly Known to Bach: £A11 of the manuscripts cited are in Berlin
except MB Lpz Ms. III. 8. 4. {ABB)\

Albinoni, Tomaso Trio Sonate No. 1 in d and No. 2 in F from Suonate a ire for
Giovanni 2 vn, vc and hpd, op. 1 (Venice: Sala, 1694 and Amsterdam:
Roger, 1697). In four voice score format in J. C. Bach’s
(1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Md.____________________
Concerto No. 4 in G from Sinfonie e [6] concerti a cinque, op.
2, for 2-3 vn, 2 va, vc, and be (Venice, 1700). Arranged by
Walther as Organ concerto in F, LV 126. In Johann
Gottfried Walther, Ausgewahlte Orgelwerke, ed. by Heinz
Lohmann (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1966), III, 31-34.
Mus. ms. 2254114

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
266

Albinoni, Tomaso Concerto No. 5 in C from Sinfonie e [6] concerti a cinque, op.
Giovanni 2, for 2-3 vn, 2 va, vc, and be (Venice, 1700). Arranged by
Walther as Organ concerto in Bb, LV 127. In the Lohmann
edn. of Walther, III, 35-37. Mus. ms. 22541/4
Corelli, Arcangelo Sonata No. 11 in E from [12] Sonate a Violino e Violone o
Cimbalo, op. 5 (Rome, 1700). The Adagio was used by
Walther as a basis for his Alcuni Variationi sopr'un Basso
Continuo del Sigr. Corelli in E, LV 129. In the Lohmann
edn. of Walther, III, 47-48. Mus. ms. 22541/4
Gentili, Giorgio Concerto. Arranged by Walther as Organ concerto in A,
LV 130. In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III, 49-51. Mus.
ms. 22541 !4
Gregori, Giovanni Lorenzo Concerto, possibly from his Concerti grossi a piu stromenti,
op. 2. Arranged by Walther as Organ concerto in Bb, LV
131. In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III, 52-54. Mus. ms.
22541/4
Manzia, Luigi Concerto. Arranged by Walther as Organ concerto in g, LV
132. In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III, 55-59. This is the
only known instrumental work by Manzia. Mus. ms.
22541/4
Pollarolo (Polaroli) Carlo Capriccio in C. In Tagliapietra's Anthologie alter und
Francesco neuer Musik fur Klavier 9, (Mailand, 1934), p. 24-7. In J.
C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Pollarolo (Polaroli) Carlo Capriccio in D. In Tagliapietra's Anthologie alter und
Francesco neuer Musik fur Klavier 9, (Mailand, 1934), p. 18-23. In J.
C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Steffani, Agostino Overture (orchestral suite in the French style) in a from the
opera La Briseide (Hannover, 1696) arranged for keyboard.
In DTB 22 (Xll/ii), p. 133-5. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand
from 1704-07 in Mo. The overture only is also in the Grimm
tablature from 1698-99 (Vienna Osterreichische
Nationalbibliothek, Musiksammlung, Ms. 16798).
Taglietti, Giorgio Concerto. Arranged by Walther as Organ concerto in Bb,
LV 135. In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III, 76-81. Mus.
ms. 22541 !4
Torelli, Giuseppe Concerto No. 7 from Concerti grossi con una pastorale per il
Santissimo Natale, op. 8 (1709). This Torelli concerto is in
LB Dresden Cx989. The first of the five movements is
arranged by Walther as Organ concerto in d, LV 138. In the
Lohmann edn. of Walther, III, 97-99. Mus. ms. 22541/4
Sinfonia for 2 violins in D. This Torelli sinfonia is in LB
Dresden Cx997. Arranged by Walther as Organ concerto in
Bb, LV 139 (the final Vivace is missing). In the Lohmann
edn. of Walther, III, 100-103. Mus. ms. 22541 !4
Concerto No. 8 in c from Concerti grossi con una pastorale
per il Santissimo Natale, op. 8 (1709). This Torelli concerto
is in LB Dresden Cx993. Arranged by Walther as Organ
concerto in a, LV 140 . In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III,
104. Mus. ms. 22541 !4

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
267

Vivaldi, Antonio Concerto in e, RV 275. Arranged by Walther as Organ
concerto in b, LV 133. In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III,
60-67. The concerto is attributed to Meek in the manuscript
(see Schulze, Studien, p. 160). Mus. ms. 2254114__________

German Music Possibly Known to Bach (Except Chorale Preludes from Walther's
Collection): [All of the manuscripts cited are in Berlin except: LB Dresden, Mus.
2015 IT 11; MB Lpz Ms. III. 8. 4. (ABB), Sammlung Seiffert, Ms. S x 4; and Ms 4; NH
LM 4794, LM 4838, LM 4941, LM 4982, LM 4983; and LM 5056; Hague,
Gemeentemuseum 4.G.14; Brussels, Conservatoire Royal de Musique Litt U, No.
26659, and BRII. 3911; and Ltibeck, Bibliothek der Hansestadt Mus U 212. SPK
Mus. ms. 2681 is a manuscript by an unknown scribe which was derived from the
same source as the very similar Agricola manuscript Litt U, No. 26659.]

anonymous Nen ist alles iiberwunden, aria for 4 voices. From the ABA.
In EDM, RD, R. 1 ,1, p. 90.
Armsdorff, Andreas Fugue in G. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-
1715 in ABB. Also in the Bomss ms. (DSB Fot. Bil 124)from
1703-4. See Hill, The Moller Manuscript, p. 233.
Bach, Georg Christoph Siehe, wie fein und lieblich ist, cantata. From the ABA. In
EDM, RD, R. I, 2, p. 22.
Bach, Heinrich Ich danke dir, Gott, cantata. From the ABA. In EDM, RD,
R. I, 2, p. 3.
Bach, Johann Sei nun wieder qufrieden, 8-voice motet for double choir.
From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 3.
Unser Leben ist ein Schatten, choral motet for 6-voice choir
and 3-voice choir. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 9.
Weint nicht um meinen Tod, aria for 4 voices. From the
ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 18.
Bach, Johann Chrisoph Wie man ein Clavecymbel beziehen s o li. . . . In Johann
(1673-1727) Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH LM
4982, p. 60.
Bach, Johann Christoph Der Mensch, vom Weibe geboren, arei for 4 voices. From
(1676-1703) the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. 1 ,1, p. 95.
Die Furcht des Herren, cantata. From the ABA. In EDM,
RD, R. I, 2, p. 72.
Meine Freundin, du bist schon, wedding piece with 4
individual parts, 4-voice choir, vn, 3 va, violone, and
cembalo. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 2, p. 91.
Mit Weinen hebt sicks an, aria for 4 voices. From the ABA.
In EDM, RD, R. 1 ,1, p. 93.
Praeludium and Fuga in Eb, BWV Anh. 177/2. In D.
Hellmann, Orgelwerke der Familie Bach (Leipzig, 1387).
In the Vofi collection manuscript, P 213 and in Am. B. 606,
P304, and P 487.
Sei getreu bis in den Tod, motet for 5-voice choir. From the
ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 98.
Bach, Johann Michael Ach bleib bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ, cantata. From the ABA.
In EDM, RD, R. I, 2, p. 61.

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268

Bach, Johann Michael Ach wie sehnlich warfieh der Zeit, cantata. From the ABA.
In EDM, RD, R. I, 2, p. 46.
A uf lafit uns den Herren loben, cantata. From the ABA. In
EDM, RD, R. I, 2, p. 49.
Das Blut Jesu Christi, choral motet for 5-voice choir, winds,
and organ. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 22.
Dem Menschen is gesetzt einmal zu sterben, choral motet
for 8-voice double choir. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I,
1, p. 75.
Es ist ein grofier Gewinn, cantata. From the ABA. In
EDM, RD, R. I, 2, p. 39.
Filrchtet euch nicht, choral motet for 8-voice double choir.
From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 62.
Halt, was du hast, choral motet for 8-voice double choir.
From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 53.
Herr, du Ittssest mich erfahren, choral motet for 8-voice
double choir and organ. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I,
1, p. 68.
Herr, ich warte auf dein Heil, choral motet for 8-voice
double choir. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. 1 ,1, p. 84.
Herr, wenn ich nor dich habe, choral motet for 5-voice
choir. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 29.
Ich weifi, da/3 mein Erloser lebt, choral motet for 5-voice
choir. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 36.
Liebster Jesu, hor mein Flehen, dialogue. From the ABA.
In EDM, RD, R. I, 2, p. 53.
Nun hab' ich iiberwunden, choral motet for 8-voice double
choir. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 47.
Sei lieber Tag willkommen, motet for 6-voice choir. From
the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 39.
Unser Leben wahret siebenzig Jahr, choral motet for 5-voice
choir. From the ABA. In EDM, RD, R. I, 1, p. 19.
Battiferi, Luigi Fuga a 4 Soggetti. In Christian Friedrich Gottlieb
Schwencke's hand from 1783 in P 2G3. Also in Christel's
hand in P 291 along with several early works by Bach.
Blamr Concerto. Arranged by Walther as Organ concerto in A,
LV 128. In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III, 38-46. This is
the only known work of Blamr. Mus. ms. 2254114
Bohm, Georg Capriccio in D. In Georg Bohm: Samtliche Werke fur
Klavier/ Cembalo, ed. by Klaus Beckmann, 1985, Breitkopf
& Hartel No. 8086, p. 24-29. Partially in J. C. Bach's (1671-
1721) hand from 1704-05 in Mo.
Chorale partita Jesu, du bist allzu schone. In Georg Bohm:
Samtliche Orgelwerke, ed. by Klaus Beckmann, 1986,
Breitkopf & Hartel No. 8087, p. 87-93. In J. C. Bach's (1671-
1721) hand from 1704-05 in Mo. This work also appears in
the 1710 anthology VI Suittes, Divers Airs avec Leurs
Variations & Fugues Pour le Clavessin by E. Rogers,
Amsterdam.

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269

Bohm, Georg Ouverture in D. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 30-38. Partially in
J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB .
Praeludium (Prelude and Fugue) in a. In B. & H. No. 8087,
p. 16-19. Two versions of this work are in Johannes
Ringk's (a student of Bach's friend Kellner) hand from
cl730 in Mus. ms. 30381. The preludes differ and the
alternate fugue is printed in the Wolgast edn. of Bohm, p.
147.
Praeludium (Prelude and Fugue) in C. In B. & H. No.
8087, p. 5-9. In Johannes Ringk's (a student of Bach's
friend Kellner) hand from cl730 in Mus. ms. 30381.
Praeludium (Prelude and Fugue) in d. In B. & H. No. 8087,
p. 10-15. Partially in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
1704-05 in Mo.
Praeludium (Prelude, Fugue, and Postlude) in g. In B. &
H. No. 8086, p. 39-44. In J. C. Bach's hand from cl707-1715
in ABB.
Prelude in F. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 56-57. In J. C. Bach's
(1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Mo. Hugh McLean (The
New Grove, II, 853) suggests that this prelude may belong
with the Bohm Suite in F below.
Suite in a. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 20-23. Partially in J. C.
Bach’s (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB .
Suite in c. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 1-3. Partially in J. C.
Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB .
Suite in Eb. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 8-11. In J. C. Bach's
(1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Suite in F. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 12-15. Mo (1704-07).
Suite in f. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 16-19. Mo, p. 17-19 (1704-
07). This work also appears in the 1710 anthology V7 Suittes,
Divers Airs avec Leurs Variations & Fugues Pour le
Clavessin by E. Rogers, Amsterdam.
Suite in G. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 51-53. Mo (1704-07).
Bruhns, Nicolaus Nun komm der Heiden Heiland, chorale fantasia. In
Nicolaus Bruhns: Samtliche Orgelwerke, ed. by Klaus
Beckmann, p. 32-40. In Agricola's (a Bach student) hand
after 1741 in Litt U, No. 26659. Also in Walther's hand in P
802.
Prelude in e. In Nicolaus Bruhns: Samtliche Orgelwerke,
ed. by Klaus Beckmann, p. 6-13. In organ tabulature in J.
C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Mo.
Prelude in G. In Nicolaus Bruhns: Samtliche Orgelwerke,
ed. by Klaus Beckmann, p. 20-27. In organ tabulature in J.
C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Mo (first 30 bare
only). Also in Agricola's hand after 1741 in Litt U, No.
26659. Hill (The Moller Manuscript, p. 224-5) suggests that
both were derived from the same tabulature manuscript.
Various other extant copies of this work were derived from
Agricola's copy (see Hill, op. cit., p. 222).

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
270

Bruhns, Nicolaus Prelude and Fugue in g. In N. Bruhns Orgelwerke, ed. by
Stein and Geek (Peters: Frankfurt, 1968). In Johannes
Ringk's (a student of Bach's friend Kellner) hand from
cl730 in Mus. ms. 30381.
Buttstedt, Johann Heinrich Fugue in D. In Johannes Ringk's (a student of Bach's
friend Kellner) hand from cl730 in Mus. ms. 30381.
Fugue in e. In Apel's Geschichte der Orgel- und
Klaviermusik bis 1700 , p. 660. Also in Gotthold Frotscher,
Geschichte des Orgelspiels, Beispielband, p. 122-7. In J. C.
Bach's (1671-1721) hand from c l707-1715 in ABB.
Fugue in g. Mus. ms. 2681
Priiludium and Fugue in D. In Johann Christoph Bach's
(1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH LM4982, p. 52-3.
Prelude No. 4 in G from Musicalische Clavier-Kunst und
Vorraths-Cammer (1713), p. 22-24. Primarily in J. C.
Bach’s (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB. The ABB
copy corresponds more closely with a manucsript version of
this collection (Brussels, BR 11.4090, Fetis 2946) than with
the printed version (see Hill, The Moller Manuscript, p.
235).
Buxtehude, Dieterich Canzona in d, BuxWV 168. Mus. ms. 2681
Canzonetta in G, BuxWV 171. Mus. ms. 2681
Canzonetta in G, BuxWV 172. In Johann Christoph Bach's
(1673-1727) hand from cl709-1727 in LM 4983, p. 6-7.
Chaconne for organ (6 bars only). In Kellner's (a friend of
Bach) hand from cl725 in P 804.
Chiaccona in c, BuxWV 159. Partially in J. C. Bach's
(1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB . In Freidrich
August Grasnick’s (cl798-1877) hand (first 65 bars only) in
Mus. ms. 30069. Hill (The Moller Manuscript, p. 180) states
that Mus. ms 30069 was derived from ABB.
Chiaccona in e, BuxWV 160. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721)
hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Fuga for organ (bars 1-11 only). In Kellner's (a friend of
Bach) hand from cl725 in P 804.
Fuga in Bb, BuxWV 176. Mus. ms. 2681
Fuga in C, BuxWV 174. Partially in J. C. Bach's (1671-
1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABE .
Magnificat primi toni, chorale fantasia on a chant melody,
BuxWV 203. In Agricola's hand well after 1741 in Litt U,
No. 26659 (this work is a late entry).
Nun lob, meine Seel, den Herren, chorale variations,
BuxWV 213. In Walther's hand in 4.G.14. Also in Mus.
ms. 2681.
O Lux beata Trinitas, chorale prelude, BuxWV 216,
(beginning only). In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
cl707-1715 in ABB.
Passacaglia in d, BuxWV 161. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721)
hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
271

Buxtehude, Dieterich Praeludium [Prelude, Fugue, and Chaconne] in C, BuxWV
137. Primarily in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-
1715 in ABB.
Praeludium in C, BuxWV 138. In Johann Christian
Heinrich Rinck's (a pupil of Johann Christian Kittel, a
Bach student) hand in LM 4838.
Praeludium in D, BuxWV 139. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, 26659. Also in Mus. 7ns. 2682.
Praeludium in d, BuxWV 140. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, No. 26659. Also in Mus. ms. 2681.
Praeludium in E, BuxWV 141. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, No. 26659. Also in Mus. ms. 2681.
Praeludium in e, BuxWV 142. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, No. 26659. Also in Mus. ms. 2681.
Praeludium in e, BuxWV 143. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, No. 26659. Also in Mus. ms. 2681.
Praeludium in F, BuxWV 145. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, No. 26659. Also in Mus. ms. 2681. Also in
Johannes Ringk's (a student of Bach's friend Kellner)
hand from cl730 in Mus. ms. 30381.
Praeludium in f#, BuxWV 146. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, No. 26659.
Praeludium [Prelude and Fugue] in g. Probably in J. C.
Bach's (1671-1721) hand fromcl695-1705 in the Carnegie
Library, Pittsburg Class 768.8 Book B98. See Schulze,
"Bach und Buxtehude," in Bach-Jahrbuch, 77, p. 177-181 for
more on this an a facsimile of the first two pages.
Praeludium in g, BuxWV 149. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, No. 26659. Also in Mus. ms. 2681.
Praeludium [Prelude and Fugue] in g, BuxWV 150.
Partially in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715
in ABB.
Praeludium [Prelude and Fugue] in A, BuxWV 151. In J. C.
Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-05 in Mo.
Praeludium in a, BuxWV 153. In Agricola's hand after
1741 in Litt U, No. 26659. Also in Mus. ms. 2681.
Praeludium in G, BuxWV 163. Mus. ms. 2681
Te Deum laudamus, chorale fantasia from a chant melody,
BuxWV 218. In Walther's hand, after cl712 in P 801, p. 336-
356. Also (beginning only) in Johannes Ringk's (a student
of Bach's friend Kellner) hand from cl730 in Lubeck,
Bibliothek der Hansestadt, Mus U 212.
Toccata in F, BuxWV 156. In Agricola's hand after 1741 in
Litt JJ, No. 26659. Also in Mus. ms. 2681.
Toccata [and Fugue] in G, BuxWV 164. In Mus. ms. 2681.
Also in Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from
C1709-1727 in LM 4983, p. 1-3.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
272

Buxtehude, Dieterich Toccata [and Fugue] in G, BuxWV 165. In J. C. Bach's
(1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Mo. An ornamented
version is in Johann Gottlieb Preller's hand in MB Lpz
Sammlung Seiffert, Ms. S x 4. Preller's copies are from
cl743-9 and are generally traced to Bach's circle in
Weimar (see Snyder Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 319). Hill
{The Moller Manuscript, p. 188) suggests that both copies of
BuxWV 165 were derived from the same tablature
manuscript.
Coberg, Johann Anton Fugue in d. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in
Mo.
Overture (orchestral suite) in C. In four voice score format
in J. C. Bach’s (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Mo.
Edelmann, Moritz Toccata in D (first 30 bars only). In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721)
hand from 1704-07 in Mo.
Fabricius, Werner Gigue belle in c. In A. Schering's Musikgeschichte
Leipzigs, H, p. 424-8. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
1704-07 in Mo.
Fischer, Johann Casper Prelude and Chaconne No. 8 in G from Les Pieces de
Ferdinand Clavessin, op. 2 (Schlackenwerth, 1696), reprinted as
Musicalisches Blumenbuschlein , op. 2 (Augspurg [sic],
1698). In Samtliche Werke ed. by E. V. Werra,(New York:
Broude Bros., 1965), p. 30-32. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721)
hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Praludium in G, from Ariadne musica neo-organoedum,
20 preludes and fugues and 5 chorale ricercare for organ
(Schlackenwerth, 1702). In Samtliche Werke ed. by E. V.
Werra,(New York: Broude Bros., 1965). In Johann
Chrisoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-1727 in NH
LM4983, p. 3.
Chorale ricercar Christ ist erstanden, from Ariadne
musica neo-organoedum, 20 preludes and fugues and 5
chorale ricercare for organ (Schlackenwerth, 1702). In
Samtliche Werke ed. by E. V. Werra,(New York: Broude
Bros., 1965), p. 97. In Johann Chrisoph Bach's (1673-1727)
hand from cl709-1727 in NH LM 4983, p. 56. Also in
Walther's hand in Mus. ms. 2254113.
Flor, Christian Suite in C. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in
Mo.
Suite in d. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in
Mo. The first movement (fugue) was also in Kittel's hand
in Leipzig, Archiv Breitkopf & Hartel, Sammlung Kittel-
Hauser manuscript (lost in 1945). A copy by Kittel's
student, L. E. Gebhardi (P 320) is derived from this, and a
copy by F. A. Grasnick (P 557) is derived from P 320. All of
these were derived from Mo (see Hill, The Moller
Manuscript, p. 227-8).

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273

Froberger, Johann Suite in Eb. In Georg Bohm: Samtliche Werke fur
Jakob (?) Klavier/ Cembalo, ed. by Klaus Beckmann, 1985, Breitkopf
& Hartel No. 8086, p. 48-50. G. Leonhardt ("Johann Jakob
Froberger and his Music," in L'Organo, 6,1968, p. 15-40)
has suggested that this may be a work by Froberger. Mo, p.
27-9 (1704-07).
Graun, Karl Heinrich Fuga a 4 in A (a keyboard arrangement from the oratorio
Der Tod Jesu). Modem edn. by Peters, Leipzig. In
Christian Friedrich Gottlieb Schwenke’s (a copyist for €. P.
E. Bach) hand from cl781 in P 204 along with Das
wohltemperirte Clavier, part II, and several early works by
Bach.
Handel, Georg Friedrich Two Arias in d. In Johannes Ringk's (a student of Bach's
friend Kellner) hand from 1730-40 in SPK Mus. ms. 9161.
Fuga I in g and Fuga VI in c. In Handel G-A, II, 161-2; 173-
4 and Handel, Kl-W, IV, 2-3; 17-18. In Johann Stephan
Borsch's (a copyist for C. P. E. Bach) hand from cl783 in P
203. In an unknown hand from 1791 in P 207 (a manuscript
which may be related to P 203 and P 204). Also in M. G.
Fischer's (a student of the Bach student Kittel) hand from
1792 in P 658.
Fuga II in G. In Handel G-A, II, 163-5 and Handel, Kl-W,
IV, 4-7. In Johann Stephan Borsch's (a copyist for C. P. E.
Bach) hand from cl783 in P 203 (from Polchau's collection).
Fuga III in Bb. In Handel G-A, II, 166-7 and Handel, Kl-W,
IV, 8-9. In Johann Stephan Borsch's (a copyist for C. P. E.
Bach) hand from cl783 in P 203. In an unknown hand from
1791 in P 207 (a manuscript which may be related to P 203
and P 204). Also in M. G. Fischer's (a student of the Bach
student Kittel) hand from 1792 in P 658.
Fuga IV in b, and Fuga V in a. In Handel G-A, II, 168-72
and Handel, Kl-W, IV, 10-16. In Johann Stephan Borsch's
(a copyist for C. P. E. Bach) hand from cl783 in P 203. In an
unknown hand from 1791 in P 207 (a manuscript which
may be related to P 203 and P 204).
Fuga in d (mvt. 2 of a suite), Fuga in e(mvt. 1 of a suite),
Praeludium and Fuga in /#(mvt. 1-3 of a suite), and
Praeludium and Fuga in /fmvts. 1-2 of a suite). In Handel
G-A, II, 13-15; 24-7; 39-42; 54-7 and Handel, Kl-W, IV, 17-
19?; 30-33; 46-50; 64-7. In an unknown hand from 1791 in P
207 (a manuscript which may be related to P 203 and P 204).
Fuga in f. In Handel, Kl-W, I, p. 65ff. In an unknown
hand from the second half of the 18th C. in part 8 of MB Lpz
Ms 4 (which contains works by Bach(6), Kellner(4), Kerll,
Frischmuth, and J. L. Krebs).

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274

Handel, Georg Friedrich Prelude [Prestol and Suite in E (Prelude and 5 Doubles only:
Allemande and Courante are missing). In Handel G-A, II,
12; 32-3 and H&ndel, Kl-W, I, 16-17; 38-9. In Johann
Gottfried Miithel's (a Bach student and copyist for C. P. E.
Bach) hand in P 275 along with Bach works in the hands of
Polchau and M. G. Fischer (a student of the Bach student
Kittel).
Suite in d (movements 1 and 2 only). In Handel I, no. 3. In
Johannes Ringk's (a student of Bach's friend Kellner)
hand from 1730-40 in SPK Mus. ms. 9160/6.
Toccata and Allegro in Bb. In Johannes Ringk's (a student
of Bach's friend Kellner) hand from 1730-40 in SPK Mus.
ms. 9161.
Hasse, Johann Adolf Polonaise in G, BWV Anh. 130 (from a keyboard sonata).
In A. M. Bach's hand from after 1733 in P 225.
Heidom, Peter Fugue in d on a theme by Reinken (source unknown). In J.
C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Mo. Of related
interest is Heidom's large fugal reworking of a canzona by
Kerll in NH LM 5056. See Hill, The Moller Manuscript, p.
230).
Fugue ing. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in
Mo. Also in J. G. Walther's hand (along with the G major
fugue below) in LB Dresden, Mus. 2 0 1 5 /T /l. Hill (The
Moller Manuscript, p. 161-3) suggests that both were derived
from the same tabulature manuscript.
Fugue in G. In J. G. Walther's hand along with the G
minor fugue above in LB Dresden, Mus. 2 0 1 5 /T /l. See Hill,
The Moller Manuscript, p. 161.
Heinichen, Johann David Fantasia, BWV Anh. 179. In a unknown hand from cl780-
1820 in P 303 along with many works by Bach.
Trio Sonata in c (oboe, viola da gamba, and continuo).
Modern edn., ed. by Gunther HauBwald (Vienna:
Doblinger, 1943). In the hand of Anonymous 400 in P 609
along with BWV 229. Copies of Bach works by the same
scribe are found with title pages in the hands of J. S. Bach (P
77), and C. P. E. Bach (P 100).
Kauffmann, Georg Fantasia in G. In J. T. Krebs' hand, from 1710-1714 in P 801.
Friedrich p. 513-520.
Kerll, Johann Kaspar (?) Fuga in g [Dersteyrische Hirt]. In DTB 3 (Il/ii), p. 61.
Authenticity not established. In an unknown hand
(possibly J. A. G. Wechmar) from the second half of the 18th
C. in part 10 of MB Lpz Ms 4 (which contains works by Bach
(6), Kellner(4), Handel, Frischmuth, and J. L. Krebs).
Krieger, Johann Fugue in d. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand
from cl709-27 in NH LM 4982, p. 16-17.
Fugue in d. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand
from cl709-27 in NH LM 4982, p. 17.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
275

Krieger, Johann Fuga in G. In the hand of an anonymous copyist (who also
copied works into NH LM 4838 and LM 4939, which include
works by Bach and Buxtehude, some of which are in the
hand of J. C. H. Rinck, a student of Bach’s student Kittel)
in NH LM 4941 along with works by Bach, Adlung, and both
Gerbers.
Kuhnau, Johann Sonata No. 1 (bars 1-122 missing), No. 2, No. 3, No. 5, and
No. 6 (bars 1-120 only) from Musicalische Vorstellung
einiger biblische Historien, (Leipzig, 1700). In DDT 4, p.
130-172. Primarily in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
cl707-1715 in ABB.
Sonata No. 1, No. 2 (fragment), No. 3, No. 4 (Fuga only),
No. 5, and No. 6 (part of Ciacona and all of Vivace). In
DDT 4, p. 73-106. In Christian Friedrich Gottlieb
Schwenke's and Johann Stephan Borsch's hands (both
copyists for C. P. E. Bach) from cl783 in P 203.
Kiichenthal, (Johann Chanberceau DChant berceau] in C (Prelude, Fugue, and
Georg?) Postlude). In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715
in ABB.
Lubeck, Vincent Prelude and Fugue in d. In Walther's hand, after cl712 in P
801, p. 373-384.
Mattheson, Johann Suite "Douzieme" in f (Allemande, Courante, and
Sarabande: the Overture, 3 doubles to the Sarabande, Gigue,
Menuet 1, and Menuet 2 are missing) from Harmonisches
Denckmahl aus zw olf erwahlten Clavier Suiten [or Pieces
de clavessin\ (London, 1714), II, 12. In Wolgast edn. of
Bohm, p. 59-60. Attributed to Bohm in the manuscript. See
Georg Bohm: Samtliche "Werke fur Klavier 1Cembalo, ed.
by Klaus Beckmann, 1985, Breitkopf & Hartel No. 8086, p.
vii. MO, p. 19-20 (1704-07).
Meek, Joseph Concerto. Arranged by Walther as Organ concerto in C, LV
134. In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III, 68-75. In
Walther's hand in Mus. ms. 22541/4.
NeufVille, Johann Jacob Suite in g. The only extant suite by Neufville. Two
[Jean Jacques] de movements are in Alt-Niirnberger Klavierbiichlein, ed. by
K. Herrmann. In Walther's hand, after cl712 in P 801, p.
219-226.
Pachelbel, Johann? Fugue in d. Not in DTB. In Johann Christoph Bach's
(1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NHLM4982, p. 18.
Pachelbel, Johann Chaconne in d. In DTB Il/i (2), p. 46 (no. 17). Partially in
J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Chaconne in f. In the Gurgel edn., 1:35. In Brussels, BR
11.3911 in the hand of an early 18th C. scribe who copied
BWV 951a in MB Lpz, Poel. mus. Ms. 9. See Hill, The
Moller Manuscript, p. 252.
Chaconne in F. In the Gurgel edn., 1:34. In Brussels, BR
11.3911 in the hand of an early 18th C. scribe who copied
BWV 951a in MB Lpz, Poel. mus. Ms. 9. See Hill, The
Moller Manuscript, p. 252.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
276

Pachelbel, Johann Chorale prelude Christ lag in Todesbanden. Not in DTB.
In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27
in NH LM 4983, p. 52.
Chorale prelude Jesus Christus, unser Heiland. In DTB
IV/i (6), part II, no. 42. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-
1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH. LM 4983, p. 12-13.
Chorale prelude Jesus Christus, unser Heiland. Not in
DTB. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from
C1709-27 in NR LM 4983, p. 8-9.
Chorale prelude Nun lob mein Seel den Herren. Not in
DTB. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from
cl709-27 in NH LM 4983, p. 10-11.
Fugue in A. Not in DTB. In Johann Christoph Bach's
(1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NHLM4982, p. 41.
Fugue in b. In DTB Il/i (2), part A, no. 49. In Johann
Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH LM
4982, p. 47-8.
Fugue in Bb. In DTB IV/i (6), part I, no. 26. In Johann
Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH LM
4982, p. 25.
Fuga in d. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 42 (no. 38). Included with two
early Bach fugues in an unknown hand from cl730 in part
HI ofP 247.
Fuga in d. In DTO IV/i (8), part 2, p. 16 (no. I. 15). In
Johannes Ringk's (a student of Bach's friend Kellner)
hand from cl730 in Mus. ms. 30381. Also in Christel's
hand in P 291 along with several early works by Bach. Also
(in F minor) in Christian Friedrich Gottlieb Schwencke's
hand in St 455 along with early works by Bach.
Fugue in d. In DTO VHI/2 (17), p. 25. ABB (cl707-1715).
Fugue in d. Not in DTB. In Johann Christoph Bach's
(1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NHLM 4982, p. 15.
Fuga in C. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 35 (no. 33). Included with two
early Bach fugues in an unknown hand from cl 730 in part
HI of P 247.
Fugue in G. In DTB IV/i (6), part I, no. 42. In Johann
Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH LM
4982.
Fugue in G. Not in DTB. In Johann Christoph Bach's
(1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH LM 4983, p. 4-5.
Prttludium in A. In DTB IV/i (6), part I, no. 5, variant. In
Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in
NH LM 4982, p. 42.
Praludium in d. In DTB IV/i (6), part I, no. 1. In Johann
Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH LM
4982.
Praeludium in d. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 26 (no. 24). Included
with two early Bach fugues in an unknown hand from cl730
in part IH of P 247.

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277

Pachelbel, Johann Praludium in g. In DTB IV/i (6), part I, no. 4. In Johann
Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in NH LM
4982, p. 33.
Toccata in C. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 9 (no. 12). In J. C. Bach's
(1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Toccata in C. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 10 (no. 13). In J. C. Bach's
(1671-1721) hand from c l707-1715 in ABB.
Toccata in C. In Organum Ausgewdlte alters v. & instr.
Meisterwerke, hrsg unter Leitung von Max Seiffert, IV/12.
no. 7. Mo (1704-07).
Toccata in d. In DTB IV/i (6), part I, no. 8, variant. In
Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-27 in
NH LM4982, p. 51.
Toccata in d. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 15 (no. 16). ABB (cl707-
1715).
Toccata in D. Gurgel edn., 11:5. In Johann Christoph
Bach's (1673-1727) hand in New Haven, LM 4983.
Toccata in F. Gurgel edn., I:G. In Walther's hand in a
Koningliches Institut fur Kirchenmusik, Berlin
manuscript (now lost).
Pestel, Gottfried Ernst Suite ("Partie'') in D. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
C1707-1715 in ABB.
Petzgold, Christian Menuet in G (BWV Anh. 114) and Menuet in g (BWV Anh.
115). In A. M. Bach's hand from 1725-1730 in P 225.
Pez, Johann Christoph Intrada (orchestral suite) in g, for 2 violins, viol [sic], and
continuo (most of the final chaconne is missing). In four
voice score format in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
1704-07 in Mo.
Reinken, Johann Adam? Suite in d. In B. & H. No. 8086, p. 4-7. Mo, p. 39-40 (1704-
07). Attributed to Bohm in the manuscript. See Hill, The
Moller Manuscript, p. 199, 208, and 217ff.
Reinken, Johann Adam Ballett with 12 Variations in e. In Apel edn., p. 74-9. In
Johann Adam Reincken: Samtliche Werke fur
Klavier!Cembalo, ed. by Klaus Beckmann (Breitkopf &
Hartel no. 8290), p. 35-40. Primarily in J. C. Bach's (1671-
1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB. Also in Freidrich
August Grasnick's (cl798-1877) hand in Mus. ms. 30069.
Hill (The Moller Manuscript, p. 180) states than Mus. ms.
30069 was derived from ABB.
Schweiget mir vom Weiber nehmen, chorale partita on the
Mayerin theme [18 variations]. In Apel edn., p. 61-73. In B.
& H. no. 8290, p. 41-51. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand
from cl707-1715 in ABB. Also in Freidrich August
Grasnick's (cl798-1877) hand in Mus. ms. 30069. Hill (The
Moller Manuscript, p. 180) states than Mus. ms. 30069 was
derived from ABB. This work also appears in the 1710
anthology VI Suittes, Divers Airs avec Leurs Variations &
Fugues Pour le Clavessin by E. Rogers, Amsterdam.

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278

Reinken, Johann Adam Suite in C. In Apel edn. p.85-90. In B. & H. no. 8290, p. 13-
17. Partially in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07
in Mo.
Suite in G. In Apel edn., p.80-4. In B. & H. no. 8290, p. 24-
27. Mo (1704-05).
Toccata in G. In Apel edn., p.45-54. In B. & H. no. 8290, p.
52-61. Partially in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from
cl797-1715 in ABB. Also in Freidrich August Grasnick's
(C1798-1877) hand in Mus. ms. 30069. Hill {The Moller
Manuscript, p. 180) states than Mus. ms. 30069 was derived
from ABB.
Richter, J. C. Suite in C (Allemande and Courante only: both
incomplete). In W. F. Bach's hand from 1724-5 in the
Clavier-Biichlein vor 'Wilhelm Friedemann Bach.
Ritter, Christian Sonatine in d. In Buchmayer's Aus Richard Buchmayers
Historischen Klavierkonzerten, series 1, vol. V. In J. C.
Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Suite in c. In Apel's Geschichte der Orgel- und
Klaviermusik bis 1700 p. 609. Mo (1704-07).
Suite in fit. In Buchmayer's Aus Richard Buchmayers
Historischen Klavierkonzerten series 1, vol. V, p. 34-6.
Ritter is described in the manuscript as "Maistre de
Caupelle de . S. Maj. de Svecie." In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721)
hand from cl707-1715 in ABB.
Stolzel, Gottfried Heinrich Bist du bei mir, aria, BWV 508. In A. M. Bach’s hand from
after 1733 in P 225.
Partia (Ouverture, Air Italien, Bouree, and Menuet).
Entered by W. F. Bach in the Clavier-Biichlein vor
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach.
Telemann, Georg Philipp Allemande and Air (BWV 832) from Partita in A, TWV
32:18. This work is considered to be either an early work by
Bach or a work by Telemann. Mo (1704-07).
Aria for clavier in E. Possibly in Walther's hand in P 804.
20 Cantatas. The first section of this manuscript (SPK Mus.
ms. 21728) is in Johannes Ringk's (a student of Bach’s
friend Kellner) hand from 1730-40.
Concerto for organ in Bb (arranged). Possibly in
Walther's hand in P 804.
Concerto in b, TWV Anh. 33:1. In Walther's hand, after
cl712 in P 801, p. 325-331. Kross (p. 172) lists this concerto as
an anonymous arrangement and does not cite P 801. The P
801 slow movement appears to be an ornamented version of
that in Kross. The Kross version is reprinted in
Unbekannte Meisterwerke der Klaviermusik (Kassel:
Barenreiter, 1930), ed. by Werner Danckert, BA 296, p. 5-9.
Concerto in c, TWV Anh. 33:2 (Kross, p. 172). Arranged by
Walther as Organ Concerto in c, LV 136. In the Lohmann
edn. of Walther, III, 82-88. In Walther's hand in Mus. ms.
22541/4, p. 83.

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279

Telemann, Georg Philipp Concerto "per la Chiesa." Arranged by Walther as Organ
Concerto in G, LV 137. In the Lohmann edn. of Walther, III,
89-96. In Walther's hand in LM 4794.
Overture in A, TWV 32:15. In Walther's hand, after cl712
in P 801, p. 275-287.
Overture in A, TWV 32:16. In Walther’s hand, after cl712
in P 801, p. 317-323.
Overture in Eb, TWV Anh. 32:1 (an anonymous
arrangement for keyboard of the orchestral suite TWV 55:
Es 4). In J. C. Bach’s (1671-1721) hand from cl707-8 in
ABB. See also Hill, The Mdller Manuscript, p. 255.
Overture in G, TWV 32:13. In Walther's hand, after cl712
in P 801, p. 463-474.
Suite in A, TWV 32:14 (BWV 824). Entered by W. F. Bach
in the Clavier-Biichlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach.
Vetter, Andreas Nicolaus? Chorale prelude Jesus Christus, unser Heiland. In Johann
Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand ftom cl709-27 in NH LM
4983, p. 48. See also W. Emery, "An American Manuscript,
Two unknown pieces by Bach?" in Musical Times (August,
1954), p. 429.
Vetter, Andreas Nicolaus Chorale prelude Christ lag in Todes Banden. In Johann
Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand from cl709-1727 in NH
LM 4983, p. 53. Also in Walther's hand in Mus. ms.
2254113, p. 123. J. C. Bach's copy attributes the work to
Buxtehude. A facsimile of this mansucript is on p. 177 of Y.
Kobayashi's "Der Gehrener Kantor Johann Chrisoph
Bach(1673-1727) und seine Sammelbande mit Musik fur
Tasteninstrumente," in Bachiana et Alia Musicologica:
Festschrift Alfred Durr zum 65. Geburtstag (B&renreiter,
1983). See also Snyder, Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 320.
Wecker, Georg Caspar Fugue in C. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand
from cl709-27 in NH LM 4982.
Fugue in d. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand
from C1709-27 in NH LM 4982.
Werckmeister, Andreas Canzona [Cantzon] in C. In Johannes Ringk’s (a student of
Bach's friend Kellner) hand from cl730 in Mus. ms. 30381.
Kurzer Unterricht, wie man ein Clavier stimmen und
wohltemperiren konne. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-
1727) hand from cl709-27 in NHLM 4982, p. 54-60.
Witt, Christian Friedrich Capriccio in e. In J. C. Bach's (1671-1721) hand from cl707-
1715 in ABB.
Zachow, Friedrich Fugue in G. In Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand
W ilhelm from cl709-27 in NH LM 4982.
Suite in b. In F. W. Zachaw: Werke fiir
Tasteninstrumenten, ed. by H. Lohmann , p. 69-72. In J. C.
Bach's (1671-1721) hand from 1704-07 in Mo.

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280

Tables of Ornaments Known, or Possibly Known, to Bach:

anonymous Marques et demonstration des agrements. 14 ornaments of
which only 8 appear to be completed, in J. C. Bach's (1671-
1721) hand from c l707-1715 in ABB, p. 78. Reprinted in
Georg Bohm: Samtliche Werke: Klavier und Orgelwerke,
vol. I, ed. by Johannes Wolgast, Leipzig 1927 (new edn.,
Wiesbaden 1952, ed. by Gesa Wolgast) vol. I, p. XVI. A table
with the same name (probably the same) also appears in
Friedrich August Grasnick's (cl798-1877) hand in Mus. ms.
30069. Hill (The Moller Manuscript, p. 180) states than Mus.
ms. 30069 was derived from ABB. Hill has suggested
(p. 275) that this table was derived from the same source as
the Marais suite which follows it.
Bach, Johann Sebastian Explication unterschiedlicher Zeichen, so gewifie
manieren artig zu spielen, andeiiten. 13 ornaments. In the
Clavier-Biichlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, 1720.
Boyvin, Jacques Premier Livre d'orgue (Paris, 1689-90). Discussion and
about 7 ornaments. A copy of Boyvin's two livres d'orgue
was made by Bach's pupil from 1710-1715, Johann Caspar
Vogler (1696-1763). The manuscript (SPK Mus. ms. 2329) is
on the same type of paper as Bach's copy of the Grigny Livre
d'orgue. See Victoria Horn, "French Influence in Bach's
Organ Works,1' in J. S. Bach as Organist: His
Instruments, Music, and Performance Practice, ed. by
George Stauffer and Ernest May (Bloomington, Ind.:
Indiana Univ. Pr., 1986) p. 256-273 for more on this and a
facsimile of the first two pages.
Couperin, Frangois Pieces de clavecin . . . premier livre (Paris, 1713). 23
ornaments. Facsimile edn. (New York: Broude Bros. Ltd.,
1973). See below under L 'a rt. . . . Also, Bach often used
Couperin's symbols for ascending and descending
arpeggios in his music.
Couperin, Frangois L'art de toucher le clavecin (Paris, 1716). Discussion and 5
ornaments. Ernst Ludwig Gerber (the son of Heinrich N.
Gerber, a student of Bach) mentions Couperin's "things for
the keyboard, which the great Seb. Bach thought particularly
good and recommended to his pupils," and which included
an "explanation of performance techniques
[Spielmaniereh] which Sebast. Bach himself largely
retained when playing." See B Dok III, p. 471. Also, Forkel
states (The Bach Reader, p. 310) that Bach was acquainted
with Couperin's works and esteemed them.
D'Anglebert, Jean-Henri Pieces de Clavessin (Paris, 1689). 29 ornaments. Copied by
Bach in cl710-1712 (UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538). A
facsimile of this is in Hans Klotz, Die Ornamentik der
Klavier- und Orgelwerke von Johann Sebastian Bach
(Kassel: B&renreiter, 1984), p. XXVI. DSB Mus. Hs. 8551 is
a copy by Aloys Fuchs of 2 of the Dieupart suites and the
D'Anglebert table of ornaments from Mus. Hs. 1538.

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281

Dieupart, Charles Six suittes de clavecin (Amsterdam, 1701). 16 ornaments.
These suites were copied by Bach incl709-14 in a
manuscript (UB Frankfurt Mus. Hs. 1538) which includes
the D'Anglebert table of ornaments instead of the Dieupart
table. The Dieupart table exists in J. C. Bach's (1671-1721)
hand from 1704-07 in Mo, p. 43. This is combined with the
LeBfcgue table from Mo and printed in the Wolgast ed. of
Bohm's works, vol. I, p. XVI. The Dieupart table appears on
the final page of Bohm's partita on Jesu du bis allzu schon
(an early entry in Mo) but was probably inserted at a later
date to take advantage of some empty staves. It has been
suggested that the Mo copy of the Dieupart table may have
been in some way associated with the Dieupart suites in
Mus. Hs. 1538 which Bach copied in cl709-1714. See
Schulze, Studien p. 42, n. 133.
Fischer, Johann Caspar Les Pieces de Clavessin, op. 2 (Schlackenwerth, 1696),
Ferdinand reprinted as Musicalisch.es Blumenbiischlein , op. 2
(Augspurg, 1698). 5 ornaments. A photograph of this is in
Hans Klotz Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und Orgelwerke
von Johann Sebastian Bach (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1984), p.
XXVIII. A Prelude und Chaccone from Fischer’s work
appears in ABB, and C. P. E. Bach states in a 1775 letter to
Forkel (B Dok III, p. 288, translated in The Bach Reader, p.
278) that Bach "loved and studied the works o f . . . the Baden
Capellmeister Fischer, . . . "
LeBfcgue, Nicolas Antoine Les Pieces de Clavecin (Paris, 1677). 4 ornaments. This
table appears in J. C. Bach's hand from 1704-07 in Mo, p. 96,
along with nos. 1 - 5 of the 6 suites. Also, one suite appears
in P 801 in Walther's handwriting. The Dieupart and
LeBegue tables from Mo are combined and reprinted in the
1952 Wolgast edn. of Bohm's works, vol. I, p. XVI.
LeRoux, Gaspard Pieces de Clavessin, (Paris, 1705). 18 ornaments, mostly
taken from D'Anglebert's table. Facsimile edn. (Geneve:
Minkoff Reprint, 1982). Three suites from this appear in
Walther's handwriting in P 801.
Nivers, Guillaume- Livre d'Orgue (Paris, 1665). 3 ornaments. A photograph of
Gabriel this is in Hans Klotz, Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und
Orgelwerke von Johann Sebastian Bach (Kassel:
Barenreiter, 1984), p. XXII. One suite from this appeal's, in
Walther's hand, in P 801.

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282

Raison, Andre Livre d'orgue contenant cinq messes suffisantes pour tous
les tons de VEglise ou quinze Magnificats . . . et une
Offerte, en action de grace, pour Vheureuse convalescence
du Roy in 1687 (Paris, 1688). 9 ornaments. A photograph of
this is in Hans Klotz, Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und
Orgelwerke von Johann Sebastian Bach (Kassel:
Barenreiter, 1984), p. XXIV. Howell (The New Grove, XV,
547) notes that the Trio en passacaille of Raison's second
mass has a theme identical to the first half of that of Bach's
Passacaglia in c, BWV 582. Also, Bach may have acquired
this work while at Miihlhausen as he wrote in his 1708
request for dismissal that he had "acquired from far and
wide, not without cost, a good store of the choicest church
compositions" (The Bach Reader, p. 60). Also, Aldrich
states (Ornamentation in J. S. Bach's Organ Works, p. 10)
that "we know that he [Bach] was acquainted with the works
of Raison, Marchand, Nicholas de Grigny, Nivers, and
d'Anglebert . . . "
Reinken, Johann Adam Hortus musicus (Hamburg, 1687). 2 ornaments. Bach
arranged portions of three pieces from this publication in his
BWV 965, 966, and 954.

Free Ornamentations Known, or Possibly Known, to Bach:

Bonporti, Francesco Invenzioni, op.10 for vn and be (Bologna, 1712). Modem
Antonio edn., ed. by Franz Giegling (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1950).
Bach copied some of these works in 1723, or possibly 1715 (see
above under "Italian Music in Bach's Hand: Bonporti").
Many of the slow movements of this publication are richly
ornamented.
Pisendel, Johann Georg Opening movement from Sonata for violin solo in a (cl716).
Autograph in LB Dresden Mus. 2421 R /2 . Modem edn. by
Gunter Hausswald in Hortus Musicus, vol. 91 (Kassel:
Barenreiter, 1952). It is thought that this work may have
inspired Bach's unaccompanied flute and violin works.
See Marshall, The Music of Johann Sebastian Bach, p. 212.
Vivaldi, Antonio Grave from Concerto for violin in D, RV 208--a manuscript
version of RV 208a (op. 7/ii, no. 5) with a different second
movement. Bach arranged this as Organ concerto in C,
BWV 594. Bach apparently worked from a manuscript
version, copied by Johann Peter Fick, now in D-SW1 Mus.
ms. 5565. The Grave ornamentation also exists in
Vivaldi's autograph version (Torino, Bibl. Naz., Giordano
vol. 29, fol. 167-181) and in the parts in I-CF.
Larghetto from Concerto for violin in D, RV 230 (op. 3, no.
9). Bach arranged this as Harpsichord concerto in D, BWV
972.

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283

Vivaldi, Antonio Largo from Concerto for 2 violins in A, RV 519 (op. 3, no. 5).
The La;c*o is for violin solo and orchestra. This very
popular concerto exists in six different keyboard
arrangements, one of which appears anonymously in SPK
22396/15 (transposed to G major). A manuscript copy of this,
LB Darmstadt 4445, was lost in world war II. The
Darmstadt collection contains several Bach/Weimar
related manuscripts. Bach arranged five works from op. 3
in 1713-14 and one in cl730 (BWV 1065). He undoubtedly
knew the other works in this publication as well.
Largo from Concerto for violin in a, RV 356 (op. 3, no. 6).
Bach arranged five works from op. 3 in 1713-14 and one in
cl730 (BWV 1065). He undoubtedly knew the other works in
this publication as well.
Largo from Concerto for violin in e, RV 279 (op. 4, no. 2).
BWV 980 and 975 were arranged, by Bach, from manuscript
versions of op. 4, nos. 1 and 6 so it is possible that he knew
no. 2 as well. A manuscript version of RV279 (LB Dresden
Mus. 2 /0 /1 .6 1 ) contains modifications by J. G. Pisendel,
who knew Bach.
Largo from Concerto for violin in A, RV 347 (op. 4, no. 5).
BWV 980 and 975 were arranged, by Bach, from manuscript
versions of op. 4, nos. 1 and 6 so it is possible that he knew
no. 5 as well. A manuscript copy of this, LB Darmstadt 4446,
was lost in world war II. The Darmstadt collection
contains several Bach/Weimar related manuscripts.
Grave Recitativo from Concerto Grosso in D, RV 562, for
violin, 2 oboes, 2 horns, and orchestra (the Grave Recitativo
is for violin and orchestra). A copy of this (LB Dresden
Mus. 2389/0/94) is in the hand of J. G. Pisendel, who knew
Bach, and contains a third-movement cadenza (possibly
added by Pisendel) which is much like that of the Schwerin
manuscript version of RV 208, which Bach arranged as
Organ concerto in C, BWV 594.
Largo and Adagio from Sonata for violin in c, RV 6 (cl716).
The autograph of this work dedicated to Pisendel is in LB
Dresden Mus. 2389/R f 10, fol. 13-17 (no. 4). Pisendel knew
Bach so it is possible that Bach heard this sonata.
Grave from Concerto for violin in g, RV 326 (op. 7/i, no. 3).
This Grave is found in two manuscripts in LB Dresden. In
Mus. 210/1.1 it is included in an anonymous Violin
concerto in g. In Mus. 2389-0-55a it was added, apparently
by J. G. Pisendel (who knew Bach), to a copy of RV 370 as an
optional slow movement. Since Bach reworked manuscript
version of two other op. 7 concertos he may have known this
one as well.

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284

Vivaldi, Antonio Largo from Concerto for violin in A, RV 343. Manuscript
copies of this existed in both LB Darmstadt 4444 (lost in
world war ID and LB Dresden Mus. 2389101112. The
Darmstadt collection contains several Bach/Weimar
related manuscripts.________________________________
Largo from Concerto Grosso in F, RV 571. The Largo is for
violin solo with 2 vn and va accompaniment. This work is
known to have been performed by Pisendel in Italy. See
Talbot, Vivaldi, p. 61-2.
Slow movement from Concerto for violin in Eb, RV 253 (op.
8, no. 5). A manuscript of RV 253 (LB Darmstadt 3883 no.
1)' was lost in World War II. A partial Vivaldi autograph of
RV 253 is in LB Dresden Mus. 2389/0/62. The Darmstadt
collection contains several Bach/Weimar related
manuscripts.
Slow movement from Concerto for violin in F, RV 294a (op.
7/ii, no. 4). Two manuscripts of this concerto are in LB
Dresden. Also, since Bach reworked manuscript versions
of two other op. 7 concertos he may have known this one as
w ell.
Slow movement from Concerto for violin in D, RV 206. A
manuscript of this concerto is in Johann Peter Fick's hand
in D-SW1 Mus. 5567 (Mus. 5565 is the version of RV 208
arranged by Bach as Organ concerto in C, BWV 594).
Slow movement from Concerto for violin in A, RV 339. A
manuscript of this concerto is in Johann Peter Fick’s hand
in D-SW1 Mus. 5566 (Mus. 5565 is the version of RV 208
arranged by Bach as Organ concerto in C, BWV 594)._____

Additional Information Regarding Music Known, or Possibly Known, to
Bach:

Abaco, Evaristo Felice Bukofzer (Music in the Baroque Era, p. 234) states that "the
dall' chamber works of dall'Abaco, Albinoni, and Bonporti were
highly esteemed by Bach, as his borrowings and
manuscript copies show." He does not mention specific
examples for dall’Abaco.
Albinoni, Tomaso Ernst Ludwig Gerber (son of Heinrich N. Gerber, a Bach
Giovanni pupil) described Bach's teaching methods in 1791 by stating
that "the conclusion of the instruction was thorough bass, for
which Bach chose the Albinoni violin solos; and I must
admit that I have never heard anything better than the style
in which my father executed these basses according to
Bach's fashion, particularly in the singing of the voices"
(The Bach Reader, p. 265).

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285

Bach, Johann Christoph J. C. Bach (1642-1703) was a cousin and colleague of Bach's
(1642-1703) father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who is said to have served
as a copyist for J. C. Bach on many occasions (see The New
Grove Bach Family, p. 32). J. C. Bach was highly respected
as a composer among the Bach family; J. S. Bach referred to
him as a "profound composer" in 1735 (The Bach Reader, p.
206), evidence that he appreciated and was familiar with his
work.
Benda, Franz C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly; . . . Benda" and
that Bach knew him personally.
Bohm, Georg C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 288, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that Bach
"loved and studied the works o f . . . the Liineberg organist
Bohm". Bach clearly knew Bohm, as in 1727 he named
Bohm the northern agent for the sale of his Partitas nos. 2
and 3, BWV 826 and 827 (see B Dok II, p. 169 or The New
Grove Bach Family, p. 50).
Boyvin, Jacques Premier livre d'argue contenant les huit tons a I'usage
ordinaire de VEglise (Paris, 1689-90) and Second livre
d'orgue contenant le huit tons a I'usage ordinaire de
VEglise (Paris, 1700). A copy these was made by Bach's
pupil from 1710-1715, Johann Caspar Vogler (b. 1696). The
manuscript (SPK Mus. ms. 2329) is on the same type of
paper as Bach's copy of the Grigny Livre d'orgue. See
Victoria Horn's article, "French Influence in Bach's
Organ Works," in J. S. Bach as Organist, ed. by G.
Stauffer and E. May (Bloomington, 1986) p. 256-273 for more
on this and a facsimile of the first two pages.
Bruhns, Nicolaus C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 288, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that Bach
"loved and studied the works o f . . . Bruhns . . . ." Bach's
obituary (B Dok III, p. 82, translated in The Bach Reader, p.
217) mentions that Bach "took the works of Bruhns,
Reinken, Buxtehude, and several good French organists as
models" during his Amstadt years.
Buxtehude, Dieterich La Capricciosa (32 variations, BuxWV 250). Bukofzer
(Music in the Baroque Era, p. 264) has stated, regarding the
similarity of Bach's Goldberg Variations (BWV 988) to this
work, that "we do not know whether or not Bach knew this
work, but at any rate the key of both sets is the same, there
are 32 variations, and-most important-Buxtehude's theme
reappears as the tune Kraut und Ruben in Bach's final
quodlibet." Furthermore, Bach must have heard the
extraordinary Abendmusik performances of Castrum
doloris (BuxWV 134) and Templum honoris (BuxWV 135)
of December 2 & 3,1705. Only the librettos of these works
remain, in the Bibliothek der Hansestadt, Liibeck.

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286

Caldara, Antonio C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly:. . . Caldara, . . "
Clerambault, Louis- Spitta (Bach, I, 202) says that Bach's students copied selected
Nicolas works from Bach's collection including works by
Clerambault. This comment may, however, have derived
from the LeRoux suite attributed to Clerambault in P 801.
Corrette, Michel Schulze ("The French influence in Bach's instrumental
music," in Early Music, 1985, p. 181) states that works of
Corette are included in collections of keyboard music
belonging to people known to Bach, but does not cite any
examples.
Couperin, Francois Pieces d'orgue consistantes en deux messes (Paris, 1690).
Hans Klotz has suggested that Couperin's Mass in G served
as a model for Bach's Piece d'Orgue, BWV 572. See Klotz's
article, "Bachs Orgeln und seine Orgelmusik," in Die
Musikforschung, 3 (1950), p. 200; or Kilian in NBA IV/7
Krit. Bericht, p. 194.
Couperin, Frangois L'art de toucher le clavecin (1716). Ernst Ludwig Gerber
(the son of Heinrich N. Gerber, a student of Bach) mentions
Couperin's "things for the keyboard, which the great Seb.
Bach thought particularly good and recommended to his
pupils," and which included an "explanation of
performance techniques [Spielmanieren] which Sebast.
Bach himself largely retained when playing" (B Dok III, p.
471). Forkel states (The Bach Reader, p. 310) that Bach was
acquainted with Couperin’s works and esteemed them.
Du Mage, Pierre Livre d'orgue (1708). Johann Abraham Birnbaum cites Du
Mage's work in defense of Bach in 1738 (The Bach Reader,
p. 246). It is assumed that Bach directed Birnbaum to this
work. See Schulze, "The French influence in Bach's
instrumental music," in Early Music, 13/2 (May 1985), p.
181. Translated by Derek McCulloch from Studien zur
Auffuhrungspraxis und Interpretation von
Instrumentalmusik des 18. Jahrhunderts, xvi (1981), p.
57ff.
Fasch, Johann Friedrich A. J. B. Hutchings (The Baroque Concerto, 1963, p. 206)
states that Bach copied five of Fasch's orchestral suites, but
does not identify the works or cite the manuscript.

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287

Fischer, Johann Caspar Ariadne musica neo-organoedum, 20 preludes and fugues
Ferdinand and 5 chorale ricercare for organ (Schlackenwerth, 1702).
Bukofzer (Music in the Baroque Era, p. 266) states that
Ariadne "served as the direct model for the Well-Tempered
Clavier, not only with regard to the order of keys, but
sometimes even with regard to the fugue themes." Two
works from this publication were copied by J. C. Bach (1673-
1727) into NH LM 4983. One of the same works and one
additional work appear in Walther's collection of chorale
preludes. The preludes and fugues of Ariadne appear
along with chorale preludes by Bach and Agricola in Berlin
Mus. ms. 30195. Also, C. P. E. Bach noted in 1775 (B Dok
III, p. 288, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that his
father had "loved and studied the works o f . . . the Baden
Capellmeister Fischer."
Frescobaldi, Girolamo II secondo libro di toccate (Rome, 1627). Reinken is known
to have owned this volume and it is not inconceivable that
Bach could have come into contact with some of this music
through Reinken or through Bach's cousin, Johann Ernst
Bach, who studied organ playing in Hamburg in 1701. See
Wolff, "Johann Adam Reinken and Johann Sebastian
Bach," in J. S. Bach as Organist, ed. by G. Stauffer and E.
May (Bloomington, 1986), p. 79, n. 60.
Froberger, Johann Jacob Jacob Adlung wrote in 1758 {The Bach Reader, p. 445) that
"Froberger was always held in high esteem by the late Bach
of Leipzig, although he is somewhat old-fashioned by now."
Spitta {Bach, I, 627) mentions a manuscript bearing Bach's
name but containing chaconnes and canzonas by
Froberger.
Fux, Johann Joseph C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly: Fux . . ."
Graun, Karl Heinrich C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly:. .. both Grauns
[K. H. and J. G. ], . . . " and that Bach knew them
personally.
Graun, Johann Gottlieb C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly:. . . both Grauns
[K. H. and J. G. ], . . . " and that Bach knew them
personally. Spitta states {Bach, III, 227) that Bach entrusted
Graun with the teaching of W. F. Bach during part of 1726.
Graupner, Christoph Bukofzer states {Music in the Baroque Era, p. 262) that "it is
significant that Bach was especially fond of the works of
Graupner, a pupil of Kuhnau and one of the best German
composers of the Bach period."

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288

Handel, Georg Friedrich C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly:. . . Handel, . .
Spitta {Bach, HI, 243) states that Agricola's mother knew
Handel and corresponded with him, and that Agricola
played many of Handel's works while studying with Bach
in Leipzig.
Hasse, Johann Adolf C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [Bach] esteemed highly: . . . Hasse, . . . " and
that Bach knew him personally. Forkel states (The Bach
Reader, p. 335) that Hasse visited Bach in Leipzig on
several occasions.
Heinichen, Johann David Der Generalbass in der Composition (Dresden, 1728).
Facsimile reprint (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1969). In 1729
Bach became the Leipzig sales representative for this
treatise (B Dok H, p. 191).
Kaiser, Reinhard C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly: . . . Kayser
[Kaiser], . . ."
Kuhnau, Johann The ornament symbol /vv/'^used by Bach to represent a
slide is first used and described by Kuhnau, Bach's
predecessor at Leipzig, in his Neuer Clavier-tJbung Erster
Theil (Leipzig, 1689). See F. Neumann, Ornamentation . .
.,1978, p. 212-4 and Klotz, Der Ornamentik .. . , 1984, p. 6.
As Kuhnau's successor it seems likely that Bach would
have come into contact with some of his work. Hill {The
Moller Manuscript, p. 413) has suggested that the Suite in F
from Kuhnau's 1689 publication may have influenced
Bach's suite BWV 833. Hill (op. cit., p. 454ff) also argues
that BWV 967 was influenced by the fourth sonata of
Kuhnau's Frische Clavier-Friichte (Leipzig, 1696).

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289

Lully, Jean Baptiste The following pieces, arranged from orchestral works of
Lully, are presented in D'Anglebert's Pieces de Clavessin
(Paris, 1689):
Overture de Cadmus
Ritournelle des Fees de Rolland
Menuet dans nos bois
Chaconne de Phaeton
Sarabande Dieu des Enfers
(Suitte de I'Sarabande)
Gigue
Overture de la Mascarade
Les Sourdines d'Armide
Les Songes agreables d'Atys
Air d'Apollen du Triomple de VAmour
Passacaille d'Armide
Overture de Proserpine
Suitte de VOuverture de Proserpine
(Variations suittes folies d'Espagne)?
Chaconne de Galatee
Marchand, Louis Aldrich (Ornamentation in J. S. Bach's Organ Works,
p.10) states that "we know that he [Bach] was acquainted
with the works of Raison, Marchand, Nicholas de Grigny,
Nivers, and d'Anglebert . . Bach's obituary (B Dok. Ill,
p. 83, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 218-9) suggests that
he had an opportunity to hear Marchand play during a trip to
Dresden in 1717. This account also makes reference to
some no el variations ("Musetten fur die Christnact") by
Marchand which may, therefore, have been known to Bach.
Nivers, Guillaume- Aldrich (Ornamentation in J. S. Bach's Organ Works,
Gabriel p.10) states that "we know that he [Bach] was acquainted
with the works of Raison, Marchand, Nicholas de Grigny,
Nivers, and d'Anglebert . . ."
Pisendel, Johann Georg Sonata for solo violin in a (cl716) and possibly other works.
Bach first met Pisendel in Weimar in 1709. They probably
met again in Dresden in 1717. Bach’s close association
with Dresden in the 1730's undoubtedly brought him in
contact with Pisendel. Pisendel's solo sonata is thought to
have been an inspiration for Bach's works for solo violin
and for solo flute.

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290

Raison, Andre Livre d'orgue contenant cinq messes suffisantes pour tous
les tons de VEglise ou quinze Magnificats . . . et une
Offerte, en action de grace, pour Vheureuse convalescence
du Roy in 1687 (Paris, 1688). Howell notes (The New Grove,
XV, 547) that the Trio en passacaille of Raison's second
mass has a theme identical to the first half of the theme of
Bach's Passacaglia in c, BWV 582. Bach may have
acquired Raison's work while at Miihlhausen, as he wrote
in his 1708 request for dismissal (The Bach Reader, p. 60)
that he had "acquired from far and wide, not without cost, a
good store of the choicest church compositions." Aldrich
(Ornamentation in J. S. Bach's Organ Works, p.10) states
that "we know that he was acquainted with the works of
Raison, Marchand, Nicholas de Grigny, Nivers, and
d'Anglebert..." Bach's obituary (B Dok III, p. 82,
translated in The Bach Reader, p. 217) mentions that he
"took the works of Bruhns, Reinken, Buxtehude, and
several good French organists as models" during his
Arnstadt years.
Reinken, Johann Adam Chorale fantasia An Wasserflussen Babylon. InJoh.
Adam Reincken: Samtliche Orgelwerke, ed. by Klaus
Beckmann (Breitkopf & HSrtel no. 6714), p. 4-21. Bach's
obituary (B Dok. Ill, p. 84, translated in The Bach Reader, p.
219) states, in regard to Bach’s extemporary performance of
a lengthy fantasia on "An Wasserflussen Babylon" in
1720, that "[Reinken] himself had set the same chorale,
many years before, in the [same manner as Bach]; and this
fact,. . ., was not unknown to our Bach."
Hollandische Nachtigall. In Johann Adam Reincken:
Samtliche Werke fur Klavier/ Cembalo, ed. by Klaus
Beckmann (Breitkopf & Hartel no. 8290), p. 32-4. This
work and Reinken's Schweiget mir, appear in the 1710
anthology VI Suittes, Divers Airs avec Leurs Variations &
Fugues Pour le Clavessin by E. Rogers, Amsterdam. Hill
(The Moller Manuscript, p. 176) suggests that the Reinken
works in this anthology may have been derived from
Reinken's Musicalischer Klaviershatz (now lost). If the
ABB copy of Schweiget mir was derived from Musicalischer
Klaviershatz, then Bach may have known all of the works
in this volume.
Telemann, Georg Philipp C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [J. S. Bach] esteemed highly: . . . Telemann, .
. ." and that "in his younger days he saw a good deal of
Telemann, who also stood godfather to me [C. P. E. Bach].1'
Walther, Johann Gottfried Musikalisches Lexicon (Leipzig, 1732), facsimile reprint
(Kassel: Barenreiter, 1953). In 1729 Bach became the
Leipzig sales representative for the beginning (letter A)
section of this dictionary. See B Dok II, p. 191.

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291

Zelenka, Johann Dismas C. P. E. Bach mentions in a 1775 letter to Forkel (B Dok III,
(1679-1745) p. 289, translated in The Bach Reader, p. 278) that "in his
last years he [Bach] esteemed highly:. . . Zelenka, . . . "
and that Bach knew him personally. Also, Spitta {Bach, III,
29 and p. 228) states that W. F. Bach copied out a Magnificat
in D by Zelenka for the use of the Leipzig St. Thomas's
__________________________singers.____________________________________________

The Eckelt Tabulature Book of 1692: [formerly SPK Mus. ms. 40035, now in the BJK.
The following was largely derived from Christoph Wolffs "Johann Valentin
Eckelts Tabulaturbuch von 1692," in Festschrift filr Martin Ruhnke zum 65.
Geburtstag (1986). Wolff also lists contents from the Eckelt book in his article
"Johann Adam Reinken and Johann Sebastian Bach," in J. S. Bach as Organist,
(1986), but this list contains many errors.]

Erlebach, Philipp Heinrich Suite in F (Allemande, Sarabande, and Courante).
Froberger, Johann Jacob? Capriccio in C (doubtful). In DTO X/ii (21), p. 126.
Froberger, Johann Jacob Canzonet in a from DTO IV/i (8), p. 70 (no. 6)? Wolff lists a
canzona no. 6 in A minor from DTO IV/i (8), p. 159-161, on
p. 9-11 in the Eckelt book. DTO IV/i ends on p. 130, however,
and DTO IV/ii contains only works by Cesti. None of the
works in DTO 8 or DTO 13 are in the Eckelt book according
to the editor, Guido Adler. A facsimile of p. 9-10 of the
Eckelt book is on p. 386 of Wolffs article in the Festschrift
filr Martin Ruhnke.
Capriccio [Canzone] in F. In DTO X/ii (21), p. 52 (no. 12).
Capriccio in C. In DTO X/ii (21), p. 77 (no. 18).
Fantasia in G. In DTO X/ii (21), p. 102 (no. 7).
Praeludium and Fuga in G (doubtful). In DT021, p. 125.
Toccata [Fantasia] in F. In DTO X/ii (21), p. 36 (no. 25).
Toccata in a. In DTO X/ii (21), p. 34 (no. 24). Wolff lists
this work in D minor.
Toccata in d. In DTO X/ii (21), p. 32 (no. 23). Wolff lists
this work in A minor.
(?) Ricercar in D. In DTO X/ii (21), p. 82 (no. 7). Not in
Eckelt’s book according to Adler in DTO X/ii (21). Listed
by Wolff as on p. 4-5 of the Eckelt book.
Hasse, Andreas? [HaBens] Fuga in A.
Ricercar in D.
Kerll, Johann Caspar Fuga from Modulatio organica super Magnificat octo
ecclesiasticis tonie respondent (Munich, 1686). Edited by
R. Walter (Altottling, 1956). On p. 62 of the Eckelt book.
Fuga in g from Modulatio organica super Magnificat octo
ecclesiasticis tonie respondens (Munich, 1686). Edited by
R. Walter (Altijttling, 1956). On p. 63 of the Eckelt book.
Krieger, Johann Herr Christ der einig Gottes Sohn. In DTB XVIII (30), p.
208.

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292

Kreiger, Johann (Johann Fuga in g. In DTB XVIII (30), p. 203.
Philipp?)
Krieger, Johann Philipp Toccata and Fuga in a. In DTB XVIII (30), p. 191.
Pachelbel, Johann Ciacona in D. In DTB Il/i (2), p. 42 (no. 16).
Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl, chorale prelude. In
DTB IV/i (6), p. 92 (part II, no. 26).
Fantasia in g. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 8 (part I, no. 11).
Fuga in C. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 33 (part I, no. 31).
Fuga in C. In DTB Il/i (2), p. 108 (no. 44).
Fuga in G. Not in DTB, but Wolff states that this work is
similar to DTB IV/i (6), no. 28 and 29. Eckelt book p. 21.
Fuga in D. In DTB Il/i (2), p. 110 (no. 45).
Fuga in G. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 45 (part I, no. 41).
Fuga in G. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 46 (part I, no. 42).
Fuga in G. In DTB Il/i (2), p. 114 (no. 47).
(?) Fuga in g. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 47 (part I, no. 43). Not
listed by Wolff, but in the Eckelt book according to Sieffert
in DTB IV/i.
O Lamm Gottes unschuldig, chorale prelude. In DTB IV/i
(6), p. 121 (part II, no. 53).
Praeludium and Fuga in e. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 29 (part I,
no. 25).
Praeludium in A. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 4 (part I, no. 5).
Praeludium in d. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 3 (part I, no. 1).
Praeludium in Eb. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 3 (part I, no. 2).
ITaeludium in G. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 3 (part I, no. 3).
PTaeludium in g. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 4 (part I, no. 4).
Suite in g. In DTB Il/i (2), p. 84 (no. 33b).
Toccata and Fuga in Bb. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 30 (part I, no.
26).
Toccata in C. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 5 (part I, no. 7).
Toccata in D. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 6 (part I, no. 9).
Toccata in d. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 5 (part I, no. 8).
Toccata in g. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 21 (part I, no. 20).
Warum betriibst du dich, mein Herz, chorale prelude. In
DTB IV/i (6), p. 132 (part II, no. 60).
(?) Auf meinen lieben Gott, chorale prelude. In DTB6
(IV/i), p. 75 (part II, no. 11). Not in Eckelt's book according
to Sieffert in DTB IV/i (6). Wolff lists this work as on p. 61
of the Eckelt book.
Vetter, Andreas Nicolaus Ach Gott und Herr. Two movements.
Fuga. Eckelt book p. 60.
Gelobet sei der H. der Gott Israel.
Jesu meine Freude (7 variations).
Variations [Fuga] on Allein Gott in der Hoh sei Eh (BWV
771, movements 8 and 3). The first movement is in E lf
Orgelchorhle des 17. Jhs., ed. F. Dietrich (Kassel, 1932).
Witt, Christian Friedrich Canzona in e.

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293

Witt, Christian Friedrich Canzone in F.
Fuga in Bb.
Fuga in d.

Choral Preludes from Walther's Collection; [All of the manuscripts cited are in
Berlin except Universitatsbibliothek zu Konigberg Ms. [Cod. Gotth.] 15839 (lost). All of the
manuscripts cited are in Walther's hand unless stated. Berlin P 806 (and Mus. ms. 30245
which has the same contents as P 806) and Das Plauen Orgelbuch (lost but copied in DSB Fot
Bil 129) are not in Walther's hand but were apparently derived from his collection. The
contents of these manuscripts have not been included here, but may be found in: Kast, Die
Bach-Handschriften der Berliner Staatsbibliothek (P 806)] and Seiffert, "Das Plauener
Orgelbuch von 1708," in Archiv /ur Musikwissenschaft, 2 (1919-20).]

Alberti, Johann Friedrich Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ. Mus. ms. 2254112
0 lux beata Trinitas. P 802
Chorale prelude(s). Ms. 15839
Armsdorff, Andreas Allein zu dir Herr Jesu Christ. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9. Ms.
15839
Kommt her zu mir spricht Gottes Sohn. 4.G.14
Wier nur den lieben Gott la.pt walten. 4.G.14
Other chorale prelude(s)? Ms. 15839
Bach, Johann Bernhard Christ lag in Todes Banden. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p. 16.
(1676-1749) Mus. ms. 22541 /3
Du Friedefiirst Herr Jesu Christ. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 12. 4.G.14
Helft mir Gottes Giite preisen. Mus. ms. 22541 /1
Jesus ■nichts als Jesus. Mus. ms. 22541H
Nun freut euch lieben Christen gemein. In J. T. Kreb's
hand in P 802.
Von Himmel hoch da komm ich her. Mus. ms. 22541 /1 and
Mus. ms. 2254112
Wir glauben all an einen Gott. Three separate verses in
4.G.14, p. 16-18, p. 19-21, and p. 22-25.
Bach, Johann Michael Allein Gott in der Hoh sei Ehr. 4.G.14
(1648-1694)
Dies sind die heilige zehn Gebot. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9. Ms.
15839
In dich hab' ich gehoffet Herr. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p. 21.
Ms. 15839 and 4.G.14
Wenn mein Stiindlein vorhanden ist. 4.G.14
Other chorale prelude(s)? Ms. 15839

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294

Bohm, Georg (?) Erhalt uns Herr bei deinem Wort, BuxWV Anh. 11. In
DTB IV/i (6), p. 91 and in B. & H. No. 8087, p. 56-7.
Attributed to G. B. (Georg Bohm) in 4.G.14, to D. B.
(Dieterich Buxtehude) in Ms. 15839, and to Pachelbel in
NBA IV/3 Krit. Bericht (and to Pachelbel or Buxtehude in
Spitta, Bach, I, 205). Considered doubtful as a work of
Buxtehude by Snyder (Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 434).
Bohm, Georg Ach wie nichtig! Ach wie flttchtig!, chorale partita. In
Georg Bohm: Samtliche Orgelwerke, ed. by Klaus
Beckmann, 1986, Breitkopf & HSrtel No. 8087, p. 20-25. Ms.
15839 and 4.G.14
Allein Gott in der Hoh sei Ehr. In B. & H. No. 8087, p. 26-
27. Ms. 15839 and 4.G. 14
Aufmeinen lieben Gott, chorale partita. In B. & H. No.
8087, p. 28-35. Ms. 15839 and 4.G.14
Aus tiefer Not schrey ich zu dir, chorale partita. In B. & H.
No. 8087, p. 36-39. In Walther's hand in 4.G.14 and in J. T.
Krebs' hand in P 802.
Christ lag in Todes Banden (II). In B. & H. No. 8087, p. 48-
49. Mus. ms. 22541/3
Christe, der du bist Tag und Licht, chorale partita. In B. &
H. No. 8087, p. 40-47. P 802
Christum wir sollen loben schon. In B. & H. No. 8087, p.
54-55. Mus. ms. 22541 /1 and Mus. ms. 2254112
Freu dich sehr o meine Seele [Tretier Gott ich mu/3 dir
klagen], chorale partita. In B. & H. No. 8087, p. 58-68. In
Walther's hand in Ms. 15839 and 4.G.14, and in J. T.
Krebs' hand in P 802.
Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ (I), chorale partita. In B. & H.
No. 8087, p. 72-75. Mus. ms. 22541/1 and Mus. ms. 22541/2
Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ (II). In B. & H. No. 8087, p. 69-
71. Mus. ms. 22541/1 and Mus. ms. 22541/2
Herr Jesu Christ dich zu uns wend, chorale partita. In B. &
H. No. 8087, p. 76-86. P802 and 4.G.14
Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist. In B. & H. No. 8087, p.
94-95. Mus. ms. 22541 / 3
Vater unser im Himmelreich (I). In B. & H. No. 8087, p.
100-101. P 802 and4.G.14
Vater unser im Himmelreich (II). In B. & H. No. 8087, p.
96-99. Ms. 15839,4. G.14 and P 802
Vater unser im Himmelreich (III). In B. & H. No. 8087, p.
102-105. Ms. 15839 and P802
Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her. In B. & H. No. 8087,
p. 106-107. Mus. ms. 22541 /1 and Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Wer nur den lieben Gott last walten In B. & H. No. 8087, p.
108-111. Ms. 15839 and 4.G. 14

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295

Bruhns, Nicolaus Nun komrn der Heiden Heiland, chorale fantasia. In
Nicolaus Bruhns: Samtliche Orgelwerke, ed. by K.
Beckmann, p. 32-40. In Agricola's hand after 1741 in Litt
U, No. 26659. Also in Walther's hand in P 802.
Buttstedt, Johann Heinrich Herr Christ der einig Gottes Sohn. Attributed to I. P.
(?) [Pachelbel] in 4.G.14.
Buttstedt, Johann Heinrich Allein Gott in der Hoh sei Ehr. 4.G.14
Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir. 4.G.14
Christ lag in Todes Banden. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p. 27 (I,
II). Mus. ms. 2254113
Der Tag der ist so freudenreich. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p. 31.
Mus. ms. 22541 f l and Mus. ms. 2254112
Erbarm dich mein o Herre Gott. 4.G.14
Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ. Mus. ms. 22541/1 and Mus.
ms. 22541/2
Gottes Sohn ist kommen. Mus. ms. 22541/1 and Mus. ms.
22541/2
Ich rufzu dir Herr Jesu Christ. 4.G.14
In dulci Jubilo. Mus. ms. 22541/1 and Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Nun freut euch, lieben Christen gemein. 4.G.14
Nun komm der Heiden Heiland. Mus. ms. 22541 / l , p. 12-
13, p. 30, and Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Von Himel hoch da kom ich her. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p. 34.
Mus. ms. 22541 /1
Von Himel kam der Engel Schaar. In Karl Straube,
Ckoralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 47. Mus.
ms. 22541 /1
Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9.
Ms. 15839
Wo Gott zum Hau/3 nicht giebt. 4.G.14
Other chorale prelude[s]? Ms. 15839. (One work by
Pachelbel is attributed to Buttstedt in this manuscript.)
Buxtehude, Dieterich Ach Gott und Herr, BuxWV 177. Not in Walther's hand.
Plauen
Ach Herr, mich armen Sunder, BuxWV 178. 4.G.14
Aufmeinen lieben Gott, chorale variations in the form of a
suite, BuxWV 179. 4.G.14
Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam, BuxWV 180. 4.G.14
Der Tag der ist so freudenreich, BuxWV 182. Mus. ms.
22541 /1 and Mus. ms. 22541/2
Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt, BuxWV 183. 4.G.14
Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, BuxWV 184. 4.G.14
Erha.lt uns, Herr, dei deinem Wort, BuxWV 185. 4.G.14
Es ist das Heil uns kommen her, BuxWV 186. 4.G.14
Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl, BuxWV 187. 4.G.14
Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ, BuxWV 189. Mus. ms. 22541/1
and Mus. ms. 22541 !2

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
296

Buxtehude, Dieterich Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ, chorale fantasia, BuxWV 188.
P802
Gott der Vater wohn uns bei, BuxWV 190. 4.G.14
Herr Christ, der einig Gottes Sohn, BuxWV 192. Mus. ms.
22541 / la n d Ms 4. G. 14
Herr Jesu Christ, ich weifi gar wohl, BuxWV 193. Ms. 15839
Ich dank dir schon durch deinen Sohn, chorale ricercar,
BuxWV 195. Ms. 15839
Ich dank dir, lieber Herre, chorale fantasia, BuxWV 194.
Ms. 15839
Ich rufzu dir, Herr Jesu Christ, chorale fantasia, BuxWV
196. Ms. 15839
In dulcijubilo, BuxWV 197. Mus. ms. 22541H and Mus.
ms. 2254112
Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod Uberwand,
BuxWV 198. Mus. ms. 22541/3
Komm Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott, BuxWV 199. Mus. ms.
22541/3
Komm Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott, BuxWV 200. Mus. ms.
22541/3
Kommt her zu mir, spricht Gottes Sohn, BuxWV 201. 4.G.14
Lobt Gott ihr Christen allzugleich, BuxWV 202. Mus. ms.
22541 /I and Mus. ms. 22541 /2
Mensch, willt du leben seliglich, BuxWV 206. 4.G.14
Nimm von uns, Herr, du treuer Gott \Vater unser in
Himmelreich], chorale variations, BuxWV 207. 4.G.14
Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist, BuxWV 208. Mus. ms.
22541/3
Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist, BuxWV 209. Mus. ms.
22541/3
Nun freut euch lieben Christen gmein, chorale fantasia,
BuxWV 210. P802
Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BuxWV 211. Mus. ms.
22541 /I and Mus. ms. 22541 /2
Nun lob, meine Seel, den Herren, BuxWV 212. Not in
Walther's hand. Plauen
Nun lob, meine Seel, den Herren, chorale variations,
BuxWV 213. In Walther's hand in 4.G.14 and in an
unknown hand in Mus. ms. 2681
Nun lob, meine Seel, den Herren, BuxWV 214. 4.G.14
Nun lob, meine Seel, den Herren, BuxWV 215. Ms. 15839
Puer natus in Bethlehem, BuxWV 217. Mus. ms. 22541 /I
and Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Te Deum laudamus, chorale fantasia from a chant melody,
BuxWV 218. In Walther's hand, after cl712 in P 801, p. 336-
356. Also (beginning only) in Johannes Ringk's (a student
of Bach's friend Kellner) hand from cl730 in the Lubeck,
Bibliothek der Hansestadt Mus U 212.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
297

Buxtehude, Dieterich Vater unser im Himmelreich, BuxWV 219. 4.G.14
Von Gott will ich nicht lassen, BuxWV 220. 4.G.14
Von Gott will ich nicht lassen, BuxWV 221. 4.G.14
War Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit, BuxWV 222. 4.G.14
Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern, chorale fantasia,
BuxWV 223. Mus. ms. 2254112
Wir danken dir, Herr Jesu Christ, BuxWV 224. Mus. ms.
22541/3
Erich, Daniel Allein zu dir Herr Jesu Christ. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 61. 4.G.14
Chorale prelude(s). Ms. 15839
Fischer, Johann Casper Christ ist erstanden, chorale ricercar, from Ariadne
Ferdinand musica neo-organoedum (Schlackenwerth, 1702). In J. C.
F. Fischer: Samtliche Werke ed. by E. V. Werra,(New
York: Broude Bros., 1965), p. 97. Mus. ms. 2254113. Also in
Johann Christoph Bach’s (1673-1727) hand from cl709-1727
in NH LM 4983.
Der Tag der ist so freudenreich, chorale ricercar, no. 22
from Ariadne musica neo-organoedum (Schlackenwerth,
1702). In J. C. F. Fischer: Samtliche Werke ed. by E. V.
Werra,(New York: Broude Bros., 1965), p. 95. Mus. ms.
22541/1 and Mus. ms. 22541 /2
Graff, Johann [J. Graff Der du bist drey in Einigkeit. 4.G.14
Org. Magdeb]
Hanff, Johann Nikolaus Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 64. 4.G.14
A uf meinen lieben Gott. In Karl Straube, Choralvorspiele
alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 66. 4.G.14
Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 68. 4.G.14
Erbarm dich mein o Herre Gott. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 71. 4.G.14
Helfft mir Gottes Giite preisen. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 75. Mus.
ms. 22541/1 and Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Chorale prelude(s). Ms. 15839
Heuschkel, Johann Lobt Gott ihr Christen allzugleich. Mus. ms. 22541 /1 and
Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her. Mus. ms. 22541 /1
and Mus. ms. 2254112
Kauffmann, Georg Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern. In EDM, RD, R I, 9, p.
Friedrich (?) 34 (attributed to Buttstedt). Anonymous in 4.G.14.
Kauffmann, Georg Christ lag in Todes Banden. In G. F. Kauffmann:
Friedrich Harmonische Seelenlust, ed. by P. Pidoux (Kassel, 1951), p.
18 (A only). Mus. ms. 22541 /3
Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. In Pidoux edn., p. 32.
4.G.14
Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl. In Pidoux edn., p. 36.
4.G.14

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
298

Kauffmann, Georg Freii dich sehr o meine Seele. 4.G.14
Friedrich
Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ. In Pidoux edn., p. 41 (A only).
Mus. ms. 22541/ 1
Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ. In Pidoux edn., p. 44. Mus.
ms. 22541 /I
Gottes Sohn ist kommen. In Pidoux edn., p. 44. Mus. ms.
22541/2
Herr Gott dich loben alle wir. P 802, p. 138-140.
Herr Jesu Christ du hochstes Guth. In Pidoux edn., p. 55/56.
4.G.14
Herzlich lieb hab ich dich, o Herr. 4.G.14
Ich rufzu dir Herr Jesu Christ. In Pidoux edn., p. 62.
4.G.14
In dich hab ich gehoffet Herr. In Pidoux edn., p. 67 (C
only). Mus. ms. 22541 IS
Jesu Christus unser Heiland. In Pidoux edn., p. 68. Mus.
ms. 22541/ 3
Komm Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott. In Pidoux edn., p. 83 (A,
B, and C). Mus. ms. 22541 /3
Lobt Gott ihr Christen allzugleich. Mus. ms. 22541 /1 and
Mus. ms. 22541/2 (In Pidoux edn., p. 82, A only).
Nun freut euch Gottes Kinder all. In Pidoux edn., p. 89.
Mus. ms. 22541 /3
Nun freut euch lieben Christen gemein. In Pidoux edn., p.
86. 4.G.14
Nun komm der Heiden Heiland. In Pidoux edn., p. 90.
Mus. ms. 22541 !2
0 Jesuleinsiiss, o Jesulein mild! it. 0 Heiliger Geist, o
Heiliger Gott. In Pidoux edn., p. 107. Mus. ms. 22541 /I
Puer natus in Bethlehem. In Pidoux edn., p. 113. Mus. ms.
22541/2
Schonster Immanuel! it. Wer viberwindet. In Pidoux edn.,
p. 115. Mus. ms. 22541/1
Vater unser im Himmelreich. Two separate versions
(verses?) in 4.G.14, p. 103 and 107.
Von Gott will ich nicht lassen. 4.G.14
Von Himmel hoch kamm ich her. In Pidoux edn., p. 124 (A
only). Mus. ms. 22541H and Mus. ms. 22541 /2
Wenn mein Stiindlein vorhanden ist. In Pidoux edn., p.
131. Mus. ms. 22541/3
Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern! In Pidoux edn., p.
142. 4.G.14
Wir glauben all' an einen Gott. In Pidoux edn., p. 146 (B
only). Mus. ms. 22541 /3
Wo Gott zum Haufi nicht giebt. In Pidoux edn., p. 149.
4.G.14

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
299

Keller, Heinrich Michael Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p. 51.
Mus. ms. 22541 /I and Mus. ms. 22541/2
Kellner, Johann Peter Nun dancket alle Gott. 4.G.14
Kirchoff, Gottfried Chorale prelude(s). Ms. 15839
Kniller, Andreas Nun komm der Heiden Heiland. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 88. Mus.
ms. 22541/1 and Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Krebs, Johann Tobias Mack's m it mir, Gott nach deiner Gilt. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9.
Ms. 15839 and 4.G.14
Kuhnau, Johann Ach Herr mich armen Sunder. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister Leipzig (1907), p. 94. 4.G.14
Chorale nrelude(s). Ms. 15839
Leiding, Georg Dietrich Von Gott will ich nicht lafien. Six verses in 4.G.14; 39 bars
only in P 802.
Wie schon leiichtet der Morgenstern. 4.G.14
Chorale prelude(s). Ms. 15839
Liibeck, Vincent Ich rufqu dir Herr Jesu Christ. P 802
Nun last uns Gott den Herrn. In Walther's hand, after cl712
in P 801, p. 357-365.
Pachelbel, Johann [H, J. Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 80.
P., possibly Attributed to Heuschkel in NBA TV/2 Krit. Bericht. Mus.
Heuschkel] ms.2254113
Pachelbel, Johann (?) Allein Gott in der Hoh. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 65. 4.G.14 and
Ms. 15839 (attributed to J[ohann Heinrich] Bfuttstedt])
Pachelbel, Johann (?) Erhalt uns Herr bei deinem Wort, BuxWV Anh. 11. In
DTB IV/i (6), p. 91 and in Georg Bohm: Samtliche
Orgelwerke, ed. by Klaus Beckmann, 1986, Breitkopf &
H&rtel No. 8087, p. 56-7. Attributed to G. B. (Georg Bohm) in
4.G.14, to D. B. (Dieterich Buxtehude) in Ms. 15839, and to
Pachelbel in NBA TV/3 Krit. Bericht (and to Pachelbel or
Buxtehude in Spitta, Bach, I, 205). Considered doubtful as a
work of Buxtehude by Snyder (Dieterich Buxtehude, p. 434).
Pachelbel, Johann Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 59.
4.G.14
Ach Herr, mich armen Siinder. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 61.
4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Ach Herr, mich armen Sunder. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 62.
4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Ach was soil ich Siinder machen, (verse 1, 2,4, 6, 5). In
DTB Il/i (2), p. 26. 4.G.14
Ach wie elend is unsre Zeit [Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu
dir]. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 64. 4.G.14
An Wasserfliifien Babylon. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 73. 4.G.14
and Ms. 15839.
Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 78.
4.G.14
Christe, der du bist Tag und Licht. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 76.
Ms. 15839

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
300

Pachelbel, Johann Christe lag in Todes Banden. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 76. Mus.
ms. 22541/3
Christus der ist mein Leben, two chorale variations from
the first set in Musicalischen Sterbens-Gedancken (1683).
In J T Krebs' hand in P 802.
Der Tag der ist so freudenreich. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 81.
Mus. ms. 22541H and Mus. ms. 2254112
Diji sind di Heiligen Zehen Geboth. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 83.
4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Durch Adams Fall ist gantz verderbt. In DTB IV/i (6), p.
84. 4.G.14
Durch Adams Fall ist gantz verderbt. In DTB IV/i (6), p.
86. 4.G.14 and Ms. 15839 (firts part only).
Erbarm dich mein, o Herre Gott. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 89.
Ms. 15839
Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 93.
4.G.14 andAfs. 15839 (partial).
Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 96.
Anonymous in Mus. ms. 22541/ I and Mus. ms. 2254112.
Gott der Vater wohn uns bei. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 96. 4.G.14
and Ms. 15839.
Gott hat das Evangelium gegeben. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 98.
Mus. ms. 22541/1, Mus. ms. 22541 !2, and 4.G.14
Gott Vater der du deine Sonn. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 99. 4.G.14
and Ms. 15839.
Ich rufzu dir Herr Jesu Christ. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 104.
4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
In dich hab ich gehojfet Herr. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 107.
4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Jesus Christus unser Heiland, der den Tod. In DTB IV/i
(6), p. 108. Mus. ms. 22541/3
Komm Gott Schopffer, Heiliger Geist, (verse 1). In DTB
IV/i (6), p. 112. Anonymous in Mus. ms. 22541 /3.
Komm Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 112.
Anonymous in Mus. ms. 22541 !3.
Mag ich Ungliick nicht widerstahn. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 115.
4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Meine Seele erhebt den Herren. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 116.
First verse only in 4.G.14. Also in Ms. 15839.
Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 118.
Mus. ms. 22541H and Mus. ms. 22541 /2
Nun laPt uns Gott dem Herren. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 119.
Anonymous in Ms. 15839.
Treuer Gott, ich muP dir klagen, no. 4 from Musikalischen
Sterbens-Gedanken (1683). In DTB IV/i (6), p. 147. Ms.
15839.
Vater unser im Himmelreich. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 125.
4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout permission.
301

Pachelbel, Johann Von Himmel hoch da komm ich her. In DTB IV/i (6), p.
128. Mus. ms. 22541 t l
Warum betriibst du dich mein Hertz. In DTB IV/i (6), p.
132. 4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Warum betrttbst du dich mein Hertz. In DTB IV/i (6), p.
132. 4.G.14, Ms. 15839, and in the Eckelt book (Mus. ms.
40035).
Wets Gott thut das ist wohl gethan, chorale variation no. 4
from the fourth set in Musicalischen Sterbens-Gedancken
(1683). In J T Krebs' hand in P 802.
Wenn mein Stundlein vorhanden ist. In DTB IV/i (6), p.
135. 4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Wenn wir in Hochsten Nothen sein. In DTB IV/i (6), p.
137. 4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt, (verse 1). In DTB IV/i
(6), p. 143, no. 68. Anonymous in 4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt, (verse 2). In DTB IV/i
(6), p. 143, no. 69. Anonymous in 4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Wo Gott zum Haufi nicht gibt. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 145.
Anonymous in 4.G.14
Wo Gott zum Hau/3 nicht gibt. In DTB IV/i (6), p. 146.
4.G.14 and Ms. 15839.
Pachelbel, Wilhelm Meine Seele la/3 es gehen, chorale fantasia. P 802
Hieronymus
0 Lamb Gottes unschuldig. P 802
Reinken, Johann Adam Was kann uns kommen an fur Not. In Joh. Adam
Reincken: Samtliche Orgelwerke, ed. by Klaus Beckmann
(Breitkopf & Hartel no. 6714), p. 22-33. P 802
Scheidemantel? [F. C. S. Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her. Mus. ms. 2254112
M.]
Scheidemantel, [F.] Meinen Jesum lap ich nicht. 4.G.14
Christian
Strunck, Delphin Lass mich dein sein und bleiben. In Karl Straube, Alte
Meister: Eine Sammlung deutscher Orgelkompositionen
aus dem 17. und 18. Jh. (Leipzig, 1904), Edition Peters 3065,
p. 98. Mus. ms. 22541/3
Meine Seele erhebt den Herren. In Karl Straube,
Choralvorspiele alter Meister (Leipzig, 1907) Edition Peters
3048, p. 127. Mus. ms. 22541/3
Strungk, Nicolaus Adam Ich dancke dir schon durch. 4.G.14
Chorale prelude(s). Ms. 15839
Telemann, Georg Philipp Christ lag in Todes Banden. Mus. ms. 22541 /3
Erschienen is der herrliche Tag. Mus. ms. 22541/3
Herrzlich thut mich verlangen. In W. Volckmar, Orgel-
Archiv Braunschweig , Vol. 3, Chorales, p. 15. Mus. ms.
22541/3
Komm, heilger Geist, Herre Gott, TWV 31:5. Mus. ms.
2254113 and 4.G.14.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
302

Telemann, Georg Philipp Komm, heilger Geist, Herre Gott, TWV 31:6. Mus. ms.
22541/3 and 4.G.14.
Nun freut euch liben Christen gemein. 4.G.14
Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, TWV 31:49. Mus. ms.
22541/2, p. 12.
Ulich, Johann Weltlich Ehr und Zeitlich Guth. Nun danket alle Gott.
4.G.14
Vetter, Andreas Nicolaus Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein. 4.G.14
Allein Gott in der Hoh sei Ehr. 4.G.14
Christ lag in Todes Banden. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p. 86.
Mus. ms. 22541/3, p. 124.
Christ lag in Todes Banden. Mus. ms. 22541 !3, p. 123. Also
in Johann Christoph Bach's (1673-1727) hand in LM4983.
Jesus Christus unser Heiland. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p. 87.
Mus. ms. 22541 /3
Komm Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p.
88. Mus. ms. 22541 !3
Lobt Gott ihr Christen allzugleich. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p.
91. Mus. ms. 22541/1 and Mus. ms. 22541/2
Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland. Mus. ms. 22541H and
Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Chorale prelude(s). Ms. 15839
Vogler, Johann Kaspar Jesu Leiden Pein und Todt. In J. T. Krebs' hand in P 802.
Weckmann, Matthias Ach wir armen Siinder. P 802
Witt, Christian Friedrich Herr Christ der einig Gottes Sohn. Attributed to J. P. in Ms.
(?) 15839, p. 105. The same work as below?
Witt, Christian Friedrich Herr Christ der einig Gottes Sohn. In EDM, RD, R. I, 9, p.
95. Mus. ms. 22541 /1 and Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Zachow, Friedrich Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein. In DDT 21/22, p. 337.
W ilhelm 4.G.14
Allein zu dir Herr Jesu Christ. In DDT 21/22, p. 339. 4.G.14
Aufmeinen lieben Gott. In DDT 21/22, p. 341. 4.G.14
Christ unser Herr zum Jordan Kam. In DDT 21/22, p. 344.
4.G.14
Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt. In DDT 21/22, p. 344.
Mus. ms. 22541 !3
Erbarm dich mein o Herre Gott. In DDT 21/22, p. 345.
4.G.14
Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. In DDT 21/22, p. 347.
4.G.14
Ich rufzu dir Herr Jesu Christ. In DDT 21/22, p. 348. 4.G.14
In dich hab ich gehoffet Herr. In DDT 21/22, p. 353. 4.G.14
In dulci Jubilo. In DDT 21/22, p. 353. Mus. ms. 22541 /1 and
Mus. ms. 22541 !2
Komm Gott Schopffer, Heiliger Geist, (verse 1). In DDT
21/22, p. 354. Mus. ms. 22541/3
Komm Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott. In DDT 21/22, p. 354.
Mus. ms. 22541 !3

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
303

Zachow, Friedrich Komm Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott. In DDT 21/22, p. 355.
W ilhelm Mus. ms. 2254113
Mit Fried un Freud ich fahr' dahin. In DDT 21/22, p. 357.
Mus. ms. 22541 /1 and Mus. ms. 2254112
Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland. In DDT 21/22, p. 357.
Mus. ms. 22541 /1
Vater unser im Himmelreich. In DDT 21/22, p. 361. 4.G.14
Von Himmel hoch da komm ich her. In DDT 21/22, p. 361.
Mus. ms. 2254112
Was mein Gott will. In DDT 21/22, p. 364. 4.G.14
Wenn mein Stiindlein vorhanden ist. In DDT 21/22, p. 365.
4.G.14
Wer Gott vertraut. In DDT 21/22, p. 366. 4.G.14
Wir christen Leut. In DDT 21/22, p. 366. Mus. ms. 22541 /1
and Mus. ms. 2254112
Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt. In DDT 21/22, p. 368.
4.G.14
Chorale prelude(s). Ms. 15839

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
304

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ackerman, James S. "A Theory of Style," Journal o f Aesthetics and Art
Criticism, 20 (1962), p. 228.

Aldrich, Putnam Caldar. Ornamentation in J. S. Bach's Organ Works.
New York: Coleman-Ross Co. Inc., 1950. 61 p.
---------------- "Bach'sTechnique of Transcription and Improvised
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"The Interpretation of Bach's Trills," The Musical Quarterly,
49 (July, 1963), p. 289-310.

"The Principal agrements of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth
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Anthony, James R. "Lully. (1) Jean-Baptiste Lully [Lulli, Giovanni
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Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel and Johann Friedrich Agricola. Obituary of
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Life o f Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. Edited by
Hans T. David and Arthur Mendel. New York: Norton & Co., 1945.
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-------------- Letter to Forkel, Hamburg, January 13, 1775. B Dok III, no.
803, Translated by Arthur Mendel in The Bach Reader: A Life of
Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. Edited by Hans T.
David and Arthur Mendel. New York: Norton & Co., 1945. Revised,
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Bach, Johann Sebastian. Clavier-Biichlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
(begun in Cothen, 1720). Facsimile edition, New Haven: R.
Kirkpatrick, 1959.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
305

--------------- Johann Sebastian Bach: Neue Ausgabe sam tlicher Werke.
Edited by the Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Institute (Gottingen) and the
Bach-Institute (Leipzig). Kassel: Barenreiter, 1954--.
— Johann Sebastian Bach's Werke. Edited by the Bach-
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Beardsley, Monroe C. Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy o f Criticism.
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BeiBwenger, Kirsten. "Bachs Eingriffe in Werke fremder Komponisten.
Beobachtungen an den Notenhandschriften aus seiner Bibliothek
unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der lateinischen
Kirchenmusik," in Bach-Jahrbuch, vol. 77 (1991), p. 127-158.
Blankenburg, Walther. "Eckelt, Johann Valentin," in Die Musik in
Geschichte und Gegenwart. Edited by Friedrich Blume. Kassel:
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