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5/21/2018 – 6/17/2018




2) INDEX. 2





(2G NETWORK). 30


The internship at BSNL Gwalior was a very enriching experience for me personally. I came abreast
with the technologies existing in the market today, which added volumes to my knowledge. The
usage OFC has revolutionized communication to a large extent which was previously unheard of.
Apart from this, I was also introduced to upcoming technologies which might come into industrial
use by the time I get into field work. I am confident that this exposure will help me stay ahead in my
near future.
I would like to thank all the faculties for taking their precious time and teaching me all the various
topics of the above discussion. They were extremely patient and gladly cleared doubts which rose in
our minds. Their constant motivation and urging to make us ask questions was extremely delightful
to see. None of the faculties were difficult to approach.
Altogether, it was an extremely educational journey filled with lots of amazing stuff. I thank you
once again for such a brilliant insight that you have provided me with, to cherish and help me in my
Introduction to BSNL
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) is an Indian state-owned telecommunications company
headquartered in New Delhi. It was incorporated on 15 September 2000 and took over the business
of providing of telecom services and network management from the erstwhile Central Government
Departments of Telecom Services (DTS) and Telecom Operations (DTO), with effect from
1 October 2000 on a going concern basis.

It is the largest provider of fixed telephony and broadband services with more than 60% market
share and Fifth largest mobile telephony provider in India. However, in recent years the company's
revenues and market share have plummeted down due to intense competition in the Indian
telecommunications sector. BSNL is India's oldest communication service provider and had a
customer base of 93.29 million as of June 2015.It has footprints throughout India except
for Mumbai and New Delhi.
We now move on towards our field of study and work experience at BSNL, Gwalior.
Part A (OFC)
Introduction to the telephone and related terminologies
In our telephone networks, transmission lines play a very crucial role. Initially twisted copper cable
pairs were used for telephone transmission. But with the advent of optical fiber cables, the game has
changed totally and they have completely rendered the copper cable pairs out of use. Though optical
fiber cables have many advantages, as will be discussed in a later section, the chief reason for this
technique to obtain popularity is the fact that it has an infinite bandwidth, much more than offered by
the twisted copper cable pairs. The only problem is with our transmission and receiver systems,
which can use only up to a certain amount of the available bandwidth.
Now, transmission systems are of two types, namely:

1. Wired transmission systems.
2. Wireless transmission systems.
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards for
simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the
traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988. Prior to
ISDN, the telephone system was viewed as a way to transport voice. The key feature of ISDN is that
it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic
telephone system.

Multiplexing: In telecommunication, multiplexing refers to combining of many incoming signals
into one signal for transmission purposes. The figure below gives a very basic idea of what
multiplexing actually is.

Fig2: Example of Multiplexing and De-multiplexing

The following table tells us the different types of multiplexing techniques available:
Fig3: Types of Multiplexing Techniques

Network topologies: A network topology is the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and
connecting lines. The physical topology of a network is the actual geometric layout of workstations.
There are several common physical topologies, as shown below in the illustration:

Fig4: Types of Network Topologies

PCM: Pulse Code Modulation, in telecommunication a bandwidth of 2.048Mbps is referred to as 1
PCM. On 1 PCM, we can accommodate a maximum of 32 users, each user being allocated a
bandwidth of 64 Kbps. However, in reality, only 30 lines are actually allocated to the users, the
remaining 2 lines are kept for network synchronization.
Why only a 64 Kbps Line?
The human voice of speech generally varies between the frequencies of 300 Hz – 4000 Hz.

So, by Nyquist theorem, the sampling frequency required to sample the voice for regeneration is
twice the maximum frequency, i.e., 4000x2 = 8000 Hz.

Now, each sample is quantized into 8 bits. So our necessary bandwidth becomes = 8x8000 =
64000bits/s = 64 Kbps.

Advantage of TDM over FDM?
In FDM, the available bandwidth is divided for use by the users. So the users can get the available
bandwidth for the entire time duration. However, this division leads to bandwidth wastage and hence
is disadvantageous. On the other hand, in TDM, the entire bandwidth is available for usage, however
multiple users are accommodated by allocating them specific equal time slots.

In the 64 Kbps line, each user gets a time slot of 3.9 us. The calculations leading to it are shown
Sampling frequency = 8000 Hz.
Time period = 1/ (Sampling Frequency) = 1/8000 = 125 us.
No. of users = 32.
Time slot of one user = 125us/32 = 3.9 us.
Optical Fiber Cable (OFC)
It is a technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic
cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages
modulated onto light waves.
Advantages of OFC are:

1. As compared to microwaves, OFC has a very large bandwidth.
2. No earthing is required for OFC.
3. These are very low loss lines (Standard BSNL specification is 0.3 dB/Km loss).
4. It is secure, tapping of OFC is not possible.
5. The cables are light weight.
6. OFC has electromagnetic immunity, outside electromagnetic waves do not cause any
interference to it.

There are two divisions of OFC, namely:
1. Based on transmission mode:
a. Single mode fiber: This type of fiber can accommodate only one light signal at a
b. Multimode fiber: This type of fiber can accommodate multiple light signals

Fig5: Single Mode and Multimode fiber.
2. Based on core-cladding organization:
a. Step index fiber.
b. Graded index fiber.

Fig6: Step Index Fiber.

Fig7: graded Index Fiber.

Which type of fiber is used by BSNL?
BSNL makes use of single mode fibers only.

Multimode fibers cannot be used for long distance communication, why?
Multimode fibers can accommodate multiple light signals simultaneously through it. However, these
multiple light signals when sent over long distances undergo dispersion and it becomes difficult to
segregate them at the receiver end. Hence, these fibers are not used for long distance communication.

The following diagram is a graphical representation of an OFC:
Fig8: Cross Sectional View of an OFC.

The different parts inside an OFC are:

1. Core: It is the inner glass layer through which light passes. Its refractive index is kept around
1.47. Its diameter is kept at around 8 – 10 um.
2. Cladding: It is the outer glass layer which help to cause total internal reflection (TIR). Its
refractive index is kept around 1.46. Generally the cladding’s refractive index is kept 1% less
than the core. Its diameter is kept around 125 – 150 um.
3. Buffer: The buffer consists of the primary and secondary coatings. These do not take part in
total internal reflection, however it provides mechanical strength to the OFC.
4. Strength member: This too gives firmness to the cable, made up of Kevlar, FRP (Fiber
reinforced plastic), GRP (Glass fiber reinforced plastic) or Aramid yarn.
5. Jacket: This is the outer covering of the cable. This also provides mechanical strength to the
OFC has several parameters which need to be kept in mind before being used for industrial

1. Wavelengths: This refers to the wavelengths of the light signals that will be used for
sending the signals across the cables. These wavelengths are important because
knowledge of these help in proper transmission and reception of the light signals.
2. Frequencies: The frequency of a light signal is related to its wavelength by the relation,
(wavelength = speed of light / frequency). So whenever wavelength of light is taken into
consideration, correspondingly its frequency is also taken into account.
3. Refractive Indices: The refractive indices of the core and cladding play an important role
in the OFC. The cladding refractive index (1.46) is kept at 1% less than the core refractive
index (1.47). This helps in proper occurrence of total internal reflection.
4. Attenuation: It is the gradual loss in intensity of a signal (here, in our case, light signal
intensity) as it is sent across a medium (here, OFC). At BSNL, the maximum permissible
attenuation is 0.3 dB/Km. Higher attenuation results in a higher bit error rate (BER) and
subsequently, data transmission speeds fall down. This causes customer dissatisfaction
and is a cause of turn down in company revenues. Attenuation can occur chiefly due to
two reasons, namely:-
i. Intrinsic causes: It occurs due to impurities in the glass material of the core and
cladding. These impurities obstruct the incoming light signal and result in loss of
the signal.
ii. Extrinsic causes: It occurs due to bending as this generates difficulty in proper
occurrence of TIR. As a rule of thumb, OFC is never bent, extra cables (length)
are rolled into circular coils and kept in CT (cable termination) boxes. These too
result in loss of signal.
5. Window: This refers to the range of light wavelengths across which the fiber is made to
operate at the industrial level. The attenuation is extremely low at these wavelength
ranges. There are generally three such ranges:
i. 800 – 900 nm window: The actual wavelength of working is 850 nm.
ii. 1250 – 1350 nm window: The actual wavelength of working is 1300 nm.
iii. 1500 – 1600 nm window: The working value is 1550 nm.

The b and c bands are further divided into these sub-bands (O, E, S, C, L and U BANDS):

i. Original (O): The range is 1260 – 1360 nm.
ii. Extended (E): The range is from 1360 – 1460 nm.
iii. Standard (S): The range is from 1460 – 1530 nm.
iv. Conventional (C): The range is from 1530 – 1565 nm.
v. Long (L): The range is from 1565 – 1620 nm.
vi. Ultra long (U): The range is from 1625 – 1675 nm.
6. Dispersion: As per definition, dispersion is called the spreading of a light pulse travelling
through an optical waveguide. In OFC, the multimode fibers suffer from multimode-
dispersion when used for data transmission over long distances. This is because if two
light signals are sent simultaneously which have very closely related values of
wavelength then at the receiving end the signals tend to mix up due to dispersion. This
makes segregation of the signals difficult and results in signal loss. So only selected
wavelengths can be sent. This results in bandwidth limiting. In OFC, there are three types
of dispersion, namely:
i. Modal dispersion.
ii. Material dispersion.
iii. Waveguide dispersion.

To minimize this issue, we use the following techniques:

i. Dispersion decreasing fibers. Here the rate of chromatic dispersion is constant
along the propagation length and this helps to identify the signals at the receiver
ii. Operation in which the dispersion of a pulse is very less limits the distance
between repeaters in optical systems. This is referred to as dispersion limited
operation of the OFC. Other limitation techniques are bandwidth limited
operation and attenuation limited operation.
iii. Modules which have the opposite dispersion of the fiber are used in the
transmission system. It is used to nullify the dispersion caused by that fiber. It can
be either a spool of a special fiber or a grating based module. This is called a
DCM (dispersion compensating module).

Waveguide and Material Dispersion can make recognition of a pulse impossible.

7. Bandwidth: This refers to the maximum number of users which can be accommodated
by the transmission systems using the OFC. The standard bandwidth used in practice is
155 Mbps.

How is connection cuts detected in OFC?
For checking this, we send a test signal across the fiber. If there is an actual cut, most of the light
goes out but a small fraction gets reflected at the interface and returns back to the source. This
reflected light is measured and the time taken for the light to reach back is helps to estimate the
length at which the OFC has been damaged. For this, a device called OTDR (Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer) is used.
What is a local loopback test?
A loopback test is a test in which a signal in sent from a communications device and returned
(looped back) to it as a way to determine whether the device is working right or as a way to pin down
a failing node in a network. The diagram below is used for illustration purposes:

Fig9: Local Loopback Test Illustration.
Practical hands-on session on OFC
The following diagram is an OFC, with outer jackets removed for demonstrative purposes.

Fig10: An OFC.

Here, we were introduced as to how we join two OFC using an arc fusion splicer machine. The
device used for the demonstration was the Fujikura Arc Fusion Splicer (Model FSM-50S). Its official
price is around 19,900$ (13 lakh approx. in INR) as given in the official website:

Fig11: Fujikura Arc Fusion Splicer.

The following steps are involved in the procedure to join two OFC:
1) The outer jackets of the two wires are stripped to surface the core and cladding. A specially
designed wire stripper is used for this purpose.
Fig12: An OFC Wire Stripper with marked Teeth for Core, Cladding and

2) The stripped ends are cleaned with a cloth dipped in isopropyl alcohol (cleaning agent).

Fig13: Isopropyl Alcohol (Cleaning Agent).

3) The ends are measured to be 6 mm in length. This is done by a cutting instrument called the
high precision cleaver, whose diagram is illustrated below:
Fig14: High Precision Cleaver.

4) The two core ends are placed in the arc fusion splicer and the setup is closed. The device
melts the two core ends and joins them in the molten state. Then it is allowed to cool down.
On cooling down the two wires become as one. All this takes a few seconds.

Fig15: The Arc Fusion Splicer in action.

5) Once joined, the machine also tells us the loss expected at the new joint in dB. If it exceeds
the maximum permissible loss, it can be re-melted and joined again till the loss is within
permissible limits.
6) The joins are placed in plates designed for keeping these joins safe and secure. These plates
are then placed inside capsules. This makes the cable ready to be placed underground.
Fig16: Plastic Plate for Keeping Joined Wires.

Fig17: Capsule to Keep the Plastic Plate (Company Name is given for

7) This completes the process.
Optical Fiber Systems (OFS)
These are basically of three types:
1) PDH: Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy. This technology was earlier used in telecommunications
networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fiber
optic and microwave radio systems. The term plesiochronous is derived from Greek plēsios, meaning
near, and chronos, time, and refers to the fact that PDH networks run in a state where different
parts of the network are nearly, but not perfectly synchronized.

There were three PDH systems developed with different hierarchy levels. These were developed
by the Europeans, Americans and the Japanese independently. Their bit rates are mentioned in
the table below:

Table1: PDH System Bit Rate Chart.

The European standard for PDH is shown in the diagram below:

Fig18: The European Standard for PDH System.
The 2.048 Mbps line caters to 32 lines. Out of these, 30 lines are given to users and called VFC
(voice frequency carriers). The remaining two are used for synchronization and signaling
The following table gives the details about the user capacity for this model:

Bandwidth User Capacity
2.048 Mbps 30
8 Mbps 120
34 Mbps 480
140 Mbps 1,920
565 Mbps 7,680

Table2: User Capacity for the European PDH System.

Which PDH standard is adopted in India?
India has adopted the European system of PDH.

What are some common problems in PDH system?
The PDH system is not perfectly synchronized. There are individual clocks to take care of the
signal timing. This causes many problems like:

a. Call drop.
b. Buzzing sounds.
c. Wrong number dialing scenarios.
d. Voice echo.
Also, the topology is single line, which leads to communication breakage issues.

2) SDH: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are
standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical
fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). At low
transmission rates data can also be transferred via an electrical interface. The method was
developed to replace the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting large
amounts of telephone calls and data traffic over the same fiber with perfect synchronization.
Each hierarchy level in this system is called a STM (Synchronous Transport Module). The user
capacity table for the different levels are shown below in the table:

Hierarchy Level Bandwidth User Capacity
STM 1 155.52 Mbps 1,890
STM 4 622.08 Mbps 7,560
STM 16 2.5 Gbps 30,240
STM 64 10 Gbps 1,20,960

Table3: SDH System User Capacity Model.

Here, STM 1 has 63 channels, each channel is a 2.048 Mbps line having 30 VFCs.

3) DWDM: In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a
technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical
fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light. This technique
enables bidirectional communications over one strand of fiber, as well as multiplication of
capacity. The term wavelength-division multiplexing is commonly applied to an optical
carrier, which is typically described by its wavelength, whereas frequency-division
multiplexing typically applies to a radio carrier which is more often described by frequency.
This is purely convention because wavelength and frequency communicate the same

In this system, there are two types:

1) ZTE: It is a 32 channel system, each channel being a STM 16. Its total capacity is 9,
67,680 users. It was developed by China.
2) UTE: It is an upgraded version of ZTE, having 40 channels per system. Each channel is a
STM 16. Its total capacity is 12 lakh users approx. It was developed in India.

In MP Telecom Circle, currently the ZTE are installed which were imported from China back in
2008 – 2009. However, in Gwalior, City Center Exchange, the ZTE have been replaced by the UTE.
The total conversion from ZTE to UTE is still in progress. The UTE systems are more space
efficient, being taller and slimmer than the ZTE version. This makes installation of many systems in
a confined room easier.

Where is the synchronization clock signal for SDH system generated in India?
It is generated in Bangalore and distributed to all parts of India through a single dedicated line.
Next generation network (NGN) and IP-TAX
IP-TAX stands for Internet Protocol based Trans Automatic Exchanges.
A Next Generation Networks (NGN) is a packet-based network able to provide Telecommunication
Services to users and able to make use of multiple broadband, Quality of Service (QoS) enabled
transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent of the underlying
transport-related technologies.

The diagram below is an illustration of the NGN architecture:

Fig19: NGN Architecture.
The 4 layers in NGN are:
1) Access layer.
2) Transport layer.
3) Control layer.
4) Service layer.

The NGN is such that any service function can be provided by the router itself. Here MLPS
(Multiprotocol Level Switching) technique is employed. Each layer interacts with the other layers
through gateways.
The media gateway interacts with the media gateway controller by the H.248/Magaco protocol.
The media gateways interact with each other via the RTP (Real Time Protocol).
The media gateway controllers interact with each other via the SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).
The conversion from TDM to IP and vice versa is controlled by the signaling gateway.

“IP TAX is the first step towards the Evolution of Current Generation Network to Next generation
Network”. In other words IP TAX is the replacement of existing Level –I TAX exchanges to IP
based network (Packet switching network) and rest all the network still remaining circuit switched
network. Presently IP TAX will be installed in parallel to the Lev-I /Lev-II TAX and then it will
replace circuit switched TAX completely with IP TAX. And it comes under class4 NGN.
The IP-TAX architecture of BSNL is depicted below:

Fig20: IP-TAX Architecture of BSNL.
Basic elements are:
1) Soft Switch.
2) Signaling gate way.
3) Trunk Media Gateway.

Functions of Soft Switch (or Call Agent or Telephony Server or Media Gateway Controller) are:
1) Based upon Open Architecture.
2) Provide all existing services available in TDM network.
3) Performs Media Gateway Control Function.
4) Performs Call control, signaling and interworking, Traffic measurement and recording
5) Provides Addressing, Analysis, routing and charging facilities.
6) Interacts with Application Server to supply services not hosted on Softswitch.

Functions of Signaling Gateway are:
1) Provides interworking function between SS7 network and IP network.
2) This involves providing various types of User Adaptations so that the SS7 signaling can be
terminated in SGW and can be translated and messages transported over IP Network.
3) Performs Packetization of signaling and ensures its transport through IP network.

Functions of Trunk Media Gateway are:
1) Voice encoding & Compression.
2) Packetization of voice channels.
3) CNF (Comfort Noise Generation).
4) VAD (Voice Activity Detection).
5) Echo Cancellation.
6) May provide the edge functionality and act as CE.

Announcement server performs the function of giving the announcements as per requirements in the
Power supply systems
To operate the systems at BSNL, a dedicated power supply system is maintained so that the
communication network is online 24x7 for uninterrupted service. The systems in use require a
DC voltage of -48V. To generate this from the incoming AC supply, there is an equipment called
SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply) which is used.
SMPS: A switched-mode power supply (SMPS) is an electronic circuit that converts power
using switching devices that are turned on and off at high frequencies, and storage components
such as inductors or capacitors to supply power when the switching device is in its non-
conduction state.

Also, apart from the SMPS, there is a pair of batteries which are kept charged constantly to act as
backup in case of power failures. The batteries have the following specifications:
1) These are VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead Acid) type of batteries, which do not require
distilled water refilling.
2) Each battery provides 2V.
3) There are 24 batteries connected in series to get -48V. There are 2 such sets.
4) These VRLA batteries have a life of around 2 years, however due to field use they
generally need to be replaced around every 6-7 months.

Fig21: VRLA Grid Setup.

Battery calculation:
Load (W) x backup time (hr) = Voltage (V) x Ampere-Hour rating (Ah) x No. of cells.
Part B (Wireless)
BSNL Value Added Services (VAS) and introduction to WIFI
VAS is basically of two types:
1) Push type: These services are pushed from the company side towards the users. These
services include bills, memos, data sheets and call history among others.
2) Pull type: These services are provided to the users as per their request/demand. These
services include cricket score, horoscopes, news and thought of the day among others.

Fig22: BSNL VAS Examples.

WIFI: WIFI stands for wireless fidelity. The WIFI follows the 802. 11 IEEE standard. Its
operating frequency spectrum are the 2.4 GHz ISM (Industry, Scientific and Medical Band) and
the 5 GHz bands. It is of three types:
1) 802. 11 b: It operates in the 2.4 GHz band and speed is 11 Mbps.
2) 802. 11 g: It operates in the 2.4 GHz band and speed is 54 Mbps.
3) 802.11 a: It operates in the 5 GHz band and speed is 54 Mbps.

It uses RJ45 (Registered Jack) cables for connection and require a modem for communication.
There are three types of RJ45 cables:
1) Cat5: Speeds up to 100Mbps.
2) Cat5E (Category 5 Enhanced): Speeds up to 1 Gbps.
3) Cat6: Speeds up to 10Gbps.
Benefits of WIFI:
1) Mobility to the user.
2) Installation process is simple and quick.
3) Very simple to use.
4) Cost of implementation is very less when we calculate the average cost per user.
5) Installation is flexible.
6) Omnidirectional antennae provides connectivity in all directions.
7) It can support multiple users simultaneously.

Fig23: BSNL Modem.

WiMax: This is an upgraded version of WIFI. The main problem with WIFI is that walls absorb
the electromagnetic radiations emitted by the WIFI. These reduce the reach of WIFI drastically.
The WiMax technology overcomes this problem to a large extent. The WiMax protocol is 802.16
under IEEE standards.
It operates in the 3.3 – 3.4 GHz band. So its usage is not free and needs to be bought from the
Govt. before installation. This adds to the cost of implementation.
Another problem with WiMax technology is that the available equipment (CPE (Customer
Premises Equipment)) is not user friendly. It is very bulky and difficult to handle. Due to this
reason, this technology is not very popular.
Fig24: BSNL WiMax Equipment.
Mobile communication, GSM system (2G network)
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile) is a standard
developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols
for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, first deployed in
Finland in December 1991.
2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, and the
GSM standard originally described as a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full
duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-
switched transport, then by packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services)
and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, or EGPRS).
It works in the 900 MHz band, with downlink frequency band of 935 – 960 MHz and uplink
frequency band of 890 – 915 MHz.
For setting up GSM communication system, we need to obtain channels each with a bandwidth of
200 kHz which are provided to the customers. Next, we need to divide the region of coverage into
cells and distribute the channels accordingly such that no two adjacent cells have the same channel
bandwidth. This system is applied to the entire area. Then each cell gets a Tower (Antenna). All
these towers are called BTS (Base Transceiver system). All these BTS are connected to BSC (Base
Station Controller). The BSC are in turn connected to a MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) which
forms a network.
The MSC creates communication paths between the users.

Fig25: 2G Architecture.
The user information is stored in HLR unit. It is connected via WAN and can receive updates from
wherever the network is accessible.
Mobile Number Format: The mobile number is a 10 digit code which has the following breakup:
CC+NDC+SERIAL NO. +91 88762 38157.
CC: Country Code. 91.
NDC: Network Destination Code. 88762.
SERIAL NO.: Serial number of user. 28157.
For data purposes, BSC has a PCU (Packet Control Unit) attached to it. The data speeds are low.
Maximum data bandwidth is 128 kBps. EDGE (Enhanced GPRS) can provide speeds up to 384
Modulating techniques like PSK (Phase Shift Keying) and GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift
Keying) are used in it.
CDMA system overview (3G network)
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access is used for 3G network. In this, the entire available
bandwidth is used simultaneously. The signals are coded and the device picks up only the signal
whose code it knows.
Features of CDMA:
1) Advanced communication equipment.
2) Spread spectrum principle.
3) Anti-jam and secured.
4) Large capacity.
5) Optimum power per cell.
6) Seamless handoff.
7) Less call drop.
8) Frequency reuse.

There are two CDMA principles:
1) Frequency hopping.
2) Direct spread.

Shannon’s channel capacity relation is:
C = W log (1+S/N). C=capacity, W=bandwidth, S/N=Signal to noise ratio.
Its bandwidth per channel is 1.25 MHz.

The BER maintained is 10-3, power maintained at 11 dB for voice.
The BER maintained is 10-6, power maintained at 11 dB for data.

The IS-95 standards are employed for 3G CDMA, whose specifications are stated below:
1) Spreading rate: The rate achieved here is 1.2288 Mcps (Mega chips per second).

9.6 Kbps – encoding (FEC (Forward error correction)) – 19.2 Ksps x spreading code (64 bit)
1.2288 Mcps.

2) Frequency Band: There are two links:
a. Reverse link: 824 – 849 MHz.
b. Forward link: 869 – 894 MHz.
3) Different channels: Forward link and reverse links have different channels, namely:
a. Forward link:
i. Pilot channel (W0): It is used to check signal power.
ii. Sync. Channel (W32): It is used for timing, System ID, Network ID, Cell ID,
copy of longpn code, paging channel information.
iii. Paging channel (W1-W7): To receive calls.
iv. Traffic channel (W8-W31, W33-W63): For voice and data.
b. Reverse link:
i. Access channels: To acknowledge detection.
ii. Traffic channels: For voice and data.

Why two different traffic channels are provided?
It is because the forward link uses Welsh code while the reverse link uses longpn code.

4) Different codes: There are three types of codes used, namely:
a. Welsh code.
b. Longpn code.
c. Shortpn code.

Welsh code Longpn code Shortpn code
64 codes each of 64 bit 2 bit length characteristic Used to differentiate and
length. polynomial. identify cells and sectors.
Used to identify channel in Used to identify channel in 215 bit length characteristic
forward link. reverse link. polynomial.
All the codes are orthogonal Along with ESN, by XORing
to each other. used to generate UAM (User
Address Mask).

Table4: Differences between the Codes.

26.67 ms time is required to generate one longn code. Hence no two devices can have the same
longpn code.
5) Power controlling: It is of three types-
a. Open loop power control: It is used by the mobile in idle mode.
b. Inner loop power control: BTS instructs this threshold level to the mobile.
c. Outer loop power control: It is for BTS to segregate between nearby and faraway
users and help in their proper connectivity.

The following diagram illustrates the CDMA 2000x1 architecture:

Fig26: CDMA 2000x1 Architecture.

The abbreviations in the above diagram are expanded below:
1) RAN: Radio Access Network.
2) CSCN: Circuit Switched Core Network.
3) PSCN: Packet Switched Core Network.
4) PDSN: Packet Data Serving Node.
5) PCF: Packet Control Function.
6) HA: Home Agent.
7) FA: Foreign Agent.
8) AAA: Authentication, Authorization, Accounting.
9) AT: Access Terminal.
Introduction to 4G network
4G is the fourth generation of mobile telecommunications technology, succeeding 3G. A 4G system
must provide capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential and current applications
include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile
TV, video conferencing, and 3D television.
The first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard (a 4G candidate system) has been
commercially deployed in Oslo, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden since 2009. It has, however, been
debated whether first-release versions should be considered 4G, as discussed in the technical
understanding section below.
In the field of mobile communications, a "generation" generally refers to a change in the
fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak
bit rates, new frequency bands, wider channel frequency bandwidth in Hertz, and higher capacity for
many simultaneous data transfers (higher system spectral efficiency in bit/second/Hertz/site).
New mobile generations have appeared about every ten years since the first move from 1981 analog
(1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G multi-media
support, spread spectrum transmission and, at least, 200 kbit/s peak bit rate, in 2011/2012 to be
followed by "real" 4G, which refers to all-Internet Protocol (IP) packet-switched networks giving
mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access.
While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that would be used for future global
communications, they do not actually perform the standardization or development work themselves,
instead relying on the work of other standard bodies such as IEEE, The Wi MAX Forum, and 3GPP.
In the mid-1990s, the ITU-R standardization organization released the IMT-2000 requirements as a
framework for what standards should be considered 3G systems, requiring 200 kbit/s peak bit rate. In
2008, ITU -R specified the IMT - Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced)
requirements for 4G systems.
The fastest 3G-based standard in the UMTS family is the HSPA+ standard, which is commercially
available since 2009 and offers 28 Mbit/s downstream (22 Mbit/s upstream) without MIMO, i.e. only
with one antenna, and in 2011 accelerated up to 42 Mbit/s peak bit rate downstream using either DC-
HSPA+ (simultaneous use of two 5 MHz UMTS carriers) or 2x2 MIMO. In theory speeds up to 672
Mbit/s are possible, but have not been deployed yet. The fastest 3G-based standard in
the CDMA2000 family is the EV-DO Rev. B, which is available since 2010 and offers 15.67 Mbit/s
Visit to the Achelashwar exchange, BSNL, Gwalior
This is a pictorial representation of the various systems actively in use for the BSNL 3G network in
the MP Telecom Circle. The 3G systems were commissioned on 29th June, 2009.

Fig27: The Electrical to Light Signal Converter.

Fig28: An OFC with the user details marked.
Fig29: A radio Network Controller (RNC).

Fig30: A Media Gateway (MGW).
Fig31: The Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) for MP Telecom Circle.

Fig32: The Mobile Switching Centre (MSC).
Fig33: The Server Network with Labelled Parts.

Fig34: 0 dB Cable Connectors.
Internship at BSNL was a very enriching experience. I got to know how the
communication system works and what are the components in making a phone call
happen. I got to learn about 2G networks and 3G networks and also got the
opportunity to learn about the differences among CDMA,TDMA, FDMA and also got
to learn about their architecture. I learnt about the Optical Fiber Systems (OFS) and
why they are used in our communication system widely. I also got the chance to learn
about the NGN architecture which is widely used in nowadays. I did an in depth
learning about Wi-Fi and about the VAS services. I got the chance to visit the BSNL
telephone exchange to see how those things are connected and how they work
practically. There they explained what is the purpose of which component and how do
they behave in unison. So, to conclude I would like to say that internship to BSNL was
a great opportunity for me as I got a chance to know more about my core field which
will help me more to apply my theoretical knowledge in a practical scenario.