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8711717

Entsminger, Deen Edward

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS DESIGNED TO TEACH FUNDAMENTALS OF CHORAL
ARRANGING

The Florida State University ■ Ph.D. 1987

University
Microfilms
International 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106

Copyright 1987
by
Entsminger, Deen Edward
All Rights Reserved

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THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF MUSIC

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF

PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

DESIGNED TO TEACH FUNDAMENTALS

OF CHORAL ARRANGING

by

Deen Edward Entsminger

A Dissertation submitted to the
School of Music
in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Approved:

Professors Directing Dissertation

Dean, School of Music

Copyright (c) 1987
Deen Edward Entsminger
April, 1987 All rights reserved.

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DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
DESIGNED TO TEACH FUNDAMENTALS
OF CHORAL ARRANGING

(Publication No. )

Deen Edward Entsminger, Ph.D.
The Florida State University, 1987
Major Professor: Colleen J. Kirk, Ed.D.

Since the professional arranger has been responsible for

providing most of the choral literature currently available,

the individual choral director who might encounter a special

need presented by singers in the classroom has not necessarily

learned the skill of arranging. There would appear to be a

need for investigation into developing instructional materials
in choral arranging for prospective choral directors.

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a

programmed instructional component which could present
fundamentals of choral arranging in conjunction with an

existing college course. Eleven integrated units of

instruction were developed for use by college students who had

completed the theory requirement. The Systematic Design of

Instruction (Dick and Cary, 1985) served as a guide for the

development and evaluation of instructional materials.

ii

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The researcher sought to answer the following questions:

1. Will there be any difference in students' pre- and
posttest choral arrangement scores resulting from implementing

programmed instruction in choral arranging?

2. Will students express favorable attitudes toward

programmed instruction in choral arranging after completing the

instructional units?
Materials were subjected to one-to-one, smal1-group, and

field-trial evaluations. The first two evaluations aided in
the process of revision, while the final phase served as the

means by which effectiveness of instruction was evaluated.

Thirty-one students were involved in the field-trial.

Subjects were enrolled in a choral conducting class (n = 9) and

a choral techniques class (n = 24). Following administration

of a pretest, each student studied programmed materials and

followed instruction over a four-week period. At the end of

that time students completed a posttest and an attitude

questionnaire. Pre- and posttests required the student to

arrange a folk melody for unison and two-part voices.

Data gathered from assessment of pre- and posttest choral

arrangements indicated that subjects performed significantly

better on posttests. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects

iii

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reported that they would arrange another melody afr.er

completing the program: eighty-one percent of the subjects

reported that they enjoyed taking the program, and ninety

percent of the subjects considered themselves better able to

arrange music as a result of the programmed instruction.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to thank doctoral students Philip Griffin, Darryl
Jones, and Brian Knutson who assisted in the Content Validity

Check.
The 42 people who completed the programmed instruction in
choral arranging deserve an expression of sincere gratitude.

Their time, effort, and feedback enabled me to gather data

necessary for the completion of this project, and to improve
the program for those who may use it in the future.

To the members of my doctoral committee, Dr. John Boda,

Dr. Amy Brown, and Professor Clayton Krehbiel, I express

appreciation for serving on my committee and for contributing

to the completion of this dissertation.
Special appreciation is extended to Dr. Randy Pembrook

for his assistance in the development of the programmed

instructional materials and editing of the final document. His

constant, diligent, and scholarly attention provided
encouragement and direction at crucial times during my

di ssertation.

v

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Dr. Colleen Kirk, who directed my dissertation project,

enabled me to value those things about pursuing this degree

which are deeply woven into the process. Her patience,

steadfastness, and willingness to guide has instilled within me

an immense appreciation of the importance of the educator who
nurtures skills in another individual.

Thank you Kathryn. Your faith in me helped to begin this

journey. I will always remember and cherish your sacrifice.

Thank you Bill. You renewed a right spirit within me.

Thank you Dawn. You never relinquished your expectation

of my ability. You shouldered my burden, shared the struggle

of my journey, and remained, joyfully at my side. Your gift

was great.

vi

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1. Vocal Accompaniment Devices and Their Frequency

of Use in 100 Choral Arrangements.................. 47

2. Task Analysis of Choral Arranging Procedure.......... 48

3. Original Instructional Flow Chart.................... 52
4. Revised Instructional Flow C h a r t .................... 53

5. Subskill Statement from Instructional Analysis

Compared with Matching Performance Objectives........ 55
6. Results of Folk Melody Survey........................ 67

7. Pre- & Posttest Scores of Students Completing An

Introduction to Choral Arranging .................. 82

vii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ABSTRACT................................................ ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................................................................ V

LIST OF TABLES........................................... vii

Chapter
I. INTRODUCTION.............................. 1

Purpose................................... 4
Need for the S t u d y ....................... 5
Limitations............................... 9
Definition of Terms.......................... 10
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE................ 13

Arranging....................................13
Programmed Instruction......................25
Music fundamentals......................29
Music theory............................ 31
Arranging.............................. 39
Future of programmed instruction. . . . 40

III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES......................40
Methodology..................................40
Development of Materials....................42
Instructional g o a l ( s ) ..................42
Target population......................45
Instructional analysis..................45
Entry level skills......................54
Performance objectives.................. 54
Criterion-referenced test items . . . . 61
Instructional strategy.................. 62
Instructional materials................ 63

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Formative evaluation and revision of
instruction...................... 69

Field Trial............................ 73

IV. RESULTS.............................. 78

Content validity .......................... 79
Inter-Judge reliability................ 80
Field group evaluation p h a s e .......... 81
Statistical comparison of pretest and
posttest d a t a ..................... 82
Kuder-Richardson test reliability...... 84
Attitude questionnaire (smal 1-group) . . . . 84
(field-trial) . . . . 84
V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, & RECOMMENDATIONS. . . 87

Summary................................. . 87
Conclusions............................ 93
Recommendations for further research . . . . 95

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................... 97

APPENDIXES

A. Survey of Curricular Offerings in Choral
Arranging.......................................120

B. Content Validity Form........................... - 129

C. Choral Arrangement Evaluation T o o l ............... 132
D. Programmed Instructional Materials:
AN INTRODUCTION TO CHORAL A R R A N G I N G ............ 141

E. Materials Located ifi Pocket of Programmed
Instruction.....................................411
F. Results of Attitude Questionnaire:
Smal 1-Group Evaluation.........................431

G. Results of Attitude Questionnaire:
Field-Trial Evaluation.........................436

H. Folk Song Source Bibliography..................... 442

ix

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CHAPTER I

Introduction

The craft of choral arranging has had an appreciable

effect upon the body of choral literature available to vocal

ensembles. The very nature of its contribution, evident by the

volume of published arrangements, makes choral arranging a
topic worthy of study. The process of arranging functions as a

creative art form, and as such, can be valued by a person who

aspires to develop creative ability. Aaron Copland (1963)
described the meaning of creativity in the life of man when he

stated:
The creative act affirms the individual, and gives value

to the individual, and through him to the nation of which
he is a part. The creative person makes evident his
deepest experience— summarizes that experience and sets up

a chain of communication with his fellow-man on a level

far more profound than anything known to the workaday

world. The experience of art cleanses the emotions;

through it we touch the wildness of life, and its basic

intractability, and through it we come clos-st to shaping

an essentially intractable material into some degree of

permanence and of beauty. (p. 52)

1

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Copland added:
The art of music demonstrates man's ability to transmute

the substance of his everyday experience into a body of

sound that has coherence and direction and flow, unfolding

its own life in a meaningful and natural way in time and

in space. Like life itself, music never ends, for it can

always be re-created. Thus the greatest moments of the

human spirit may be deduced from the greatest moments in

music. (p. 63)

While choral arrangers have made numerous and valuable

contributions to the volume of choral literature available for

performance, there are few arrangers who have attempted to
teach the process of choral arranging. Swanson (1973)

suggested that even though published materials are abundant,

the choral director may have problems in finding suitable
compositions for a given situation. However, Swanson did not

blame the publishers. He stated:
They [publishers] must, perforce, sell thousands of copies

of a given choral arrangement in order to make a
reasonable profit and stay in business. Consequently

their publications must be beamed at the great average,

the voice [vocal] groups that fit the formula that works

in the majority of cases, (p. 216)

In agreement with Swanson, Harry Robert Wilson (1949)

maintained that:

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Since choral organizations are of such varied types and

represent many degrees of technical proficiency, the

publication of suitable materials which will fill the need

of every situation becomes increasingly difficult.

Therefore, many choral directors are forced into the

necessity of arranging and composing suitable choral

numbers for their own individual groups, (p. 6)

If a choral director or prospective choral director is to
develop basic skill in choral arranging, some guidance would
seem necessary. Four prominent educators and arrangers have

made valuable contributions:
1. Harry Robert Wilson, who was a distinguished teacher

at Columbia Teachers College developed a text based on his

experience. Published in 1949, this text was entitled Choral

Arranging for Schools, Glee Clubs and Publication.

2. Hawley Ades, a principal arranger for Fred Waring's

Pennsylvanians, was responsible for many professional

arrangements. He developed a text entitled Choral Arranging.

Appearing in 1966, this publication is still in use today.

3. For the past fifteen years, Alice Parker, noted

author, teacher and arranger, has delivered a series of

lectures on the topic of choral arranging at Westminster Choir

College, and has conducted numerous workshops throughout the
nation. From her lectures she has developed a text entitled

Creative Hymn Singing (1976). This writing is supplemental to

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4

her demonstrated teaching techniques.
4. The most recent contribution to choral arranging

pedagogy comes in the form of a textbook entitled Contemporary

Choral Arranging (1986) by Arthur Ostrander, Chairman of

Graduate Studies in Music at the Ithaca School of Music, and

Dana Wilson, Associate Professor at Ithaca College.

Programmed instruction has been shown to be an effective

teaching tool in the field of music education. Disciplines such

as music theory (Clough, 1964), experimental research (Madsen &

Moore, 1978), conducting technique (Sidnell, 1971),

vocal/choral pedagogy (Wyatt, 1974), score reading (Boyer,

1974) and study of applied instruments such as piano

(Ellingson, 1966), woodwind instruments (Bigham, 1965), brass

instruments (Jensen, 1962), and strings (Fischer, 1965) have

benefitted by supplementing class work with programmed

instruction. The effectiveness of this method of instruction

(i.e., self-contained instruction which permits individual

pacing, provides immediate feedback and offers positive

reinforcement) has been responsible for its inclusion in many
dissertation research projects as well as instruction designed

for publication.

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a

programmed instructional component designed to teach the

fundamentals of choral arranging. Guides for learning were

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5

based on the writings of Harry Robert Wilson and Hawley Ades as

well as lectures and writings of Alice Parker. The text by

Ostrander and Wilson appeared after the researcher had

developed his materials and could therefore be used only to

support concepts that had been included in the program design.

The programmed instructional materials were designed for
the college level music education major who had declared a

choral emphasis and who had completed the two-year theory
requirements. The guides were intended for possible inclusion

in a choral methods or techniques class.
Need for the Study
The craft of choral arranging is useful as a tool to

facilitate performance of significant compositions by vocal

ensembles which represent different voice combinations and

levels of accomplishment. Many professional arrangers have

attempted to meet needs of both professional and amateur choral
directors. Reviewing the volume of literature which has been

published, one might conclude that very little, if anything,

could be lacking in the supply of arrangements designed to

accomodate specific needs and characteristics of virtually any

vocal ensemble. However, since the professional arranger

(i.e., one who arranges for publication and/or commission) has
been responsible for providing most of the literature currently

available, the individual choral director who might encounter a

very special need presented by singers in the classroom may not

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6

have learned the skill of arranging. For this reason, he has
been tempted to select only those arrangements which are

published. An unfortunate aspect of this situation is that

many published compositions do not accommodate specific

problems faced by individual choral directors (i.e., voicing,
range, tessitura, balance of voices). It would seem

appropriate that training in choral arranging be made

available, not only to choral directors, but also to college

music education students who are preparing to become choral

directors.

Another factor which implies that present and future music

educators should become competent in arranging is stated in
guidelines set forth in The Music Educators National

Conference's bulletin entitled The School Music Program:

Description £ Standards (1986). It suggests that "the

fundamental purpose of teaching music in the schools is to
develop in each student, as fully as possible, the ability to

perform, to create, and to understand music" (p. 13). Types of

music experiences recommended are divided into four categories:
(1) Performing/Reading, (2) Creating, (3) Listening/Describing,

and (4) Valuing. Guidelines emphasize arranging as an

objective for students who participate in instructional

settings such as elementary, middle school and junior high

school, and in high school classes in basic musicianship, (pp.

22-52) One may infer that an instructor must possess knowledge

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in the area of arranging in order to encourage and promote this

activity among his students. Knowledge of arranging by

teachers and prospective teachers may bring about a better

means of communicating within the performing ensemble or class,

and thus be a potential factor in fostering a satisfying music

education experience.

To ensure development of competency in choral arranging,

suitable text materials and instructional methods are needed.
Current texts in instrumental arranging far outnumber those in

choral arranging. In fact, only two published textbooks
(Choral Arranging by Hawley Ades (1966), and Contemporary

Choral Arranging (1986) by Arthur Ostrander and Dana Wilson)

are currently available for use in choral arranging classes.

These textbooks are designed to teach a complete course in

choral arranging where a teacher is present to offer feedback

on students' progress. If the topic of choral arranging is to

be supplemental to an existing class in choral music, or the

teacher wishes to present fundamental concepts in choral

arranging, these textbooks may offer too broad a scope of

topics to be covered in the time available. The teacher of

choral arranging must depend upon those resources or develop

additional materials.
There appears to have been no investigation into the

teaching of choral arranging skills through programmed

instruction. In many curricula, addition of another elective to

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8

the already demanding requirements for completion of an
undergraduate music education program would be difficult.

Inclusion of a programmed instruction unit in choral arranging

as an adjunctive learning experience associated with an

existing choral techniques or methods class could allow

instructors to cover basic material within the time frame

allowed for the course of study. It could permit the student

to gain valuable experience through working individually and

receiving immediate feedback.

The present study attempted to answer three questions

concerning the feasibility of adapting techniques of programmed

instruction to choral arranging:

1. Will there be any difference in students' pre- and

posttest choral arrangement scores resulting from implementing

programmed instruction in choral arranging? This question can

be stated as a null hypothesis: There will be no difference
between mean scores attained by each subject on pre- and

posttest choral arrangements.

2. Will students express favorable attitudes toward
programmed instruction in choral arranging after completing the

instructional units?
3. Can concepts drawn from a number of different sources

be synthesized into a single method for the purpose of

teaching an introduction to choral arranging by means of

programmed instruction?

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The present study addressed two potential benefits for
recipients of programmed instruction in choral arranging:

1. Guidance in fundamentals of choral arranging could

develop ability and confidence necessary to arrange music which

can meet specific needs and limitations of a particular choral

ensemble.
2. A new body of literature can emerge focusing on

specific problems common to many vocal ensembles (i.e.,

voicing, range, tessitura, balance of voices).

Limitations of the Study
The study was limited to the development of programmed

instructional materials for beginning choral arranging. The

following aspects of choral arranging were not included: 1)

arranging for jazz, show, barbershop, or advanced choirs; 2)

arranging of music from specific periods (Renaissance, Baroque,

Romantic, etc.) and styles (i.e., spiritual, country, and folk

idioms); 3) arranging for three and four-part voices; 4)

utilization of vocal accompaniment devices such as

canon/imitation, figuration, and antiphony; 5) utilization of

other modes of accompaniment (i.e., keyboard, and/or other

instruments); 6) the use of advanced harmonic techniques (i.e.,

modulation, seventh and ninth chords, et. al.); and 7)

arranging primarily for publication.
The instructional approach for this study was developed
from and limited to the procedures and writings of Harry Robert

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10

Wilson, Hawley Ades, and Alice Parker. Arranging methods,
styles and characteristics of other choral arrangers were not

included because the pedagogical approaches pertained mostly to

instrumental arranging.

This study did not involve experimental design.

Therefore, no attempt was made to isolate any variables, (i.e.,

age of subjects, experience in arranging, preference for

arranging styles or voicing) or to compare this technique with

others.

Finally, because the subjects produced a quantity of

arrangements for criterion evaluation, no attempt was made to

consider a live performance of choral arrangements by vocal

ensembles as a means of posttest evaluation.

Definition of Terms

Choral Arranging

The subject of choral arranging has been defined and

described by several authors. Skiles (1976) states, "An
arrangement is literally a transcription of a piece of music

from one medium to another, usually with certain
embellishments" (p. 63). Collins (1973) offers a more

critical definition. He states:

An arrangement is properly a deliberate alteration of the

composer's original intent and is identified as such.

Arranging also encompasses the unfortunate practice of

simplifying or otherwise altering a piece for some reason

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11

or other-usually apparent only to the arranger without
changing the performing forces involved. (p. 103)

Laster (1984) says, "In arranging one can retain the
style, mood and intent of the composer, but merely transcribe

it to another media" (p. 1). Grove (1972) says that "All

arranging is really the art of being able to conceive a musical
effect and then transfer it to paper so that that particular

effect comes alive" (p. ii). Ostrander and Wilson (1986)

define arranging as "a creative process that develops a source

melody and text into a complete setting for a particular choral

combination with accompaniment" (p. 1).
This latter definition of choral arranging from Ostrander

and Wilson (1986) most closely resembles guidelines employed

for this study.

Programmed Instruction

As defined by Cook (1962) , "The term ‘programmed learning'

refers to instructional methods in which teacher-functions are

provided by a wholly or partially automated sequence" (p. 232) .

In 1968, Lysaught and Williams gave this definition of

programmed instruction:

Programming is the process of arranging materials to be

learned in a series of small steps designed to lead a

student through self-instruction from what he knows to the

unknown of new and more complex knowledge and principles.

The student responds at each step; when his response is

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12

correct he may proceed to the next one. (p. 2)
Lysaught (1971) defined programmed instruction in this manner:

It may be defined as a self-instructional approach that

presents an ordered sequence of informational units to the

student, requires an overt or covert response to each ’
unit

of information, and provides immediate confirmation of the

response, whether correct or incorrect. (p. 55)

Vocal accompaniment device

A vocal accompaniment device is a harmonic structure used

by voices to accompany the melody.

Mood terms

Mood terms are those descriptive words, located above the
first staff of the arrangement, which may assist the performer

to better interpret the musical score.

Sustained voice
A sustained voice is a vocal accompaniment device (named
by the researcher) in which a voice sustains a vowel for a
given length of time. This device is similar to a pedal.

Folk song

The term folk song is used with reference to the

combination of melody and text, either composed (e. g., OH

SUSANNA by Stephen Foster) or "handed down" by tradition when

the composer is unknown, which reflects feelings or phases

encountered in everyday life.

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CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature

Arranging

The subject of instrumental and/or choral arranging has

received attention in scholarly research. Smith (1963) and

Prenshaw (1970/1971) conducted studies regarding current
practices of arranging for marching band. Dalby (1958)
investigated factors which determine suitability of arranging

for high school bands. Gibson (1947) studied problems in

arranging m o d e m symphonic material for concert band. In an

article for The School Musician, Flor (1978) suggested

guidelines for concert band arranging. He outlined basic

techniques for beginning arrangers and suggested:

1. Knowing where a phrase starts and ends.
2. Transferring the melody between instruments to add
variety.

3. Using a pedal voice to support higher instruments,

(p. 50)
The topic of arranging for organ was investigated by

Glover (1967). He stressed using basic theory competencies to
aid the beginning organ student in arranging melodies and

suggested:

1. Root position chords are preferable as a melody

13

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14

accompaniment.
2. Chord symbols (I - V) may be useful as musical

shorthand. (p. 46)

McGarity (1958) selected 10 Afro-American folk melodies to
arrange for mixed chorus. The study involved historical and

stylistic implications which made these melodies favorable
among other folk melodies. In a study by Gonzo (1971), choral

arranging competency was found to be an aid in the development
of ability to detect pitch errors while reading a score.

John M. Cooksey (1977) stated four criteria of choral

arrangements suitable for chorus:
1. There should be interesting parts for all singers.

2. Intervallie progressions should be examined

carefully.
3. Articulation speed [the speed at which a singer may

comfortably sing the text] should be taken into consideration.
4. Suitability of the text and integrity of the music

should be considered, (pp. 5-13)

Davison (1966) pointed out the following important

considerations for choral arranging:
1. Prior to arranging a given melody, the student will

need to examine carefully the nature of the tune— whether it

lends itself more appropriately to harmonic or to contrapuntal

treatment, or to a combination of the two. (p. 32)

2. After the folksong is chosen, the arranger should

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become familiar with it through frequent singing of both music
and words; for it is not only the melody, but the text also,

which must vitally concern him.

3. There must be interdependence of words and music: The

text will suggest the use of descriptive devices or technical

means by which the words may be made more significant. (p. 33)

Michaels (1982), attempted to give encouragement when he

outlined seven ways to become a more prolific composer or

arranger:

1. Always carry manuscript paper and a pencil.

2. Get to know your own individual process of creation.

3. Don’t force your creativity.

4. Do force your creativity, sometimes.

5. Choose your composing or arranging time wisely.

6. Make a ceremony of your composing.
7. Don't edit as you go— let your inspiration flow

unedited. (p. 10)

In his Introduction to Choral Arranging, Laster (1984)

stated several steps for the arranger to consider when planning
an arrangement:

1. Range of voices.

2. The rhythm of text and vocal line.

3. Phrasing.

4. Text: Handling of the words, repetition of words or

phrases, and breaking of words into syllables.

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5. Melodic line: Distributed equally among all voice
parts.

6. Intervals.

7. Getting the singers startedfrom the accompaniment,
or from other voice parts.

8. Texture: Widely or closely spaced voices.
9. Special effects: Neutral syllables, speaking,
humming, (pp. 4-6)
Several authors have addressed the general topic of

arranging. The nature of commentary has centered around
various aspects of arranging, including such specific topics as
texture, harmony, score study, listening, procedures for

arranging, choice of melodies (Decola, 1968; Gould, 1949;

Fowler, 1978; Hilf, 1972; Parker, 1976; Rhoads, 1978), and

ranges of singers in vocal arrangements (Baker, 1972; Davison,
1966; Grove, 1972; Kunz, 1980; Lamb, 1974; Laster, 1984;

Ostrander & Wilson, 1986; Shaw, 1977). Some authors of

textbooks which focus upon instrumental arranging have devoted

a small section to choral/vocal arranging (Baker, 1972;

Delamont, 1965; Garcia, 1954; Grove, 1972; Skiles, 1976).
Teachers of choral arranging have developed materials for use

in classroom instruction (Laster, 1984).

Studies in composition which appear to suggest guidelines

appropriate to choral arranging have been undertaken. Adams
(1973) investigated problems encountered in composing choral

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17

music for high school use. This study centered around
identifying criteria important in composing and selecting works

to be performed:
1. The text should receive attention equal to that given

the music.
2. Vocal lines should be written in such a manner that

the singer feels comfortable.

3. New idioms should be explored by composers.

4. Short pieces (3-10 minutes) should be written in

preference to pieces of longer duration (20-30 minutes).

5. Humor should be utilized whenever appropriate in

both music and text.
6. Jazz idioms as well as folk and traditional themes

should be employed.
7. Multi-rhythmic practices should be utilized in

addition to standard symmetrical patterns. (p. 803)

Textbooks designed specifically to teach choral arranging

have been in existance for over three decades. In 1949 Harry

Robert Wilson developed a textbook on choral arranging for
schools, glee clubs and publication. This served as the first

formal method of instruction in choral arranging. Although

Wilson's text is no longer in print, it contained these

topics:
1. Introductory material explaining for whom the book

was designed, what the book was about, and the scope of choral

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18

music.

2. Choral resources including types of voices, range

of voices, tessitura, and dynamic limitations.

3. Basic technical considerations relating to how to

begin, introductions or preludes, distribution of parts,

doubling of parts, chord connection, and others.

4. M o d e m choral devices covering use of modes, modem

chords, Neapolitan triads, modern progressions, contrapuntal
and canonic devices, rhythmic devices, humming effects, use of

speech, and others.
5. Arranging for various voice combinations: SATB, SAB,

SA(A—T)B, SB, and SATB divided.
6. Arranging for treble voices: SSA, SA, and SSAA.

7. Arranging for male voices: TTBB, TTBB(barbershop),

TBB, and TB.

8. The accompaniment: For rehearsal only, optional,

rhythmical, melodic, embellishing, difficult, independent,

four-hand, and two—piano accompaniment.

9. The text: Suitability, singability, accent of words

and music, rhyming of words, words on high notes, and editing

of texts.

10. Preparing and submitting manuscripts for publication:

Copyright clearance, the copyright law, market for

arrangements, submitting of manuscripts, and others. (p. 4-5)
In 1966 Hawley Ades produced a textbook on choral

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19

arranging which grew out of techniques used during his
association with Fred Waring and the "Pennsylvanians". This

textbook is still in use today and has been expanded to include

a section on Jazz/Show Choir arranging techniques. Topics of

discussion include the following:

1. Principles of part-writing for voices: Vocal ranges,

melodic voice parts, difficult intervals, close voicing and

open voicing, male and treble voice intensity, limits of
intervals between voices, doublings, chord progressions in

traditional style, voice crossing, and others.

2. Four-part writing: Unaccompanied, traditional, popular

ballads and swing tunes, with melody doubling, or harmony in

parallel motion, swing harmonization in parallel motion, and

others.
3. Accompaniments: Styles of accompaniments, four-hand

accompaniments for one piano, two-piano accompaniments, organ

as accompaniment, scoring techniques, and others.
4. Three-part writing: Traditional, and parallel motion.

5. Two-part writing: Traditional, parallel, parallel

motion in octaves, and others.

6. Unison writing: Strong melodic line, flowing or

rhythmic melodic lines, unison as recitative, and others.

7. Multiple-part writing: General principles, five-part

writing with melody doubling, parallel motion in multiple

parts, wide-spread multiple parts, melody in an inner part, and

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20

others.

8. Special techniques: Choral accompaniment, chorus and

solo voice, choral pedal point, antiphonal effects, harmonic

and melodic alteration, and imitation of natural sounds.
9. Contrapuntal techniques: Counter melody, descant,

figuration, ostinato, free counterpoint, and canonic and fugal

writing.

10. Special mixed voice groupings: SAB, SB.
11. Treble voice choruses: SSA, SSAA, SA.

12. Male choruses: TTBB, barbershop quartets, TTB or
TBB, and TB.
13. Key and tempo changes.
14. Introductions and endings: Introductionsdrawn from

thematic material, and endings using a repetition of the final

phrase.
15. Resources in combination: The beginning, middle, and

end of the arrangement.

16. Planning arrangements: Type of group, voice leading,

vocal capabilities of group, the concert hall, writing for

theatre, sketching the arrangement.
17. Scoring arrangements: Full scoring, condensed scoring,

and score markings.
18. Chorus with instrumental groups: Orchestra

accompaniment, chorus as orchestral color, band and chorus, and

chorus with small instrumental groups.

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21

19. Recent trends in choral writing: Rock, jazz, and

serious music.
20. Recent trends in accompaniment styles, (p. v)

Of particular interest is the number and quality of exercises

a- the end of each chapter intended for practice by the

student.
Another contribution to choral arranging has been made by

Alice Parker. Parker has shared her approach to choral

arranging with students attending summer classes at Westminster

Choir College since 1970. Although her teaching approach has

not been published in textbook form, she has written a volume

entitled Creative Hymn Singing in which she expresses many of

her ideas on vocal improvisation. An investigation of the

arranging techniques of Alice Parker has been undertaken by

Loesch (1975), Mussulman (1980) and Merritt (1984). These

articles focus on Parker's approach to arranging and her
contribution to choral music education throughout an extended
career of teaching, lecturing, composing, arranging, and

conducting.
The most recent contribution to the instruction of choral

arranging via textbook design has been made by Ostrander and

Wilson (1986). Entitled Contemporary Choral Arranging, this

textbook offers the following topics for consideration:

1. Initial choral arranging considerations: Voice types

and combinations according to age or group and musical

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22

notation.

2. Basic harmonic principles for choral arranging:

Initial harmonic concepts, chord motion, chord vocabulary and

chord progression in melody harmonization.

3. Keyboard accompaniment: The role of the

accompaniment, technical considerations, and styles of

accompaniment.

4. Two-part arranging: Typical voice combinations,
homophonic textures, and contrapuntal textures.

5. Modulation: Purpose and location, key choice, types
of modulation, and context of the modulation.

6. Introductions and endings: Endings derived from the
arrangement, and freely composed introductions and endings.

7. Planning the arrangement: Initial considerations
regarding performance group and musical source, detailed study

of the musical source, planning the overall form of the

arrangement, and others.

8. Three-part arranging: Typical voice combinations and

applications, homophonic textures, and contrapuntal textures.

9. Four-part arranging: Typical voice combinations and

applications, homophonic textures, contrapuntal textures, and

special features concerning all-female and all-male

arrangements.

10. Special choral devices: Sonorities and techniques.
11. Adapting an existing arrangement to a different

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23

choral combination: SATB setting to SA, SAB, SSA, and TTBB.
12. Jazz vocal styles: Rhythm, meter, tempo, melodic

inflection, harmony, and formal structure.

13. Country, rock, and popular vocal styles.

14. The accompaniment in jazz and other popular styles.

15. Arranging for performance with small instrumental

ensembles.
16. Getting your arrangement published, (pp. v-vii)

The educational aspect of acquainting students with choral

arrangements has been addressed by Swanson (1975). He

suggested that the purpose of making special arrangements is

educational, and that these can serve as a prelude to the use

of standard published SATB arrangements available commercially.

Bauemschmidt (1968) stressed using a "piece of music of good

quality to arrange" (p. 40). He further added, "young players,

when properly motivated, seem to work harder and maintain
interest over longer periods of time when working with

something they consider worthwhile and important" (p. 40). His

premise was that music education is providing "text books"
[arrangements], and should be concerned with the educational as

well as aesthetic value of these "texts”. McIntosh (1980) was

in favor of modifying existing compositions by rewriting "to

make the song a more satisfying and comfortable singing

experience" (p. 34). Siltman (1978) was in favor of using

arranging as a means of developing sight-reading skills.

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24

The need for choral directors to learn how to arrange has

been emphasized by many authors. Grove (1972) suggested that a

basic problem facing any beginning arranger is the lack of

conception and judgement which shapes any well written

arrangement. He added, "a student of arranging needs a guided

approach through the many facets which make up the various
elements of a well written arrangement" (p. i). Laster (1984)

informs prospective choral directors that:
You will find yourself with tenorless choirs, or with some

other vacancy, which will stimulate your creative skills

causing you to either re-write or even create a

composition to suit your particular needs. Or, you may be
so stimulated by the fine voices in your well-balanced

ensemble that you are inspired to create something

especially for that group, (p. 1)
McChesney (1968) presented a most convincing point of view

in favor of the choral director acquiring the skill of choral

arranging when he stated:

Everyone has a responsibility to give his groups the

experience of singing as much fine music as possible. The

educator is most obviously committed to such a goal. But

with a group very limited in ability, there may be
practically nothing worthwhile published that is within

the realm of possibility. In such circumstances it is up
to the conductor of a school group to arrange and adapt

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25

material to meet the needs of this group. (p. 125)
Programmed Instruction

Having its roots in Skinner's concept of "the teaching

machine" of the 1960s, programmed instruction has grown to

become a prominent factor in education (Skinner, 1961) .

Results attained through programmed instruction have encouraged

many authors to develop texts dealing with various aspects of

music. Many of these have been focused on music theory
instruction (Andrews & Wardian, 1964; Barnes, 1964; Carlsen,

1965b; Clough, 1964; Dallin, 1966, 1969; Harder, 1980; Horacek

& Lefkoff, 1970; Howard, 1966; Kraft, 1967; Rogers & Almond,

1970).

Programmed instruction has received careful scrutiny as a

result of the nature of its contribution to education.

Deterline noted that, "Many experiments have been completed

that have shown programmed learning to hold great promise for
training and education" (Deterline, 1962, p. 63). Dallin

stated, "The most promising approaches to programmed music

instruction for the present and the foreseeable future seem to
be in the direction of programmed texts which require no

machine and in programs which utilize standard tape or disc

recordings" (Dallin, 1966, p. 198). Ihrke (1963) found value

in programmed instruction. He stated;

The potential advantages of the machine in music training

are significant. It can be flexibly paced according to

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26

student: demand or need. Thus it can be made to repeat
selectively exercise material with which the student has

difficulty, dropping out material with which he can

readily cope. The machine can be programmed to wide

ranges of musical contexts in presenting exercise and

practice material for teaching musical discriminations.

Since the machine can be used by the individual student,

the student after completing standard assignments may
explore his own interests by selecting auxiliary programs

for presentation by the machine. (pp. 6-7)

Ihrke seemed to suggest that the student may have a role in

deciding what may be programmed and thus could become a strong
factor in his own instruction. This gives the impression that

programmed instruction could be a self-motivated as well as

functional tool for education.
Bubniuk (1970) shared her enthusiasm for programmed

instruction by stating:
Under such a system, confusion disappears, for the student

is led from small, easy functions, step by minute step

along the path of re-assembling a large number of such

tremendously easy functions, until such time as he is able

in actual fact to do complex things. But in his mind,

because he can identify each small step so clearly, to him

the complexity remains a collection of very simple, very

easy, very thoroughly grasped functions. (p. 42)

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27

She added: "Learning, in programming, is a vast chain-reaction
of association of ideas, beginning with one very specialized

point and branching out steadily to another and yet another"

(p. 42) . She concluded by saying: "Programming is the

•commonsense' way of teaching. It gives the student the

opportunity of success, with every success followed by a

succeeding success, until there is a history of success with

its attendant self-confidence" (p. 42). Gore (1969) suggested

that, "motivation is the most vital ingredient in any learning

situation" (p. 64). He delineated characteristic features

which distinguish programmed instruction from conventional

teaching devices:
1. Students who need to learn very slowly may do so,

while other students may move ahead rapidly.

2. Constant participation is required of the student— he

makes a response to each unit (frame) of instruction.

3. The student is able to ascertain the correct answer

immediately after making the response.

4. The material proceeds in small steps, each step
presuming no other knowledge of the subject than that presented

in preceding steps.
5. Different types of prgrams are available to conform to

different needs. Some programs are self-contained, others make

use of films, books, recordings, etc. Some programs complement

classroom activities; others can be studied without a teacher.

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28

6. Before commercial release, each program has been

tested with students, their errors analyzed, and used as a

basis for revision of the program, (pp. 84-87)

McKay (1969) was concerned with rehearsal time being

consumed in the teaching of rudiments when the student could

study programs of instuction outside of class. He made use of
two textbooks which offered self-guided instruction, Essentials

of Music by Roger Chapman (1967), and Music 200 by Andrews,

Maxson, and Lotzenhiser.
Hargiss (1968) investigated the state of programmed
instruction. Two questions resulting from his investigation
were: 1) Do students really learn from programed instruction?

2) Do students learn as well from a teacher? The answer to the

first question was yes? research has left no doubt of this. In

response to the second question, Hargiss found that programmed

instruction plus a teacher is better than either alone.

Finally, Hargiss offered this comment regarding programmed

instruction "Of one thing we can be sure, programing is not a

routine process but a creative activity, just as is any other

form of communication" (p. 41).
Lumsden (1975) found fault with programmed instruction in

that it was not being verified through testing. Wyatt (1974) ,

in agreement with McKay (1969) , suggested that "Auto-tutorial

instruction materials minimize the problems of limited class
time, since they are utilized by individual students outside of

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29

class" (p. 2). Wyatt's point of view seemed to contradict the
results of an experiment by Fink (1967). Fink developed

programmed instruction to teach a basic craft of four-part

chord connection to freshman music theory students. He

concluded that, "Programmed learning can be more time consuming

than the teacher-classroom approach" (p. 163-64). Lewis

(1962) cautioned against the programmer committing the error of
trying to determine if the program will do as well or better

than the teacher. Golddiamond and Pliskoff (1965) favored

programmed instruction that employed an

"experimental/instructional approach" (p.43).
A number of programmed texts have been tested under

experimental conditions. Seymore (1979) experimented with

listening/sound discrimination tasks among educable mentally

retarded students. Results indicated that the experimental
group exhibited a significantly greater ability to decide

whether there was sound or silence and discriminate a given

sound from other sounds. DeCarbo (1982) conducted an experiment

in which he compared the effects of conducting experience and
the use of programmed materials on error detection scores

attained by college conducting students. Results indicated
that training in error detection skills using programmed
instruction did not transfer to a conducting situation as well

as did the experience of live, podium-based instruction.
Costanza (1971) in an experiment dealing with score reading

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30

skills and programmed instruction found that melodic and
harmonic score reading skills could be taught effectively by

programmed instruction which made use of aural-visual

materials. In a similar experiment involving self-

instructional drill materials for student conductors, Sidnell

(1971) found that the experimental group which used programmed
instruction achieved a higher mean gain than did the control

group which had no benefit of programmed instruction. Areas of

achievement included score-reading, detecting and identifying

rhythms, and pitch errors.
Ten Eyck (1984) investigated the effect of programmed
materials on the vocal development of children's choruses.

Incorporated in this study were adjunct listening examples on

audio cassettes. Teachers of vocal ensembles in the

experimental group were given copies of the program from which

they could incorporate instructional materials designed to

enhance learning during rehearsals over a period of 10 weeks.

Results of data analysis indicated that there was no

significant difference in the overall choral sound produced by

the groups which received this instruction and those which did

not. It was concluded that the lack of significant differences

could be attributed to an inability to transfer concepts from

the text to the rehearsal setting.

In the field of music theory, several experiments have

been conducted. Wardian (1963), Kanable (1969) and Wilburn

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31

(1971) found no significant difference between results attained
by experimental and control groups when testing the effects of

programmed instruction versus the classroom-lecture method.

Wardian tested the effectiveness of programmed learning for use

in teaching the fundamentals of music. Kanable investigated

the effectiveness of programmed instruction in developing sight

singing skills in high school students. Wilburn tested the
effects of programmed instruction on achievement and attitudes
of college freshman music theory students. In 1967, Tarratus

and Spohn conducted an experiment to determine whether a set of

programmed taped-interval drills, developed for use at a large

midwestem university, could be used effectively in a smaller

southern state college in which the educational situation was

quite different. In both experimental situations, results

showed that students made a significant improvement in taped

interval discrimination as a result of their use of programmed

instruction.
In the area of basic musical concepts, two experiments

utilizing a self-instructional system were reviewed. In both

experiments, programmed instruction was proven effective as a

teaching device (Michalski, 1966; Wilson, 1970).

In two experiments which tested the effectiveness of

programmed instruction in teaching fundamentals of music

theory, Ashford (1966, 1968) achieved positive results

regarding the effect of programmed instruction on a subject's

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32

ability to retain material learned. He found that subjects

using programmed instruction did perform better on a three-year

delayed recall exam than did control subjects.

In the area of aural skills perception, experiments were
designed and conducted to test the effectiveness of programmed

instruction versus the teacher-classroom method (Carlsen, 1964;

Carlsen, 1969; Spohn, 1963). Based on his findings, Carlsen

(1964) stated:
In practical application, there is much to indicate the
programmed instruction's greatest efficiency will be found
only when it is not restricted to being the sole educative

source in a given discipline. One of its potentials is as
outside preparation material. (p. 147)

Andrews (1968) conducted a study to determine whether or
not students in secondary school performing groups would learn

music theory through the use of self-instructional materials.

Achievement by students using these materials was compared for

one school year with that of students receiving only the usual

instruction without supplementary materials. Results indicated
that materials furnished to the experimental group were
successful in helping students in performing groups learn more

music theory than was learned by students who did not have the

benefit of these materials.

Trythall (1968) used 'teaching machines' for the purpose

of developing an experimental program in interval lie, melodic,

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33

and harmonic dictation. The program consisted of questions and
answers placed in small step arrangement with electronic aids

for question repetition as needed. Testing indicated that the

teaching machines and programs were effective teaching methods.

Graphs of student responses produced a grade curve often

associated with programmed instruction: A greater number of

students achieved higher grades.

In other experiments, Barnes (1965) obtained significant

results involving the use of programmed instruction in teaching

music fundamentals for future elementary teachers. A
programmed instruction book which contained information dealing

with music fundamentals was developed. A one-hundred-item

posttest was administered to both experimental and control
groups in the fifth week of class (immediate recall). A

duplicate posttest was given at the end of the quarter (delayed
recall) five weeks following the initial administering of the
posttest. The experimental group scored significantly higher

on both tests. Programmed instruction appeared to increase
significantly the effectiveness of the learnings of those

elementary education students in the experimental group. An

opinionnaire completed by the subjects in the experimental

group indicated that all believed the program was helpful and,

with one exception, all expressed a desire to work with

additional programmed materials.
Owen (1973) conducted an experiment designed to test the

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34

effectiveness of the language laboratory approach in teaching
fundamental music skills. This investigation compared results

obtained with those achieved through employment of the

traditional teacher-c 1assroom method. In his study the
experimental group significantly outscored the control group.

As reflected in studies conducted by Spohn, Carlsen and
Kanable, Owen's findings showed that relatively well motivated

students in upper-middle-class school districts performed
better overall.
Boyer (1974) discovered the self-instructional program to

be an effective method of developing score reading skills

needed by undergraduate conducting students. Heim (1973) found

programmed instruction to be more effective than the classroom

method of instruction to develop skills for teaching

fundamental rhythm reading in music.

Cribb (1965) conducted an experiment to investigate the
comparative effectiveness of three out-of-class procedures

designed to augment a conventional classroom instructional

method in a course focused upon fundamentals of music for

elementary education students. Subjects were placed in one of
three groups: a control group received instruction through a

conventional pattern of out-of-class study assignments;
Experimental Group 1 made individual use of a programmed

textbook; and Experimental Group 2 made individual use of a

teaching machine program. Statistical comparisons among the

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35

three out-of-class procedures consistently favored programmed
learning, although not at a statistically significant level.

The teaching machine program resulted in greater learning than

did the programmed textbook approach.

Lanshe (1970) conducted a two-year study in music

rudiments. The first year's study was undertaken to ascertain

whether certain topics in the area of music theory could be

learned as effectively in a situation which included programmed

instruction within a traditional approach. Results were

compared to those attained by students taught through the

traditional approach alone. It was reported that students in a

course which included programmed instruction within a

traditional classroom approach fared equally as well as
students who were taught by the traditional approach alone.

The second year's study was concerned with the development of a

comprehensive programmed text of music rudiments to be used in

a college introductory music class for non-majors. The book

was evaluated as an ancillary learning experience in

conjunction with the traditional teaching method and results
were compared with those of students using the traditional

method alone. Effectiveness of learning in the experimental

group using the programmed text was significantly greater than

that achieved by students in the control group. The researcher

suggested that a student may learn more effectively through a

combination of programmed instruction and traditional classroom

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36

instruction than by the traditional approach alone.
Lucht (1973) developed a self-instructional programmed

course of study in selected areas of beginning functional

piano. The areas of study were scales, accompaniment and
transposition. Behavioral objectives were written in each of

these areas. A programmed text and an audio tape were
developed and administered to a study group of 26 students.

Each student proceeded with the course at an individual pace

under simulated conditions of correspondence study. Results

showed that the program offered under simulated conditions of
correspondence study did enable the students involved in the

study to achieve the stated behavioral objectives.

Miller (1974) conducted an experiment concerned with

establishing the effectiveness of a programmed music

fundamentals text designed to aid the acquisition of the

cognitive elements necessary to facilitate communication in

beginning instumental music. The study compared achievement by

two groups of elementary instrumental music students in their

beginning five or six weeks of instruction. The experimental

group used the programmed text at home for the presentation and

study of music fundamentals. The control group followed a

conventional method which included informal presentations of
music fundamentals as a part of normal classroom procedures.

Results attained through the programmed and conventional
treatments were nearly equal.

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37

Three non-experimental studies were reviewed, all of which
showed favorable improvement resulting from the use of

programmed (self-guided) instruction (Dolbeer, 1969; Crowder,

1971; Weiss, 1975). Topics, respectively, included detecting

aural-notational errors in musical performance, teaching

fundamentals of orchestration and assisting high school band
members in their understanding of musical structure.

In another study, Malone (1985) developed an approach to

increasing pitch error detection skills in choral music

education students. This approach was intended to serve as

self-teaching supplementary instruction for students in choral

conducting classes. Pitch errors were related to perfect
fourths and fifths, keys, chromatic pitches, intonation of

sustained notes, repeated notes, and major-thirds-of-chords.

Statistical analysis of pretest-posttest data indicated that
posttest scores attained by students using this instruction

were significantly higher than pretest scores.
Brinson (1986) developed individualized listening modules

for high school students in general music. This study involved

designing and evaluating materials’which could develop skills

in aural discrimination among high school students in general

music classes. Four individualized modules with coordinated

cassette tapes were developed using the "systems approach"

(Dick & Cary, 1985) to instructional design. The researcher

sought to determine whether the modules were effective

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38

instructional tools; whether attitude shifts toward listening

to classical music occurred as a result of instruction; whether

successful achievement was related to musical experience; and
whether students expressed positive attitudes toward
individualized instruction after studying the modules. Based

on criteria established prior to the study, modules 1, 3, and 4
were effective while module 2 fell short of the criterion-level
requirements. Students' attitudes toward the instruction

improved with each successive module. Students' attitudes
toward listening to classical music either improved slightly or
remained the same. No significant relationships were found to
exist between students' achievement and their previous musical

experience or between student achievement and preference for

individualized instruction.

One study designed to teach arranging skills through

programmed instruction was reviewed. Husak (1978) developed

and tested programmed instruction in techniques of jazz

ensemble arranging. His findings offered persuasive evidence

regarding the feasibility of this method of instruction. The

effectiveness of the program was evaluated by administering a

multiple-choice test containing 100 questions. The subjects

were not expected to test their knowledge of arranging by

applying acquired skills to completing an arrangement. This

aspect of arranging was not addressed in Husak's
recommendations for further research. A questionnaire answered

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39

by subjects upon completion of the program indicated that the
programmed instruction helped them in their learning about jazz

ensemble arranging, impressed them favorably, fostered their

interest in jazz ensemble arranging, and motivated them to

pursue further study in the area of jazz ensemble arranging.

The future of programmed instruction has been addressed by

noted educators. House (1976) suggested that "instruction in

many other fields of music [besides performing] will become

more individualized, particularly in terms of guided self-

instruction" (p. 71). Klotman (1976) stated "Teachers will

guide students into limits of study that will be taught by

machines, and music educators will be far more concerned with

the actual making of music rather than teaching of these
specific skills" (p.15). Carlsen (1965a) mentioned that "The
development of programs and appropriate hardware will widen the

horizon of assistance which programmed music instruction can

provide the teacher. As a result, the teacher should be able

to increase the depth and quality of his instruction" (p. 35).

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Chapter III

Methods and Procedures

Methodology
Recognizing a prospective choral director's need for basic

skill in choral arranging, the researcher undertook an investi­

gation of the frequency of choral arranging course offerings in

representative colleges and universities. In an effort to
discover present practice in teacher education programs, 128

college catalogues from throughout the United States were
examined to determine if courses in choral arranging were
included in music department curricula. The following factors

influenced the choices of catalogues selected for examination:

1. Geographical distribution.

2. Size of student enrollment.

3. NASM accreditation.

4. Reputation of school.

The preliminary investigation into curricula of colleges

and universities whose departments or schools of music numbered

approximately 300 or more students revealed that 50 music

programs (39% of the schools reviewed) included a course in

choral arranging among their offerings (Appendix A). Since

many of the course offerings in choral arranging were

designated as elective and were not mandatory in curricula for

40

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41

music education students, the researcher concluded that an
attempt might be made to present choral arranging fundamentals

through programmed instruction materials which could be

administered in conjunction with an existing music methods

course. Such materials might be developed and evaluated

according to guidelines found in The Systematic Design of

Instruction (1985) by Walter Dick and Lou Cary. Diamond (1971)
gives a concise description of the systems approach when he

states:

The systems approach is really nothing more than a

procedure with the following advantages as a guideline for

development: 1) It provides for maximum use of existing

resources; 2) it provides a step-by-step check to ensure

that all relevant factors are considered, and considered

at the appropriate time; 3) it requires the statement of
objectives in measurable terms; and 4) it requires

continual evaluation and modification as goals, resources

and other relevant factors change....In its more
elementary form, a system could consist of three basic

elements: 1) the development of objectives, 2) the

program, and 3) evaluation. The sequence is not

complete, however until a feedback loop is included... .The
provision for evaluation, feedback, and modification based

on evaluation is a major strength of this technique in its
educational applications....In effect, the systems

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42

approach builds into the educational process a sensitivity

to changing needs, goals, and resources. The evaluation

is based on the prestated measurable objectives? the

results identify elements of the program that are

succeeding or failing, and basic errors that might exist

in the objectives themselves. Modifications are then
undertaken as a part of a continual process of

implementation, evaluation, and modification. While the

evaluation process may be simplified after the program

becomes operational, it is continued as an "ongoing" check
of the program. In effect, the systems approach builds

into the educational process a sensitivity to changing
needs, goals, and resources. (pp. 37-38)
Development of Materials

The guidelines proposed by Dick and Cary suggest that the

researcher:

Identify Instructional Goal(s)

The instructional goal was identified in response to
assessment of a need for self-guided instruction in choral

arranging. Experienced choral music educators have contended

that choral arranging skills are needed frequently by choral
directors, especially those working with choirs in which there
exists a specific problem such as an imbalance between

sections, range and/or ability limitations (Laster, 1984;

Wilson, 1949; McChesney, 1968).

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43

Discussions with music education faculty members and
students in music education curricula revealed an interest in

developing skills of choral arranging by means of a programmed

instruction approach if music education curricula did not

include time for a bonafide course in choral arranging.

Expressed concerns served as a foundation upon which program

concepts were developed. Concerns included:

1. Finding time to learn the skill of arranging while
pursuing a full-time teaching load or course of study that

didn't already include such a course;
2. Recognizing one's own ability to arrange a melody for

chorus (belief in one’s effectiveness with the process of

arranging: ”1 wouldn't know where to begin," or "I'm not

creative enough to do that.");

3. Possessing the ability to write a suitable arrangement

(being able to use the components of arranging to solve

problems of the choir: range capabilities, balance,
distribution and/or lack of voice parts, occasion for singing,

locating appropriate source materials [melody and text] , and so
on).

A review of literature failed to yield evidence of

research relating to the development of self-instructional

materials for choral arranging. Textbooks for choral arranging

were reviewed. All of these proved to be designed for use in a

teacher-classroom method of instruction. It became evident

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44

from this investigation that a need existed for materials to be
developed through which students might acquire a fundamental

knowledge of choral arranging by means of a self-guided

approach afforded in conjunction with an existing choral music

education class.

In an interview with noted teacher, author, composer, and

arranger Alice Parker (1984) on the campus of Westminster Choir

College, Ms. Parker encouraged the researcher to develop
additional materials for choral arranging. However, she

expressed concern that a teaching tool such as programmed
instruction would not allow creative potential to be fulfilled
in the student. Since no instructor would participate in the

process of instruction to offer feedback on responses, and no

basis for measuring creative behavior could be included within

a programmed instructional format, it was decided that no
attempt would be made to suggest or teach for creativity

through materials designed to cover only fundamental aspects of

choral arranging.

Define Instructional Goal

The instructional goal was defined as follows:

Given instructions, a TEXT CHART, a choice between two

folk melodies with accompanying text, and manuscript paper, the

student will write a choral arrangement for unison and two-part

voices. The arrangement will be suitable for performance by a
chorus comprised of students who have had previous choral

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45

experience.
Materials would be assembled utilizing the following input

factors:
1. Current/existing textbooks in choral arranging.

2. Observations of trends in arranging through the

investigation of published choral arrangements.

3. The researcher's own expertise in the area of subject

matter.

Identify Target Population

College students for whom the materials were designed were

those who had completed a two-year basic music theory

requirement and were enrolled in a choral methods, techniques,

and/or choral conducting class. Students with varying
abilities and backgrounds were sought to test the effectiveness

of instruction for the purpose of revision and refinement of

subject matter.

Conduct Instructional Analysis

In order to design instruction in choral arranging, it was

necessary to define the specific steps through which an
arranger transforms a melody and its text into a complete

choral arrangement. This phase of development was divided into

two stages:
1. Conduct a task analysis of procedural steps in choral

arranging.
2. Design a flow chart to depict the information process

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46

of the choral arranging task.
A synthesis of the choral arranging procedure resulted

from an investigation of three choral arranging methods:

1. Choral Arranging by Hawley Ades;

2. Choral Arranging for Schools, Glee Clubs and

Publication by Harry Robert Wilson;

3. Choral arranging techniques presented through lectures

and writings of Alice Parker.
Devices for altering the melody (arranging) were

determined after examining 100 published choral arrangements in
order to ascertain frequency of vocal accompaniment devices

(see Table 1).
To ascertain the necessary sub-tasks, three folk melodies

were chosen at random by the researcher and each was arranged

for four voices of a mixed chorus. Folk melodies were selected

because of their availability in the public domain, their

structural organization (i.e., number of verses, simple
harmonic language, symmetrical phrases), and familiarity.
Wilson (1949) offered this explanation for the use of existing

melodies and texts for musical treatment:

The source of this material [for choral treatment] which

offers the greatest opportunity of creative imagination is
the folk song. It tends to lend itself to the most

effective choral writing, partly, at least, from the fact
that it originally sprang from the sorrows, joys, and

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Table 1
Vocal Accompaniment Devices and Their Frequency of Use in 100

Choral Arrangements

Vocal Accompaniment Device Frequency

Four-part harmony 98

Pedal or sustained voice 68

Melody transfer/layering 67

Ostinato 62

Other devices 35

Figuration 34

Antiphonal devices 29

Canon/imitation 26

Note. "Other devices" categorized those which were not

definable or too few to count in a separate frequency column.

Examples included: melodic fragmentation and augmentation,

sustained syllables, and free voice counterpoint.

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48

labors of the people themselves. (p. 9)
As each task of the arrangement was encountered, it was

ordered by its position in the process. As the second and

third melodies were arranged, the hierarchy of tasks was
examined and refined. A determination was made as to whether

or not certain tasks could be eliminated, combined with other

tasks, relocated in the order of tasks, or organized into sub­

tasks. Table 2 illustrates the development of the task
analysis:

Table 2
Task Analysis of Choral Arranging Procedure

Analysis |--------------- Arrangement --------------
order
of
tasks 1. Every Night 2. Amazing 3. Shenandoah
When the Sun Grace
Goes In

1 Occasion for Occasion & com­ Occasion & combi­
arrangement bination of nation of voices &
voices ranges
2 Combination of Ranges Text: mood, tempo
voices
3 Ranges Text Key of melody
4 Text Mood Underline phrases
circle mood words

(Table continues)

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49

Analysis 1--------------- Arrangement
order
of
tasks 1. Every Night 2. Amazing 3. Shenandoah
When the Sun Grace
Goes In

5 Mood Tempo Dynamics

6 Tempo Key of melody Overall voicing
7 Key of melody Underline Voice combina­
phrases-circle tions
mood words
8 Dynamic levels Dynamic levels VAD choices:
Melody transfer/
layering; figu­
ration; ostinato;
canon; 4 pt.
harmony
9 Overall voicing Overall voicing First draft of
manuscript
10 Underline phrases Voice combina­ Keyboard
tions revision
11 Circle mood words VAD choices: Final draft of
Melody transfer/ choral arrange­
layering; figu­ ment
ration; ostinato
canon; 4 pt.
harmony

12 VAD: Melody First draft of
transfer manuscript
13 VAD: Melody Keyboard
layering revision

(Table continues)

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50

Analysis |------------- Arrangement -------------
order
of
tasks 1. Every Night 2. Amazing 3. Shenandoah
When the Sun Grace
Goes In

14 VAD: figuration Final draft of
choral arrange­
ment
15 Ostinato

16 Canon
17 4 pt. harmony
18 Voice combina­
tions
19 VAD choices for
each verse
20 Manuscript mech­
anics

21 First draft of
choral arrange­
ment

22 Keyboard
revision

23 Final draft of
choral arrange­
ment

Note: VAD = Vocal Accompaniment Device
mood words = descriptive terms depicting suggestions
for performance

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51

After arranging the third melody, it was determined from

the analysis chart that a suitable task analysis had been

accomplished and that attention could be shifted to preparing a

flow chart on which each step of the choral arrangement would

be specifically ordered in terms of the student's behavioral

progression through the instructional analysis. The original
flow chart appears in Table 3.

At the time the original flow chart was prepared, it was
planned to include all devices identified in Table 1 as foci

for attention in the instructional materials. After

contemplation of the amount of time needed to introduce all of

these concepts and the resulting length of the program, it was
decided to reduce the number of voices utilized in the

harmonizations from four parts to two parts. It was further

decided to include only three of the vocal accompaniment

devices which were employed most frequently in the arrangements

studied. Since four-part harmony had been eliminated from

consideration, those devices chosen for this study were 1)
Melody transfer/layering, 2) Pedal or sustained voice, and 3)
Ostinato. With this editing process completed, it was
envisioned that students could complete the programmed

materials within a 2-4 week period of time.
This alteration necessitated a redesigning of the original

flow chart. The revised flow chart appears in Table 4.

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52

Table 3
Original Instructional Flow Chart

23 Write final draft
of choral 6-------1
arrangement

22.1 Recheck 22 Keyboard
items 1-20 realization

19 Choose VAD'S 20 Recognize 21 Write first draft
for each first draft of choral
verse manuscript arrangement
mechanics
18 VAD: Write 4 17 VAD: Write 16 VAD: Write
part harmony canon £ ■ Ostinato

13 VAD: Write 14 VAD: Write 15 VAD: Write
m
melody transfer — * pedal ---- * figuration
and layering

12 Choose mood 11 Choose over­ 10 Select dynamic
term all voicing levels

7 Determine suit­ 8 Underline 9 Circle single or
able key for coherent coupled words de­
melody? trans­ \ picting mood
) phrases in )
pose if neces­ text
sary
ZE
6 Select tempo 5 Choose mood 4 Text: determine
indication <r term verse or verse
with refrain
* -------
1 Define occasion 2 Name 4 voice 3 Recognize ranges
for arrangement parts of a of 4 voice parts
mixed chorus

El. Ability to E2. Ability to E3. Ability to
Identify technical Transpose melody M l Harmonize melody
components of melody to different key for four parts

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Table 4

Revised Instructional Flow Chart

14 Choral arrangemerr
is completed

11 Incorporates 12 Incorporates ar­ 13 Incorporates
verse trans­ rangement con­ manuscript
ition devices clusion devices mechanics

10 Incorporates Incorporates Incorporates
Ostinato in Sustained voice Melody transfer/
arrangement in arrangement layering & combi­
nation of both
in arrangement

6.2 Incorporates 7.1 Writes dynamic 7.2 Incorporates
voice combi­ level choices dynamic level
nations in on TEXT CHART choices in
arrangement arrangement

6.1 Writes voice 5.2 Incorporates 5.1 Writes overall
combinations overall voicing on TEXT
on TEXT CHART voicing in CHART
arrangement

3 Writes tempo 4.1 Underlines co­ 4.2 Writes coherent
indication on herent verbal verbal phrases
TEXT CHART and phrases on in arrangement
on arrangement TEXT CHART

2 Selects mood 1.2 Incoporates 1.1 Writes ranges on
term and writes ranges in TEXT CHART
on arrangement arrangement

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54

Identify Entry Level Skills or Characteristics of the Target
Population

The target population was defined as students who had

completed the music department's theory requirement and were

enrolled in a choral conducting or choral techniques class.
Entry level skills were defined as follows: The student will

be able to recognize and write components of melody which

include 1) staff and ledger lines, 2) treble and bass clefs, 3)

pitches, 4) key signature, 5) meter signature, 6) accidentals,

7) notational values, 8) rhythmic notation related to meter, 9)

simple harmonic progressions using a roman numeral analysis,

10) names of the four voice parts in a mixed chorus.

Write Performance Objectives
In order to observe competency with respect to ordered

tasks in choral arranging, performance (behavioral) objectives

were written to coincide with each task (step) of the
instructional analysis (flow chart). Table 5 shows the
relationship between the instructional analysis and performance

objectives.

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55

Table 5

Subskill statement from instructional analysis compared with

matching performance objectives

Subskill Statement Matching

from Instructional Performance

Analysis Objective

1.1 Writes ranges on TEXT 1.1 Given a TEXT CHART the
CHART. student will correctly write
the lower and upper limit
ranges of the S A T and B

voices on staves provided.

1.2 Incorporates ranges 1.2 Given the task of arranging

in arrangement. a melody the student will
correctly incorporate the lower

and upper ranges of each voice

in an SATB chorus.

2. Selects mood term 2. Given a TEXT CHART the

and writes on arrangement. student will select an
appropriate mood term for use

in a choral arrangement and

write it in the proper location

on the arrangment.
(Table continues)

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Subskill Statement Matching

from Instructional Performance

Analysis Objective

3. Writes tempo indication 3. G iv en a TEXT CHART the

on TEXT CHART and on student will select the

arrangement. appropriate tempo indication

for use in a choral arrangement

and w r i t e it in the proper

location on the arrangement.

4.1 Underlines coherent 4.1 Gi ve n a TEXT CHART the

verbal phrases on TEXT student will correctly under­

CHART. line coherent verbal phrases
extracted from the verse.

4.2 Writes coherent verbal 4.2 Given the task of arranging

phrases in arrangement. a me l o d y the student will

correctly write coherent ver­

bal phrases extracted from the
verse.

(Table continues)

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Subskill Statement Matching

from Instructional Performance

Analysis Objective

5.1 Writes overall voicing 5.1 Given a TEXT CHART the

on TEXT CHART. student will correctly write

the overall voicing (unison and

two-part) for each of the four

verses of a choral arrangement.

5.2 Incorporates overall 5.2 Given the task of arranging
voicing in arrangement. a melody the student will cor­

rectly incorporate appropriate

voice combinations for unison
and two-part voicing.

6.1 Writes voice comb­ 6.1 Given a TEXT CHART the

inations on TEXT CHART. student will correctly write

appropriate voice combinations
for unison and two-part voi­

cing.

(Table continues)

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58

Subskill Statement Matching

from Instructional Performance

Analysis Objective

6.2 Incorporates voice 6.2 Given the task of arranging

combinations in a melody the student w i ll

arrangement. correctly incorporate voice

combinations in the arrange­

ment.
7.1 Writes dynamic level 7.1 Given a TEXT CHART the

choices on TEXT CHART. student will correctly write

appropriate dynamic level

choices for a choral arrange­

ment.

7.2 Incorporates dynamic 7.2 Given the task of arranging

level choices in a me lod y the student w ill

arrangement. correctly incorporate appro­

priate dynamic level choices in
arrangement.

(Table continues)

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Subskill Statement Matching

from Instructional Performance

Analysis Objective

8. Incorporates melody 8. Given the task of arranging

transfer/layering and a a melody the student will cor­

combination of both in rectly incorpo rat e melody
the arrangement. transfer and layering and a

combin at io n of both in the

arrangement.
9. Incorporates sustained 9. Given the task of arranging
voice in the arrangement. a me lo dy the student will

correctly incorporate a sus­

taining part for one voice in

two-part singing.

10 . Incorporates ostinato 10. Given the task of arranging

in the arrangement. a melody the student will cor­

rectly write an ostinato for

one voice in two-part singing.

(Table continues)

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Subskill Statement Matching

from Instructional Performance

Analysis Objective

11. Incorporates verse 11. Given the task of arranging

transition devices in a melody the student will cor­

the arrangement. rectly write examples of verse
transition devices which join

verses of a choral arrangement.
12. Incorporates 12. Given the task of arranging

arrangement conclusion a melody the student will

device in the arrange­ correctly write a conclusion for

ment the choral arrangement.

13. Incorporates 13. Given the task of arranging
manuscript mechanics a melody the student will
in the arrangement. correctly write manuscript me­
chanics which provide additional

information regarding the choral

arrangement.

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61

Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items
A criterion test was developed to ascertain the students'

performance of stated objectives. Due to the fact that the

task of choral arranging is primarily a procedural one (that

is, one step leads to the next step but is not necessarily

dependent upon that which precedes it), the test created did

not require the student to demonstrate isolated behaviors, but

rather to write a complete choral arrangement incorporating all

procedural tasks. The internal components of the choral

arrangement (such as ranges, mood term, tempo and dynamic
indications) were evaluated within the overall arrangement;

they were not tested in isolated questions. For example, the

student's knowledge of dynamics was evaluated by observing the

correct usage of dynamic level symbols incorporated in the

arrangement, not by asking questions about what the dynamic

level symbols represented.

Entry level skills were redefined as general

characteristics of the target population; therefore, no test

items were developed for these behaviors. Within the scope of

this study, it was assumed that all participants in the target

population met the entry level requirements which were

prerequisite to their enrollment in a choral conducting or

techniques class.

The criterion test developed was represented as:
1. Pretest— measuring those skills that are going to be

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62

taught in the instruction (Dick & Cary, 1985, p. 109).
2. Posttest— assessing all of the objectives of the

program especially focusing on the terminal objective (Dick &

Cary, 1985, p. 110).

In this study, the pre- and posttest were designed to be

the same and all aspects of the expected choral arrangement

were covered in the pre- and posttest instructions.

Develop Instructiona1 Strategy

After completing the task analysis which included
arranging a melody for chorus and organizing a flow chart

representing the instructional analysis, instructional

materials were developed.

To gain knowledge of programming techniques, several

textbooks had been investigated (Becker, 1964; Brethower,

1963; Bullock, 1978; Callendar, 1969; Calvin, 1969; Clough,

1964; Fry, 1963; Gamer, 1966; Hedl, 1969; Lysaught & Williams,
1968; Leith, 1966; Lumsdaine & Glaser, 1960; Madsen & Moore,

1978; Markle, 1969; Melching, Smith, Rupe, & Cox, 1963; O'Day,

1971; Rowntree, 1966). It was decided that a 1inear/branching

format would be used. Lysaught and Williams (1968) described

the format thus:

A basic assumtion of the linear program is that each

stimulus should be designed to elicit the correct response

by the student....The emphasis is to bring the student to

the desired goal by means of a succession of small steps

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63

so designed as to minimize errors and to provide a wide
range of examples and conditions. (p. 72)

In this method of programming, individual differences

among learners may be accounted for. When branching occurs,

three steps are involved:

1. Trigger— The device in the program which provides for

an entrance upon alternate sequences (thus, the beginning of a
branch). The type of trigger used in this program was the
response trigger in which the student takes an alternate path

based on decisions made or the correctness of the response
(e.g.: If you chose a, see page 1? if you chose b, see page

2 ).

2. Track— Additional frames offered after the student has

been triggered.
3. Re-entry— The track merges with the basic program. If

the student has been directed to an earlier part of the
program, reentry is called WASHBACK. (Becker, 1964 p. 151)

Develop Individual Instructional Materials

Instruction was divided into units according to

performance objectives (Appendix D). An introduction in which

guidelines of the program and instructions for using the book
were explained preceded the first unit. A performance

objective was stated at the beginning of each unit in order to

inform the student of what he or she would be able to do when a
unit was finished.

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64

The instruction was designed in such a manner that
concepts proceeded from simple to more complex as a means of

motivating and aiding the student to maintain interest in the

program. The student was encouraged to complete a unit before

stopping. There was one point at which the student was

specifically directed to stop and take a break.

The terminal objective for the text stated that the

student would write a complete choral arrangement. In

accordance with that objective, the student was guided to

assemble a choral arrangement through successive phases of the
program. As each concept was introduced and mastered, the
student was directed to record it on a device designed by the

researcher and entitled TEXT CHART (Appendix E). The use of a

TEXT CHART was inspired by observing a similar technique used

by Alice Parker. Ms. Parker suggested that the arranger write

the text on paper and select dynamic levels and voice

combinations based on who was "speaking" at that time in the

folk song verse. The arranger could write these choices beside

a particular line of the verse prior to transferring the

arrangement to manuscript paper. The TEXT CHART, once

completed, contained all of the information needed by the

student to arrange the melody according to guidelines in the

program.

In order to determine which melodies would be arranged by

the student in the pre- and posttest and within the program

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65

itself, a survey was designed and administered to a group of

music students enrolled in a choral music education class in
which attention was focused on adolescent voices. The purpose

of this survey was to identify melodies which were most
familiar to choral music education students. Since the

population surveyed was similar to the proposed target

population, it was decided that the survey results would

determine the folk melodies which were most well known and that
these would be used as examples for arranging within the

program.

The survey was designed after consulting several folk

melody source materials (Appendix H). Selected melodies were
listed and the survey was administered to the choral music
education class. Respondents were asked to indicate melodies

with which they were familiar, and to add titles of favorite
folk melodies that were not present on the survey. It was

discovered that several melodies listed were unfamiliar to the

respondents, and that several additional titles were named. It

was determined that the survey list needed to be revised,

excluding those melodies which were unfamiliar to some

respondents and substituting melodies which had been added to

the survey by several respondents. The revised survey was

administered in the same manner as the previous one. The

identical population was asked to mark those melodies with

which they were familiar and to check three-to-five favorite

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66

melodies. Results of this survey provided the researcher three
melodies which appeared to be appropriate for use within the

program: 1. Amazing Grace (71% would arrange), 2. Shenandoah

(68% would arrange),and 3. When Johnny Comes Marching Home

(49% would arrange). Complete results ofthe survey can be
seen in Table 6.

The student was offered a choice between two folk melodies
on the pre- and posttests:

1. The melodies were contrasting in tempo, text, and
rhythmic organization.

2. It was hoped that the studentwould be familiar with

at least one of the melodies.

3. It was hoped that a choice between folk melodies would

be a motivational factor to the student.

The third folk melody was used within the program to allow

students to practice writing a choral arrangement as they

proceeded through the instructional materials.

Folk melodies used as musical examples in the

instructional materials were borrowed from three sources:
1. A pamphlet of folk melodies organized by Alice Parker

and distributed during her choral arranging class at
Westminster Choir College.

2. A Treasury of American Song by Elie Siegmeister.

3. The Guitar Songbook by Beverly McKeown.

The researcher studied 100 choral arrangements in order to

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67

Table 6
Results of Folk Melody Survey

Is Would
familiar arrange
Folk Melody
(number of times checked)

When Johnny comes marching home.......... 63 32
Every night when the sun goes i n ........ 33 0
Oh, dear, what can the matter be?........ 60 27
Amazing Grace........................... 63 46
Shenandoah....................... . 62 44
What shall we do with a drunken sailor?. . 59 27
Black is the color or my true loves hair . 60 29
Polly wolly d o o d l e ..................... 60 22
Barbara Allen........................... 45 18
Blow the man down....................... 57 17
Cindy................................... 45 20
He's gone away ......................... 46 26
All my trials........................... 50 11
Blue tail fly........................... 47 0
Camptown races ......................... 61 9
Clementine ............................. 62 4
Erie canal ............................. 50 4
The fox................................. 31 1
Jenny Jenkins........................... 29 0
She'll be cornin' round the mountain. . . . 64 5
Sweet Betsy from pike.................... 44 3
Wayfarin' stranger ..................... 50 14
Londonderry aire ....................... 47 10

Note: N = 65 respondents

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68

find appropriate musical examples for demonstration purposes.
Many arrangements studied were not suitable for use in the

program for one or more of the following reasons:

1. Vocal accompaniment devices were written in a manner

deemed too complex to serve as examples for an introduction to

choral arranging.

2. The harmonic language was beyond the scope of the

present study.
3. Many arrangements included an accompaniment. This

aspect was not covered in the study.

4. Modulations occurred between verses and were not

included in the study.
5. Some simple vocal accompaniment devices used in the

program were not illustrated in the published arrangements.

6. Four-part harmony was used frequently (in 98% of the
arrangements studied) and was not included in this study.

Overall, it was felt that many published arrangements

appeared not to be written in such a way as to demonstrate the

aspects of choral arranging emphasized in this study. In order

to demonstrate techniques designed for this program, and to

illustrate concepts presented in the program text, musical

examples were arranged by the researcher.
After the students had been guided through the program and

had completely assembled an arrangement, they were instructed

to evaluate that arrangement before proceeding to the posttest.

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69

A Choral Arrangement Evaluation Checklist was constructed
(Appendix E). It was derived from performance objectives and

written in a manner which permitted students to check those

components of the arrangement which were correct and to

identify those components which needed revising.

At the conclusion of the program, the students were asked
to complete an attitude questionnaire designed to assess

reactions to the effectiveness of the program (Appendixes F and

G).

It is important to note that an essential phase of the
process of developing instructional materials, as outlined by

Dick & Cary (1985), is to revise instruction after identifying

the instructional goal. As each unit of instruction was

developed, it was shared with committee members and colleagues

in order to refine language, clarify instructions to the

student, improve programming techniques, and insure relevance

of subject matter.

Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation
According to Dick and Cary (1985), "Formative evaluation

is the process instructors use to obtain data in order to

revise their instruction to make it more efficient and

effective" (p. 198).
There are two important phases of formative evaluation in

relation to this study.

One-to-one evaluation: The purpose of this phase is to

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70

identify and remove the most obvious errors in the instruction,
and to obtain initial reactions to the content from learners.

(Dick & Cary, 1985, p. 199) In this stage the evaluator works

very closely with 3 subjects who represent the target

population. It is essential to include three subjects in this

stage of evaluation. Typically the three subjects should

represent different abilities of the target population: 1) one

learner who is slightly above average in ability, 2) one who is

average, and 3) one learner who is below average.

In this study the researcher distributed instructional

materials to three subjects who represented the criteria. The

researcher interacted with each subject as he/she proceeded

through the materials to gain immediate feedback to the

instruction. At the conclusion of each unit in the

instruction, the subjects individually reported their reactions

to that unit and to specific frames within the unit. By
maintaining close interaction with each subject, the researcher

was able to identify and correct errors such as 1)

misinterpretations of directions resulting from unclear

sentences or instructions, 2) mistakes in musical examples, 3)

misspelled words, and 4) missing pages. Suggestions from

subjects were combined with those of committee members who also

examined the instructional materials and looked for possible

errors in language format, programming, and content related to

music theory. Revisions were made in the instructional

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71

materials as a result of this evaluation prior to beginning the

next phase of evaluation.

Smal 1-group evaluation: According to Dick and Cary

(1985), there are two primary purposes for the small group

evaluation:
1. To determine the effectiveness of changes made
following the one-to-one evaluation.
2. To identify any remaining learning problems that

students may have. (p. 201)

In this phase of formative evaluation eight subjects were
chosen to represent the target population. According to

guidelines presented by Dick and Cary (1985), learners should
be representative of these subgroups:

1. Low, average, and high achievement students.
2. Learners with various native languages.

3. Learners who are familiar with a particular procedure,

such as computerized instruction, and learners who are not.

4. Males and females.
5. Younger or inexperienced learners as well as more

mature learners. (p. 201)

The eight subjects included in this phase of evaluation

satisfied all except guideline number two of those enumerated

by Dick and Cary.
The procedure for this phase of instruction differed from

the one-to-one evaluation in that the researcher:

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72

1. Explained that the materials were still in the
formative stage of development and that it was necessary to

receive feedback on possible improvement of the instruction.

2. Administered materials in the manner in which they

were intended to be used when the instruction was in final

form.
3. Intervened as little as possible in the process,

allowing the subjects to react to the content of the materials

rather than to verbal explanations by the designer.

In this phase of evaluation the subjects were expected to

complete the instructional materials by completing the pretest,

proceeding through the instruction and taking the posttest at

the conclusion of the program. Additional steps in smal 1-group

evaluation included the administering of an attitude
questionnaire and discussions with some of the subjects in the

group. At the conclusion of the small group evaluation, the
researcher discussed reactions to instruction with several

subjects. He then implemented suggestions regarding program

errors. Errors noted by members of this group pertainedto:
1. Incorrect notation in musical examples.

2. Missing or incorrect page numbers.
3. Unclear instructions on the pre- and posttest.

4. Number of musical examples necessary for mastery by a

subject.
5. Length of time allowed for completion of the program.

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73

6. Identification of misspellings, word omissions,
unclear directions or sentences.

Completed pretests and posttests were examined in order to

construct an objective evaluation tool which could be used for

evaluation of pre- and posttests representing achievment by the

field-trial group. .Performance objectives, the Choral Arrange­
ment Evaluation Checklist, and pre-posttests completed by the

smal 1-group were used to assemble the Choral Arrangement Eval­
uation Tool (CAET) which may been seen in Appendix C. Every

component of the choral arrangement was included in the test
measure and points were assigned relative to the importance of

each component of the choral arrangement. After the CAET had
been constructed it was necessary to determine its validity as

a test measure. A Content Validity Form was designed (Appendix
B). It was based upon choral arranging performance objectives.

Performance objectives were to be compared against the test

items in the CAET to see whether they were included in the

testing instrument. Upon completion of necessary revisions,

instructional materials were reassembled for distribution to

the final evaluation group.

Field-trial

The purpose of the field-trial as the final stage of
formative evaluation was to determine whether changes in the

instruction made following the small-group stage were

effective, and whether the instruction can be incorporated

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74

successfully in the environment for which it was intended. An
additional aspect of this phase of evaluation was to identify

ways in which additions and/or deletions from the materials or

changes in instructional procedures might be made to improve

the effectiveness of the materials. A field-trial should

include about 30 subjects who are representative of the target

population. (Dick & Cary, 1985, pp. 203-204).

In this study, the field-trial served in the capacity of

summative evaluation for instructional materials. A summative

evaluation function was chosen for this study because no

further revision of materials was contemplated after the field-

trial evaluation had taken place. As stated by Dick and Cary:

The purpose of the formative field trial is to provide

data for further revision of the instruction, while the
purpose of a summative evaluation is to determine the

value of the present materials for a defined target group

or a particular target setting or both. (p. 258)
Materials for the field-trial were distributed to 33

students enrolled in choral techniques and conducting classes.

All subjects belonged to the target population. They were thus

considered appropriate for inclusion in this phase of

evaluation. The researcher distributed instructional materials

to the subjects and he gave verbal instructions and

motivational comments. After initial contact with the field-

group, further direct contact was avoided in order to provide

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75

an atmosphere in which the subjects reacted only to the

instruction. The subjects, however, were encouraged to contact

the researcher in the event that they encountered problems

which might have prevented their proceeding through or

completing the instruction. It was noted that within this

phase of evaluation little contact between the researcher and
subjects was needed.

Materials given to each student included a pretest,
programmed instruction, posttest and an attitude questionnaire.

Data gathered through the field-trial included an assessment of
student achievement on the pretest and posttest as well as

student responses recorded on the attitude questionnaire.

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Chapter IV
Results

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate

materials designed to teach fundamentals of choral arranging by

means of programmed instruction. Concepts in choral arranging

were assembled through task analysis into a single booklet

containing eleven integrated units. A systematic design of
instruction (Dick & Cary, 1985) was employed to organize

content materials.
In accordance with guidelines of the "systems" model, all

materials were subjected to a formative evaluation consisting

of one-to-one and smal1-group contact. The one-to-one and

smal1-group evaluations were instruments1 in the design and

revision process. A field-trial phase served as the means of

evaluating programmed materials used in this study. Results

reported in this chapter represent data gathered during the

field-trial which was completed at the Florida State

University, Tallahassee, Florida.

To effectively evaluate the instructional materials, the

following research questions were formulated:

1. Will there be any difference in students' pre- and
posttest choral arrangement scores resulting from implementing

programmed instruction in choral arranging? This question was

76

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77

restated as a null hypothesis in order to evaluate it
statistically: There will be no difference between mean scores

attained by each subject on pre- and posttest choral

arrangements.

2. Will students express favorable attitudes toward

programmed instruction in choral arranging after completing

the instructional units?

An alpha level of .05 was established for evaluation of
responses to the first research question.

Prior to evaluating pre- and posttest choral arrangements,

a Choral Arrangement Evaluation Tool (CAET) was designed by

the researcher to serve as an objective measure for

determining subjects' achievement in writing a choral
arrangement. A Content Validity check was conducted in order
to establish the CAET as a reliable measuring device. Three

judges were selected by the researcher. They possessed these

necessary characteristics:

1. Each judge was experienced in recognizing correctly

written performance objectives.

2. Each judge was experienced in discriminating

components of a suitable choral arrangement.

3. Each judge was experienced in singing and conducting

choral music.

A copy of the CAET and a list of performance objectives

were distributed to each judge who was then responsible for

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78

checking to see if each objective was represented in the

evaluation tool. "Yes" and "no" columns were placed beside

each performance objective and the judge was instructed to

place a check-mark in the appropriate blank after completing

the evaluation. (The Content Validity Fora is located in

Appendix B and the CAET may be seen in Appendix C.) Validity

of the CAET was verified by a 100% agreement among the three

judges regarding the testing of stated objectives.

After subjects completed posttest arrangements, the CAET

was administered to evaluate their accomplishment of stated

objectives. The researcher and another individual, who had

completed the program and possessed knowledge of program
objectives and content, participated in the evaluation process.

In order to determine reliability among judges, an inter-judge

reliability check was conducted. Each judge evaluated 25% of

the total number of pre- and postest arrangements (16 of 62

total arrangements). Eight pre- and posttest arrangements were

selected at random to be evaluated. The formula:

Total number of agreements Percentage
Total number of agreements + disagreements Reliability

was calculated to obtain a reliability coefficient (Madsen &

Madsen, 1981, p. 252). A reliability coefficient of .94 was

established indicating a higher degree of inter-judge

reliability.

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79

Programmed materials were distributed to N = 33 subjects
in the Fall semester of 1986. Subjects were enrolled in a

choral techniques class (n = 24), and a choral conducting class

(n = 9). Two subjects were unable to complete the instruction,

thus reducing the N to 31. Subjects were initially given a

two-week period in which to complete the instruction. Included

in this period of time was the administration of a pretest,

instructional materials, and posttest. Because only fifteen

subjects (48%) returned the materials on or before the deadline

date, the deadline was extended 15 days beyond the original
two-week period. The remainder of the subjects completed the

instruction during this time.

To test the first research question (which had been

restated as a null hypothesis) a t test for dependent samples

was performed comparing students' pre- and posttest scores. As
the obtained value of t (18.67) was greater than the critical

value of t (30) = 2.042, £ < .05, there was a difference in

scores. Significantly higher scores were attained on the

posttest choral arrangements. The mean score for the pretest

was 14.93 and the standard deviation was 13.94. The mean score

for the posttest was 73.29 and the standard deviation was

20.26. Percentage scores representing

pre- and posttest choral arrangements are listed in Table 7.

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80

Table 7
Pre- and Posttest Scores of Students Completing AN INTRODUCTION

TO CHORAL ARRANGING

Subject Pretest (70 items) Posttest (70 items)
% %

A 29 78

B 24 76

C* 20 76

D 6 18

E* 21 76

F 23 90

G 0 57

H 6 86

I 24 82

J 6 59

K 13 93

L 9 75

M 15 75
N 39 84

0* 23 94
P 0 64

Q 8 95

R 5 42

(table continues)

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81

Subject Pretest (70 items) Posttest (70 items)
% %

S 17 55

T 5 84

0 18 93
V 12 89

W 0 34

X 0 73
Y 0 40

Z 59 98

AA 7 47

BB* 35 96

CC 0 77

DD 6 82

EE 33 84

Note. * = Those who arranged WHEN JOHNNY COMES MARCHING HOME

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82

Scores on the pretest ranged from 0-59 with six scores of

0, four scores of 6, two scores each of 23 and 24. Posttest

scores ranged from 18-98 with three scores each of 76 and 84,

and two scores each of 75, 82, and 93.

Reliability coefficients were calculated for test items on
both pre- and posttests by applying the Kuder-Richardson

Formula 21 method. The KR21 coefficients follow: pretest =
.93; and posttest = .95.

Attitude Questionnaire

Feedback from the small-group evaluation necessitated a

revision of the attitude questionnaire (format and results of

the smal 1-group evaluation may be seen in Appendix F).

Suggested revisions were:

1. To clarify the format of questions.
2. To number each question.

3. To change the words "just right" to"aboutright".

4. To clarify the directions enabling a subjectto
proceed to the next question.

5. To add questions to the original questionnaire (E. 3 &
E. 7 on revised form, Appendix G).

Results of the field-trial evaluation questionnaire

designed to answer research question # 2 appear to reflect

students' favorable attitudes regarding instruction in choral
arranging:

1. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects stated that they

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83

would arrange another melody on their own after completing the
program.
2. Eighty-one percent of the subjects stated that they

enjoyed taking the program.

3. Ninety percent of the subjects considered themselves

better able to arrange as a result of programmed instruction in

choral arranging.
Complete results obtained on the field-trial evaluation

questionnaire may be seen in Appendix G.

Subjects made the following observations about improving

the instruction:
1. Limit its size. (4 subjects)

2. Do not include so many exercises on Vocal

Accompaniment Devices. (4 subjects)
3. Give more flexibility in VAD choices. (2 subjects)
4. Allow more time to complete the program. (2 subjects)
5. Having the same concept repeated is boring. (1

subject)
6. The appearance of the booklet is overwhelming. (1

subject)

7. Allow more harmonic freedom. (1 subject)

8. Make it more challenging for college students. (1

subject)

9. Correct mistakes in booklet. (1 subject)
10. Give more explanation of the VAD: Ostinato. (1

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84

subject)

11. Shorten the length of examples. (1 subject)

12. Include a section on four-part arranging. (1 subject)

Among the favorable comments about the instruction were:
1. "It was thoroughly organized". (10 subjects)

2. "The booklet was clearly written". (8 subjects)

3. "The use of frames with feedback to present material
was a good idea". (5 subjects)

4. "It was nice to have a finished arrangement when the

instuction was over". (2 subjects)

5. "The text chart was a good device". (2 subjects)

6. "Instructions to the students were good". (1 subject)

7. "The instruction was positive". (1 subject)
8. "It was great for beginners". (1 subject)

9. "Questions and supplied answers reinforced learning".
(1 subject)

10. "There was a good use of humor". (1 subject)

11. "There was a good variety of musical examples". (1
subject)

12. "The structure allowed one to work at his own pace".
(1 subject)

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Chapter V

Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Summary

Instructional materials in this study were designed,
developed, and evaluated according to guidelines presented in

The Systematic Design of Instruction by Dick and Cary, 1985.

This approach suggests that materials be subjected to formative

evaluation consisting of one-to-one and smal1-group

evaluations. The field-trial served as a summative evaluation

for instructional materials. The first two phases of formative

evaluation served as the basis for the program design. The

field-trial functioned as the means by which data were

collected for the final evaluation of materials.

Materials included 11 integrated units of programmed

instruction designed to assist in teaching a fundamental skill

of choral arranging to college level students who had completed

the theory requirement.

The instructional materials were accompanied by a pretest,

posttest and attitude questionnaire. The attitude

questionnaire was designed to ascertain subjects' reaction to

the program.

Evaluation of the program was based on two factors:

1. Subjects' performance on pre- and posttests.

85

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86

2. Subjects' attitudes about the program after they had
completed it.

Statistical research questions included the following:
1. Will there be any difference in students' pre- and

posttest choral arrangement scores resulting from implementing

programmed instruction in choral arranging? (Restated as a null

hypothesis)

2. Will students express favorable attitudes toward
programmed instruction in choral arranging after completing the

instructional units?

Thirty-one subjects completed the field-trial. Subjects
were enrolled in a choral conducting class (n = 9) and a choral

techniques class (n = 24). Instructional materials were

distributed to the combined classes and subjects were given

instructions concerning the length of time designated for the

program. The researcher made himself available for any

assistance which may have been needed by the subjects during

the course of the program.

Data gathered from pre- posttest choral arrangements
indicated that subjects performed significantly better on the

posttest. From a motivational standpoint, a factor

contributing to the success attained through the program could
be related to the fact that 81% of the subjects reported that

they possessed an interest in arranging prior to engaging in
the instruction.

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87

Subjects were instructed not to refer to any materials
during the pretest in order that their arrangements would

reflect only those concepts gained from pretest instructions

and their ability to organize those concepts into an

arrangement. It was observed by the researcher that a number

of pretest arrangements surpassed expectations outlined on

pretest instructions. Even though many arrangements could be

considered creative and suitable, evaluation according to

guidelines of the CAET resulted in low scores. It was also

observed that 6 subjects (20%) did not attempt to undertake the

pretest arrangement. After completing the instruction, sub­

jects were offered the option of referring to the programmed

materials for assistance in locating concepts which might aid

them in completing posttest arrangements.

Lower scores on posttests (50, or below) came from a small
number of subjects (16%). Those subjects were asked why they
performed below expectation on the posttest. A majority of

subjects reported that they didn't have enough time to finish

the program. Some subjects admitted that they didn't spend
much time working on the program. It was also observed that

all of those who received a low score on the posttest choral
arrangement did not turn in their programs on the projected due
date.

Positive attitudes concerning the programmed instruction
in choral arranging were expressed by subjects who stated that

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88

they: 1) enjoyed taking the program; 2) would arrange
another melody if the opportunity were presented, and 3) con­

sidered themselves better able to arrange after completing the

program. Subjects were asked to comment on the best aspect of

the instruction. The most frequent responses were:
1. The program was thoroughly organized. (10 subjects)

2. The program was clearly written. (8 subjects)

3. I liked the use of frames to present information. (5

subjects)

Subjects were also asked to suggest ways to improve the
instruction. The most frequent responses were:

1. Limit the size of the booklet. (4 subjects)
2. Don't include so many exercises on Vocal Accompaniment

Devices. (4 subjects)

For the purpose of this study, no further revisions were

made. However, suggestions offered by subjects regarding

improvement of materials are considered hereafter along with

comments regarding their feasibility for being incorporated in

any future revisions.
1. Limit the size of the booklet. Two possible ways to
limit the overwhelming appearance of the booklet would be to:

a) Reproduce each page with information on both sides of the
paper. In this way the booklet would be reduced in size by one

half, b) Reduce all musical examples in size prior to placing

them on the page. Since there were many musical examples

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89

throughout the booklet, an alteration of this nature would
reduce the overall appearance greatly.

2. Do not include so many exercises on Vocal Accompani­

ment Devices. Due to the fact that differing levels of ability

are encountered when presenting a program of this nature, it

would be difficult to eliminate exercises without favoring

those students who did not need further examples to work.

Students who needed extra help could suffer. A possible

proposal could be to offer a better branching system which

would direct those students who may believe that they have
grasped a concept on to other areas of learning.

3. Allow more harmonic freedom/Give greater flexibility

in choices of Vocal Accompaniment Devices ♦ This suggestion was

made by several subjects after completing the program. Some
felt "stifled" by having to follow the organizational structure

of the program so closely. Within the programmed format, the

instructor must account for every possible answer a student may
provide on evaluative responses. The number of potential

choices confronting the arranger is infinite. To incorporate a

system which would provide confirmations for the many ways in

which a student might respond to a given problem would not only

appreciably lengthen the task of the student but also greatly

increase the size of the booklet and thus defeat the solution

to another important suggestion for improving instruction.

This instruction was designed to present a fundamental approach

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90

to choral arranging and, as such, was limited to basic concepts

for the novice arranger. Suggestions from those who wished to

receive a more advanced program of choral arranging techniques

could be addressed in a succeeding volume. Topics to be
presented might include: Modulation, settings for 3 and 4-part

voice harmony, advanced harmonic

techniques, greater variety of VADs, use of keyboard or other

types of accompaniment, and arranging with reference to

characteristics of a specific style or period.

4. Allow more time to take the program. Based on data

from one-to-one and smal 1-group evaluations, a two-week period
of time was considered adequate for completion of these
instructional materials. Formative evaluations took place

during the summer of 1986 when students appeared to be less

burdened than during a regular semester. Comments recorded in

this phase of testing indicated that subjects expressed the

opinion that they had more free time to spend on the program

because they were not as busy as they would have been during

the fall or spring semester. Subjects involved in the field-
trial phase of evaluation remarked that obligations to other
studies as well as other assignments within the course to which

this program was related prevented them from completing the
program in the allotted time. Further study would be needed to

determine the number of variables contributing to a subject's

ability to master materials in choral arranging in a specified

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91

period of time.
Conclusions

The researcher sought to answer the following question

related to the development of programmed materials:

Can concepts drawn from a number of different sources be

synthesized into a single method for the purpose of teaching an

introduction to choral arranging by means of programmed

instruction?

The researcher consulted three resources to gather
information for developing instructional materials in choral

arranging:

1. Choral Arranging by Harry Robert Wilson.

2. Choral Arranging by Hawley Ades.

3. Lectures and writings of Alice Parker.
Although two choral arranging textbooks contained abundant

information on choral arranging techniques, and offered
examples to work, they allowed no means by which the student
could verify responses. Thus, the textbooks in choral arranging

appeared to need an instructor to provide feedback and to

measure student progress.

The researcher sought to synthesize all three resources

into a single instructional format utilizing programmed

instruction. Due to the limitations of this study, many con­

cepts in choral arranging did not apply or were not utilized.

These limitations were mentioned in Chapter I. The researcher

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92

focused attention on those concepts which were considered
essential by all three authors. It was through this

investigation and synthesis that the basis for content was
outlined.

The use of a TEXT CHART was reported to be a useful device

by 97% of the subjects completing the field-trial.

In the opinion of the researcher, it was feasible to
synthesize concepts derived from three sources into a single,
effective, and enjoyable method for presenting an introduction

to choral arranging by means of programmed instruction. This

conclusion was supported by statisticaly significant gains in

pre- to posttest scores as well as favorable feedback from
subjects completing an attitude questionnaire.

Programmed instruction is an effective means of teaching

choral arranging as an ancillary learning experience related to

an existing class. Self-guided instruction in music has proven

to be effective in related studies (Brinson, 1986? Malone,

1985? Wyatt, 1974? et. al.). An important aspect of this means

of instruction is that students may study materials outside of

class time and without assistance from the classroom
instructor. Programmed instruction in choral arranging could be

an effective way to learn fundamentals prior to pursuing more
advanced study with direction from a classroom teacher.

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93

Recommendations for Further Research
Results of this study appear to suggest further develop­

ment of instructional materials in choral arranging:

1. Arranging techniques could be guided for 3 and 4 part

voices.
2. Vocal Accompaniment Devices not presented in this

program (e.g., canon, imitation, figuration, et. al.) could be

included.
3. An arranging method could be developed to teach

specific styles of choral arranging: Jazz, Popular, Spiritual,

Country, and Folk vocal idioms.
4. Arranging practice could be guided for various voice

combinations (TTBB, SSAA, SSAATTBB voicings, et. al.).
5. Instruction for writing accompaniments by piano or

other instruments could be programmed.
6. Instruction for transcribing an existing arrangement

to one of another texture and/or combination of voices could be

programmed.
7. Instruction for alternate harmonic techniques

(harmonic progressions

which make use of the sub-dominant and other diatonic chords,

use of secondary dominants, seventh and ninth chords,

modulations, et. al.) could be programmed.

8. An attempt could be made to include sound recordings

as a means of presenting musical examples.

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94

9. An attempt could be made to evaluate posttest arrange­
ments by means of a live performance as well as an objective

measure.

10. A means might be developed through which students were

afforded more freedom of choice in determining the organization

of their posttest arrangements. Such choices might include:
deciding overall voicing for verses, and writing a more

flexible ostinato and sustained voice part.
11. Instruction designed to assist the arranger in the

understanding of specific age classifications (children,
adolescents, adults) could be considered.

12. Programmed instruction in choral arranging could be

used in an experimental setting comparing its effectiveness to
that of traditional classroom instruction.

It is suggested, as a technical measure, that a textbook
of this size (270+ pages) should be reproduced on both sides of

the paper in order to reduce its volume and overwhelming

appearance.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Periodicals

Andrews, J. A. (1968) . Development and trial of a basic

course in music theory using self-instructional materials

to supplement training received in high school
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Ashford, T. H. A. (1966). The use of programmed instruction to

teach fundamental concepts in music theory. Journal of

Research in Music Education, 14 (3), 171-177.

Ashford, T. H. A. (1968). Some long range effects of

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Bauemschmidt, R. (1968). Arranging for the elementary

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Broude, R. (1977). Arrangement, transcription, edition.

The Choral Journal, 28(1), 25-29.

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Bubniuk, I. (1970, May-June). Programming concepts applied

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for Research in Music Education, 4, 30-35.

Carlsen, J. C. (1969). Developing aural perception of

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116

Unpublished Manuscripts
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Unpublished manuscript.

Unpublished Interviews
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campus of Westminster Choir College].

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APPENDIX A

SURVEY OF CURRICULAR OFFERINGS
IN CHORAL ARRANGING

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118

Course Offerings in Choral Arranging Among Music Department
Curricula of Representative Colleges and Universities

College/University Choral Arranging is offered

Yes No

Alabama State University (Montgomery) x

American University (D. C.) x

Apalachian State University x

Arizona State University (Tempe) x
Arkansas State University x

Ball State University x
Birmingham Southern University x

Bluefield State College x

Boise State University x

Boston Conservatory x

Boston University x
Bowling Green State University x

Brigham Young University x

California State University(Fullerton) x

California State University(Long Beach) x

California State University (LosAngeles) x

Carnegie Mellon University x

(Appendix continues)

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119

Appendix A— continued

College/University Choral Arranging is offered

Yes No

Catholic University (D. C.) x
Chadron State University x

Cleveland Institute of Music x

Colorado State University(Fort Collins) x

Curtis Institute x

Dakota State College x

East Carolina University x
Eastman School of Music x

East Tennessee State University x
East Texas State University x

Eastern New Mexico University x

Eastern Washington University x

Florida State University x

Furman University x

George WashingtonUniversity x

Georgia State University x

Illinois State University (Normal) x
Indiana University (Bloomington) x

Indiana University (Fort Wayne) x

(Appendix continues)

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120

Appendix A— continued

College/University Choral Arranging is offered

Yes

Iowa State University

Jacksonville State University x

James Madison University x
Keene State College x

Kent State University x
Longwood College x

Louisiana State University x

Loyola University X

Luther College X

Manhattan School of Music X

Michigan State University X

Mississippi State University x
Memphis State University x

Moorehead State University X

Morehead State University x

Norfolk State College X

North Carolina School of the Arts X

Northeast Louisiana State University X

North Texas State University X

(Appendix continues)

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121

Appendix A— continued

College/University Choral Arranging is offered

Yes No

Northwestern Oklahoma State University x
Northwestern University x

Oberlin College x
Oregon State University x

Peabody Conservatory x

Penn State University x

Radford University x

Rhode Island College x

Rocky Mountain College x

Rutgers University x

Saint Olaf College x

Saint Mary's College x

Saint Michael's College x

Salem College x
San Jose City College x

Shenandoah Conservatory x

Stanford University x

Stetson University x
Syracuse University x

(Appendix continues)

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122

Appendix A— continued

College/Oniversity Choral Arranging is offered

Yes No

Temple University x

Towson State University x

University of:

Alabama (Huntsville) x

Albequerque x

Alaska x
Arkansas (Little Rock) x

Arizona x

California (Los Angeles) x

Central Florida x

Cincinnati x
Colorado (Boulder) x

Connecticut x

Delaware x
Florida (Gainesville) x

Georgia x

Hawaii x

Idaho x

Illinois (Urbana-Champagne) x

(Appendix continues)

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123

Appendix A— continued

Col lege/University Choral Arranging is offered

Yes No

University of:

Kentucky x

Louisville x

Miami x
Michigan (Ann Arbor) x

Minnesota (Duluth) x

Missouri (Kansas City) x
Montana x

Nebraska (Omaha) x
Nevada (Reno) x

New Hampshire x

North Carolina (Chapel Hill) x
Northern Colorado (Greenly) x

Northern Iowa x

Oregon x

Rhode Island x

South Carolina (Beaufort) x
South Carolina (Spartanburg) x

South Dakota x
(Appendix continues)

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124

Appendix A— continued

College/University Choral Arranging is offered
Yes No

University of:

South Florida X

Southern California X

Southern Maine X

Southern Mississippi X

Texas (Austin) X

Utah X

Vermont X

West Virginia X

Wisconsin (Eauclaire) X

Wisconsin (La Crosse) X

Wisconsin (Madison) X

Wisconsin (Oshkosh) X

Wyoming X

Virginia Commonwealth University x

Western Michigan University x
Westminster Choir College x

Wichita State University x

(Appendix continues)

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125

Appendix A— continued

College/University Choral Arranging is offered

Yes No

Yale University X

Note. N=128 Colleges & Universities. Yes=50 No=78. Data
were taken from 1984-85 course description catalogues.

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APPENDIX B

CONTENT VALIDITY FORM

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127

CONTENT VALIDITY FORM

To the evaluators: Read each performance objective, then look
on the Choral Arrangement Evaluation Tool to see if that
objective will be tested for in a choral arrangement. Once you
have done so, return to this page and place a check mark in the
appropriate blank.

Objectives
tested for
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES in
evaluation
tool?

YES NO

1. The student will be able to correctly
discriminate the lower and upper limit ranges
of each voice in an SATB chorus............... ....
2. The student will write the mood term and tempo
indications on the TEXT CHART appropriate for
use with a choral arrangement.................
3. The student will be able to correctly write and
underline coherent phrases which convey a
complete thought of the larger verse..........

4. The student will write OVERALL VOICING (unison
[vs 1&2] and two-part [vs 3&4]) for each of the
four verses in a choral arrangement on the TEXT
CHART and execute these voicings in a choral
arrangement .................................

5. The student will write appropriate VOICE
COMBINATIONS to go with unison and two-part
voicings.....................................
6. The student will be able to correctly choose
and write appropriate dynamics for a choral
arrangement..................................

7. The student will correctly write the Vocal
Accompaniment Device which will be labelled
MELODY TRANSFER/LAYERING for unison voices
using a given folk song melody and verse. . . .
Go to the next page.

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128

CONTENT VALIDITY FORM— continued Objectives
tested for
in
evaluation
tool?

YES NO

8. The student will correctly write the Vocal
Accompaniment Device which will be labelled the
SUSTAINED VOICE for two-part voices using a
given folk song melody and verse..............
9. The student will correctly write the Vocal
Accompaniment Device which will be labelled
OSTINATO for two-part voices using a given folk
song melody and verse........................
10. The student will write appropriate musical
transition devices to join verses of a choral
arrangement and one of two appropriate musical
devices to conclude the arrangement...........

11. The student will incorporate all necessary
manuscript mechanics which provide additional
information for the musical portion of a choral
arrangement..................................

(Choral Arrangement Evaluation Tool appears in Appendix C)

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APPENDIX C
CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION TOOL

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130

CHORAL ARRANGMENT EVALUATION TOOL

Evaluation Procedure:

The evaluator will look at the choral arrangement as well as
the TEXT CHART (where indicated on this evaluation sheet) to
judge the presence of proper choral arranging components.
Points are assigned for each component of the choral
arrangement. If any component is found to be incorrect, then
no points are given for that item. If the evaluator is judging
multiple items for which a fixed point value is assigned, and
one of those items is deemed incorrect, then no points are
given.
Earned points are written by the evaluator on the blank
line to the left of thediagonal (/).
The number to theright of the diagonal (/) reflects the
total number of points available for that particular component
of the choral arrangement.

All points assessed pertain to both Amazing Grace and When
Johnny Comes Marching Home except when there is a difference
between the two melodies. This difference will be indicated by
the presence of separate places to judge either melody.

When the choral arrangement has been evaluated, the total
number of points earned by the arranger are written in the
appropriate blank.

Component Points Points
Earned Allowed

Ranges(4)

Do ranges of voice parts
conform to guidelines?

Soprano......................................... / 1
A l t o ........................................... / 1
Tenor........................................... / 1
B a s s ........................................... / 1
Go to the next page.

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131

CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION TOOL— contiuned
Component Points Points
Earned Allowed
Mood Term(l)

Correct term in correct
location on arrangement / 1

Tempo Indication(1)

Correct indication in correct
location on arrangement / 1

Text(8)

Underlined phrases are the same as
those used in arrangement— TEXT CHART is
compared to arrangement in vs 3:

line 1............ / 1
line 2............ / 1
line 3............ / 1
line 4............ / 1
Coherent phrases (underlined phrases)
match those found in the two lists
which follow for each verse:

line 1............ / 1
line 2............ / 1
line 3............ / 1
line 4............ / 1

— Amazing Grace—

(And) Grace will lead (me)
Grace has brought me (safe)
I have come
lead me home
safe thus far,
Through (many) dangers I have come
Through (many) snares I have come
Through (many) toils I have come

Go to the next page.

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132

CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION TOOL— contiuned
Component Points Points
Earned Allowed
— When Johnny comes inarching home—

Get ready for the Jubilee,
the laurel wreath is ready (now)
upon his (royal) brow,
we'll (all) feel gay,
(we'll) give (the hero) three times three,
(When) Johnny comes (marching) home.

Overall Voicing(4)

Unison— 1st verse / 1
Unison— 2nd verse / 1
Two-part— 3rd verse.............................. / 1
Two-part— 4th verse.............................. / 1

Voice Combinations(8)

Voice combinations change on each line
of TEXT CHART after first line:

v s l .............. /
v s 2 .............. /
v s 3 .............. /
v s 4 .............. /
Voice combination choices from
TEXT CHART are executed
in arrangement: ^

v s l .............. j i
.............. j i
.............. j !
....

Go to the next page.

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133

CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION TOOL— contiuned
Component Points Points
Earned Allowed
Dynamic levels(8)
Correct dynamic level plan on TEXT CHART
1 pt per verse for using:
Terraced dynamics (increasing/decreasing)
Arched dynamics
Sudden shift followed by a dynamic level
one step louder or softer than previous
level stated.

vsl / 1
vs2 / 1
vs3 / 1
vs4 / 1
Dynamic level is indicated
in score over all voice parts
singing the melody:

vsl / 1
vs2 / 1
vs3 / 1
vs4 / 1

VAD: Melody Transfer/Layering(18)

Transfer/Layering occurs at proper location
(correct word and pitch) in verses 1 & 2
on lines 2, 3, & 4. (3 pts per line)

Verse 1 line 2............ / 3
line 3............ / 3
line 4 / 3

Verse 2 line.2............ / 3
line 3 / 3
line 4.......... / 3

Go to the next page.

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134

CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION TOOL— contiuned
Component Points Points
Earned Allowed

VAD: Sustained Voice(17/21)

Begins on downbeat of measure and
occurs once per line of verse:
line 1............ / 1
line 2 ............ / 1
line 3............ / 1
line 4 ............ / 1

Uses correct pitches (tonic & dominant):
Amazing Grace / 5

When Johnny Comes Marching Home / 9

Text is evenly distributed over
each line of verse (no more
than 2 notes per measure):

line 1............ /
/ 1
1
line 2............ / 1
line 3 ............ / 1
line .......... .. ...

Dynamic level of Sustained Voice is at
least one level softer than melody
for each line of verse:
line 1............ ^ \
line 2 ' J
line 3............ '
line 4............ ■

Go to the next page

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135

CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION TOOL— contiuned

Component Points Points
Earned Allowed
VAD: Ostinato(20/28)

Pattern begins:
1. as pick-up to second measure if
ostinato pattern contains pick-up / 4

or
2. on downbeat of measure if ostinato
pattern has no pick-up / 4

Harmonic shift:

1. Retains same contour (direction
of notes in pattern). Occurs twice
(2 pts each occurance) in AMAZING
GRACE and four times (2 pts each
occurance) in WHEN JOHNNY...:

Amazing Grace.................... ..... / 4
When Johnny comes Marching home. / 8

Uses pitches of Dominant
seventh chord closest to
those in original pattern
(occurs twice in Amazing Grace
and four times in When Johnny...)
using same point values as before:

Amazing Grace.................... ..... / 4
When Johnny comes Marching Home. / 8
Dynamic level of Ostinato voice is at least
one level softer than melody........... .

Go to the next page

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136

CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION TOOL— continued
Component Points Points
Earned Allowed
VAD; Ostinato— continued

Ending of Ostinato pattern:

1. Sustains the last vowel sung,
resolving to tonic pitch, if
necessary.................................. / 4

or
2. Ceases prior to the
last measure of the m e l o d y .................. / 4

Verse Transition Devices (6)

1. Fermata is present at end of
first verse over last note
in all voice parts / 1

2. Ending of verse 2:
a. Last phrase is repeated................ / 1
b. Third verse begins as repeated
phrase e n d s ............................ / 1

3. Ending of verse 3:

a. Sustained voice extended for one
m e a s u r e ................................ / 1
b. Next verse enters within that
measure and sustained voice
is prolonged for one measure / 1

Go to the next page

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137

CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION TOOL— contiuned

Component: Points Points
Earned Allowed
Verse Transition Devices— continued

4. Ending of arrangement:
a. Final phrase is repeated and
all voices are sustained
for one measure . . . . . . .

or
b. One voice part sustains final
pitch while another voice part
repeats the final phrase, and
all voice parts are sustained
for one measure / 1

Manuscript Mechanics(5)
1. Title is present and centered at
top of 1st page / 1
2. Arranger's name is present and placed
at top right of 1st p a g e / 1

3. Rehearsal numbers are located every 5
measures beginning with # 5 .................. / 1

4. Page numbers are centered at bottom
of every page............................... / 1
5. Double barline appears at conclusion
of arrangement............................. / 1

Total number of points earned for:

Amazing G r a c e ...................... / 100
When Johnny Comes Marching Home . . / 112

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APPENDIX D

PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:
AN INTRODUCTION TO CHORAL ARRANGING

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140

XAHEE OF CONTENTS

UNIT TOPICS COVERED FRAMES
Introduction and Pretest
1 Ranges....................................... 1-14
2 Mood & Tempo Terminology. .............. 15- 17
3 Text: Underline Coherent Phrases............. 18- 38
4 Overall Voicing
Voice Combinations........................... 39-74
5 Dynamics.................................... 75- 97
6 VAD: (unison) Melody Transfer............... 98-125
Melody Layering
A combination of Both
Melody Transfer/Layering
7 VAD: (two-part) Melody plus Sustained Voice. . .126-145
8 VAD: (two-part) Melody plus Ostinato......... 146-182
9 Verse Transition/Conclusion Devices.......... 183-197
10 Manuscript Mechanics and Completed
Pencil Draft of Choral Arrangement from TEXT CHART 198-203
11 Choral Arrangement Evaluation Check List and
Final Editing of Pencil Draft Manuscript
Posttest
Index
Pocket containing:
1. Pretest
2. Masking card
3. Choral Arranging TEXT CHART for SHENANDOAH
4. TEXT UNDERLINING SHEET
5. Choral Arrangement Evaluation Checklist
6. Posttest
7. Questionnaire
8. Manuscript paper

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141

TO THE STUDENT:
The following text has been designed to present an
introduction to the craft of choral arranging by programmed
instruction.
Instruction is organized into units, with objectives stated
at the beginning of each unit. By reading objectives you will
know what you will be able to do at the end of each unit. To
better illustrate this, the terminal objective of this program
follows:
At the conclusion of this program, given manuscript paper,
and guidelines, you will be able to arrange a folk melody for
unison and two-part voices incorporating the Soprano, Alto,
Tenor, and Bass voice parts.
The concepts will be presented in short bits of information
called frames. In most cases you will be asked to respond to
information given. When you do so, there will be an immediate
opportunity to receive feedback to confirm your response with
ample assistance in case your response is incorrect. In some
cases no response will be required. You will be instructed to
go on to the next frame. The format of frame presentation will
be vertical, that is, you will proceed down the page from top to
bottom. Confirmation of responses will be placed below a black
line. You will want to cover this confirmation prior to reading
the frame. You may do so with the masking card provided.
DO NOT WRITE IN THIS BOOKLET. You will be supplied with
manuscript paper for answering those questions which require a

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142

response using notation. In all other instances you may respond
overtly by writing on a separate piece of paper which you supply
or covertly by giving the response mentally, with the exception
of the TEXT UNDERLINING SHEET provided for your use in unit 3.
At one point in this program, you will be asked to remove from
the program a sheet of paper containing pertinent information
about the choral arrangement you will be writing. When this
occurs, simply follow the instruction given and proceed as
indicated.
Since this is an introduction to choral arranging, there are
some aspects which will not be included:
1. Types of accompaniment (piano: organ; instrument
combinations, et. al.)
2. Differing musical styles (spiritual; jazz; musical
periods, et. al.)
3. Multiple voicings (SSAATTBB, et. al.)
4. Various voice and age classifications (monochrome;
junior high school; college, et. al.)
5. Advanced harmonic techniques (ninth, eleventh &
thirteenth chords; modulations, et. al.)
This programmed instructional material is limited to
selected fundamentals of choral arranging. Resultant harmonies
guided by the vocal accompaniment devices (VADsf presented
herein reflect Pandiatonicisir rather than rules followed by J.
S. Bach and other composers of the common practice period.
AN INTRODUCTION TO CHORAL ARRANGING as presented in this
text is intended to give the prospective arranger an ability to
combine systematically the basic components of choral arranging

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143

to produce a suitable arrangement which will be performable by
a high school mixed chorus of moderate ability.
If you possess ability to recognize and write components
found in a melody (clef, key signature, notation and so on) and
to harmonize a melody, then you are qualified to undertake this
programmed instruction. It is assumed that you have completed
two years of music theory.
You may expect to spend a total of 2 weeks to complete this
instruction. It is suggested that you complete a unit before
stopping (there is a planned stopping place within the program).
You will need a constantly sharpened pencil, and access to a
metronome.
Whether you are arranging for the first time, or have had
moderate to considerable exposure to the arranging of choral
music, please consider the following information very carefully.
It is essential that you follow this text as closely as
possible. It is necessary to evaluate the results of this
instruction on your final arrangement. Therefore, the addition
of creative elements not contained within this program could
present a problem when evaluating the final arrangement in terms
of the effect of AN INTRODUCTION TO CHORAL ARRANGING on your
progress. I encourage you to be creative, but request that you
allow the instruction to guide you in decisions about what to
include in your choral arrangement.
Your next step is to take the pretest which is located in
the pocket on the back cover of this booklet. Simply remove the

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144

pretest materials from the pocket and follow instructions. Do
not be alarmed in the least if you have any difficulty
completing the assigned task. Remember, you have a booklet of
instruction which has been designed to present basic concepts
in choral arranging which cure attainable by the novice arranger.
Just do the best you can, and when you have finished the
pretest, return to the next page of AN INTRODUCTION TO CHORAL
ARRANGING and continue reading. Please take the pretest now.

You have finished the pretest? it is time to become
acquainted with the instruction ahead. The following
information will attempt to put you in the proper "frame" of
mind. (A little humor will find it's way into this program from
time to time in an attempt to lighten your path.) As
mentioned earlier, objectives will be stated at the beginning of
each unit of instruction so that you will know exactly what you
will be able to do when each unit has been concluded. Here,
then, is the objective for the first unit of instruction: (It
will be stated once more at the actual beginning of the unit.)
At the conclusion of this unit, you will be able to
correctly write from memory the lower and upper limit ranges of
'each voice in an average high school SATB chorus.
The program begins by creating a scenerio that will attempt
to put you in a more realistic atmosphere for what you are about
to encounter.
Let us pretend that you have been hired to teach choral

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145

music at Utopia High School in Dreamland, Florida.
Congratulations! You are fresh out of college and eager to
conquer the musical world. On the first day of school, amidst
the meetings, students' hall passes and such, your phone rings,
(if you're lucky enough to have a phone in your office) Oh—
didn’t know you'd have an office? Keep reading, it will become
more interesting. The principal is delighted to inform you that
your mixed chorus has been requested by the superintendent of
schools to perform at the next meeting of the county-wide P T A
which is only seven weeks away. Do you accept?
If your answer is YES go to the next page.
If your answer is NO go to the bottom of this page.

NO? Now listen here, you cannot start your teaching career
by refusing your principal and superintendent such a simple
request. What do you expect to happen to your budding career in
music education if you bail out of this opportunity?
OK, all chastisement aside, go on to the next page and get
busy with this program.

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146

When you have arrived at this page you have assured
yourself of remaining in your present position at least until
your first performance at the P T A. OK, on with the task at
hand.
What are you going to do? You are in doubt about what to
select for your chorus to sing. There is no time to order any
music and what you have seen in the choral library just does not
seem to suit this pending performance. As you search the files
for some legitimate composition, you discover a melody and text
that seems to suit the occasion but is attached to a voicing and
setting that is not acceptable (for whatever reason you may
determine) for the forthcoming performance. You are in a bit of
a pickle. Then, your eyes run across a booklet almost out of
sight on top of the filing cabinet. You pick it up and, to your
amazement, the title staring back at you reads: AN INTRODUCTION
TO CHORAL ARRANGING. You are saved! All you have to do is read
and complete this simple text and your opportunity to write a
successful choral arrangement is certain. Say you cannot wait?
Say this is exactly what you were hoping for? All right, Keep
reading and find out how to begin.
Identifying the ranges of the voices you are working with is
a good way to begin. Your high school chorus is made up of
forty singers divided into Sopranos, Altos, Tenors, and Basses.
(It is not within the scope of this program to discuss balance
and numbers of voices which are appropriate per section. But,
knowing you have forty folks will give you some idea of what

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ensemble you will be writing for.)
If you are ready to begin, ONIT 1 follows.

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148

OMIT 1

At -the conclusion of this unit, you will be able to
correctly write from memory the lower and upper limit ranges* of
each voice in an SMB chorus.

1. The range of the SOPRANO section is written below. The
bottom note represents the lower limit of the soprano's
normal register and the top note represents the upper
limit of the Soprano's normal register. Study it carefully:

*The ranges given in this text are approximate, based on
results of researching typical ranges (Garretson-p283, Robinson
& Winold-p76, et.al.) for a choir of moderate ability and the
author's experience as a high school choral director over a ten
year span. They do not represent hard and fast axioms, but
rather, ones you can accept for the completion of your choral
arrangement in this program.
No response required. Go on to frame 2.

2. In the preceding frame, you were given the range for the
Soprano voice. (Remember to write your answer on a separate
sheet of paper or recite it mentally prior to checking your
response.)
What was the note name for the lower limit? ____
What was the note name for the upper limit? ____

lower limit- Bb-3 (whole step below middle c)
upper limit- F-5 (top line of treble clef)
If you are correct, go on to frame 3. If not,
read more carefully, review frame 1 and you should
do fine.

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149

3. Now, transfer the lower and upper limits of the Soprano
range to the manuscript paper provided. Write two whole
notes, one for each of the two limits. Do not forget to
draw the appropriate clef.

Did you remember that the bottom note was written
utilizing a ledger line below the staff? Go on to
frame 4.

4. The range of the ALTO section is written below. The bottom
note represents the lower limit of the Alto's normal
register and the top note represents the upper limit of the
Alto's normal register. Study it carefully:

No response required. Go on to frame 5.

5. In the preceding frame, you were given the Alto range. (Use
your own paper to respond or do it mentally.)
What was the note name for the lower limit? ____
What was the note name for the upper limit? ____

Go on to the next page to confirm your response.

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150

lower limit- g-3 (second space below staff)
upper limit- d-4 (4th line of staff)
Doing alright? I thought so. (Review frame 4 and
the confirmation to frame 5 if your response was
not correct.) Go on to frame 6.

6. Transfer the note names representing the lower and upper
limits of the Alto range to your manuscript paper using one
whole note for the lower limit and one whole note for the
upper limit.

Here is the correct range for the Alto voice:

Go on to frame 7.

7. The TENOR range in the mixed chorus is written as follows.
(Here is a key to help you remember it. Both pitches are
identical* to the Soprano range which you already know.)
Study it carefully:

♦In case you are not aware of this, the "8" beneath the
Tenor's treble clef simply signifies that the notes
represented by that clef are sounded one octave lower than
written. They appear identical to the Soprano’s range, but
actually sound one octave lower when sung by the male voice.
No response required. Go on to frame 8.

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8. It was mentioned that the Tenor's range is identical to the
Soprano's range. On your manuscript paper, write the
complete Soprano and Tenor ranges: (Remember the clefs!)

Here are the correct Soprano and Tenor ranges:

Go on to frame 9.

9. The range of the BASS voice in the mixed chorus is presented
below. It is identical* to the Alto's range. Study it
carefully:

♦Notice that the Bass voice uses the bass clef. The notes
in this clef, when sung by the male voice, are written in
the register in which they are sung. That rule applies also
to notes for the Tenor voice when it shares the bass clef.
No response required. Go on to frame 10.

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152

10. If you remember the Alto range you should have no difficulty
formulating the Bass range. The Bass and Alto voices share
corresponding notation for their lower [6], and upper [0]
limits. (Frames 4 and 9 will help you visualize what has
just been said.) Once again, on your manuscript paper,
write the complete Alto range first and then the complete
Bass range.

Here are the Alto and Bass ranges:

ZF

If you need any review before proceeding on to
frame 11, see the following frames:
Soprano 1
Alto 4
Tenor 7
Bass_____ 9

11. Your objective for this unit was to write correctly from
memory, the lower and upper range limits for the four
voices in a mixed chorus. Fill them in on your manuscript
paper using the proper clefs for each voice.

Go to the next page to confirm your response.

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153

Soprano Alto

m

Tenor Bass

m

Since you are not presently working with a high school
choir, it would be impractical to expect you to determine those
ranges on your own. At that time, in the future, when you
become a choral director, you will want to determine the capable
ranges of your singers by testing their voices. That will
ultimately be the guideline by which you will choose or arrange
the music to be performed.
Check your responses, review if necessary, and go on to
frame 12.

12. As you proceed through this program, you will be working
with a device the author has constructed entitled a TEXT
CHART. This device will ultimately contain all of the
information necessary for you to begin writing the
arrangement on manuscript paper. You will start to make use
of the TEXT CHART in the future units. As you learn new
aspects of the choral arrangement, you will fill in
information called for on the sample TEXT CHART found after
frame 13. When you have completed the TEXT CHART, it will
become the working outline for transferring to manuscript
paper the decisions you have made about the choral
arrangement.

No response required. Go on to frame 13.

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154

13. To better prepare you for writing the posttest choral
arrangement at the conclusion of the program, you will be
using a well known melody and text to write a practice
arrangement as you proceed through the program. In this
way, you will not only be learning the components of a
choral arrangement, but also the process by which one
assembles them. Remember the melody and text you located
for your P T A performance? It was a familiar folk melody
entitled SHENANDOAH. The title of your arrangement will
appear first on the TEXT CHART. It will look like this:

CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH

Remove The TEXT CHART for SHENANDOAH from the pocket in the
back of this booklet and go on to frame 14.

14. The next bit of information to be found on the TEXT CHART
will be ranges of the mixed chorus you have recently
learned. Please notate both the lower and upper limit of
each voice on your sample TEXT CHART. After you have done
so, compare your response with the confirmation below.

CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH
RANGES:Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

JL

For the remainder of the program, whenever the TEXT CHART
appears, the ranges will not be filled in since you will
already have them on your TEXT CHART.
Review any information which is needed, then go on to unit
2 .

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155

UNIT 2

At -the conclusion of this unit, you will write the wood
ten* and tempo indications-*- an your TEXT C3ART appropriate for
use with the practice choral arxangeaent in this program.

* A term appearing in the upper left-hand corner of the
choral arrangement suggesting a quality of meaning and/or
expressiveness to the performer.
+ A term appearing in the upper left-hand corner of the
Choral Arrangement adjacent to the mood term suggesting a
pace at which the performer is to sing the arrangement.
Go on to frame 15.

15. The next two items to be filled in on your TEXT CHART deal
with assigning the appropriate mood term and tempo
indications needed to convey possible performance
suggestions to the conductor and performer. There are
many mood terms that may be applied to a single text, all
of which can describe an appropriate performance
suggestion, yet fail to represent an exact description of
tempo. Here are some mood terms for your study:
Solemnly
With Pride
warmly
With Enthusiasm
Sweetly
Restlessly
Happily
There are no "correct” decisions in choosing an appropriate
mood term. It is merely an attempt by the arranger to
convey meaning.
The mood term will attempt to portray an expressive
character of the text. The tempo indications will attempt
to suggest a complimentary pace at which to perform the
arrangement.

No response required. Go on to frame 16.

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156

16. The next item to be placed on your TEXT CHART will be a
terra to depict the mood of your practice choral arrangement
of SHENANDOAH. An adjective will be used to describe the
character of the text. Since this is a subjective
decision, there is no single, correct choice. Your
examination of the text may give you a better understanding
of its expressive quality. It is suggested that you now
read the text to SHENANDOAH, then return to this page and
determine which term chosen from the list below would seem
appropriate, and write it on your TEXT CHART where
indicated.

CALM

REFLECTIVE
TENDER

Follow the instructions given in frame 16, then go on
to frame 17.

17. The fourth item to be filled in on your TEXT CHART will be
two indications representing the tempo of your practice
arrangement:
a. A quarter note which represents the pulse in a 4/4
meter signature (a half-note in 2/2; an eighth-note
in 3/8, and so on).
b. A numerical value representing the total pulses
occurring each minute.
When placed together, an equal sign (=) will be used to
show that the notational value of a quarter note will equal
a certain number of pulses per minute.
To get the appropriate Sense of tempo for SHENANDOAH it is
suggested that you:
a. Sing or play the melody at a tempo that seems
appropriate.
b. Obtain a metronome and locate the tempo you have
selected by adjusting the speed on the metronome
until it matches the one you chose. Write down the
number found on the metronome for that speed.

Go to the next page.

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157

c. Look at the meter given for the melody located on
your TEXT CHART, determine the correct notational
value to represent the pulse, and write it down.
d. Return to this page and continue reading.
The suggested tempo for SHENANDOAH is J
= 60-80. The
numerical value you selected while following the procedure
just outlined should fall somewhere within this range for
SHENANDOAH. Once you have made that selection, go to your
TEXT CHART and write in the two tempo indications in the
appropriate place.
A portion of your updated TEXT CHART appears next. Before
you go to unit 3, compare your written ranges, mood terms,
and tempo indications to those presented there.

CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH
RANGES:Soprano Alto Tenor Bass
V -

m
1 fry " T s 5- 9 fr'ZT
MOOD: CALM/REFLECTIVE/TENDER (you will supply the term on
your TEXT CHART)
TEMPO: J . 60-80 (you will supply the numerical value on
your TEXTCHART)

Go on to unit 3.

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158

UNIT 3

At the conclusion of this unit, you will be able to
correctly write and underline coherent phrases which convey a
complete thought of the larger verse.
Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary gives this
definition of coherent: "Logically or aesthetically ordered or
integrated: CONSISTENT”. If this aids in your comprehension of
this term, then all the better. There will be no charge for
this service in the program. You may proceed.
At the conclusion of this unit you will turn your attention
to the text of SHENANDOAH in order to organize coherent phrases
to be used with Vocal Accompaniment Devices later in your
choral arrangement.
Vocal Accompaniment Devices, hereafter referred to by their
acronym VADs, are compositional structures used to create vocal
accompaniment to the melody. You will be learning how to use
these devices in units 6-8.
You will be doing these things within this unit to help you
become better skilled at choosing coherent phrases for use with
VADs:
1. Presented with verbal phrases, you will select as many
coherent phrases as possible derived from the larger
phrase.
2. Presented with verbal phrases and three choices of
coherent phrases, you will select the best choice as a
possible text for a VAD.
3. Presented with a folk song verse, you will underline
those phrases which may serve as possible VAD texts.
Go on to the next page.

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159

Before you begin to work with unit 3 there are three terms
that need explanation:
1. TEXT— The text may refer to any or all verses in a folk
song.
2. VERSE— A section of the text conveying one or more
complete ideas. A verse usually appears as 4
lines of text.
3. PHRASE— The verse can be further divided into phrases. A
phrase can be any consecutive part of the verse
which conveys a complete thought. Usually, a
phrase will be represented by each line of text,
although there will be times when two lines are
needed to complete the thought.
Go on to frame 18.

18. Before you arrive at a decision about which words to choose
for coherent phrases, read the following guidelines:
1. Look for combinations of words that convey a
complete thought of the larger phrase. (e.g.,
phrases containing a subject, a verb [in some cases
a verb may not be present] , and its direct or
indirect object; a prepositional phrase may also
function in this way) This illustration may aid in
your comprehension:
"I've been working on the railroad, all the live­
long day,"
Three possible coherent phrases:
I've been working-(subject, verb, and direct
object)
I've been on the railroad-(subject, verb, and
prepositional phrase)
on the railroad-(no verb— only the
prepositional phrase)
2. Use the words in the order in which they appear in
the verse (see the example just presented).

Go to the next page.

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160

3. You may leave out some words in the phrase and
combine only those you need to complete the
thought (keeping in mind guideline #2). This
illustration from the folk song phrase just
presented may help:
I've been (working) on the railroad.
In this phrase, the word "working" may be left
out, resulting in this coherent phrase:
I've been on the railroad,
4. You may exclude a personal pronoun at the beginning
of a phrase with the understanding that it is
implied. An example of this follows:
Phrase from larger verse:
"I wish I was an apple, a-hangin' on a tree,"
Coherent phrase:
wish I was an apple, (subject "I" omitted)
In the first two lines of a verse, a portion of the main
thought is presented. Read the verse below, isolating the
first phrase:

'Twas in the merry month of May,
When all gay flowers were blooming,
Sweet William on his death bed lay
For the love of Barb’ra Allen.

No response required. Go on to frame 19.

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161

19. Here is the first phrase* of the verse you have just read:
'Twas in the merry month of May,
When all gay flowers were blooming,
♦In this instance, the first two lines of the verse are
needed to convey a cooplete thought.
Below are two numbered columns of words taken from the two-
line phrase. Read both columns and choose the one which
appears to be comprised of coherent phrases, then follow
the directions given.

1. 'Twas in
'Tv/as in the
'Twas the merry
'Twas merry month
'Twas in merry
'Twas May when flowers
the merry
the month
the month of
of May,
If you selected this column go to frame 20.

2. 'Twas in the merry month
'Twas in the month
'Twas the merry month
'Twas the month
'Twas the month of May,
'Twas in May,
in the month of May,
the month of May,
the merry month of May,
the merry month
When all flowers were blooming.
When flowers were blooming.
When gay flowers were blooming,
all flowers were blooming,
all gay flowers were blooming,
flowers were blooming,
If you selected this column go to frame 21.

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162

20. Look at this column again:
'Twas in
'Twas in the
'Twas the merry
'Twas merry month
'Twas in merry
'Twas May when flowers
the merry
the month
the month of
of May,
The problem here is that none of them expresses a complete
thought. It is essential that the phrases are coherent.
Grammatically, a complete thought will usually contain a
subject (noun) plus a verb and perhaps its direct or
indirect object or prepositional phrase. In any event, it
must convey something intelligible? it must communicate a
complete thought.
Go back to frame 19 to view the second column of choices,
then proceed as directed.

21. The second column of phrases was correct! You see, there
are many ways of arriving at a coherent phrase. As
explained earlier, not all VADs will allow using the
complete phrase or verse. Musical material will be too
short to include all of the words. The reason you are
deriving smaller phrases is to have a workable text to use
with your VADs.
Shortly, you will be asked to underline words in a verse to
achieve coherent phrases. This is a task similar to the
one you are presently doing except that when you work with
the TEXT CHART, the text will already be written so there
will be no need to write the smaller phrase. You will need
only to transfer your knowledge of deriving the smaller
phrase by means of underlining those words.
Let us go on to a few more examples before working with the
text to SHENANDOAH.
Go to frame 22.

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163

22. Below is a phrase from a verse of a folk song. Study it
carefully, then, on your own paper, write as many possible
combinations of coherent phrases as you can. Once you
have done so, compare your response against the
confirmation below the black line.

Oh I went down south for to see my gal.
Sing Polly Wolly Doodle all the day.
My Sal she am a spunky gal
Sing Polly Wolly Doodle all the day. (don't write these
again)

Your phrases should resemble some of those below:
(Oh)*I went down south
(I) went to see (my) gal.
Sing Polly WOlly Doodle
Sing all (the) day.
Sal/+she am a spunky gal
♦The parenthesis around a word, as shown in the
illustration above, is the authors short hand
method of condensing many possible phrases into
one. The word in parenthesis may be used or left
out of the phrase. If the short hand device is
helpful to you, by all means, adopt it from here
on.
♦Likewise, the diagonal (/) is another short hand
method which means that either word separated by
the diagonal may be used, but not both.

Go on to frame 23.

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164

23. From the phrase presented below, derive several phrases and
check your response. (remember not to write in the
booklet)

I came from Alabama with my banjo on my knee.
I'm goin' to Louisiana my true love for to see,

(I)* came from Alabama
(I) came with my banjo
(my) banjo on my knee, (no verb is present)
(I'm) goin' to Louisiana
(I'm) goin' to my love
(my) true love to see, (no verb is present)
Compare these responses with the larger phrase.
They all:
1. Convey a complete thought.
2. Ose words in the order in which they appear in
the verse.
3. *Offer the possibility of excluding the
personal pronoun from the phrase with the
understanding that it is implied.
If you did well, BRAVO! If you did not arrive at
the phrases called for, do not worry, there are
more chances to get this right.
Go on to frame 24.

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165

24. Study the phrase below and write as many coherent phrases
as feasible. Checkyour responses with the confirmation
below the thick line.

He's gone away for to stay a little while,
But he's cornin' back if he goes ten thousand miles.

He's gone away
He's gone (away) to stay
He's gone a (little) while.
He's gone (for) to stay
(But) he's cornin’ back
(if) he goes ten thousand miles.
Review and correct your response if necessary,
then go on to frame 25.

25. After reading the phrase below, write as many coherent
phrases as you can. The confirmation of what you have
written is below the black line.

Oh, green grow the lilacs all sparkling with dew,
How sad's been the day since I parted from you,

You should find some of your choices among these.
(Oh,) green grow the lilacs
(the) lilacs (all) sparkling with dew,
(How) sad's the day
sad's been the day
(since) I parted from you,
the day I parted from you,
This completes this phase of instruction.
Go on to frame 26.

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166

26. In this and following frames, you will be presented with
phrases taken from a folk song verse. It will be your task
to study the phrase and choose the best response which
represents a coherent VAD (Vocal Accompaniment Device) text
from the choices given.
Study the phrase presented below, then choose the response
which is best suited as a coherent VAD text.

0 love is warming, love is charming, And love is
handsome while it is new.
The choices are:
a. O love is
b. And love is while it is new,
c. 0 love is warming.

From the choices given, the best choice for a
coherent VAD text is: c.
The other two choices simply do not make a
complete thought.
Go on to frame 27 and try another example.

27. Study the following phrase taken from a folk song verse and
choose the correct coherent phrase from the three choices
given.

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the
Lord,

Your choices are:
a. seen the glory
b. Mine eyes have seen the glory
c. have seen the coming

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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167

Did you choose: b.? If so, you are correct!
This will serve as a most suitable phrase for a
VAD text.
Go to frame 28.

28. After observing the folk song phrase below, choose the
response which is best suited as a VAD text.

On Jordan's stormy banks I stand. And cast a wishful
eye.

Your choices are:
a. On Jordan's banks I stand,
b. I stand on Jordan's stormy banks
c. And a wishful eye.

The best response from those presented is: a.
Okay, you may have chosen: b. Even though it
makes a complete thought, it is not constructed
properly according to this program. Why, you ask?
The words were not assembled in the order in which
they appear in the verse. That is one of your
guidelines. This was a little tricky, but don't
be shaken by it.
Go on to frame 29 and work one more example in
this phase of your instruction.

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168

29. Study the folk song phrase here, then select the best
choice for a VAD text.

Black, Black, Black is the color of my true love’s
hair;
Your choices are:
a. Black, Black, Black
b. Black is the color of my love's hair;
c. Black is my hair;

The best choice is: b.
Choice: c. is a complete thought, yet does not
present the exact meaning of the phrase. "My
hair" isn’t black, "my love's hair" is black. (I
did it again, didn’t I? Tricky response!)
It is time to go on to the final phase of this
instruction. Frame 30 follows.

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169

30. In the next four frames you will see an entire verse of a
folk song. Instead of writing phrases, you are simply to
underline those words in the same manner as you would write
them. When you encounter a verse in which each line
contains a different combination of words (as in the
example which follows), underline phrases from each line:

I wish I was an apple, a hangin' in the tree,
And every time my sweet-heart passed,
she*d take a bite of me.
She told me that she loved me,
she* called me sugar plum.
She throwed 'er arms around me, I thought my time had come.
I have taken the liberty of underlining more than one
phrase per line in order to indicate the possibility of two
appropriate phrases occurring in each line.
♦The word "she" may be implied here, and thus, omitted from
the underlined phrase.
If a verse repeats its text, it will not be necessary to
duplicate what you have already underlined:
Every night when the sun goes in.
Every night when the sun goes in,
Every night when the sun goes in,
I hang my head and lonesome cry.
It will not be necessary to underline every conceivable
combination of phrases in the verse; only those that seem
appropriate as you read through the text. The underlining
process will reduce the resultant phrase possibilities, but
that should not cause a problem. The phrase you underline
will serve your needs satisfactorily for a VAD text.
Remember, the amount of text needed for use with VADs will
be limited, so do not attempt to repeat the entire verse by
underlining everything.

No response required. Go on to frame 31.

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170

31. In this frame, study the verse carefully, then retrieve the
TEXT UNDERLINING SHEET for unit 3, which contains this and
other verses, located in the pocket at the back of this
program and underline those phrases which convey a complete
thought of the verse. As always, check your response in
the confirmation below the thick line.

Come all you fair and pretty ladies,
Take warning how you court young men.
For they sure like a bright star of a summer evenin'
They first appear, and then they’re gone.

Here are some possible phrases you may have chosen:
Come all you fair and pretty ladies.
Take warning how you court young men,
For they are like a bright star of a summer evenin'
They first appear, and then they're gone.

Study the confirmation above, comparing it with your
own to check accuracy. Make sure that your phrases:
a. convey a complete thought of the larger
phrase.
b. use the words in the order in which they
appear in the verse.
c. combine only those words you need to complete
the thought (you may exclude a personal
pronoun).
Proceed to frame 32.

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171

32. Osing the same TEXT UNDERLINING SHEET as in the previous
frame, complete the underlining of phrases which express
the main thought of the verse. Check your response as
before.

I don’t want none of your weevily wheat,
I don't want none of your barley,
I want some flour and half an hour
To bake a cake for Charlie.

Here are some possible choices:
I don't want none of your weevily wheat,
I don't want none of your barley,
I want some flour and half an hour
To bake a cake for Charlie.
Your choices may be different. That is alright, as
long as you remember to use good text phrase
guidelines.
Go on to frame 33.

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172

33. After reading the folk song verse below, locate the same
verse on your TEXT UNDERLINING SHEisx and underline coherent
phrases. Return to this frame to confirm what you have
chosen.

Where, oh where,is sweet little Nellie?
Where, oh where,is sweet little Nellie?
Where, oh where,is sweet little Nellie?
Way down yonder in the pawpaw patch!

Your underlined phrases should closely resemble these:
Where, oh where,is sweet little Nellie?
Where, oh where,is sweet little Nellie?
Where, oh where,is sweet little Nellie?
Wav down yonder and/or in the pawpaw patch!
Since the first line is duplicated, only one phrase may
be used. Once there is a different combination of
words, as in the fourth line, another selection may be
made and underlined.
Go on to the next frame.

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173

34. Underline the verse below on the TEXT UNDERLINING shbbt in
the manner in which you have been taught. Then check your
response.

There’s a low green valley on the old Kentucky shore,
There I've whiled many happy hours away,
A-sitting and a-singing by the little cottage door,
Where lived my darling Nellie Gray.

These represent some choices you could have made:
There's a low green valley on the old Kentucky shore.
There I've whiled many happy hours away,
A-sitting and a-sincfing by the little cottage door.
Where lived my darling Nellie Gray.
You have completed all phases of this instruction. It
is time to begin making VAD text choices for your
practice arrangement, SHENANDOAH.
Go ahead to frame 35.

35. The third verse of your practice arrangement, SHENANDOAH
follows. Select the best phrases from those choices given.
(Since verses 1 & 2 are unison, no underlining is
necessary.)
1. 'Tis seven long years since last I see you,
2. And hear your rolling river
3. 'Tis seven long years since last I see you,
4. 'Way, we're bound away,
5. Across the wide Missouri.
Your choices are:
1. & 3. a. 'Tis seven long years
b. long years since
- c. since last i

Go to the next page to confirm your response.

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174

Of the choices given, the best phrase to use with
lines 1. & 3. of the verse is: a.
Go on to the next set of choices.

2. a. and hear rolling
b. your rolling river,
c. rolling river.

The best response from line 2 is: b.
Go on to the next line of choices.
4. a. 'Way, bound
b. we're away,
c. we're bound away,

The choice to make from this line is: c.
Go on to the last line of choices.
5. a. Across Missouri.
b. the wide Missouri.
c. Across the wide

The best choice here is: b.
Use this phrase for the last line of the verse.
Go on to frame 36.

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175

36. Go to your TEXT CHART now and underline those choices you
have just selected. Once you have done so, return to this
frame to confirm what you have done.

Here is the third verse of SHENANDOAH as it should
appear underlined on your TEXT CHART:
3. Tis seven long years since last I see you.
And hear your rolling river,
'Tis seven long years since last I see you,
’Way, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.
Go on to frame 37.

37. Due to the nature of the VAD chosen to arrange the fourth
verse of SHENANDOAH, it will not be necessary for you to
underline coherent phrases from this verse.
Your updated TEXT CHART appears in frame 38 on the
following page. You may wish to compare your underlined
verse against it for accuracy. After you have done so,
follow the directions given in that frame.

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176

38. Here is the updated TEXT CHART as it should appear.
CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH
RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

MOOD: CALM/REFLECTIVE/TENDER
TEMPO: J = 60-80
TEXT: (UNDERLINE coherent phrases)

1. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you.
And hear your rolling river.
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you,
'Way, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.
2. I long to see your smiling valley.
And hear your rolling river,
I long to see your smiling valley,
'Way, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.
3. 'Tis seven long years since last
I see you.
And hear your rolling river,
'Tis seven long years since last
I see you,
'Way, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.
4. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you,
And hear your rolling river.
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you,
'Way, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.

CONGRATULATIONS I YOU HAVE COMPLETED THIS UNIT. Go on to
unit 4.

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177

UNIT 4

As this unit proceeds, you will write OVERALL VOICING
(unison and two-part) for each of the four verses in your
choral arrangement; you will also write appropriate VOICE
COMBINATIONS to go with un-i«n« and two-part voicings.

There are four verses to set in your choral arrangement.
Within this program, you will be learning VADs to use for unison
and two-part voicings. Since the scheme of this program is to
introduce concepts graduating from simple to complex, it is
suggested that you distribute the two OVERALL VOICING
possibilities (which also increase in complexity) in the manner
shown in the example below:
Verse 1: Unison
Verse 2: Unison
Verse 3: Two-part
Verse 4: Two-part
This will enable you to begin in a simple manner and proceed
to more complex VADs in successive verses.
No response required. Go on to frame 39.

39. On your TEXT CHART, locate the column over which the
diagonal words OVERALL VOICING are written. In the boxes
provided for each verse, write the two overall voicing
possibilities; (unison and two-part) one for each verse as
suggested earlier. After you have done this, return to
this frame to check what you have written below the black
line.
Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Your updated TEXT CHART will now look like this:
CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH
RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

MOOD: CAIM/REFLECTIVE/TENDER L G
L N
TEMPO: J = 60-80 A I
R C
TEXT: (ONDERLINEcoherent phrases) E I
V O
0 V
1. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you.
And hear your rolling river.
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, UNISON
'Hay, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.
2. I long to see your smiling valley.
And hear your rolling river,
I long to see your smiling valley, UNISON
'Way, we're bound away,
Across the wide Missouri.
3. 'Tis seven loner years since last
I see you.
And hear your rolling river, TWO-
'Tis seven long years since last PART
I see you,
'Way, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.
4. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you.
And hear your rolling river, TWO-
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, PART
'Way, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.

Go on to the next page.

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179

The second part of this unit will present typical voice
combinations for each of the two overall voicings. Once you
have explored those possibilities, you will be given suggestions
as to what voice combinations are appropriate for each verse of
your practice arrangement SHENANDOAH, and asked to write them on
your TEXT CHART. You will also be shown other choices which
would be possible for future consideration. The suggestions you
are given regarding specific voice combinations will be based on
guidelines for common practice in choral music presented in this
program. Follow the simple guidelines given, locate the
suggested voice combinations, and write them on your TEXT CHART
when so instructed.
Voice combinations will be discussed in two categories:
UNISON
TWO-PART
When UNISON is called for, a voice may sing alone or be
joined in any combination by the remaining three voices. The
choice of which voice part(s) is (are) to sing should be based
on:
1. Context of verse— If it is clear from reading the text
that an individual (male or female), or group is
speaking, then an appropriate voice part or combination
of voice parts can be chosen to sing that part of the
verse. If the speaking voice is neutral or cannot be
identified, then the decision must be a subjective one.
In the following example, it is certain that a male
voice is speaking. Note the bold face words which
indicate who is speaking.
She told me that she loved me, she called me sugar plum.
She throwed her arms around me, I thought my time had
come.
Get along home Cindy, Cindy, Get along home Cindy,
Cindy,
Get along home Cindy, Cindy, I'll marry you some day.
In the next few frames, you will read folk song verses in
order to determine who is speaking.
Go to frame 40.

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180

40. Bead the following phrase taken from a folk song verse and
determine, from the choices given, who is speaking.
I have been to seek a wife, she's the joy of my life,
She's a young thing and cannot leave her mother.
The person speaking is:
a. a male
b. a female
c. a group of people
d. not detectable

If you chose: a., go to frame 42.
If you chose: b., c., or d., go to frame 41.

41. In this phrase the words: "I have been to seek a wife,"
indicate that a male is speaking. This phrase is taken
from the folk song, Billy Boy.
Go to frame 43.

42. Congratulations! Your answer was correct. Let's try
another one.

43. Look at another phrase in order to determine who is
speaking. Follow the procedure outlined in frame 40.
The gypsy rover came over the hill,
Bound through the valley so shady,
He whistled and he sang till the green woods rang,
And he won the heart of a lady.
The person speaking is:
a. a male
b. a female
c. a group of people
d. not detectable

Go to the next page.

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181

The correct response is: d.
In this instance it appears that a narrator whose
gender in not specified is telling the story.
Therefore, a male, female, or group of people
could be speaking. The choice would be up to you.
Go on to frame 44.

44. After looking at the following phrase taken from a folk
song verse, determine who is speaking.
Dark was the color of my soldier boy's hair,
His eyes resembl'd the brightest stars.
The person speaking is:
a. a male
b. a female
c. a group of people
d. not detectable

The correct choice is: b.
The key to identifying the person speaking is the
phrase: "my soldier boy's hair,". It indicates
that a woman, describing her loved one, is
speaking.
Go to frame 45.

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182

45, Read the following folk song verse and determine who is
speaking. The choices follow the verse.
Get ready for the Jubilee, hurrah, hurrah!
Me'11 give the hero three times three, hurrah, hurrah!
The laurel wreath is ready now
To place upon his loyal brow
And we'll all feel gay when Johnny comes marching home.
The person speaking is:
a. a male
b. a female
c. a group of people
d. not detectable

The correct choice is: c.
The key to discovering who is speaking is the
contraction, "We'll" which indicates more than one
person. A creative approach in this verse would
be to have a single section of voice parts sing
lines 1, 3, and 4, and have the entire chorus sing
lines 2 and 5, thus giving the effect of a group
of people singing.
Go on to the next part of this instruction on
unison voice combinations.

Another indication of which voices should sing is based on:
2. Range of melody— It is likely that a melody, at times,
will go beyond the upper or lower range limits for a
given voice. You must be aware of this factor when
voices sing the melody in unison. Ample time to
practice this will be offered once you begin working
with VADs. Look at the melodic example which follows on-
the next page.

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183

S h * - lv m f c ltA -v e - ri**{ S i* - / * » 5 k ft -

In the second measure of this melodic example the dotted
half-note (E) is clearly out of the prescribed range for
the Alto and Bass voices, and therefore must be sung only
by the Soprano and/or Tenor voices.
In the next several frames, you will be presented with folk
melodies and asked to decide which voice part(s) is (are)
capable of singing based on the range limitations of the
four voice parts.
Go to frame 46.

46. Look at the following folk melody. Where you see an
asterisk(*), decide which voice part(s) is (are) capable of
singing the pitch. Consider the upper and lower range
limits of voice ranges presented in unit 1 compared to the
melody. The melody utilizes the treble clef. The male
voice parts sing an octave lower than the written pitch.
When viewing a melody, consider the Tenor and Bass voice
parts by mentally transposing the melody down one octave.

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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184

If you chose: ALTO and/or BASS, go to frame 48.
If you chose: SOPRANO and/or TENOR, go to frame
47.

47. The Soprano and/or Tenor voice parts should not sing the
phrase. The lowest note (a) is below the prescribed range
limit for these voice parts. The phrase should be sung by
the Alto and/or Bass voice parts.
Go on to frame 49.

48. If you were sent here from frame 46, you have chosen the
correct response. Congratulations! Go on to frame 49.

49. Look at the following melody and determine which voice
part(s) is (are) best suited for the phrases marked by the
asterisk (*). Check your response below the black line.

If you selected: SOPRANO and/or TENOR voice
parts, you cure correct. The upper range limit of
the melody is too high for either the Alto or Bass
voice parts to sing.
Go to frame 50 to view another example.

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185

50. As you have done previously, determine the voice part(s)
best suited to the phrase of the melody marked by the
asterisk (*). The confirmation is on the next page.

3

ft m

In this melody, any voice part or combination of
voice parts are suitable. The range of the melody
is well within the range capability of all four
voice parts. Go on to frame 51.

51. From the melody presented, choose the voice part(s) which
is (are) best suited to sing the note marked by the
asterisk.

wwm T*
0
■ — &■

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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186

The voice parts best suited to sing the phrase
marked is (are): ALTO and/or BASS.
The lowest pitch (g) in measures four and five is
well below the prescribed lower range limit for
the Soprano and Tenor voice parts.
Go to frame 52.

52. In the next several frames, you will make voice decisions
about which voice combinations could be used in the
practice arrangement SHENANDOAH. The confirmations reveal
several voice combinations which would be correct. One
voice combination, in bold-faced lettering, has been
suggested for that particular line of the verse. You are
directed to write that voice combination on your TEXT
CHART. These specific voice combinations indicated in bold
face serve as the basis for VADs illustrated in units 6-8.
Of course any of the other correct choices could be used
to create an equally creative and satisfying arrangement,
but for now please accept my suggestions. You will get a
chance to make your own choices in arranging a melody very
soon.
No response required. Go to frame 53.

53. Locate your TEXT CHART. Look at the first line in the
first verse of SHENANDOAH and the first musical phrase in
which it is sung. Determine the best voice parts (s) suited
to sing that phrase. Once you have done this, return to
this frame and confirm your selection. Use the following
abbreviations for the voice parts of a mixed chorus:
S— Soprano
A— Alto
T— Tenor
B— Bass

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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187

In this verse, it is not clear whether a male or
female voice is speaking. Therefore, if this
occurred in the POST-TEST, you would be free to
select any voice part or combination of voice
parts to sing the melody as long as it complies
with the range capabilities of those voice parts.
The voice part selected for use in your practice
arrangement appears in bold-faced lettering; other
possible voice combinations follow.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
1. Oh Shenandoah...A S T B SA TB
Write the voice part shown in bold-faced lettering
on your TEXT CHART in the box beneath the diagonal
words VOICE COMBOS, then go on to frame 54.

54. Look at the second line in the first verse of SHENANDOAH,
and the musical phrase which accompanies it. Make your
selection of the voice combination which is best suited to
this phrase, then check your response against the
confirmation.

In this phrase, the melody begins on an Eb which
is beyond the upper range limit of the Alto and
Bass voice parts. Only the Soprano or Tenor voice
parts may sing the melody at this point.
The voice part selected for use in your practice
arrangement appears in bold lettering; other
possible voice combinations follow.
1. 2. 3.
2. And hear......S ST T
Write the voice part shown in bold lettering on
your TEXT CHART now, then go to frame 55.

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188

55. Look at the third line in the first verse of SHENANDOAH and
the musical phrase which accompanies it. Make your
selection of the voice combination which is best suited to
this phrase, then check your response against the
confirmation.

It is not clear who is speaking, and the range of
the melody is within any voice part. The choice
would be yours in a later arrangement. For this
arrangement, write the bold-faced letter on your
TEXT CHART and consider some of the other
possible combinations presented.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
3. Oh Shenandoah...A T B S SAB SATB
Go on to frame 56.

56. Look at the fourth line in the first verse of SHENANDOAH
and the musical phrase which accompanies it. Choose a
voice combination which is best suited for the phrase, then
check your selection against the confirmation.

In this line, the contraction, "we're" suggests a
group of people are speaking. Yet, it is still
uncertain whether those voice are male or female.
The range of the melody is within the capability
of all voice parts. The bold letters should be
transferred to your TEXT CHART. The remaining
choices are present for your consideration.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
4. 'Way, we're AT TB AB SB ST SATB
Go on to frame 57.

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189

57. Look at the fifth line in the first verse of SHENANDOAH
and the musical phrase which accompanies it. Choose a
voice combination which is best suited for the phrase, then
check your selection against the confirmation.

This line may be considered a continuation of the
thought in the fourth line, in which a group of
people are speaking. Once again, the range is
well within the capability of all voice parts.
The choice would be up to you in a future
arrangement. For your practice arrangement, copy
the bold-faced letters to your TEXT CHART and
consider the other choices as possible voice
combinations.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
5. Across the.... AIB STB SAB SAT SATB
Go on to frame 58.

58. The second verse of your practice arrangement contains
similar choices as the first verse. Therefore, it will not
be necessary to repeat the procedure just presented in
frames 53-57. Several combinations are illustrated in the
confirmation. You should try to come up with possible
voice combinations of your own, now, before looking below
the black line. After you have done so, observe the bold­
faced voice combinations which are to be used for your
practice arrangement, and write them on your TEXT CHART.

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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190

The suggested voice combinations for your practice
arrangement come from column 1. Be sure to read
the voice combinations vertically.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
I long to see... S B A T SATB A
♦And hear......... ST T S ST ST T
I long to see..... A TB T SAT AB S
'Way, we're....... SB ATB B SATB SB B
Across the wide... SATB SA SATB SATB AT A

Once again, in this verse, it is not clear whether
a male or female voice is speaking. Therefore,
you would be free to select any voice part or
combination of voice parts to sing the melody as
long as it lies within their range capabilities.
♦In the second phrase, the melody begins on an Eb
which is beyond the upper range limit of the Alto
and Bass voice parts. Only the Soprano or Tenor
voice parts may sing the melody at that point.
Go on to frame 59.

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191

59. Now that you have completed some unison assignments of
voices, let us move on to VOICE COMBINATIONS for two parts.
When TWO-PART voices are used, one voice sings the melody
and one voice sings the VAD. The diagonal [/] placed
between two voice symbols [S/A] in^r_a»P<i that the voice to
the left sings the melody and the voice to the right sings
the VAD. The following voice combinations represent two
different assignments of the melody:
S/T Soprano sings the melody; Tenor sings the VAD.
T/S Tenor sings the melody; Soprano sings the VAD.
Below sure given typical combinations of two-part voices
found in many choral compositions and arrangements.
1. Pairing female or male voices:
S/A T/B
A/S B/T
The reason for pairing these voice parts is to isolate
like vocal textures; in this instance, pairing all
female voices and/or all male voices.
2. Pairing high female/male, or low female/male voices:
(high) S/T (low) A/B
T/S B/A
The reason for pairing these voice parts is to combine
male and female vocal textures of similar high and low
range capabilities.
3. Pairing high female/low male, or low female/high male
voices:
(hf/lm) S/B (lf/hm) A/T
B/S T/A
The reason for pairing these voice parts is to combine
male and female vocal textures of opposite high and low
range capabilities.

Go to the next page.

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192

4. Pairing two voices as one section, then joining them
with the remaining voices:
(female/male) SA/TB
TB/SA
This combination is used when the text is spoken by one
gender.
(high female-male with ST/AB
low female-male) AB/ST
This combination is used when the range of the melody
is an important consideration.

(high female-low male with SB/AT
lew female-high male) AT/SB
These combinations are arbitrary and may be made as
long as the range capabilities of the paired voice
parts are taken into consideration. This caution goes
equally for other combinations such as SA and TB.
NO response required. Go to frame 60.

60. A reason for pairing female or male voice parts is:
a. To keep the men's and women's voices from singing
together.
b. To isolate like vocal textures.
c. To allow one section to sing more often them the
other.

The correct response is: b.
Go to frame 61.

61. The voice combination B/T represents pairing male voices in
order to vocal textures.

Go to the next page to confirm your response.

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193

The correct words are: isolate like
Go to frame 62.

62. A reason for pairing low female and male voices is:
a. To sing the lowest notes of the melody.
b. To achieve a unique sound.
c. To combine similar low range capabilities.

The correct response is: c.
Go to frame 63.

63. The voice combination T/S represents pairing high
male and high female voice parts as a means of
combining_________________ rangecapabilities.

The correct response is: similar high.
Go to frame 64.

64. A reason for pairing high female with low male voices is:
a. To broaden the aural spectrum.
b. To combine vocal textures of opposite range
capabilities.
c. To have male and female voices listen to each
other’s voices.

The correct response is: b.
Go to frame 65.

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194

65. The voice combination T/A represents pairing high male
and law female voice parts as a means of combining
range capabilities.

The correct response is: opposite.
Go to frame 66.

66. A reason for pairing two voice parts as one section using
male/female voice grouping, then matching them with the
remaining voice parts is:
a. When the text is spoken by one gender.
b. To have more voice parts singing.
c. To allow the whole chorus to sing the melody.

The correct response is: a.
Go on to frame 67.

67. The voice combination SB/AT represents pairing two voice
parts as one section using a high female and low male voice
grouping, then joining them with the remaining voice parts
as a means of combining _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ range
capabilities.

The correct*response is: high and low.
Go on to frame 68.

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195

68. The third verse of your practice arrangement will utilize a
two-voice texture (the melody plus a VAD). You will
receive instruction on how to use one combination of voice
parts to sing the melody and another as accompaniment in
units 7-8. On your TEXT CHART, locate the first line of
the third verse and its adjoining melodic phrase. Choose a
two-part voice combination which is based on the
information given in frame 59, then check your response
below the black line.

As before, the voice combination in bold-faced
lettering will be used for SHENANDOAH. In this
musical phrase the range is suitable for all
voices and the gender of the person speaking is
undetectable. Other possible combinations appear
for your consideration. They are numbered
according to the category in which they were
presented in frame 59.
1. 2. 3. 4.
1. 'Tis seven long....S/A S/T S/B SA/TB
Go on to frame 69.

69. Look at the second line in the third verse of SHENANDOAH
and determine a suitable voice combination based on
guidelines you have learned, then check your response.

The voice combination for SHENANDOAH appears in
bold-face. Remember that the melody goes beyond
the upper range limit of the Alto and Bass voice
parts in this phrase. The numbered columns
reflect choices from guidelines in frame 59.
1. 2. 3. 4.
2. And hear.........S/T T/S T/A ST/AB
Go to frame 70.

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196

70. Look at the third line in the third verse of SHENANDOAH and
determine a voice combination suitable for the phrase.

The voice combination for your practice
arrangement appears in bold letters. The melody
is within the range capability of all four voice
parts; the person speaking is undetectable. If
this were the POST-TEST arrangement, the choice
would be up to you.
1. 2. 3. 4.
3. 'Tis seven long...3/A T/S B/S SB/AT
Go to frame 71.

71. Look at the fourth line in the third verse of SHENANDOAH
and choose a voice combination suitable for the phrase,
then check your response.

In this verse it appears that a group of people
are speaking (we're bound away). The bold-faced
voice combination should be transferred to your
TEXT CHART and used in your practice arrangement,
the other three suggested combinations come from
the fourth category in frame 59.
1. 4. 4. 4.
4. 'Way, we're......SB/AS AB/ST TB/SA ST/AB
Go to frame 72.

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197

72. Look at the fifth line in the third verse of SHENANDOAH and
select a voice combination suitable for this phrase.

The bold-faced voice combination will be used for
your practice arrangement. The remaining
possibilities reflect choices based on guidelines
found in frame 59.
1. 2. 3. 4.
5. Across the wide....SB/MS B/A A/T SA/TB
Be sure you have written the recommended voice
combinations from this verse on your TEXT CHART
before going to frame 73.

73. The fined, verse of SHENANDOAH contains similar qualities of
the third verse. Therefore, there will be no need to
repeat the process of selection which took place in that
verse. Transfer those voice combinations in bold-faced
lettering to your TEXT CHART and study the other
possibilities in relationship to the guidelines for two-
part voices contained in this unit.

1. 2. 3. 4.
Oh Shenandoah.... ..S/A A/B S/B TB/SA
*And hear........ T/S T/A ST/AB
Oh Shenandoah.... B/A A/T AB/ST
'Way, we're...... SA/TB SB/AT AT/SB
Across the wide.. ..TB/SA A/B B/S SB/AT
^Remember: the melody is too high for any other
voice part to sing accept Soprano or Tenor. ’
In columns 2. & 3., the fourth voice combination
choices are chosen to reflect the suggestion of a
group speaking rather than the guidelines found in
frame 59.
Go to frame 74.

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198

74. The TEXT CHART with rll suggested voice combinations
follows.
CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH
RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

MOOD: CAIM/BEFLECTIVE/TENDER L G
1 L N
TEMPO: J = 60-80 A I E
R C C E
TEXT: (UNDERLINE coherent phrases) E I I M
V 0 0 0
0 V V C
1. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, A
And hear your rolling river, S
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you. UNISON A
'Way, we're bound away. AT
Across the wide Missouri. ATB
2. I long to see your smiling valley, S
And hear your rolling river. ST
I long to see your smiling valley, UNISON A
'Way, we're bound away, AB
Across the wide Missouri. SATB
3. 'Tis seven long years since last
I see you. S/A
And hear your rolling river. TWO- S/T
'Tis seven long years since last PART
I see you. B/A
'Way, we're bound away. SB/AT
Across the wide Missouri. SB/AT
4. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you. S/A
And hear your rolling river. TWO- S/A
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you. PART TB/SA
'Way, we’re bound away. TB/SA
Across the wide Missouri. TB/SA

You have completed this unit. Why not attempt unit 5 before
taking a break? One is scheduled at that time, so please
continue. Go ahead, turn the page!

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199

UNIT 5

At the conclusion of this unit, you will be able to correctly
choose and write appropriate dynamics for your practice choral
arrangement SHBHNDQBH.

In this unit, you will be given guidelines and text examples
to help you select dynamics appropriate for the choral
arrangement you are preparing to write.
Choosing dynamics is a subjective decision on the part of
the arranger unless suggested by the text or other
considerations. Dynamic indications suggest varying levels of
loudness and softness to the performer. For the purpose of
this program, the choice of dynamics will be based on two
factors which can be recognized by the novice choral arranger.
The two factors are:
1. Text
2. Fixed dynamic patterns
These factors have been presented in order of their
importance. Look first to the text, exhausting all means of
selecting dynamics before considering fixed dynamic patterns.
In this program, dynamics will be limited to the range
between piano (p-soft) and forte (f-loud), and will include the
following dynamic levels:
p = piano
mp= mezzo piano
mf= mezzo forte
f = forte
Dynamic level choices will appear vertically (in a column)
so that they may be compared to the line of text which they
accompany. This explanation is intended to help avoid confusion
when several choices are presented in a confirmation. Remember
to read the dynamic levels vertically, as each dynamic level is
matched with a line from the adjoining verse.
Go on to frame 75 to continue this "dynamic" instruction.

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200

75. Dynamic levels suggested by text considerations cure of
primary importance to the choral arranger. Here then, cure
some guidelines to help you arrive at appropriate dynamic
choices based on the text.
1. Repeated elements (words, phrases, or lines in the
verse) serve to intensify the thought being presented.
Intensity can be demonstrated by increasing (soft to
loud), or decreasing (loud to soft) dynamic levels
associated with repeated elements at the discretion of
the arranger. Here is an example to illustrate this
principle:
increase decrease
2. Every night when the sun goes in, P f
Every night when the sun goes in, rap mf
Every night when the sun goes in, raf mp
I hang my head and lonesome cry. f P
A sudden shift in intensity may be demonstrated by
alternating between opposite dynamic levels on
consecutively repeated words, phrases, or lines in the
verse. The example which follows will illustrate this
principle:
Buffalo gals won't you comeout tonight, p f
come out tonight, f p
cone out tonight, p f

No response required. Go on to frame 76.

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201

76. On your own paper, write the appropriate dynamic levels
which represent increasing as a means of intensifying the
repeated elements present in the following folk song verse.
This old hammer, killed John Henry, _p_ _mp_
This old hammer, killed John Henry, __ ___
This old hammer, killed John Henry, __ ___

Your response should resemble these possibilities:
p mp*
mp mf
mf f
*It is possible to begin at a dynamic level other
than ”p”. In this instance, starting with "mp”
results in a slightly louder intensification than
that which begins on "p".
Go on to frame 77.

77. On your own paper, write the appropriate dynamic levels
which represent decreasing as a means of intensifying the
repeated elements present in the following folk song verse.
What shall we do with a drunken sailor, _f_
What shall we do with a drunken sailor, ___
What shall we do with a drunken sailor, __
Early in the morning? __

Your response should be as follows:
f
mf
mp
P
Go on to frame 78.

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202

78. On your own paper, write the appropriate symbols which
represent a sudden shift of dynamic level. Consider only
those places marked by the blank to the right of the verse.
She's sleeping in the valley.
And the mocking bird is singing where she lies.
Listen to the mocking bird,__________________ __
Listen to the mocking bird, __
The mocking bird still singing o'er her grave; __

You may have chosen either of the two choices
which follow:
P f
f P
P f
Go on to frame 79.

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203

79. On your own paper, write the dynamic levels which you
consider to be appropriate to the following folk song
verse, then check your response with those suggested below
the black line.
Black, __
Black, __
Black, is the color of ray true loves hair, __

You may have chosen either of the two examples
below:
increasing decreasing
p rap f mf
mp mf mf mp
mf f mp p

In this verse, a sudden shift of dynamic level (p-
f-p) Would not be appropriate because the
sustained mood and tempo of the text and melody
doesn't suggest such a change. The sudden shift
would be out of character with the context of the
verse.
Go to frame 80.

80. The verse below may have different dynamic level
interpretations. You are given three choices in the blanks
provided. Demonstrate your knowledge of increasing (<),
decreasing (>), and sudden shift (s/s) in dynamic levels by
writing the appropriate responses on your own paper, then
checking your answers below the black line.
s/s
Oh, dear, what can the matter be;
Dear, dear, what can the matter be;
Oh, dear, what can the matter be;
Johnny's so long at the fair.

Go on to the next page to view the confirmation.

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204

Your response should resemble either of these:
s/s (either choice)
P f p/f
mp mf f/p
mf rap p/f
f p ♦no response

Go on to frame 81

81. Thus fax you have encountered choosing dynamics by means
of:
1. Intensifying dynamic levels in two directions based on
repeated elements (words, phrases, or lines) present in
the verse.
increasing decreasing
P f
mp mf
mf
f P
2. A sudden shift in intensity can be demonstrated by
alternating between opposite dynamic levels (in which
the mood and/or tempo would suggest such a decision) on
consecutively repeated words, phrases, or lines in the
verse.
P f
f P
P f
No response required. Go to frame 82

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205

82. Guidelines which are presented next represent yet another
way to arrive at appropriate dynamic levels suggested by
text considerations.
Suggestions of dynamic levels may come from elements of
mood, belief, state of mind, or actual references to
loudness and softness in the text. These elements have
been divided into two categories for use in this
program.
Some elements which suggest soft dynamic levels (p-mp)
include:
Calm, loneliness, longing, pity, quietness, regret,
remembering, sorrow, weakness.
Here is an example, extracted from a folk song verse
to help illustrate this principle:
I'm sad and I'm lonely, my heart it will break.
My sweetheart loves another. Lord, I wish I wuz dead.
The words in bold letters are a key to choosing soft
dynamics. They represent sorrow, loneliness, and
regret.
Some elements which suggest loud dynamic levels (mf-f)
include:
Determination, frivolity, happiness, hope, joyful
expectation, loudness, nonsense, playfulness, pride,
strength, urgency.
Here is an example, extracted from a folk song verse to
help illustrate this principle:
Let Tyrants shake their iron rods.
And slavery clank her galling chains
lie fear them not we trust in God.
New England's God forever reigns.
The words in bold letters appear to show a feeling of
strength, pride, and determination; these feelings can
be reinforced appropriately through indication of a
loud dynamic level.
Go on to the next page.

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206

When you encounter a folk son? verse that shares repeated
elements and mood elements suggesting soft or loud dynamic
levels, the choice of which method for selecting dynamic levels
will be your own. You may discover that a combination of
approaches will result in the desired effect.
1. This old hammer killed John Henry,
2. This old hammer killed John Henry,
3. This old hammer killed John Henry,
4. But it won't kill me,
5. It won't kill me.
Lines 1-3 show a sudden shift of dynamic level.
Lines 3-5 show a decrease of intensity in dynamic level.
No response required. Go on to frame 83.

83. Read the folk song verse below, looking for words which
contain elements of mood, belief, or state of mind that
indicate the prevalent dynamic levels at which to perform
the statements being made. Once you have found those
words, make a decision about which dynamic level is best
suited to the overall verse. Your choices are:
soft(p-mp)
loud (mf-f)
Check your response below the black line.
From this valley they say you are going;
We will miss your bright eyes and sweet smile,
For they say you are taking the sunshine
That brightened our pathway awhile.

The dynamic levels indicated in this verse are p-
mp. Here are the key elements:
Longing— We will miss your eyes and smile.
Regret— you are taking the sunshine.
Your reasons for choosing a soft dynamic level may
be different as long as you detect appropriate
elements found within the verse suggesting
softness. Go on to frame 84.

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207

84. As in the previous frame, read the verse below and
determine the appropriate dynamic level based on elements
of mood, belief, or state of mind.

”0 bury me not on the lonesome prairie 1"
These words came low and mournfully
From the palid lips of a youth who lay
on his dying bed at the close of day.

The dynamic levels prevalent in this verse are p-
mp. Here are the key elements:
Lonesome— actual word in the verse.
Mournfully— actual word in the verse.
Sorrow— a youth who lay on his dying bed.
Once again, you may have different reasons for
selecting a soft dynamic level. If you chose p-mp
go directly to frame 86.
If you did not choose p-mp, please go to frame
85.

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208

85. Review these statements about choosing dynamics suggested
by text considerations.
Suggestions of dynamic levels may come from elements of
mood, belief, state of mind, or actual references to
loudness and softness in the text. These elements have
been divided into two categories for use in this program.
Some elements which suggest soft dynamic levels (p-mp) include:
Calm, loneliness, longing, pity, quietness, regret,
remembering, sorrow, weakness.
Here is an example, extracted from a folk song verse to
help illustrate this principle:
I'm sad and I'm lonely, my heart it will break.
My sweetheart loves another, Lord, I wish wuz dead.
The words in bold letters are a key to choosing soft
dynamics. They represent sorrow, loneliness, and regret.

Some elements which suggest loud dynamic levels (mf-f)
include:
Determination, frivolity, happiness, hope, joyful
expectation, loudness, nonsense, playfulness, pride,
strength, urgency.
Here is an example, extracted from a folk song verse to
help illustrate this principle:
Let Tyrants shake their iron rods.
And slavery clank her galling chains
fie fear then not we trust in God.
New England's God forever reigns.
The words in bold letters appear to show a feeling of
strength, pride, and determination; these feelings can be
reinforced appropriately through indication of a loud
dynamic level.
No response required. Go on to frame 87.

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86. You made the correct choice in frame 84. Nice going. Go
to the next frame.

87. In the following verse, choose the dynamic level you
consider to be appropriate considering increasing,
decreasing, sudden shift, and mood, then check your
response.

Flies in thebuttermilk, skip to my Lou,
Flies in thebuttermilk, skip to my Lou,
Flies in thebuttermilk, skip to my Lou,
Skip to my Lou my darling.

You may have chosen any of these combinations:
increasing/decreasing
P f
mp mf
mf mp
f P
sudden ahift
P f
f P
P f
mood
mf-f Nonsense state of mind.
At this point you have a choice between dynamic
levels. Your selection will be based on repeated
elements (increasing/decreasing), sudden shift,
and the prevailing mood in the verse. The choice
is yours!
Go on to frame 88.

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210

88. Bead the following verse and select the dynamic level which
you feel best describes the verse as a result of mood,
belief, or state of mind elements.

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord;
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are
stored
He has loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword.
His truth is marching on.

The dynamic levels prevalent in this verse are mf-
f. Here are the key elements:
Strength— Glory...coming of the Lord; His terrible
swift sword.
Hope— His truth is marching on.
Determination— He is trampling out the vintage...
Try an additional example to test your skills at
choosing dynamic levels related to mood, belief,
or state of mind. Proceed to frame 89.

89. Select the dynamic level that you consider best represents
the following verse based on elements of mood, belief, or
state of mind present in the text.

I came from Alabama with my banjo on my knee,
I'm going to Louisiana, my true love for to see,
It rained all night the day I left the weather it was dry.
The sun so hot I froze to death, Susanna don't you cry.

Go to the next page to view the confirmation.

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211

The dynamic levels prevalent: in +->»•»« verse cure mf-
f. The following elements are present:
Joyful expectation— going to Louisiana my true
love for to see,
Nonsense— rained all night...weather was dry/sun
so hot I froze to death
Go on to frame 90 for the final part of the
instruction regarding choice of dynamics.

90. The method of assigning dynamic levels which will be
discussed next is Fixed dynamic patterns. You may discover
a similarity to dynamic levels which intensify repeated
elements of the verse previously presented. The main
difference is that dynamic levels under this heading are
not assigned primarily as a result of textual
considerations. They are what they say they are: Fixed.
In the event you encounter difficulty defining mood,
belief, or state of mind from a folk song verse, you may
exercise this method of assigning dynamic levels without
fear of being incorrect. There are two categories
belonging to this method:
1. Terrace dynamics— Dynamic levels increase or decrease
one level at a time during each line of a verse.
P f
mp mf
mf mp
f P
Here is an example to help illustrate this principle:
Lowlands, lowlands away, my John p f
Oh, my old mother, she wroteto me, mp mf
My dollar and a half a day; mf mp
She wrote to me to come back from sea. f p
The choice of increasing or decreasing the dynamic
level is your own. Just be sure you have exhausted all
possible text considerations before using fixed dynamic
patterns. The second category follows:
Go on to the next page.

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212

2. Arch dynamics— Dynamic levels are terraced from one extreme
to the other and back again.
p f
mp mf
mf mp
f P
mf mp
mp mf
P f
When considering a folk song verse with four lines or more,
you may use a different combination of dynamic levels than
those just prescribed. Here are some possible choices
according to the number of lines in a given verse. Notice
that in some cases the inner most dynamic level is
repeated. This is to insure that the arch will return to
the dynamic level at which it began.
four lines five lines six lines eight lines
P f P mp f P f P f
mp mf mp mf mf mp mf mp mf
mp mf mf f mp mf mp mf mp
P f mp mf mf mf mp f P
P mp f mp mf f P
P f mf mp
mp mf
P f

It will not be necessary to memorize these. Just remember
that arch dynamics return to the dynamic level at which the
sequence began:

mf mf
mp mp

Hare is an example to clarify this principle: (Remember to
read dynamic levels in columns.)
1. 2. 3. 4.
What wondrous love is this. Oh! Hy soul,
oh my soul!............ . . p mp mf f
What wondrous love is this, Oh! My soul! . • mp mf mp mf
What wondrous love is this! That caused the
Lord of bliss, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mf f p mp
To bear the dreadful curse for my soul,
for my soul, .......... ........... . mp mf mp mf
To bear the dreadful curse for my soul. . p mp mf f
Go on to the next page.

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213

Go on and work some examples having to dc with fixed dynamic
patterns. When you sure finished, it will be time for a well
earned break. Go to frame 91.

91. On your own paper, write a Terrace dynamic pattern which
you consider to be appropriate for the folk song verse
shown:

Trading boats have gone ashore.
Trading boats sure landing;
Trading boats have gone ashore,
Loaded down with candy.

Your response should resemble one of these:
P f
mp mf
mf mp
f P
Go on to frame 92.

92. On your own paper, write an Arch dynamic pattern which you
consider to be appropriate for the following folk song
verse:

We're up in the morning ere breaking of day,
The chuck wagon’s busy, the flapjack's in play,
The herd is a stir over hillside and vale.
With the night riders crowding them into the trail.

Go to the next page to view the confirmation.

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214

Your response should resemble one of the
following:
p mp mf f mf mp
mp mf f mf mp P
mp mf f mf mp P
P mp mf f mf inp
The possibility of wide dynamic level choices is
not great with four lines of text as you can see.
Arch dynamics work much better with five or more
levels of dynamic possibilities.
Go on to frame 93.

93. On you own paper, write the Arch dynamic pattern which you
consider to be appropriate for the verse below:

Can't you all hear them, huh,
Cuckoo birds all a hoi1 'ring.
Can't you all hear them, huh.
Cuckoo birds all a hoi1 'ring.
Sure sign of rain.
Oh my Lord, sure sign of rain.

Here are some possible variations. You may have
chosen others.
p mp f
mp mf mf
mf f mp
mf f mp
mp mf mf
p mp f
Go on to frame 94.

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215

94. On your own paper, write the Arch dynamic pattern which you
consider to be appropriate for the following folk song
verse:

Come all ye fine young fellows
Who have got a mind to range
Into some far off countree
Your fortune for to change.
Will lay us down upon the banks
Of the blessed Ohio;
Through the wilduoods will wander,
And will chase the buffalo.

Your response should resemble one of the
following:
p f
mp mf
mf mp
f P
f P
mf mp
mp mf
P f
Why not go on to frame 95 and have a quick review
of things to look for when considering dynamic
level choices.

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216

95. Here are the things to look for when considering dynamic
level choices for a folk song verse:
Text considerations:
1. Look for repeated elements (words, phrases, or
lines in the verse) serve to intensify the thought
being presented. Intensity can be demonstrated by
increasing (soft to loud),or decreasing (loud to
soft) dynamic levels associated with repeated
elements at the discretion of the arranger.
2. A sudden shift in intensity may be demonstrated by
alternating between opposite dynamic levels on
consecutively repeated words, phrases, or lines in
the verse.
3. Some elements which suggest soft dynamic levels (p-
mp) include:
Calm, loneliness, longing, pity, quietness, regret,
remembering, sorrow, weakness.
4. Some elements which suggest loud dynamic levels
(mf-f) include:
Determination, frivolity, happiness, hope, joyful
expectation, loudness, nonsense, playfulness,
pride, strength, urgency.
Fixed dynamic patterns:
1. Terrace dynamics-—Dynamic levels increase or
decrease one level at a time during each line of
a verse.
2. Arch dynamics— Dynamic levels are terraced from one
extreme to the other and back again.
Go on to frame 96.

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217

96. On your own paper, write the dynamic pattern which you
consider to be appropriate for the folk song verse below.
Please consider the review which you have just read. The
confirmation will explain reasons for the choices made.

One Monday morning to our surprise.
Just half an hour before sunrise.
The dirty devil went to the skies
And Pat worked on the railway.

Your response should resemble any of those below:
Terrace
P f
mp mf
inf mp
f P
Arch
p mp mp mf mf f
mp p mf f mp mf
mp p mf f mp mf
P mp mp mf mf f
this verse, there are no elements
suggest text related dynamic levels. There is an
absence of:
1. Repeated elements
2. Elements suggesting soft or loud dynamic
levels
If you have noticed the numerous dynamic level choices
available to you and feel somewhat overcome by the
selections, do not be burdened. The opportunity to have so
many choices will allow you to be flexible in interpreting
the verse, thus providing several aesthetic possibilities
for your consideration.

Go on to frame 97 and complete the objective for this unit.

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218

97. The objective for this unit is to correctly choose and
write appropriate dynamics for your practice choral
arrangement.
Locate your TEXT CHART for SHENANDOAH and write dynamic
levels for all four verses. You have the following
categories from which to choose, and you may refer to the
frames mentioned for any assistance.
1. Text
a. Repeated elements— — — — 75
b. Sudden shift— -75
c. Elements of mood,
belief, or state of mind— 82
2. Fixed dynamic patterns
a. Terrace— 90
b. Arch 90
When you work with VAD units 6-8, you will be expected to
write the dynamic level choices from this unit on your
manuscript. You will be instructed how to write dynamic
level symbols at that time.
After you have written your dynamic choices, compare your
TEXT CHART with that found on the next page. Remember,
your choices may differ from those you see written in the
confirmation as long as you have made your choices based on
the instruction you have received in this unit.
Follow the instructions on the confirmation page.

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219

CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH
RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

MOOD: CALM/REFLBCTIVE/TBroER L G
L N
TEMPO: J* 60-80 A I E O M
R C C B
TEXT: (UNDERLINE coherent phrases) E I I M N
V 0 0 0 Y
O V V C D
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you. A P
And hear your rolling river. S mp
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, UNISON . A mf
'Way, we're bound away. AT mf
Across the wide Missouri. ATB f
I long to see your smiling valley. S f
And hear your rolling river, ST mf
I long to see your smiling valley, UNISON A mp
'Way, we're bound away, AB mf
Across the wide Missouri. SATB f
'Tis seven long years since last
I see you. S/A mp
And hear your rolling river. TWO- S/T mf
'Tis seven lone years since last PART
I see you, B/A f
'Way, we're bound away. SB/AT mf
Across the wide Missouri. SB/AT mp
4. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you. PS/A
And hear your rolling river, TWO- S/A
mp
% Shenandoah, I long to see you, PART TB/SA
mf
'Way, we’re bound away. TB/SA
mp
Across the wide Missouri. TB/SA
P
Dynamic level choices are based upon the following factors:
verse 1: increasing/terraced
verse 2: arch
verse 3: arch
verse 4: arch
TAKE A BREAK. YOU HAVE EARNED IT!
When you come back, proceed to unit 6 and begin learning how to
write VOCAL ACCOMPANIMENT DEVICES.

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220

Welcome back! (You did take a break, didn't you?) Before
you begin this unit, take a moment to review the information you
have acquired about choral arranging thus feu:.
You have been working with a device upon which is written
all pertinent information about your choral arrangement. The
TEXT CHART, when completed, becomes an information source
containing both mechanical and musical aspects necessary to
enable you to write the choral arrangement on manuscript paper.
The following items are represented on the TEXT CHART and
contained in this program:
1. Ranges of SATB voices, (unit 1)
2. Mood terms and tempo indications, (unit 2)
3. Text with proper punctuation and instructions to derive
smaller phrases by underlining and circling words from
the whole verse, (unit 3)
4. Overall voicing for each verse: unison, and two-part
(unit 4).
5. Voice combination choices for each verse, (unit 4)
6. Dynamic level choices for each verse. (unit 5)
7. Vocal Accompaniment Device choices for each verse,
(units 6—8)
8. The melody with key and meter signatures, proper
notation, and the first verse written beneath the
notation located at the bottom of your TEXT CHART.
It is important for you to be well acquainted with the
manner in which your TEXT CHART functions. As you master the
next three units, you will learn to write VADs for each verse of
SHENANDOAH, and then write your choral arrangement on manuscript
paper. The TEXT CHART, when completed, will supply all of the
necessary information enabling you to transfer your arrangement
to manuscript paper.

Turn the page now and begin unit 6.

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221

UNIT 6

At the conclusion of this nnitr you will write the YAD idiidi
will be labelled MELODY TRANSFER/LAYERING for unison voices
™ing a given folk sang melody and verse.

Units 6-8 concentrate on teaching compositional structures
(VADs) commonly used in choral arranging. These structures
vary the way in which the melody is sung and harmonized.
Alteration of musical material results in melodic and harmonic
textures which are the essence of choral arranging.
In this unit, you will master three tasks:
1. Presented with definitions and musical examples of
MELODY TRANSFER and MELODY LAYERING, you will be asked
to label a musical example as being either MELODY
TRANSFER, MELODY LAYERING, or a combination of both
VADs.
2. Given a description of musical phrases and guidelines
to identify the beginning of new musical phrases, you
will be asked to label beginnings of new musical phrases
or ideas from written melodies.
3. Presented with a written melody, you will be asked to
arrange* the melody using MELODY TRANSFER, MELODY
LAYERING, or a combination of both VADs for a specific
combination of voice parts.
*The term arrange will be associated with writing all
VADs. When you are instructed to arrange something, the
task will be that of transferring knowledge you have
acquired concerning each VAD you master to manuscript
paper.
When you write musical examples, pay particular attention
to the way in which both illustrated and confirmation examples
are notated. It is hoped that you will adopt details of
legibility, correct pitches and rhythm, and text placement under
the notation when you are instructed to write vocal lines for
your arrangement.
If you encounter any errors in your responses, review the
frame and then proceed on to the next frame.
Due to the location and space occupied by musical examples in
the next three units, you will not always be instructed to turn

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222

the page when you reach the bottom. Continue reading, and at
the end of a frame you will be instructed as to how to proceed.
In the back of this booklet you will find some manuscript
paper. It is there for your use in units 6-8. When a frame
instructs you to write examples of VADs, be sure to use the
manuscript paper provided. Go on to frame 98 and follow the
instructions given there.

98. The simplest of all VADs is MELODY TRANSFER/LAYERING.
Before presenting musical examples to label, an explanation
of these terms (with illustrated musical examples) is in
order.
MELODY TRANSFER: In this VAD the melody is sting by any
voice part (or combination of voice parts). It is then
transferred to another voice part (or combination of voice
parts). The melody continues in the voice part to which it
is transferred. Look at the musical example which
demonstrates this principle.

4 - Qs-ac*, taw fta jou*k L

Go to the next page.

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223

Z 0* t £ __ lost tJC -

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224

99. MELODY LAYERING: In this VAD the melody is sun? by any
voice part (or combination of voice parts). Another voice
part (or combination of voice parts) is added to those
already singing the melody as it continues. Look at the
musical example which demonstrates this principle.

p
•tKeCt faueJL —

7 7
A -
1 ' nil 1
- •**3— <$roc£ Km) i w c f t 4dtA $oaiuL
m saved*, a __

Go to the next page.

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225

— J-3- a^Ta f’^ 4 -- r-j-t---ft fi
1 * ^
**rrx y*c— u»A>-/tfft tat -- a**—
iOrttck liWC.
\?c n L- Z-lf- f
i
l
c=r=\z£>.,\ — H — l---
-14- «-nf- ,J. i vj-i
p 1
Wrrfcdw UK*- X »"*— «W- l«#t but —
^— fe [ ■ ^ 1 — :— 1 -- 1-- ft f T
f = l JHLi— \
2 owe*_ i leftbu2'Tiout-- ftm—
— ---- --------- -----i
■?-------

bliW. hwt— HOM* X

Wt*n^ !**£_

IM S Wtl*^ bwt — *N9tt 5

U«i bltw^ ]*»£__ £

Go on to the next page.

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226

100. MELODY TRANSFER/LAYERING (a combinatior of both VADs): In
this VAD the melody may begin by either means (transfer or
layering), and, at the beginning of a new musical phrase,
the other VAD is used. The end result is that both VADs
«u:e used in combination over the course of the verse.
Look at the musical example which demonstra-tes this
principle.

... - i j j-ii
fp-i —
Mloij.
mmftr — 7 & & scMil a —

F f = ^ = F = i = 4 = ■-J------j
—"H---- 7—
-J -----J—
lJ V "
HtloJy
A- _ S*ttk
* * * r i Ttam+ftr
[ } f l .....1 \
— -d ------ ?—4-
0 --------- —
Mv<^> ---

= r =

For your information: It is possible, as in the above
example, to have a single voice part transferred to two
voice parts (or vice-versa). Any combination of voice
parts may be involved in the transferring of the melody as
long as the place of transfer is chosen correctly.
Go to the next page.

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227

fe = = f ■= 1 = - • h J —i ]

u c ik L
— J - J

- * «
H iO

U 1
\efb
—J—

bub
- « L - J

-w ow ____
i.J - 1

fa * - - t - ■ f n i
f = —J— L
but

i ,,.
k * , n

p f r - - 1
8 u rtW . llK * _ -

it* —

F y = F
\ = t= " " " J - 4 - 1 - --------- r F f r - r = |
___ L _ J ----- £ ----- ------ * -
p = ± = —J—1

UO*} btwJL Vu^ — <t»ow X- *e e .

— 1— > i y 1 T "1 — " 1 1 , =
- 4 - * --------------------------
- — — -
woi IfllJ t buC— * i u X

# =
-J— 1

w&5
I------- I . . . J
— --------- ^

b U *^ b u t _-
= ^ . ..... I
t c f =

*» w
^

X
:
4 - 1 ............... 1 |

L.
- - -
- - J ------- --- --------------

>rr f — f -
= T = ^ J ------------ ■■
J — U A

b iiX ^ b « fc - - -novf X r.

Go on to the next page.

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228

101. Look at the following melody arranged for unison voices.
Determine whether it is an example of:
a. Melody Transfer
b. Melody Layering
c. A combination of both
d. Neither
Check your response below the black line.

%i —• i t
n -- --------
rj 9 W ' 0 M
^23 ^^2
Ok £ cUwe

P
m

#-#
$
U«(Lj ?«alLc

Go to the next page.

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229

■A ■------ ------ --- :
/

r r ---- — T
---- 1— J-U"—I-'—Tj—J- J J J fcl
-n- 5*1fk e
\ | , | 1- > ]'■;
---- £-4-
vh ' --- fc-
iL f U f J ^
j; folltj d o o iL . 4ll
---V— r r r r r f T H
44^---- !— ---- 4-4—
5i«^

The arrangement above is an example of:
a. MELODY TRANSFER.
Notice that the melody is transferred from one
voice part to another. When the second voice
begins to sing the melody, the initial voice stops
singing. That is a key to recognizing MELODY
TRANSFER. One voice part (or combination of voice
parts) sing(s) the melody at a time; when the
melody is transferred, those voices cease to sing.
Go on to frame 102.

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230

102. Look at the following melody arranged for unison voices.
Determine whether it is an example of:
a. Melody Transfer
b. Melody Layering
c. A combination of both
d. Neither

------------ ■ - - - r --------- - = 1
— — --------------------------

bf o ^ n i r ft r i \ —J f*“ J1------r
J J l ^ f j — T f"j}j
2 ami** [Out, x_ cUre'mt 0*** Vi, rk< ?ai* liaion-iw^

bwj - i - i

k " 1 ■ ...=

Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
231

I > ,
s — t— 7 r.
f = = F^' J } h-b ■■ ■ ■
I— ^ — J----------
/ r
I 4ik_ m love tk* u*k»U.

itfrrz------ ■h
|#—
y- H ;
j- n— t
/ h
7 1 — 5
V i
B 1— ^--- J----------
'areoJ-t; X cuw levs and feuttf «£,
j— J
b i =
t-f----J— i------- ----
1 1 r ' M J — *■—
' i .......
S U» |o/» attJL* W uJ*Lu*(6

:-----= - =

The arrangement above is an example of:
b. Melody Layering
Notice that the melody begins in one voice part
and is joined by another voice part. Both voice
parts continue to sing the melody. A key to
recognizing MELODY LAYERING: voices entering the
texture are added to those already singing.
Go on to frame 103.

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232

103. Zook at the following musical excerpt and determine whether
it is an example of:
a. Melody Transfer
b. Melody Layering
c. A combination of both
d. Neither

Alto

thoclouds in
j>aai

Calmly, without

i

The arrangement above is an example of:
d. Neither
Do you see any characteristics of MELODY
TRANSFER/LAYERING in this example? All four
voices are singing at the same time. Nothing is
transferred. Nothing is layered. You knew that
already, didn't you?

Go to frame 104.

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233

104. After looking at the following example arranged for unison
voices, make a decision about whether it is:
a. Melody Transfer
b. Melody Layering
c. A combination of both
d. Neither

m = = =
(Ja m

jy-n J 1 h-H
v f C H ~ tle y i 't j iU f t io a O u t* S u t

Js, ,

cj r r if r r i
vf I t’ i'U t qirt, tL tft too lode t

$

If you chose: a. Melody Transfer, you are
correct.
Go to frame 105.

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234

105. Look at the following melody arranged for unison voices and
select the response which best describes its function as a
VAD.
a. Melody Transfer
b. Melody Layering
c. A combination of both
d. Neither

- - - - - - - - - - 1- - - - - - - -

- J - p - - - . - - - 1- - - - - - - - - - j- - - - - - - - i
f _ _ _ _ _ _ =

^ - - - - - - - 1
1 — r J1-
r ------------ -----

A-
L l J — f —
bovt iorths laa* -
d

\ - - =— a - =-i- - - - - - - - 1
“1- - - * \ JT '- - - 1
1/ L J — 1 1. . . L . . . . . . . . . . . . i
lip or> enL-Usf 40* 5 ;

Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
235

k£t-»— „ i. r"1i 1
— A-Pr __ ___ a 4
- 0-
Shor 14* real kko'far a»l>a-mw <-f*~
H
\ J " ft
fift-----------------
J , .............
/uifc*'**" **-
j> ] h n -iu p n ------M-J-—
J' J J 1 jr fj.lJ r -- h|
t— J — ^ rtat th*-fara# nyww -tKT Kalbs^ncM ere-

The correc-t response is: c. A combination of
both.
The melody is first transferred from one voice
part to another, then a voice part is added to
those already singing.
There are three ways in which the melody can be
treated using the VAD MELODY TRANSFER/LAXERING as
illustrated by the examples of arrangements
presented thus far. The melody may be:
1. Transferred
2. Layered
3. Used as a combination of both transferring and
layering.

Go on to frame 106.

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236

106. In this musical example arranged for unison voices/
determine whether it is an example of:
a. Melody Transfer
b. Melody Layering
c. A combination of both
d. Neither
The confirmation will appear after the example.

L ........

— =— — ------------- j
4 — 1---------- -■ 1

mH - 1 " 1------------
r 1- ------- 1i J|
- ....... J

rtar f - * f -0^-—
f £7-----
-*— - j7-----
- p J*-----*—
.f |
*f ‘• 1 11
'niykt__ — wWdiwtiia Sue* joe* */ -------- &/ *

Go to the next page.

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237

----- J f 1 .... ""1

f l i i
I 1" 1 1
£v/-«aj
m F = 1--------------------
jM------- !--------------------- b.:-:r~-._j

.. —
^—#—■i-Tp1— V-j" »=
?—
— N/kan&< *«»*• * /---- - ^-erj 'tiujkt-----

[-£-------
' m m

- vfftr mJ,*wauli fre fciV* i4l*#4h€ /•• • e r W i wa* cfce#en)

J I*J*=*=
tJS J | | J | i..■r 1
.U" * *
-7*---- hJ—
iteuL,
wh«n4tu «*>-— 3Noa4^«u«h-mm ----
H' [■» j
—l
rJ r~j ,
----- 1
---
r kaJi,1* J - ' J -
-- -
—-

P^t~TT-h-l rr - l J J I
>------- sM~a
1
¥
"
*■ J j •' 1
w*w%tK<
~g~~ ~
hv} h
U,-- - ? toe)sW h- teJf___
1--

v"f
■£— 1— f f
— 1 ,=1 --- *
— £—
0--
/ p---p—
wfi#»£«<*»*?»«; »*,---- j

Go on to the next page.

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238

You should have selected: b. Melody Layering.
It is time to work with the second task of unit 6 .
Go to frame 107.

107. It is important for you to recognize the beginnings of new
musical phrases in order to select the proper location in
the melody at which to transfer or layer voice parts. Look
at this musical example:

m

p i

T rts

BE
M
0 *u
l
m
9* 4.tm £ & € ft LtftJk, a-imo*, M f
=f=E
?etee Qrayj
*

Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
239

v ,__________________________________
h ' ' ----- " ~ ~
T--------------------

fr — - -I. ■ " 1

^ U
a ifrfl
U
ittA.
U r t Ir 1 fI
-Hvt air -bun* call** f e w * - '***-*>$ •

fl:Lh
1/ »> ■' - • - |"
+
■ - '•"=
■— i

The melody begins in the Bass voice and, at the beginning of
a new musical phrase, is transferred to the Tenor voice part.
When arranging a melody, you need to make three decisions:
1. Which voice part(s) begin (s) the melody;
2. To which voice part(s) the melody is transferred;
3. The point at which the transfer takes place.
The decision about who sings the melody is up to you
(remember unit 1 on Ranges and unit 4 on Voice Combinations).
The decision about when to transfer the voice part can be made
by isolating musical phrases. The place to transfer the melody
to a different voice is marked by the beginning of new musical
phrases. Host folk melodies are symmetrically balanced, that is,
phrases usually contain two smaller phrases, combined to create
a feeling of departure (antecedence) and arrival (consequence),
as in the following examples:

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240

I etnttnam AMM 0L

f t fV n j n j n i f u ' ^ u
fn rn H **» V&L-i*j4k*]& ]¥ *< *'*■ y f t m t iL im / iY H r in j& t p f M t * * * *
WM0MU

tjjfyj- ., 'J ^ ift
U/kicU. A&A-

tfh r u n
bnqkt o*Lf P&tk for Cl - wliiU.

*aa**AL

r £
On-tffafQU, $mc-K}, * U Covered t**0* ^iwJ(
Vtpm*cua* mcitcL._________

y F F r ^ j: =F
£. Ufftsrmj iflU Le - / < r _____ -£>r A cotfr-iU -too $lo*»

If phrases sure not balanced symmetrically, (e.g., a melody
which contains three phrases) you will be able to transfer voice
parts at the beginning of new musical phrases as illustrated in
the following example which appears on the next page:

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241

ifti1-j i-f J r r r
Ok, j*me folHf *») *** hlu*> *i"& b/Uf & 4ht

i; ' T
\0totft old
n n ' M
4ka± X &v-£r
7S^a J l .

i/ m ' r r i r 1 ■’ j i .'
Fdrt -tk*£ ujtLL/ /)mj Iton* fiy, ^ar« -fkee weU •

An effective way to judge the beginnings of new musical
phrases is to sing the verse. The properties of cadence
(arrival and repose) which mark the end of a phrase are more
natural to detect through sound them sight for persons using
this program. However, since it is not within the scope of this
program to include sound recordings of folk melodies, locate
those places to transfer voice parts by examining the written
verse. Look for these factors which are characteristic of most
phrase endings and which may possibly occur coincidentally:
A phrase containing two symmetrically balanced shorter
phrases which may close with:
1. Grammatical punctuation (commas, semicolons, periods),
marking a pause or the end of a thought in the text;
2. Rhyming of final words of phrases;
3. A sustained note value on the last word in a thought;
4. A musical rest occuring after the last word in a
thought.
Go to the next page.

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242

Any or all of these characteristics may serve to indicate
the ending of a musical phrase. Here is a musical example which
demonstrates all four principles:

i

P P P P P
dutur. fht COvnALtf bhoj w w t tt< w u m iheum !**•*}£

. Jl 1 ------

(Ifar . £ fa*ocL<ed. upont*** »i\n- doit/ -fc» £Af€ Utr Ucr

n 4.

F frC J
Pain. *•#>* -to Let ***/ &mk fh€ barftHkt dp#&-j***

Notice that (a) each phrase contains two symmetrically
balanced smaller phrases; and (b) all four characteristics are
present at each phrase ending. (Words at which phrase endings
occur are: 1 . dear. 2. clear. 3. pain. 4. (a)-gain.)
Refer once again to the points just mentioned and you should
have no difficulty in recognizing the characteristics of a
musical phrase ending.
Even though you have been instructed to transfer voice
parts at beginnings of new musical phrases, it is not mandatory
that you do so at every phrase beginning. Allowing a voice part
(or combination of voice parts) to sing more than one phrase is
completely acceptable as the following example illustrates:
Go on to the next page.

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243

f y ; , - = F — V J 1 <— k
Jj — 1--- lJ-
n "—
fftf r r 11
r^ r-T t
J 1'- J'i * * J. / I
fk trtS jfcter-'MiUlUiU, vg^o IiUmcwct & *) '>•**) J iiL t eo»4

J * f —f t • •n i —*— j 1 1 ------ ft—1- --- N— 1 - -- 1 - ----- f*-l
--- 1
y*r r-r;i >T j * J 1 ' * 1
- ---- 3-H
1K« I At"* (uttu .~ U * I k l i , mhe couii Ufi0M<*M«yc«j*»y o»4L
■>4.....■ — 4
.------------ h
r
___ _____L------------------ !
7^ , t=------------------ 1

y
I
f- !— --- PT
0 -.
tearmenLe
u. r
itvnfc.'m«U,
m a—x—;—J—t I A
lS f ( J
J - A-
.—

/uujoetj*a fel Her, '
J I
t\b try
w__
r 1P '-pr-0—s— 7—3—r | J J 1
7 ^ * *— u ; r 1U r f J
0/ ■tnjtecsUMuld |u* $oL - d<V<\

S= '»b m j y—f i - j - ■■■4= - " 1
— —

r— & TT f ' j
4
Jdluwuj W jtnfjerc* - Acer,
^ — --------
1
f f <>i- £ — ------ 1
' VJ I I ------ 1- ------- 1
S<k*A^ Wu C|«iK^«va. $oi -
“ 4Ur.
60 on -to the next page.

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244

108. In the next four frames, you will be presented with folk
melodies written on a single staff. In each frame examine
the melody and locate the first two words of the new
musical phrase. The confirmation will indicate the
beginning of a new musical phrase by showing the correct
words.
NO response required. Go to frame 109.

109. Iaocate the words which begin the new musical phrase from
the melody and verse in this frame.

f r i Whjen, ir j . h H . . n ij
bjraaetj -krtm b it fit* w tU f w ,
i'i ^ i
A *i
'i

re- jouA,

If you identified the new musical phrase as
beginning with the words And hear, go to frame
111 .
If you selected a word other than the one just
given, go to frame 1 1 0 .

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245

lio. Here are some guidelines which should help you identify
beginnings of new musical phrases.
These factors are characteristic of most phrase endings:
A phrase should contain two symmetrically balanced shorter
phrases which may close with:
1. Commas, semicolons, or periods mark a pause or the end
of a thought in the text;
2. Fined, words of phrases may rhyme;
3. A sustained note value on the last word in a text
phrase;
4. A musical rest occurring after the last word in a text
phrase.
Any or all of these characteristics may serve to indicate
the ending of a musical phrase.
Go on to frame 112.

111. You made the correct choice in frame 109. You are doing
quite well. Keep reading.

112. Locate the words in the verse which begin the second
half of this symmetrically balanced musical phrase.

/ml*.

The new musical phrase begins with the words We
will.
Go to frame 113.

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246

113. Locate the correct words of the verse which mark the
beginning of the new larger* musical phrase.
♦The beginning of the second symmetrically balanced musical
phrase.

m

£
P
Loft'my ifikt Lav -
r y to £
fore* couriU ' too ilov

The new musical phrase begins with the words I_
lost.
Go to frame 114.

114. Select the words which mark the beginning of a new musical
phrase in the following melody.

r- i
<JcM j? U W a . ^iHtyou sieft t*> &*•*

I lft r I f r r £
% ^•Mt vf Littu 'jOOk sLcft ioo Ia £ & , bxbc *.

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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247

The new musical phrase begins on the words Wake up
the second time they appear.
You have completed this phase of instruction and
are ready to work on the final task of this unit.
Go to frame 115.

115. In the final part of unit 6, you will be presented with a
written melody and be asked to arrange the melody using
MELODY TRANSFER, MELODY LAYERING, or a combination of both
for a specific combination of voice parts. the
confirmation will show the arrangement exactly as you will
be directed to write it.
Please remember; When you write musical examples, pay
particular attention to the way in which illustrated as
well as confirmation examples are notated. It is hoped
that you will adopt details of legibility, correct pitches
.and rhythm, and text placement under the notation when you
are instructed to write vocal lines of your arrangement.
No response required. Go on to frame 116.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
248

116. On your own manuscript paper, arrange the following melody
for unison voices using the VAD: MELODY TRANSFER. Employ
the following voice parts in the order given, with one
voice part per phrase: BASS— SOPRANO. Use four staves
connected in one brace with one voice part per staff. (The
alto and tenor voice parts will have whole rests in each
measure.) Write legibly using correct pitches, rhythm, and
text placement beneath the notation. Check your response
with the confirmation provided.

Jin, i jrii
Ulktiktr y € t t tiutkj piL-yim

b>;j J ] . j j j J T u JJ P\r fjrP
/a il ? Hmmffi -dwbi y%ot} f * lL o f a m i wVft-iwttJSjf. c a u t-o ^

Your arrangement should match the one shown on the
next page. Please recheck your example for proper
pitches, rhythm and text placement beneath the
notation exactly as it appears in this
confirmation. Once you have done that, you may
proceed to frame 117.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Mrki\*f y t f i MmP*'<jer thi*_ doukrfcnm*

zN— £-}-
--- <
F j= F # f^ r
—i-LJ—j—
- n -
v*LJ 1 r— rx* -------
dc# ytr, , mot -fait?

b— ■ -
f — —

> . i
f = J

vole?

Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
250

117. On your own manuscript paper, arrange the following melody
for unison voices using the VAD: MELODY TRANSFER. Employ
the SOPRANO— ALTO——TENOR voice parts in that order, with
one voice part per phrase. Use a four-stave brace with one
voice part per staff. (The bass voice will have whole
rests in each measure.) Write legibly, using correct
pitches, rhythm, and text placement beneath the notation.
Check your response with the confirmation.

fe
* w 1J-r A -r U - j J _J M
H CoreL a f r t y Um fl) lltayki b* xLL

r n = m I i
m
e b t t e ' f a r e S*cdt iUou. a r t . fhou. O w qkt by

Ij f i J
day or by
j ij, jlj Jflif J fre-femerty 0#<z.

The arrangement, exactly as yours should
appear, can be found on the next two pages.

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251

y & i I--I— -- f--- 1----.-411-4:-------
-- 1
----------
-----------------
J—J -- J
$e •tittu p — Wfttrt
— I--------- 1--------
>—

jfr 4 — ------h - J -----J—1 ----
Afcut&k b * aIt

r > 1

m :.:x u

r - X j r f c -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- -- -- -- 1-,- -- -- - — -
fy- - - - - - " - - - - -
/

1— j~ r [ -3 - , J
m j -" t t = l
U — i— —
et$e if f ' m*-, a *t.

- - - - - -
f r - T r f r \ J \ - - - - - -
T - ' U U 1 f J 1
1h* ' • • ‘J . l u f t -

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
252

r>,v- — -
/

h * A — j -----------
p i

V.f
I-.— 4 F F = t = R 7 ? ----- ^
i* a --

f --- 1 J |Q J ' " h r —
*— #--- -- ---
SUgfAt*fiiky— ftt-J tH L t 'Jmj fykt.

y f t —

Go on to frame 118.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
253

118. On your four-stave manuscript paper, arrange the following
melody for unison voices in this order: ALTO— BASS— TENOR,
using the VAD: MELODY TRANSFER. Add one voice part at
each new phrase beginning. Write neatly! Chech your
response before continuing.

$ Ok, $<rm* -Uul L ItU j s ba.iLf
m
It> the

v j I
m i %
u*rft old. fttL- Ucj Lkcct I tt-tr haM. 'fate L'*t* t

-v ---- i
ho*-ey , fata i#*((..

Your arrangement should look exactly like the one
which appears on the following pages.

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254

---- ------- --------- 1--------
------------- -------------
— :

—f---J-- F —F —F~— 0----- 0 ---- F ---- >-------
1' J f LS- r t d
Ok, bU*** 4ini {>*4'
----
----

---4
----
----f5----- *-- *—
Ssh
I--- [■ — iv-d
& -the

* ----------------
£r*
1

------- --------
f

-1 _____- ____ 1
________ j£=i

fare 4ke* nett,
rmr.—0-- 0 0 0-s --- r-r
■t -Ih ----- = -- ----
~ -- f -----
w o rft • I d f e t f - "’ *} < h a t S tv tf

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
C J' L j'l
tfy, fpx* ihtc well.

Go on to frame 119.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
256

119. On your own manuscript paper.- arrange the following melody
for unison voices using the VAD: MELODY LAYERING. Employ
the following combination of voice parts in the order
presented: SOPRANO— ALTO, adding one voice part at the
beginning of a new phrase. Continue to use a four-stave
brace, supplying rests for the voice parts not singing and
be careful to copy notes, rhythms, and text correctly.
Your response may be confirmed below the black line.

i n n - u i f *
He'* a- * 9 , ***** ^ ^

A p -I " J ' W
bat* 1 If *** ef*
U i

The arrangement as it should appear, can be found
on the following page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
257

f V f " f— i-------------- * P i f f f - ' ------- *
i f •i"g------<•

jo t & jto y a. L iU lc w h ilt,
M' s 9* * * a * way,

i h r * ----------- --------------- 1 j f = £

Ifu t he's

h r -

f c. . . -1

g>C ~ :

p-EiJ» J jF--j=
■ X - T -1 -------

C o w * * ' if
— — 1
v
---- ^ b " ^ = -- L jr .
( j» * f -to w
- i-
f — 1------- 3-----’

- m ile * -

Lf i — — ^
k» f
F
f r ? = H = - = * - s -- ---
A J -
—! ------- >----- f

if h e 4»w 'iwHcf -

X
: ■ ■
@-E— ----------------
i
---- ----------- i
t

In .......- ........ I
Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
258

120. Using the melody below and your manuscript paper, arrange
an example of MELODY TRANSFER/LAYERING (a combination of
both). Use this guideline to complete your task:
MELODY LAYERING: phrase 1 Alto voice'
phrase 2 Bass voice joins the Alto voice
MELODY TRANSFER: phrase 3 Soprano voice
phrase 4 Tenor voice

fly y *n -6 U W f , a*ce i f f * - 2 — e* 'Tl%e

£ __________ \_____ C

0f -itvjour t»fi fart- utlL.

iaJi-
J Lfir PC/c/ir.i
#**, i 4W m * {tuff ‘M c e C . A - cpi**.

Your arrangement should resemble the one presented
on the following pages. The first phrase is sung
by the Alto voice. In the second phrase the Bass
voice joins the Alto voice which is already
singing. The third phrase is sung alone by the
Soprano voice. The fourth phrase is sung by the
Tenor voice*

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
259

flJ V r r I
p n - i U In*t} 0** ‘mart.Ll- u/mK* #»

O IdH------------
1/ ' w* j i
1bt

X ------------
J
m dm
•I'J-:.- -J__^giU
/
-texts amr U ft jtr e - m tll- w*#-

[k I
* J-
,
p. J 4± LJ -----------------------
of -kkj jOrm - tr r i^ .iinum)

Ix - = ii
----------- 1
t—
-N
e a 5 r£— f “ £ f c - f - p — —
■f-.................- — I
*f ihy fb m - b 'r iy .f h u * }

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
/Ui •»»#«*«* «*< '**<£_*■ -

L
fe--------------------

Go on to frame 121.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
261

122. Using the melody below and your manuscript paper, arrange
an example of the VAD: MELODY LAYERING for unison voices.
Use this combination of voice parts in the order presented:
BASS— TENOR, adding one voice part at the beginning of a
new musical phrase. Supply proper rests for the two voices
which do not sing. Write your arrangement very carefully.

f l u
r ' — ---------- 1---------- f r
(prS Ji 1 J J + J ------------ J — J - J - r * ---------
Jw V -y - ^ --------- lL-
7#- r i* - /•**» « ,_ Ui*#M fL c L L X £ to

l- jv mi ------ a — = — » 1 f------- a------- s : -------------V i =
= H * p
f E 7 P i f ■ E
ih u ? u/tah. ■*»>) for - rmof hat'ea^ e tU ,. fty japMlMrtfMIX

fim
1 #<1

Your arrangement should look the one which appears
on the next page. After you have examined it, go
to frame 123 and work one more example before
completing the objective for this unit.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
262

f r F = l

ftj .6 1
1
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611.6 f r r r f n f — f --- 7---------- — r — r Y f—H
z > S: f & L . L - 1 P„ f - — £ H , ir-* ^ ----
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Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
263

123. Using the melody below and your manuscript paper, carefully
arrange an example of the VAD: MELODY LAYERING. Use this
combination of voice parts: ALTO— SOPRANO— TENOR— BASS.
Add one voice part, in the order given, at the beginning
of each new musical phrase. Be sure to supply whole rests
when a voice part is not singing. Copy all notes, rhythms,
and text carefully. Check your response.

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= f = f :f fJ -----
M |_|_L— p i p -------- ( L L
*= *= F
A- - b <*■—

vcjvf r
1 / *1 — :
■f - f r ■ .
g 'r: J - - V— a -J - - r-
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■ W— JT ~ R = ^ # = ^
J- ---------- II U l 1 ■■■ = i = t
b i« l, f a t — £■ - -

Your arrangement should look like the one which
follows. Once you have compared it against your
own, it will be time to complete the objective for
this unit.

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264

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265

j e j j i"J • i r~ i
four*!. m S WiW. bu.t_ ItOW £. /<£,

p v j i -j «n i f ~

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ms Wtw^ b«ck— ‘Hoiw X f€ t.

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Go to frame 124 to find out how to complete the
obiective for this unit.

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266

124. The first verse of your practice arrangement, SHENANDOAH,
is designated to be sung by unison voices. The VAD for
unison singing is MELODY TRANSFER and MELODY LAYERING.
Arrange the first verse of SHENANDOAH on your manuscript
paper using the melody located on your TEXT CHART. Follow
this voice combination guideline* for the completion of
your arrangement:
MELODY TRANSFER: Phrase 1: Alto voice
Phrase 2: Soprano voice
Phrase 3: Alto voice
MELODY LAYERING: Phrase 4: Tenor voice joins the Alto
voice
Phrase 5: Bass voice joins the Alto
and Tenor voice parts
*In unit 4 you were told that the voice combinations for
your practice arrangement had already been selected. The
reason for this specific combination of voice parts could
not have been revealed at that time because you had not
worked with this unit. The voice combinations for the
first two verses of SHENANDOAH are based on the guidelines
of unit 4, and reflect the concepts of transfer and
layering you have learned in tin's unit.
After you have written your arrangement of the first verse,
return to this frame to confirm what you have written.

Your arrangement of the first verse of SHENANDOAH
should resemble the one on the following pages.
Did you copy everything neatly?

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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r J r i 1
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P f t ■

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268

^ = = =

hw j i n n
If f -7.il■-#-#-^---- 3-LJ—
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Go on to frame 125.

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269

125. The second verse of your practice arrangement, SHENANDOAH,
is designated to be sung by unison voices. Once again, you
will use the VAD: MELODY TRANSFER/LAYERING. To complete
the objective for this unit, arrange the second verse of
SHENANDOAH using the melody from your TEXT CHART. Follow
this voice combination guideline for the completion of your
arrangement:
MELODY LAYERING: Phrase 1: Soprano
Phrase 2: Soprano and Tenor
MELODY TRANSFER: Phrase 3: Alto
MELODY LAYERING: Phrase 4: Alto and Bass
Phrase 5: Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass
Once you have completed arranging the second verse, compare
your arrangement against the one provided.

Your arrangement of the second verse of SHENANDOAH
should resemble the one presented on the following
pages.

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270

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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
271

"J1 J J1 >
A - C*off41t€wd*~ fiU'&u ri. —

I f=f=z m m -*— }■

<«V« boW ft- «*•%— a - <:<»##« « • * - -----

^ -J: ■i l n i ^ T T
A -ctoif&g *nde- Htf ioi*'<'i.__

i^-
u*«VeWroi & — A' —

You have finished with this unit. Make sure you
save your arrangement of the first two verses of
SHENANDOAH. On your TEXT CHART, locate the column
over which the diagonal words VOCAL ACCOMP DEVICES
are written and write in the VAD which has been
suggested for the first two verses of your
practice arrangement. Once you have learned all
VADs and practiced arranging the four verses, you
will be presented with ways to join verses so that
there will be a smooth transition from verse to
verse.
Go on to unit 7.

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UNIT 7

At the conclusion of this unit, you will be able to write
the VAD which will be labelled the SUSTAINED VOICE far two-part
voices using a given folk song melody and verse.

Two VADs have been chosen for this program which you will
use to arrange two-part voices: SUSTAINED VOICE and OSTINATO.
Each will be used in conjunction with the melody to produce a
two-voice texture. Here is a definition and musical example to
give you an idea of how the VAD: SUSTAINED VOICE will be used in
this unit.
The SUSTAINED VOICE is created when a voice part sustains a
a single pitch on successive syllables comprising a coherent
text phrase (altered only to accommodate a change in harmonic
direction of the melody). The melody is sting in another voice
part, thus creating the two-voice texture. Look at the musical
example which demonstrates this principle:

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y ft"~J 1 J J ,— i * i J - - r - = ± -- j ------ J--- ^ .
wMtirouf love if ■ibif, 0 kmf fotol/ d -my

h j ,— L -------------- i f — ” 4— r — i
mom- drotkf love; uhcai
^ 1" ' I M g m .... ! ) I
ft X r ■■)— 4 J 1 i \ 13 ^ _ -----
$ou.L' wU«f W if •tiMfl 6 k •J -----

I1 f f'f f ' [ - [ -
wow - drovt lo/ve/ UUelt drou5 Leste.-----

o on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
273

The Soprano and Alto voice parts sing the melody. The Bass
voice part is singing a SUSTAINED VOICE on the tonic note of the
key. It is important to note the following characteristics of
the sustained voice present in the example you have just seen:
1. The sustained voice makes use of a coherent text phrase
taken from the larger verse.
2. The sustained voice is rhythmically and dynamically
subordinate to the melody. That is to say, the rhythm
of the sustained voice is less active (i.e., note values
are of a longer duration) than that of the melody, and
the dynamic level of the sustained voice is softer than
that of the melody.
3. The text of the sustained voice is distributed evenly
over the entire melodic phrase.
4. The sustained voice begins on the first complete measure
of the melody. (The sustained voice should always begin
on the first complete measure of the melody. If a
melody begins with an anacrusis to the first complete
measure, the sustained voice should start on the
downbeat of the first complete measure.)
In this program, the sustained voice will be written
utilizing the tonic and dominant pitches present in the key of
the melody for the following reasons:
1. In many folk songs, the basic harmonic language revolves
around I, IV, and V. The tonic pitch may be used to
represent both I and IV since it is present in both
chords. The dominant pitch represents V.
2. The use of two pitches may make the voice more
interesting to sing.
Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
274

Let this musical example serve as an illustration:

Q *1 | F = ^ r. F n i
P Jw
If
ulm St - ** u t f t ---- a. fa.« - ■ieor r*.

b ^ =
f* ~ fear

The Soprano and Tenor voice parts are singing the melody.
The Alto and Bass voice parts begin the sustained voice on the
tonic pitch. In the third complete measure, on beat three, the
sustained voice changes to the dominant pitch for one beat to
accommodate the harmonic shift of the melody.
To help you locate those places in the melody where the
harmony shifts between tonic and dominant, a Roman Numeral
Analysis will be written above the melody using the tonic (I)
and dominant (V) chord symbols. Look at the musical example
just presented with the analysis written above the melody:

Pi i 7i - $u.$ ueft full
m

-
The sustained voice will require use of the coherent text
phrases which you have chosen from the larger verse (remember
unit 3!). One of the taslcs ahead will be to correctly position
the text of the sustained voice so that it is evenly
distributed along the melody which it accompanies. Don't worry,
you will receive ample assistance in accomplishing this phase of
arranging the sustained voice within this unit.
Before we start working with the sustained voice, here is a
summary of the points to be remembered and utilized in this
unit:
1. The sustained voice utilizes coherent phrases which you
have chosen from the larger verse evenly distributed
along the melody.

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275

2. The sustained voice part utilizes the tonic (I) and
dominant (V) pitches to coincide with the harmonic shift
of the melody. A Roman Numeral Analysis will be written
above the melody to assist you in locating the point in
the melody at which the harmony shifts.
3. The sustained voice is written in a manner which is
rhythmically and dynamically subordinate to the melody.
4. The sustained voice should always begin on the first
complete measure of the melody, if a melody begins with
an anacrusis to the first complete measure, the
sustained voice should start on the downbeat of the
first complete measure.
You will be doing these things as you acquire the skill of
arranging the sustained voice:
1. Presented with the verse of a folk song, you will select
the best coherent phrase to be used as the text of the
sustained voice.
2. Presented with a melody, Roman Numeral Analysis, the
text written beneath the melody and an additional staff
below the melody, you will:
a. Write the correct pitches corresponding to the
Roman Numeral Analysis, and notate the rhythm of
the text on the additional staff provided.
b. Write the words of the text beneath the notes to
which they belong.
c. Indicate the dynamic level of the sustained voice
at least one level softer than the melody.
Go on to frame 126.

126. After studying the following folk song text, select the
response which best represents a coherent phrase.

Every night whenthe sun goes in.
Every night whenthe sun goes in.
Every night whenthe sun goes in,
I hang my head and lonesome cry.

The choices appear on the next page.

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276

a. Every night the sun goes in,
b. when the sun goes
c. Every night when the sun

If you chose: a. Every night the sun goes in, you
curecorrect!
You will be using this phrase as the sustained
text for the first three lines of the verse.
Go on to frame 127 to choose the phrase for the
final line of the verse.

127. Study the final line of the folk song text presented in
frame 126 and select the best response from those presented
representing a coherent phrase.

I hang down my head and lonesome cry.
a. I hang my head
b. down my head
c. head and cry.

If you chose: a. I_hang my head, you are
correct. You will use this phrase as the
sustained text for the final line of the verse.
Go on to frame 128.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
277

128. Observe the melody and first verse of the folk song which
follows. Above the melody is written the Roman Numeral
Analysis which is ■iwfrantted to indicate the points at which
the sustained voice changes from tonic to dominant.

/ * f 1 a*---
£rf*f A*,___ stft-ry

* +. ■ *

P i
£Ucfun*

£ htcA,
z

0 .. C__ ------ ri---------
j — ^ ----*----
--- >----- [f
/ • 3 w ‘»
<*y.

This is the information you will be given before you are
asked to write the sustained voice beneath the melody later
on.
No response required. Go to frame 129.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
278

129. The melody viewed in frame 128 will now be presented with
the sustained voice written beneath in each of two
examples. Choose the one example which best represents the
qualities of a sustained voice based on the criteria which
were outlined at the beginning of this unit:
a. The sustained text is evenly distributed over the
melody.
b. The pitches of the sustained voice shift from tonic
to dominant to coincide with the harmonic
foundation of the melody.
c. The sustained voice is rhythmically and dynamically
subordinate to the melody.
Once you have made your choice, go on to the confirmation.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
279

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J " - j— » — ^ - - y ; I
*u^kt, vkti'tht #** ¥** •*•

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X fc*n^ -*•»*} Wcoi .
Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
280

CxA.'ttpie; )>•
A

J i

fp r^ -r-1 1 h j ------------1
—h* * *--- -----H-p,--------
T n -----
--- MtAtftt ■&* 5°** **,

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a t ’, , i i =
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7

p *f =
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<rr--- -------

Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
281

If you chose: a., go to frame 130.
If you chose: b., go to frame 131.

130. Go back and look again at the response you selected, then
return to this page.
a. The sustained voice is not distributed evenly along the
melody. Can you see how it is "bunched up" at the
beginning and spread out toward the end?
b. The pitches do not always coincide with the harmonic
foundation of the melody. Notice that when the harmony
first shifts to the dominant in measure eight, the
sustained voice remains on the tonic pitch.
c. There is no dynamic level written above the sustained
voice. How will the performer know at what level to
sing his part?
Go on to frame 132 and have another try. Watch more
closely this time.

131. Your response was correct. Good work! Keep reading.

132. In this frame you will be presented with a verse from a
folk song. In each line there are sustained text choices
to be made. Study the phrases chosen from each line and
select the responses which best resemble a sustained voice
text.

1. When Johnny comes marching home again. Hurrah, hurrah!
2. We'll give him a hearty welcome then. Hurrah, hurrah!
3. The men will cheer, the boys will shout, the ladies
they will all turn out,
4. And we'll all be gay when Johnny comes marching home.

1. a. When Johnny home again,
b. Johnny marching Hurrah,
c. When Johnny comes home

The confirmation is on the next page.

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282

The correct response is: c. This will be used as
the sustained voice text for the first line of the
verse.
Go to the choices from line 2.
2. a. give him a welcome
b. hearty welcome then,
c. We'll give him Hurrah,

The best response here is: a.
Go on to the choices from line 3 of the verse.
3. a. The men will cheer the boys
b. they will turn out,
c. the men the boys the ladies

The correct response among those presented is: b.
Go to the choices from line 4.
4. a. And then we'll all be gay
b. we'll all be gay when Johnny
c. when Johnny comes home.

The choice to make here is: c.
Now that you have made the necessary choices for
the sustained voice text, go on to frame 133.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
283

133. Two examples of a sustained voice accompanying the folk
melody. When Johnny comes marching home on the pages which
follow. From the two examples, select the one which best
represents a sustained voice arrangement. The confirmation
will appear on the page after the second musical example.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
284

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285

ixomffe: b.

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U(ich 'foivi'**) c**t* l*6fcU»+j Hur- tiur-

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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
286

Your choice should have been: a.
Here are four reasons why b. is nob the proper
choice:
1. The text is spread out over the first eight
measures*thus it is hardly distinguishable
from mere syllables.
2. In measures 9-10 the rhythm is equal to that
of the melody.
3. The harmonic shift from dominant to tonic in
measure 11 has been ignored.
4. Hey! What is the word "he" doing in measure
13? That's not even in the original text.
Go to frame 134.

134. The two sustained voice arrangements which have just been
presented differ in terms of the manner inwhich the text
is set. Look at the two verses, withthe sustainedvoice
texts underlined.
Every night when the sun goes in.
Every night when the sun goes in.
Every night when the sun goes in,
I hang my head and lonesome cry.

When Johnny comes marching home again. Hurrah, hurrah!
We'll give him a~hearty welcome then. Hurrah, hurrah!
The men will cheer, the boys will shout, the ladies
they will all turn out.
And we'll all be gay when Johnny comes marching home.
In the first example, one phrase was utilized for the first
three lines of text. This phrase was repeated twice along
the length of the melody (you may refer to example a. in
frame 133). In the second example, a sustained voice
phrase was chosen from each line of the verse. The
difference in these two arrangements is in the use of a
single sustained voice text repeated along the length of
the melody versus a sustained voice text utilized for each
line of the ver se. Here, then, are two guidelines to
follow when choosing sustained voice texts:
(on the next page)

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
287

1. When you encounter a verse which contains
duplicated combination of words, use a single
phrase for the sustained voice (Remember unit 3,
frame #30) and repeat it along the length of the
melody . This is necessary in order that the
sustained voice text be recognizable to the
listener, that is, able to be distinguished from
just a series of vowels and consonants. If the
sustained voice text was stated only once, the
words would have to be spaced so far apart that
one would have a difficult time understanding what
the sustained voice was communicating.
2. When a verse is comprised of a different
combination of words on each line, choose sustained
voice phrases from each line (Unit 3, once again).
Be sure to keep your sustained voice text to a
minimum (usually three or four words) because it
may be difficult to use a sustained voice text of
more than four words without it competing
rhythmically with the melody. Remember, the
sustained voice must contain less rhythmic activity
than the melody!
No response required. Go on to frame 135.

135. Study the following song verse.
We shall meet, but we shall miss him, there will be one
vacant chair;
We shall linger to caress him, while we breathe our evening
pray'r.
When a year a go we gathered, joy was in his mild blue eye,
But a golden cord is severed, and our hopes in ruin lie.
What will serve as the best choice of a sustained voice
text?
a. To select one phrase from the first line of the
verse and repeat it over the course of the melody.
b. To select several words throughout the verse,
linking them together to form one main idea.
c. To select a coherent phrase from each line of the
verse.

The confirmation is on the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
288

The response marked: c. was the correct choice.
Go to the next question in this frame.
What represents a proper guideline in choosing a phrase for
each line of this verse to use as a sustained voice?
a. Each line contains a different combination of
words.
b. The sustained voice must be rhythmically equal to
the melody.
c. It is a good idea to use as many words as possible
in order that the sustained voice be understood.

If you chose: a. , you have been paying close
attention to this instruction.
Go on to frame 136 and complete one more example
of identifying a suitable sustained voice
arrangement.

136. In this frame you will not be asked to identify phrases
which make up the sustained voice. Instead, study the
following two examples of a sustained voice accompanying a
folk song melody, and choose the example which represents
the best use of a sustained voice according to guidelines
presented in this instruction. The confirmation appears on
the page following the conclusion of the second musical
example.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
289

d.

ft* " H n IU n'r-1
Aj t vt*t wAtftm <Ui*» iWe yte**£,

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1$ $ * ---------------- !--------------------
...
h tk* tuiht

Go on to the next page.

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291

b.
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292

CO*# eut •ko-*ufC emJi dc*xc< •

l" ,k t

Go on to the next page.

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293

Did you choose: b.? Look at frame 137.
If you chose: a., go to frame 138.

137. Your choice was incorrect. What possessed you to choose
this response? I did my best to provide an awkward
sustained voice. Here are reasons why the example isn't
good:
a. As in a previous example, the sustained voice is
unevenly distributed along the melody. Most of the
text is distributed at the beginning of the melody.
Having the text evenly distributed along the melody
is the most important aspect of correctly arranging
the sustained voice.
b. The dynamic indication is present in the sustained
voice. However, it is equal to the dynamic level
of the melody. It must be at least one dynamic
level softer than the melody.
Go on to frame 139 and promise never to make this mistake
again. You are forgiven!

138. Congratulations! You made a correct choice. You are now
ready to begin the process of arranging a sustained voice.

139. Study the following refrain and first verse of a folk song.
Select (by mentally underlining them) the most suitable
phrases to be used as the sustained voice text. Check your
responses below the black lines.

Refrain: 0 dear! What can the matter be?
Dear, dear! What can the matter be?
0 dear! What can the matter be?
♦Johnny’s so long at the fair!
♦No choice will be made for the final line of the refrain
because there is not enough time to execute a new text
phrase in this particular melody. Pay attention to the
manner in which this folk melody is arranged when you
arrive at the confirmation of frame 140.
Go to the next page to view the choices for the refrain.

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294

Which phrase is suitable for the refrain?
a. What can the matter be?
b. 0 Dear! What is the matter?
c. Oh Johnny what can the matter be?

The best phrase to use is: a.
Even though responses b. & c. make a complete
thought/ they contain words which are not in the
verse (b: "is" & c: "Oh"). Yes, this was a trick
question.
Now, proceed to make sustained voice choices from
the verse which follows.

Verse: 1. He promised to bring me a fairing to please me
2. And then for a kiss, oh! He vowed he would
tease me;
3. He promised to bring me a bunch of blue
ribbons
4. To tie up my bonnie brown hair.

line 1: a. He promised to
b. promised to please me
c. promised to fairing

The best phrase for the first line of the verse
is: b.
Go on to the choices for line 2.

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295

line 2; a. then for a kiss, oh!
b. Oh! He vowed
c. vowed he would tease me;

The most practical choice among these is: c.
Go on to the next set of choices.

line 3 a. promised blue ribbons
b. he promised me
c. to bring me a bunch

Your choice here should have been: a.
Go on to the last line of choices.

line 4 a. Totie up
b. Totie my hair
c. Totie my bonnie

Did you select: b.? I hope so.
Go to the next bit of information.

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296

Had you underlined your selections (which you will do when
you use the TEXT CHART, the refrain and verse would look
like this:
Refrain: O dear! What cam the matter be?
Dear, dear! What can the matter be?
0 dear! What can the matter be?
Johnny's so long at the fair!
Verse: 1. He promised to bring me a fairing to please me
2. And then for a kiss, oh! He vowed he would
tease me;
3. He promised to bring me a bunch of blue ribbons
4. To tie up m£ bonnie blue hair.
In this folk song several short phrases were indicated in
order to keep the sustained voice from competing
rhythmically with the melody. You will recall one of the
characteristics of the sustained voice is that it be
rhythmically subordinate to the melody, in other words,
contain less rhythmic activity than the melody. Had the
sustained phrase contained more words, the rhythm would
have been nearly equal to that of the melody itself, thus
causing the sustained voice to violate its role as a VOCAL
ACCOMPANIMHiT DEVICE.
Go on to frame 140 and read the instructions for arranging
the sustained voice from this verse.

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297

140. On your own manuscript paper, arrange the sustained voice
to accompany the melody presented below. Once you have
done so, return to this frame and confirm what you have
written.

£
0 dear! ke? fa&r, <{e**\ cct*4U* b*?

W . 1 * ■ --------------I
fa— t
P 0
m
d***! !>AK>i ut» ke ?
i
to
■ ■t.
tie

$ a ..m m i.^ ? m

P ** 4*04* "***] <fa prosm*fcd 4* lrrt*f c*

i ~ n - ii i - - 1
fa*cfc tfbio* «**•<•> T* it* -’••‘J k•*«*+■ be****- Maw* __

Go to the next page to view the confirmai-inn.

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298

Your arrangement should be similar* to the one
presented on the next page. Did you remember to:
1. Use the sustained voice text exactly as it is
written?
2. Repeat the sustained voice text in the refrain
since there was only one phrase for the four
lines of text?
3. Indicate a dynamic level for the sustained
voice softer than that of the melody?
4. Use a text rhythm that is subordinate
(contains less rhythmic activity) to the
melody?
5. Change the sustained voice from tonic to
dominant at the appropriate places in the
melody?
*In this type of confirmation, your response may
be somewhat different than that which you see
here. You must, therefore, use your own judgement
about the quality of your arrangement. It is hoped
that those things which you have done correctly
will be transferred to upcoming tasks. But,
unless you discover and correct any mistakes you
may have made, they too may be carried on to your
next assignment.
Were you able to detect why only one text phrase
was suitable for the refrain? Look at measures 7
& 8 in the confirmation arrangement once more.
There is not enough rhythmic space to accomodate a
different text phrase in these two measures. This
will be an exception to the rule of choosing a
text phrase for each line when the words are
different (see frames 30 & 33 in unit 3). If you
investigate the text and melody prior to choosing
text phrases, you may be able to avoid the
complication of having more text than is necessary
for the accompanying voice.
Go on to view the confirmation example.

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299

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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Practice will make you a better arranger. Go on
to frame 141 and try another sustained voice
arrangement.

141. Study the following folk song verse, then select (from
those presented) the phrases which are best suited to the
sustained voice text.
Verse:
1. I wish 1 was in the land of cotton. Old times there are
not forgotten,
2. Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie land.
3. In Dixie land where I was born in, Early on one frosty
mornin',
4. Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie land.*

1. a. I wish I was
b. I was in cotton
c. Old times are not forgotten,

The correct choice is: c.
Go on to select the phrase from line 2.

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2. a. away! Look
b. Look away! Dixie land.
c. Look Look

The best phrase from line 2 is: b.
*You will use this phrase for line 4 as well.
Go on to select a phrase from the third line.

3. a. Dixie land where I was bo m
b. Early on one frosty
c. In land where I was

Did you choose: a.? That was the best phrase.
Go on to make choices from the Refrain.

Refrain:
1. Then I wish I was in Dixie, Hooray! Hooray!
2. In Dixie land I'll take my stand To live and die in Dixie,
3. Away, away, away down south in Dixie,
Away, away, away down south in Dixie.

1. a. I wish I was in Dixie
b. In Dixie I'll take
c. to live and die Away,

The correct choice for line 1 is: a.
Go to the choices for line 2.

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302

2. a. ray stand to live
b. I'll take my stand
c. In Dixie land to live and die

The best choice for line 2 is: b.
Go on to make the choice for lines 3 & 4.

3. a. away down
b. south in Dixie,
away down in Dixie.

Your choice here should be: c.
You have now completed the selection of your
sustained voice text. With each phrase
underlined, as in the TEXT CHART, it would look
like this:
I wish I was in the land of cotton, Old times there are not
forgotten.
Look away! Look away! Look away, Dixie land.
In Dixie land where I was born in. Early on one frosty
roomin',
Look away! Look away! Look away,Dixie land.
Then Iwish I was in Dixie, Hooray! Hooray!
In Dixie land I'11 take ray stand to live and die in Dixie,
Away, away, away down south in Dixie,
Away, away, away down south in Dixie.

Go on to frame 142.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
303

142. Now that you have determined the sustained voice text,
study the melody presented and carefully arrange the
sustained voice to accompany it. Be sure your arrangement
follows these guidelines:
a. Distribute the sustained text evenly along the
melody.
b. Indicate a dynamic level softer than that of the
melody.
c. Use the tonic and dominant pitches where indicated
by the Roman Numeral Analysis found above the
melody.
d. Write your arrangement neatly.
e. Repeat the sustained voice text if the verse contains a
duplicated combination of words.
f. Select different coherent phrases from each line if
the verse contains words which are not similar.
Go to the next page to view the melody, then write your
arrangement. The confirmation appears on the page
following the melody.

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304

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■w t Sfor- UoKa-itMfl loth4- ui»j 1 9 /v ie fcxd. X **

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r?-*— v f-F=-l ■ 1 L --- ;
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Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
305

Here is an arrangement: of DIXIE which complies
with the guidelines presented in this unit.
Compare your own arrangement to this one; look for
similarities to the guidelines mentioned in frame
142.

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mtk ,itf»K 4- uty! LouK »' U4*j\ iNKa* ?/»<«

i
T— r i
a -

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306

i
l*tU 7/% - it land Unof Z

. ■'■TTfe ------- p-s^i
t e - P V ,f— f U hr 4-------
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ftt*- ir
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'* la *4 i U 4e*Kt 'h *f stand -to Lt»* W in ti% - i* / A -

P w i
I'K 4Ufc stand

Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
307

£

■H

If
1— ------------N----------

* - V4iy Awn t*

J — »---------- •
ly r r r ........^4 — r - .......... =)
OL - V*tf d*** «*» T)ili -
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< t i* - /<,

f ,, rj — Hr
p ----------U ‘1 i ii i d
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Go on to frame 143 and try one more arrangement of
the sustained voice before reaching the objective
of this unit.

143. After reading the folk song verse below, choose the
response which best represents a sustained voice text.
Verse: 1. I came from Alabama, with my banjo on my knee,
2. I'm going to Louisiana, my true love for to
see;
3. It rained all night the day I left, the weather
it was dry;
4. The sun so hot I froze to death, Susanna don't
you cry.

Choices sure on the next page.

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308

Verse 1. a. I came from Alabama
b. Alabama with my banjo
c. with my banjo on

The best phrase above is: a.
Go on to the second line of choices.

Verse 2. a. my true love for see;
b. to Louisiana my true love
c. I'm going to Louisiana,

The correct phrase here is: c.
Go on to the third line of choices.

Verse 3. a. It rained the day I left,
b. rained all night I left the weather
c. the day I left the weather

The phrase to use here is: a.
Go to to the fourth line of choices.

Verse 4. a. I froze Susanna
b. Susanna don't cry.
c. The sun I froze don't cry.

Go to the next page to view the confirmation.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
309

If you chose: b., you are correct.
Go on to view and make choices from the refrain.

Refrain: 1. Oh, Susanna, Oh don't you cry for me,
2. I've come from Alabama with my banjo on my
knee.
1. a. Oh, don't cry for me,
b. Susanna I've come from
c. you cry for me

The correct choice to make is: a.
Go to the last line of choices from the refrain.

Refrain: 2. a. I’ve come with
b. from Alabama my banjo
c. my banjo on my knee.

If you chose:c., you are correct.
You now have the complete sustained text for use
in the forthcoming arrangement. Here is the
complete sustained voice text with underlined
phrases.
I came from Alabama, with my banjo on my knee,
I'm going to.Louisiana, my true love for to see;
It rained all night the day I left, the weather it
was dry,
The sun so hot I froze to death, Susanna don't you
cry.
Oh, Susanna, oh don't you cry for me.
I've come from Alabama with my banjo on my knee.
Go on to frame 144.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
310

144. Osin? the melody below, arrange the sustained voice to
accompany it. Once you have written your arrangement,
compare it to the confirmation.

$ X—
U ilj •!u
Utim-jo omooy Hue*,
m
£•«*—
* ___ X
&
1
W - U L
$ * • * ) i» Looi ~ j i ' A - ■ *•*, -tfu*€ l°« « j®*'" S t*', S t—

1 ^
^ m_
I ____
* "fj l i *
ruintd •#%* i*ta ti* < r ii * / clo. d r y , fit*—

*■ ___ X

$ - u r u m H i u £
■$i*n iokott frvy* tod**#*, 9*+-Sc*»-no don’t you C<y

n.T . ^
m h!m s m
0 Sn - 54 * 9(t d n tt you cry -fat -m£ IV«_

r L l i u n
a
C»w ^W» A f - <* * <«*» • * (•'Vtti itHf \fA* -y on -my Kt+ct .

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
311

Here is one possible arrangement: of the sustained
voice. Compare yours to the details of accuracy
presented in these guidelines:
a. Distribute the sustained text evenly along the
melody.
b. Indicate the dynamic level softer than that of
the melody.
c. Use the tonic and dominant pitches where
indicated by the Roman Numeral Analysis found
above the melody.
d. Write your arrangement neatly. This also
includes aligning the sustained voice notation
and text beneath the notes and text of the
melody.

— i— . n i i— ^
-Li i
Z (eetnJji t * Jtl-4- ifa m * a w*M* nm) a a** nmf K *» « .

----------------- r
& X '■'( j ----------------y
*■ ' ' ' ■> I - I
^ s fame fro m Al - a - ban* - a

R b f - J ------------------------ „
p , --------- f — f — f- r = * - ■ ■ ■ - r ^ i r 1 .— F T : l~ ~ ^ ~ != +
=
f -------------- '----------------------- 1
t o L o vi-fL - a - -n a , -m y ------ £\ "U& Iw e jm r* * / « « ; z t

jw j - - | I : j = 4 = |
■■ j - j J -

X'n* io Leni ~ fi - an*

Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
312

m
i m w
fouttd X U ft, 4M* u rc .tU *r it u at d ry , 4***.

m
¥
ft raided the day X itftp

i i x f t f i» j H i n I , i
=fe=
5«#w /» (*•* X jrwfe 4 * d *& / *•- jm n -'** 4 r*iip u . cry.

y j = ( = 1 ^ 1
---!-*----------
P M ■—
S* ^%4 eUdt cry.

j&.
£ ^ = £ a *
M
f I
Ok /
I
.S i* -
iP
f**»-aa.' at,
S
d o it fa u c -y ja r
i

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m 0k
i
doit Cry f»r
X
Js, * X

f ’i j - w v t i ^ i fcj— £ i
& * * fr * m A - la - b a m * c- t*rfa n y he r*- j•»»•* £»«*

HIM ■ iJ - ^ - i i
'm y fr<*** - j® tfn <i*| l&nee.

Go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
313

Food for thought: When comparing your arrangement
with the confirmation, there is room for
flexibility in setting the rhythm. Your
arrangement may be acceptable as long as your
sustained voice text is distributed evenly along
the melody. By now you should know how this
functions. The other components of your
arrangement must adhere strictly to the guidelines
presented in this unit:
1. You must use the words chosen for your
sustained voice text.
2. You must indicate the sustained voice at least
one dynamic level softer than the melody.
3. You must change the pitch of the sustained
voice where the Roman Numeral Analysis
indicates a harmonic shift.
4. You must write the sustained voice neatly,
aligning the words and notes correctly beneath
the words and notes of the melody.
It is time to complete the objective for this
unit. Go on to frame 145.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
314

145. The melody, voice combinations (chosen in unit 3), and
underlined coherent phrases from the third verse of
SHENANDOAH (chosen in unit 4), can be found on the TEXT
CHART. Arrange this verse according to the guidelines you
have been taught. Once you have completed your
arrangement, return to t-h-is frame and confirm what you have
written.

Here is an arrangement for comparison. Look for
those qualities which make your arrangement
consistent with the guidelines of this unit. If
you see any errors which need correcting, you may
make the correction at this time. Save your
arrangement of this verse. When you have
completed the next unit, it will be time to learn
ways of connecting the four verses so that there
is a smooth flow from one verse to another.

-ml t

m
3=fc
— *---- #- - ■ -
'■rij ft* -

J

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
315

kear y** nl-lUj __

fc
i ■■■» #

'175 Se* - ew
£ ±
i
«^o\k<- fo\ - Um0 ri - ver}

'f /j yevi*t*telai£j:

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Wft1)

(}««<? wclne bournd ft. - ufi>^/
V L
I »
Wtf're bou>vi a - W a ^j
^>S-

Wojjj w<7«Vowwda- ; 4-

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
316

F & H = T = f = = P P
Jl_ j— j* j _ ,, ... - ...
/
- era** 4 w W ii< ------ tin -

......— ■■

f H — - 4 - T
th e uAdg n* - - r*.
Afrrt-----------------
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th e vide. tM t - 5ai» - «•
X r
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= « ■U f ■ i . ■
- Ceotf -the tJidt Mii- r i. -—

Thiscompletes unit 7. On your TEXT CHART, locate
the column over which the diagonal words VOCAL
ACCOMP DEVICES are written and write the VAD for
this verse of your practice arrangement in the
correct box. After that, you may proceed to
explore unit 8 in which you will learn another way
.to arrange a voice which accompanies the melody.

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317

UNIT 8

At the conclusion of this unit, you will arrange the VAD
which will be labelled OSTINATO for two-part voices using a
given folk sang melody and verse.

The Harvard Dictionary of Music gives this definition of the
term OSTINATO:
A clearly defined phrase that is repeated persistently,
usually in immediate succession, throughout a composition or a
section. ...it is reiterated in the same voice and usually at
the same pitch. It is this feature of "persistent" repeat that
accounts for the name [It., obstinate].
The Harvard Dictionary of Music also points out the
distinction between the terms ostinato, sequence, and imitation.
Since the second two terms also fall under the category of
repetition, and are often associated with the term ostinato,
their difference should be clarified.
OSTINATO: Repetition in the same part at the same pitch.
SEQUENCE: Repetition in the same part at a different pitch.
IMITATION: Repetition in a different part at a different
pitch.
Within this program the ostinato voice will be derived from
the melody. A short pattern of pitches with the accompanying
text will be extracted and that pattern will be repeated along
the course of the melody. It is very important to note that the
ostinato voice serves only to accompany the melody. Its
function is not meant to resemble counterpoint. Voice leading,
at times, may produce parallel fifths and octaves. Due to the
fact that the ostinatc pattern is fixed and repeated along the
course of the melody, parallel fifths and octaves created by
association with the melody (whenever they occur) will be
unavoidable. These apparent violations of voice leading
principles are not to be considered severe within the scope of
this program.
Let's take a look at how the ostinato voice is derived from
the melody. Here is a portion of a melody and text from a folk
song:
Turn the page to view the musical example.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
318

{Vi bee*- u tnthe ^ -iUt lwd-fa*y

tjS Ij 0- •*■
i
***' tee bt*» u * * i * » # * *•**),

Here are three possible ostinato patterns extracted from the
first musical phrase.

omiUt ntttoeA
w*rtu*)

These three patterns have five important characteristics:
1. The melody, rhythm, and words are combined naturally: the
rhythm and words are derived exactly as they appear in the
musical phrase.
2 . The ostinato pattern is representative of the "spirit" of
the melody. Although the term, "spirit", may appear
ambiguous, it is used in an attempt to identify the best
pattern from the melody. Compare these two patterns
extracted from the melody:

9—
rx’
iL~cocA

Which one would you choose to represent the "spirit" of this
folk song as an ostinato pattern? I hope you chose the first
pattern. It appears to have more "life" (ambiguous again) than
the second pattern which is also extracted from the melody.

Go to the next page.

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319

Other important characteristics of ostinato patterns are:
3. The ostinato pattern makes use of more than one pitch.
This prevents the ostinato from resembling a sustained
voice which would be similar to the VAD used in unit 7.
4. The ostinato pattern may contain words that make a
complete thought (as in unit 3). This may not always be
possible due to the fact that the pattern is extracted by
means of its rhythmic duration and combination of pitches.
If you are attempting to decide between two possible
patterns, the one containing a coherent phrase should take
priority over a pattern which does not contain a complete
thought. Therefore, the middle example of the three
ostinato patterns presented earlier would represent a
weaker choice than the first or third example.
5. The pattern chosen for an ostinato should contain the
tonic harmony, and thus it will more than likely come from
the initial phrase of the melody.
Recognition of characteristics of suitable ostinato
patterns is an essential skill. You must attempt to learn
all five characteristics which have just been presented.
Frames 147-151 will test your memory of these
characteristics. Review the characteristics first, if
necessary, then go on to frame 146.

146. In the next several frames, you will be asked to
demonstrate your knowledge of characteristics which
identify a suitable ostinato pattern.
No response required. Go on to frame 147.

147. Which of the three following statements would best describe
a suitable ostinato pattern?
a. An ostinato pattern should contain a single pitch.
In this way, the ostinato pattern will not compete
with the melody.
b. An ostinato pattern should be made up of more than
one pitch. The ostinato pattern should not
resemble a sustained voice.
c. An ostinato pattern should be assembled from random
pitches throughout the melody. This is the more
creative approach.
(The confirmation follows.)

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320

Did you choose: b.? Go to frame 148.
Did you choose: a. or c.? Read characteristic #3
again, then proceed to frame 148.

148. Which statement correctly reflects the choice of an
ostinato pattern?
a. The best ostinato pattern employs words assembled
from the entire verse to make a complete thought.
After you find the right words, the rhythm is made
up to fit those words.
b. An effective ostinato pattern will use only one or
two words with the rhythm consisting of two quarter
notes repeated along the length of the melody.
c. The correct ostinato pattern to use as a VAD
contains pitches and words combined naturally, as
they appear in the musical phrase.

The correct choice is: c.
This was stated in characteristic #1 presented
earlier. Go on to frame 149.

149. Which statement defines a suitable ostinato pattern?
a. An ostinato pattern should represent the "spirit"
of the melody.
b. An ostinato pattern should be secondary to the
melody, and as such, should not be active at all.
c. An ostinato pattern needs to exhibit "life".
Therefore, create a rhythm that is not "drawn out".

The confirmation is on the next page.

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321

The best choice is: a. (see characteristic #2 if
needed)
If the ostinato pattern reflects the other
characteristics it will be representative of the
spirit of the melody without any help from the
arranger.
Go on to frame 150.

150. Which statement represents a characteristic of an ostinato
pattern?
a. The ostinato pattern should revolve around the
dominant harmony. In this way it may be resolved
easily to the tonic.
b. The ostinato pattern should be neutral with regard
to harmony. The harmony of the melody may change,
but the ostinato pattern will stay the same.
c. The ostinato pattern should contain the tonic
harmony.

The best response is: c. (see characteristic #5
if needed)
Since the melody usually begins in the tonic
harmony, a tonic ostinato pattern is a natural
choice to serve as an accompanying device.
Go on to frame 151.

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322

151. Which statement best represents a characteristic of an
ostinato pattern?
a. The words in an ostinato pattern may contain a
complete thought, yet this may not always occur.
b. An ostinato pattern containing a coherent text
phrase takes priority over one which does not.
c. If no ostinato pattern contains a complete thought,
the pattern may still be suitable.

In this frame, all three choices are correct.
Check characteristic #4 for a confirmation.
Being able to discriminate the best pattern to use
as an ostinato will be the first task of this
unit. Try your skill at locating possible
ostinato patterns from some folk melodies. Go to
frame 152.

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323

152. Study the following folk song melody and choose the pattern
which appears to be best suited as an ostinato voice.
Check your response below the black line.

JI i j hj | J,. J~3 J J_|

fa jv % Pr*tftA

i"l J " l ' J - [-J J- J
tjtv* Ufa Uffct, for i* -tfat 0e -

m i
- jrx*. W* reaj&cA ^fa —

Your choices are:

•fa j*n ouA. <m c» fa

If you chose: b. or c. go-to frame 153.
If you chose: a. go to frame 154.

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324

153. The second and third choices contain only one pitch. You
should look for a pattern which includes pitch change(s)
rather them one in which the pitch is repeated in a single
voice part. Another factor is that these two examples do
not contain coherent phrases. Go on to frame 155.

154. You chose the correct pattern. You are off to a good
start. This pattern changes pitch and makes use of a
coherent text phrase. Go to frame 155.

155. Study the following folk song melody. Choose the
pattern which appears best suited as an ostinato.

$
/

fre 'u k t -trcLi*, fre ^ k t -ira **
_____
r*n
P ■/**£/

Your choices are:

w ** bf_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ c~
p±=
=^3 h M
fcei^fU A w i * freight 4/rai* i*w»*___ — fa**/

If you chose: a. or b. go to frame 157.
If you chose: c. go to frame 156.

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325

156. A prominent factor which makes this choice unsuitable is
its harmonic foundation. Did you see the symbol V above
the pattern? This indicates the presence of a dominant
harmony is present. Choose a pattern which is in the tonic
harmony. Choices a. and b. come from the tonic harmony.
Go on to frame 157.

157. Choices a. and b. are correct. They aren't very "active",
but they do represent the "spirit" of the melody. These
patterns c
urederived directly from the melody; they contain
the tonic harmony (choice c. was built on the dominant
harmony) and come from the initial phrase. They possess
strong qualities of suitable ostinato patterns. Go on to
frame 158 and try another example.

158. Study the folk melody given and choose the best pattern to
use as an ostinato.

£

i
f f f
rttafc L i*-iU b » -*f xuf a ?m-mf $ * * * * *»*) *J*“ ‘

r ' j j

You choices are:
As b~

j j Ji j j ij in j }">
Hufk

If you chose:a. go to frame 159.
If you chose:b. go to frame 160.
If you chose:c. go to frame 161.

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326

161. This example contains only dominant harmony and it is
written on only one pitch (not to mention that the words do
not make a complete thought). There has to be a better
choice. Take a look at frame 159.

160. This example comes from the dominant harmony. You know
that is not the best choice. Have a look at frame 159.

159. YES! This is the correct choice. Why?
1. It contains the tonic harmony.
2. It changes pitch.
3. It makes use of a coherent phrase.
Let's go on and try another example in frame 162.

162. From the melody presented, locate an appropriate pattern to
be used as an ostinato. The choices follow the melody.

it* qtia U*€ omA I'll yei a .pel*,- —

m
V«*qetc lim* a W S'll .

* — $

P i«u ami i'll a.pot*t W ’ll 4»
*

•p— & i
C(0M-d*A U m - l n $ - by mmme.

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327

Your choices are:

4 4 11 Vy,
Hi*cptc*li*€am l beJg

Is it a.? This pattern uses only one pitch, which
provides an effect similar to a
sustained voice (unit 7).
Is it b.? It appears that dominant harmony is
governing this pattern.
Is it c.? This pattern reflects dominant harmony
and it comes from the end of the
melody. The pattern should be chosen
from the beginning of the melody.
Well, it appears that none of these patterns would
serve as a possible ostinato. Don’t worry, I do
not intend to abandon this melody without having
you find a suitable ostinato pattern. Locate your
manuscript paper and write a few possible ostinato
patterns from the melody found at the beginning of
this frame, then compare them with choices
presented in the next frame.

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328

163. Here are four possible ostinato patterns extracted from the
folk melody in the previous frame.

T U qct±foU,

li»* f'lt

a. and b. come from the first musical phrase and should
receive primary consideration.
c. and d. come from the second musical phrase and could be
considered if no suitable phrase were found in the first
musical phrase.
b. would be a secondary choice after a., c.r or d., because
it doesn't make use of a coherent text phrase.
A11 four choices :
1. come from the tonic harmony of the melody;
2. change pitch;
3. use the pattern exactly as it occurs in the melody.
Try another example. Go to frame 164.

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329

164. After looking at the following folk melody and verse, write
a few possible ostinato patterns on your own manuscript
paper. The confirmation will reveal possible choices.

n
JV rtd'i*' r»-tkd£ *i‘***’ -ini*- «ww*

4 ra i*. the 5«W oiA ictim -tiud bsOHjkt Urt /

Car-i«uX o> - I*a ■•

Here are two possible ostinato patterns:

p e m =
/*ww n»-«" 4ro/V» t** r t d - i •*' <>'**

Even though the words do not express a complete
thought, the pattern does change pitch.
Here are two patterns which are not suitable:

&
$ S S P

The first one uses only one pitch; the second
pattern does not use the tonic harmony.
It is time to learn how to write the ostinato
voice accompanying the melody. Go to frame 165.

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330

165. In this and successive frames, you will be presented
guidelines for arranging the ostinato pattern. Here are
initial considerations regarding the ostinato pattern once
it has been chosen:
a. When to begin the ostinato
b. How to continue the ostinato after it has begun
The ostinato pattern should begin within the first complete
measure.
In order to determine when to begin the ostinato pattern
within the first measure, these questions must be answered:
1. Does the pattern contain a pick-up note (anacrusis
to the downbeat of a measure) ? If so, it should
begin after the melody's beginning as an anacrusis
to the second measure. The following example will
help to illustrate this point.

|J& Jlh JJJI^JlJ
ikt uemttut
I ^ Jl
'frVfittjHlkt

i i Ji J i i £
7<U -fa i w tu t < iU 4 **. o u t tk *

In this example, the pattern begins on an anacrusis
to the second measure. The number of beats in the
pattern (4| 1, 2, 3, 4| 1, 2, 3, and so on) allow
it to be repeated naturally from that point on.
Go on to frame 166.

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331

166. On your own manuscript: paper demonstrate when to start and
continue an ostinato pattern which contains an anacrusis
using the ostinato pattern and portion of the folk melody
provided. A confirmation will appear below the black line
for your comparison.

tt
■J— J,, J hi

You should have begun your ostinato pattern in the
following manner:

i J I N J - -p U

itfSt 4u* *md cm* *p o i-tc d b o *,

* —W J "'<■ J j] J j c—
jueet tfd- fif s*e& 0^' Street

Remember— -the pattern will begin as an anacrusis
to the second complete measure.
Go to frame 167.

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332

167. Another question regarding when to begin the ostinato
pattern within the first measure is:
Does the pattern begin on a strong beat (beats 1 or 3
in common meter; beat 1 in a triple meter; beats 1 and
4 in compound meter)? If so, observe the manner in
which the following example illustrates arranging such
an ostinato pattern.

jiftij, jJ iVa teft* mdie fM/Lf xll 4ke r**t

ijf fi \ j j i j ji

In this example, the ostinato pattern is taken from the
third and fourth beats of the measure (it begins on one of
the strong beats [3] of the measure in common meter).
Since it does not contain an anacrusis, it begins on the
downbeat of the measure. The pattern has a duration of two
beats or half of the measure, therefore, it can be stated
twice within the measure from that point on. The number of
beats in the ostinato pattern will dictate how often it may
be repeated throughout the course of the melody.
No response required. Go on to frame 168.

168. Osing the ostinato pattern and portion of the folk melody
given, demonstrate your ability to begin an ostinato
pattern on a strong beat.

m
rr&jkf 4'*'* -fre'jkt -traU*

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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333

Your arrangement should begin in this manner:

j l — ^ j =
1 I A_ _ „ L-J— 5k1-— L
rfttjki & ntA ■jrtiqhtt

= t = \ j 1 1
= 1

Begin the ostinato pattern on the downbeat of the
first complete measure and repeat it from that
point on.
Let's go on to study other considerations
regarding arranging the ostinato pattern. Go to
frame 169.

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334

169. Now that you have seen examples of the beginning of
ostinato patterns, look at guidelines for adapting a
pattern to harmonic shifts of the melody.
In this program, the ostinato pattern will change to the
dominant harmony in order to coincide with the melody when
it shifts to the dominant. This decision has been made in
order to remain consistent with the manner in which the
sustained voice was handled in unit 7. Look at the
following musical example:

jjft} J I i J J J~J I J 1 J lJ J"7 J J
uont dml-fy -nijkt jwr-fUt'tm*n *o

r i i JiJ-i ^
Tfe font, u t+ xt o u t ■die j* * - O t^t iM

r •— i, , n i n g i
hi** attfahiA iX'UtilA_ to
i i ' j F—=*
H—
i? * j j * • *
fo% uni *ui d*< f*% ucut mt ■tte

In the fourth complete measure, the ostinato pattern
changes pitch (while maintaining the same contour) to
supply the dominant harmony for the melody. Here are some
things to keep in mind when altering the ostinato pattern:
a. Try to keep the intervallic relationship similar
between the altered and original pattern.
b. Use pitches of the dominant seventh chord which are
nearest to the pitches in the ostinato pattern.

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335

The following example should help to illustrate these
points:
i “factoid.

u r g
“th* jex

1. The ostinato pattern contains the descending
interval of a third (its exact measurement is not
important). The altered pattern also contains a
descending third when the pattern adapts to the
dominant harmony.
2. The pitches of the dominant seventh chord nearest
to those pitches of the ostinato pattern are
chosen. Thus, the altered pattern maintains a
close relationship to its original pattern.
Let’s take another look at this process. Go to frame 170.

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336

170. Observe how the ostinato pattern, accompanying the
following melody, changes to dominant harmony and retains
its original shape in the process:

f i t j ij i

i
V

w m .J . u- * —
jfeujkt+fot'j fwn> so_ jmstt

t m
jvcifHt +ai<* jfeijtiC 4r*u*

In this example, the ostinato pattern changed to the
dominant harmony using the pitches "f" and "d" from the
dominant chord: g,b,d,f. These pitches were chosen because
they permitted the pattern to remain similar to the
original ostinato pattern. The altered pattern was not the
only possibility. Here are other patterns which correctly
reflect the dominant harmony:

Y ** | __________

Ip freijrf&Cu+
I f J 1J fright
± I ^ J -1
rfeujkt

Go to the next page.

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337

When considering which pitches of the dominant seventh
chord to use, REMEMBER: the altered ostinato pattern
should contain those pitches nearest to the original
pattern.
Example #1 (on the previous page) The interval of the
pattern is altered.
Example #2 The pattern begins a third above the
original pattern.
Example #3 The pattern is stated a fourth below the
original pattern.
You will now practice an example of arranging an ostinato
pattern which changes to the dominant harmony. Go to frame
171.

171. Osing the ostinato pattern and portion of the folk melody
shown here, demonstrate your ability to change the ostinato
pattern to dominant harmony. Write your example on your
own manuscript paper, then return to this frame to confirm
what you have written.

Z7 f<pt<x ftf cpt e» --

PT 1lzJJLT
V«i4 a li'»A a>W

The confirmation appears on the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
338

Your arrangement should resemble the one
presented here:

fAfrfL. 1, ,, H H ----- >---- 1
T cJd U ’ i f ' > — 1
Yau t'lt if**-- fctht

r~'"W— *=r-l= P = R
lif a XT w
t'u qtta t'u ft*,- S'UJti* T»U, —

f t S J C M

i'll <pta> f t * /—

The pitches of the dominant chord nearest to the
original pattern were used and the pattern
retained its original interval lie shape.
Let's go on to the last phase of arranging an
ostinato pattern. Go to frame 172.

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339

172. In this section of instruction, you will learn effective
ways to end the ostinato voice as the melody concludes.
There are many ways to end the accompanying voice. Two
have been chosen for this program.
a. The ostinato voice may sustain the last vowel of
the pattern.
b. The ostinato voice may cease to sing prior to the
last measure.
Let's take a look at applications of these techniques.
Go to frame 173.

173. Observe the following portion of a melody accompanied by an
ostinato voice as it concludes.

tU, doe -bif ’
ftm tost ooad

*, **} cU r-l**!' -aw dar - ymf
s___________ ?? ^ __________________

¥ 1j j- lu
- e v - ef, dread S o r-e y d e+»e*-

eU r-lw tj do, ia* d*e-ti*yr

Go to the next page.

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340

In this example, the ostinato voice sustains the last vowel
sun?. Here are guidelines to assist you in accomplishing
this manner of ending the ostinato voice.
1. If the ostinato pattern ends in the next to last
measure, sustain it from that point on to the end
of the melody. The only exception to this
guideline occurs when the ostinato pattern
concludes on the downbeat of the final measure. If
this is the case, sustain pitch from that point on.
2. In the example from this frame, the harmony shifts
from dominant to tonic in the concluding measure,
thus, the ostinato voice must resolve to the tonic
pitch on the downbeat of the final measure. This
procedure is similar to the way in which the
sustained voice is treated (unit 7).
No response required. Go to frame 174.

174. Using the ostinato pattern and portion of the folk melody
provided, arrange an example of an ostinato voice
sustaining the last vowel sung.
The portion of the melody presented comes from the end of
the folk song. For this example, you may begin the
ostinato voice when the melody begins rather than waiting
for the anacrusis to the second complete measure.

eHn, don* ioo-fd-t - 00- *»l

The confirmation appears on the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
341

Your arrangement should resemble this one:

i
J W
S i*}- - a * - r U - 1 - a» - r * L - i - Ay.

V i*----- ?
0j». y* «*»/ <Wt y4 «l», Jnit y *

The pattern begins as it does because the portion
of the melody was selected from the end of the
folk melody. Thus the pattern would have been
repeated prior to this point in the melody.
Did you alter the pattern to coincide with the
shift of harmony?
Go on to frame 175.

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342

175. In this frame you will see an example of an ostinato voice
which ceases prior to the last measure of the melody. Look
at the ending of this arrangement:

(ft Htn .m n~""CT
SkfU J* Umt**''eomU **

I f ? ; ji«n j j n -j—j.i
*
tin'll it umrU' tin'll cerm' mr ***tU *

If**-2--------------- ^--- r i j i
f JI J'-J-'J-«•*<»»*
+'
Cffm
^
'rO*t*4 -the Oh* (tmtto.

l»y JnJ.-PJ
-r-T r~iJ i—
? 1
iktiU be

The ostinato voice ceases in the next to last measure. The
appropriate rests are supplied to complete the arrangement.
In this example the ostinato voice could have ended either
as it appears, or, after the first beat of the same measure
(with the proper rests supplied).
Go to frame 176.

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343

176. Osin? the ostinato pattern and portion of a folk melody
given, arrange the ending of the ostinato voice so that it
ceases prior to the conclusion of the melody.

\j

m
5/7*Aj joy— ft* * a.

-i *•

i
hor '*»cftU~en

The confirmation appears on the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
344

Your arrangement should end in this fashion:

>v i ,--- -- p— ri —

T >W *'t A . tyo ami
■JU ------- —1
-- - — —n
Mi 1 'H. L M :b. Jv-7H ■--:=3=J ■

i l* * r
mm
+ *+ th -c r.

3*9, #/ - If

Did you supply proper rests to complete each measure after
the ostinato voice ceases?
Since there are two approaches to ending the ostinato
voice, you may have considered asking, "Which approach is
better to use?" The answer is simple: The choice will be
yours when you reach the posttest arrangement. Either
approach is effective.' Your decision should be based on
the manner in which you desire to arrange the ostinato
voice (Since this VAD is used in the final verse, one must
consider how to end the arrangement. You will receive this
instruction in the next unit.).
Before arranging examples of the ostinato voice, review the
guidelines presented thus feu:. Go on to frame 177.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
345

177. Here is a summary of guidelines for arranging the ostinato
pattern once it has been determined.
1. The ostinato pattern should begin within the first
measure. in order to determine when to begin the
ostinato pattern within the first measure, these
questions must be answered:
a. Does the pattern contain a pick-up note
(anacrusis to the downbeat of a measure)? If
so, it should begin after the melody as an
anacrusis to the second measure.
b. Does the pattern begin on a strong beat (beats
1 or 3 in common meter; beat 1 in a triple
meter; beats 1 and 4 in compound meter) ? If
so, it should begin on the downbeat of the
measure and be repeated from that point on.
The number of beats in the ostinato pattern
will dictate how often it may be stated within
one measure throughout the course of the
melody.
2. The ostinato pattern will change to dominant
harmony in order to coincide with the harmonic
shift of the melody. Here are some things to keep
in mind when altering the ostinato pattern:
a. Try to keep the intervallic relationship
similar between the altered and original
pattern.
b. Use the pitches of the dominant chord which
are nearest to the notes in the ostinato
pattern.
3. Two ways to end the ostinato voice have been chosen
for this program.
a. The ostinato voice may sustain the last vowel
of the pattern. If the ostinato pattern ends
in the next to last measure, sustain it from
that point on to the end of the melody. The
only exception to this guideline occurs when
the ostinato pattern concludes on the downbeat
of the final measure; if this happens, sustain
pitch from that point on. Be sure to resolve
any dominant harmony to the tonic where that
change occurs.

Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
346

b. The ostinato voice may cease prior to the last
measure. In the next to last measure, at the
end of the ostinato pattern, stop the voice at
that point and supply rests for the remainder
of the measures until the melody concludes.
NO response required. Go to frame 178.

178. From the melody presented below, choose the best ostinato
pattern. Follow the directions given after the
confirmation.

,
------------ r a ------------
g ■■
J J-i } -H ------------- 1—

RocU'6. ft*L hK 'W 4- ii»-h am r {bdf'6^ jxtl '*»

^ | 11
l.-Jg=H-r--1rr JTn
— a -J —4---------
W * W
1
t1

ajjf A~ HacK 'A 'm y A' Jm-lw",

J
Ob, rocK r* iot.

Your choices are:

i
IjKrT - i m -a — U— a— 7 -a ■ J
i fn il
f
t
-=i
1 - . - ; — . - 4 = . ----------------1
boi-&~ oif A'

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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347

The best choice is: b.
In a. only one pitch is utilized.
In c. the thought is incomplete.
Use pattern b. as the ostinato voice in your
arrangement of the melody. For the sake of
coinciding with the confirmation, use a sustained
voice ending for the ostinato voice. When you
have completed your arrangement, return to this
frame to compare your arrangement with that
presented here (the confirmation arrangement is
on the next page).

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348

p m
frK ra 'tm jU u X u rV tc h e f^ m A- iWrha-*, &CK>& 1*9 >•»< **•«•*

Ip H J J j
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f i i
SK»‘4 ^ >#u< ft*<|h'4.H«j.#**4 JJpdt-A'♦•••J

0 b, >a»l.

Go on to the next page.

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349

This ostinato pattern begins on a strong beat
within the melody, and thus, should start on the
downbeat of the measure.
The pattern contains 3 beats which permit it to
be stated only once within a measure.
When the pattern shifts to dominant harmony, the
pitches in the dominant chord closest to the
pattern were chosen. Another possible pattern
would be:

To end the ostinato pattern, the last note of the
pattern is sustained as the harmony is resolved
from dominant to tonic.
Let's go on to work another example in frame 179.

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350

179. After looking at the folk melody presented, choose the best
pattern to use as an ostinato voice, then follow the
instructions in the confirmation.

ii ■ i - i a i m i i
dm** y w / U f d t Voo -1+},
_______

l j j - j j j.lj jJ.J J i' J 4.
n*!*’ Ifco ' ^ , fflpr ,yM&e t»»W -h>
"Si

did.

Your choices are:
^y*'. frl_________ C£______________

ftjl J J I;fj. j l j I ;■4 j p
r*»» Vao-k^ - y * h t adwi e**f dm** t * * *****

The confirmation appears on the next page.

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351

The best ostinato pattern among these is: a.
Choices b. and c. contain dominant harmony.
To make this pattern a little more "flexible", the
rhythm has been altered slightly so that it will
be possible to repeat the pattern in close
succession. (This task will not be required of
you in this program. Altering an ostinato pattern
requires a subjective decision on the part of the
arranger and cannot be taught within a program of
this design.)
Have the ostinato voice cease to sing as a means
of ending the pattern.
Once you have arranged the verse on your own
manuscript paper, return to this frame to confirm
what you have written (again, the confirmation
arrangement appears on the following page).

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352

—i—i---------------
-------------1— [

r
Jots* *#— O'
si'** ' ^ 4 J1i
hoodie* 9oo-*+i, ^omo hood
~ '

-------- i--- rH-H-- +— H — 1----------- 1----- :
--- 1
Ilf* ---------
fMi 1>9»* tof/ ‘O** A** " 'f*1"

if?*’ ~ i
j j j. J.L * ^J J 4-*
^ *■*» '2 >~ *»• r*** ******

> - ■.— f
(f-W # J J—
^J. J Jjj J------ J -----

tee- Ton* poo -• tej, T<*1» Dg0 -l*f/‘1bm voo - ^*7 1

[fp +M = ■3I
die.

Go on to the next page.

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353

Because the ostinato pattern contains an
anacrusis, it should begin as a pick-up to the
second measure.
The ostinato voice makes use of the pitches in the
dominant chord closest to those in the ostinato
pattern while retaining the same interval lie
shape.
The ostinato voice ceases after its repetition has
concluded in the next to last measure.
Try another example. Go to frame 180.

180. After studying the folk melody presented, choose the best
ostinato pattern to accompany the melody.

£ i
$fout S** JttOm bml-lit*, bio** 4 k * i.-** do*r* 4o
*
-i f' 1'Jr J1 J IJ " J [ " I'- J 1J | J E ^
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£
m -i J J 1J- J y . p
¥ ” C -•

bAtv Inm rt’fAt Jovh tfr* f * dime 4» Ifl** ****-»****•

Your choices are:

ftfrtjn iV I i P t in
f h * H u **** Jo*m/ fayi flou f/*of 4k* Jo**n/

The confirmation is on the next page.

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354

The best choice is: c.
a. is rooted in dominant harmony.
b. uses the end of one idea and the beginning of
another. It presents an incomplete thought.
Use the selected ostinato voice in your
arrangement of the folk melody. Incorporate a
sustained voice to end the arrangement. The
confirmation appears the following page.

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355

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mm p p
i
& t -jMM iUu dtn*
I .______________
f e = = l l j 3i
P i
fut}| fkwthc'm** Jot**, gk, 9L*, the'**** 4**n* £•*/-!•**,

£
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.) 1| ^ y -j J- ^===
=5- : - = 4 = :
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*«»*•rifA
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? * ' J- 'J*1J1 I1J i IJ.
tjV f } *■j 'f> ij J i= n ^' |j y+I-1- HI
iJ - £ J - iJ' .j
&l*v ■ihe *m* da*** fit* 4«'M» fffas<<•******

TJitS O f r r w u H will b r tMC'Mrjvnr </W •#* | > W ^W-na«. <fc)w»..

Jlw Hm ww do***.
Go on to the next page.

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356

This pattern begins on a strong beat and can
be repeated only once in every two measures
because of its length.
In this arrangement the ostinato voice coincides
with the ending of the melody. Did you remember
to supply the appropriate rests where the ostinato
voice is not continuing?
Go on to frame 181 and work one more example
before reaching the objective for this unit.

181. After studying the melody which follows, select the best
ostinato pattern to use as a VAD. After you have made your
choice, follow the directions given in the confirmation.

W
year vUt€ , o 3 dear,

*
i
r r rFFT i

m X J. * »■*—j^* i I
& + bnqkt ftftf kuy rolJ-y rail,

s'

rail.

Ostinato pattern choices appear on the next page.

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357

Your choices are:

tfA r-i i i n , = i
V F * J JL—J 1— J I— J * -1 1 * ~ ± -------------- 1
Itj«uM W d < u r,

The best choice is: b.
Choice a. only utilizes a single pitch.
Choice c. contains dominant harmony.
Have the ostinato voice cease prior to the end of
the melody. When you have completed your
arrangement, return to the following page to
confirm what you have written.

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358

s 1

1 ^ J J J 1
Ok, tMI *1**w a r »****, <****’, °'m * <****> °
% I

* J -J .. J J i
V
irttl«j«uUitMTwiwir, 6*0 UMf ,

|1M ni |=F3= r r 1J T = R
tS$ll4»* w«l< wfcW<
M-— f-^-|r iM*U'
cam**■
****■

yfl p-1 , j = F = |
tf>*J I.;. < ! = L = ! g ± J = L = l

J'J 1 j ,.j,l J J~^j J~]Jjlc^ L

c o l- o r j 4 — frnf#*,j'// <fuy'w**«.j v l J - y fU -y

p W P
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|ri/
fM J Jn^ J1—ri
#= nU.

M iii |=r1
|y *JiJ +^
Will 2«m W(W’
Go on to the next page.

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359

Did you remember to:
1- Put a quarter-rest in each measure after the
last note of the ostinato?
2. Change the pitches of the ostinato voice to
accomodate dominant harmony by using the
pitches of the dominant chord closest to
those in the ostinato pattern?
3. End the ostinato pattern in the second to
last measure of the melody?
It is time to complete the objective of this unit. Go to
frame 182.

182. Locate your TEXT CHART. Study the melody and fourth verse
then return to this page and select the best ostinato
pattern from those presented. Once you have made your
selection., follow the directions given in the confirmation.
Your choices are:
Ci
----------------

~ J- if H iU -£ = »
ak hear ah.

The confirmation is on the next page.

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360

The best choice is: a.
As in an earlier example (frame 179), the ostinato
pattern has been altered rhythmically so that it
may be repeated in succession rather than "drawn
out".
Choices b. and c. make use of subdominant harmony
which is not suitable for the ostinato voice.
Please have the ostinato voice sustain its last
word and pitch until the melody is concluded.
The arrangement, as it should appear, follows on
the next page.

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361

'*!£•-— \

¥ 4 4 4 1 m
Ok X La** ± ° fee y**, A*ul _

i ± r -------------------------- L
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-*-
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fketom daok, o k $Ue***d»*kf &U flttn -**~<k4*l Ok oL

, ~±_
------------- ■ j- t i g
r

1 £ I
ou

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362

f a r r r j i n ■*— ^ j »-
* — M— ■*— ^ n . j7jj
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i £ S f i:
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363

F * SU— -s**-dMi*t
i i
?OLI'fUnram'J—k
S '~-\t V.
,.

f i r - f = ] ~ J.
Ske» •«**• iM& Ok fliw<wJw^

r— I ■
> U ^ U ......

Mfc->*».- r i ..
iC

- cr*# #*€ viA*. fib - A*-**,.

The ostinato pattern is altered slightly from its
original interval of a descending fourth when it
makes use of the dominant harmony. There are no
other pitches that can be used if one is to
maintain the same intervallie relationship.
An alternative would have been to sustain the
ostinato voice after it was first stated in the
next to last measure, resolving it to the tonic
pitch in the final measure.
Please keep the arrangement of this verse close at
hand. When you have studied the following unit,
you will be ready to organize your practice
arrangement into a finished product which can be
used as a guide for the posttest arrangement.
Turn to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Write the VAD for this verse on your TEXT CHART in the
correct box. Also, place a box around the ostinato text phrase
used in verse four. A completed TEXT CHART follows for your
inspection. Please make sure that your TEXT CHART is up-to-date
before going any further.
CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH
RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

MOOD: CALM/REFLECTIVE/TENDER L 6
L N S I P
TEMPO: » 60-80 A I E 0 M L M
R C C B A A O
TEXT: (UNDERLINE coherent phrases) E I I M N C C V
(BOX ostinato phrase) V 0 O 0 Y 0 C E
0 V V c D V A D
1. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you. A P MELODY
And hear your rolling river. s Qip TRANSFER
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, UNISON A mf
'Way, we're bound away. AT mf MELODY
Across the wide Missouri. ATB f LAYERING
2. I long to see your soiling valley. S op MELODY
And hear your rolling river, ST mf LAYERING
I long to see your smiling valley, UNISON A f MEL-TPANSFI
'way, we're bound away, AB mf MELODY
Across the wide Missouri. SATB mp LAYERING
'Tis seven long years since last
I see you. S/A f
And hear your rolling river. TWO- S/T mf MELODY *
'Tis seven lone years since last PART
I see you, B/A mp SUSTAINED
'Way, we're bound away. SB/AT mf VOICE
Across the wide Missouri. SB/AT f
4. lOh Shenandoah I, I long to see you. S/A ?
And hear your rolling river, TWO- S/A op MELODY *
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, PART TS/SA mf
'Way, we're bound away. TB/SA mp OSTINATO
Across the wide Missouri. TB/SA P

You have completed unit 8. Go to unit 9 now. You
are almost ready to arrange a melody on your own.

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365

UNIT 9

As you proceed in this unit you will write musical
transition devices which join verses of a folk song arrangement
and one musical device which can conclude the arrangement.

Now that you have arranged all four verses of SHENANDOAH, it
is time to learn ways of joining the verses so that there is a
transition from verse to verse.
There are three transitions between verses in a four-verse
folk song (1-2; 2-3; 3-4), and one conclusion after the final
verse. For the purpose of your practice arrangement and the
posttest arrangement located at the end of this program, you
will be presented with three transitional devices and two
conclusion devices (for the sake of choice) which demonstrate
possible endings for a choral arrangement.
The transitional devices are intended to join specific
verses, and as such, are presented in the order in which they
are applied to the verses of your practice arrangement. When
you arrange the posttest folk melody, you may refer to this unit
to recall which devices to use between verses. You will also
have a place on your TEXT CHART to write these devices to aid
in your memory.
Go on to frame 183.

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366

183. The first and simplest way to show transition from one
verse to another is through the use of a fermata (/S\ ).
This device is used frequently in choral literature to
indicate a pause in the musical thought. Here is an
example to illustrate the use of a fermata:

\M4 but — *««(

'XOlJ £

The fermata stops the motion of musical thought and can be
an effective way to indicate the ending of a verse. It is
the simplest of transitional devices. The ensuing verse is
prepared by a pause in the musical thought of the preceding
verse.
The procedure involves placing a fermata directly over the
final note of each voice part in the musical phrase. Let's
apply this device to the conclusion of your practice
arrangement. Go to frame 184.

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367

184. Locate the final measure of che first verse of SHENANDOAH.
Place a fermata over the final note of each voice part.
Once you have done this, return to this page to compare
your arrangement with the confirmation.

The fermata should be placed directly over the
notes they affect as shown in this illustration:

A

fcwfW H - cwt mdi r*__

n P if f L i m s
boMrtJ o>-wto,_ 4-c n # ---

m rffrr r r r^prfp p
4*C m * * tod*. _ Hh __

Go to frame 185 to view another transition device.

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368

185. This transition device involves the overlapping of verses
by means of repeating the last phrase of the melody. As
the repeated phrase concludes, the next verse begins. Look
at the following musical example to see how this is
accomplished:

1- ■
endm) of tAftphn**
m
itetm - ■
— i ■■■■ -

rjjjj,7 ju rjJ Jji
tn j f a / c f w t j r f U fml - J i* * . U&J j * * *

a -ftk v k .'tv j fa f jp * &■ /m l - d ir . 3aVn"»*{ k / a-

terriyr[jir -r,i ij t t/1
faj jmfA ~ datr. fas f*** “
j**" ^

The remainder of the musical example is on the next page.

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369

r **t%i V trft btumf
1/~ «IN|N>« *1rf&K&d fk+4*
tndi*,

tie - ok - ■*")t x. m I'm 5»,
LtWed 1
i

£o| » dier.

dicC.

C. jg

5 *( - J/«r.

Note these things which occur:
a. The verse concludes.
,b. The final phrase is repeated in voice parts not
designated to begin singing the next verse,
c. The following verse begins in the final measure of
the repeated phrase, or in the case of an
anacrusis, the pick-up to the last measure.
Overlapping occurs as the repeated phrase merges with the
beginning of the next verse.
This device will be used to join verses two and three.
Go on to frame 186.

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370

186. Locate the second and third verse of your practice
arrangement. Apply the device which has just been
presented between verses two and three. Be sure to
reiterate the last phrase of the second verse using a voice
part which has not been selected to begin singing the third
verse. Once you have completed this task, confirm what you
have written below the black line.

The transition device demonstrating overlapping of
the two verses of your practice arrangement
appears on the following page:

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371

|Mt y n 1 = ^
y » r j1 ; i j . i i
-
ar
4* cron Hu. k,‘de _ f|«V•Storr*._ 1.
rts

j ,i n j=f=f

4 - ccoff -ike viAe _ni*
■UJ-
V
J*
>A<
A H
n i n#—] J-=— F
) ' i *— -i—li-
:-fe---- =— V -n <_.>
J Hi
j j i
w A -CWf unde_ Mt-fi.— A' ccotf4heu*A* _ -

(* (g^> *

A*
4 M — f—
ftf-$OUrr\___
-4^ HU 1 u
A ' CAif •#** uiJe__ /1<V -
1

•j4S6/’
S _ fitue Uses, see you

Go on to frame 187.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
372

187. Another transition device involves using the sustained
voice to join two verses. Look at the following example:

7

| K S T, , I J —&H—
±£=±=
M **» 9*?, **«* ‘fokt-mj flwtf U*m*.

b fo — v ■ f ' 1 =a=q
' ~i~ 1

\ M -r.fl
[y
~ fr r TJ ^ *----
— ---- —
’ 0i— fw-i—
----
----a - r # 8
=M==i'] '
* AxlwJ<
rr-4
- r . ---- — \
T f " 11' 11 1

The final portion of this arrangement appears on the next
page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
373

- af'Uxtrcri* -

• i p ~f " p r j> ,— P-
*— T- - - - - "f- — f-
s t J'
1 r
d»u/eU Vtll m// ftif j")! IntU• nk,_

p t f c = = - rt — i— ~ ~z~ £- 4r j-- -y ■-j - ft-Sr-j— h - \
J—
-------
rkt 614 d'tobketi Hu oldihrtthhdlSue

jM- - i [ " » "-

---------------
t e ---------

In this example the sustained voice is held over from the
final measure of the initial verse. The next verse begins
and the sustained voice concludes at the end of the first
complete measure. Hake sure that the sustained voice part:
has not been chosen to begin singing the ensuing verse of
your practice arrangement.
Go on to frame 188.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.374

188. Locate the ending of the third verse and the beginning of
the fourth verse of SHENANDOAH. Apply the transition
device just explained. You will use the sustained voice
parts which conclude the third verse as the transition to
the fourth verse. Return to this frame to confirm what you
have written.

Here is the transition from verse three to verse
four as it should appear:

Ofott rii*- ieu-ri. 0h

ntf - r*.

A ~ <**tf-tin _

Go to the next page to view the final portion of this
example.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
375

■ r n f l r ^ T — o -------
O f t n
ij* i J ■^ r ’■ 1 = 1 r i
jkem* Y»,— - 1UJ__ hour

1---H — ^ — k—
¥ ' — r =*=*=#
fbtm te»dmk,okfi

......... = 1

r ^ L

If you need to make any adjustments in your
arrangement, do so at this time, fchen go on to
frame 189.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
376

189. Now that you have joined the four verses of your practice
arrangement you will observe two effective ways to conclude
the arrangement.
One method of concluding the arrangement is to simply
reiterate the last phrase of the verse in all four voice
parts (an approach similar to that used to join two
verses), and sustain the final pitch for one complete
measure beyond that which is written in the melody. Look
at this example:

-4— =r -fil
f * V 'l J u m ^ j- * - i y - -i -+— 7 ■#■•
t * - u mtfrm 4|-a to*. rw_

i ]r ■■■■---1 i ■n ■ ■ 'ir l ------------ 1
f r * !J — ... I1' J '
I* dmt yx* cry Jpt <*<€,

f l 1. — h *'{ f— ;— r j 1 s—;—j""l i------- y—

" rVe. cm*#** 41-6. - JttA'mj fcn»-jo m vtf sVfi_

Oldf-A----- H“-------
- 7 ^ ------H------------- H--------1------ 1--------j=---- H--------------
Cftj far

Go to the next page to view the last portion of this
example.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
377

Y ~ l J U
\f
i L f
fn M M

4 !■!
.. :.J
II

f — ....... 1

\)*-r-r r - f i ~f— 7— [ J . . n 11 ■ J
£ \ J + * ---- r*------- r
L J * 1
-

---- ------ h

The lash phrase of the melody is reiterated immediately
after the melody concludes in order to avoid a delay or
"gap" between the ending of the melody and the appearance
of the repeated phrase. This is done naturally, by
beginning the repeated phrase in the same manner in which
it was previously stated.
Go on to frame 190.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
378

190. Locate the conclusion of the fourth verse of your practice
arrangement and apply the device just illustrated using
your own manuscript paper. After you have that task,
return to this frame to confirm what you have written.

The arrangement of SHENANDOAH should be concluded
in this way:

p m
A-
V .

4
>1- MfV*

an i :r!nj. n
V t
=

0 A - u* W x \m 'uU. Hi*- A ~ U mJ*--

>)- cent dw .

go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
379

^ * .#■

V i

i

- 5«- •*».

Notice that the final phrase begins directly after
the melody is concluded. The arrangement
concludes by sustaining the final note of the
melody for one measure beyond its original note.
Gc on to frame 191.

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380

191. In this frame you will observe another way to conclude your
practice arrangement.
An alternate method of concluding the arrangement is to
have one voice part sustain its final note while another
voice part reiterates the final phrase of the melody. Here
is an example:

\ y - t fl ■r~f— ;— h r r-.m -*------- l i t
If ■■( V *-t f
u m ifim A \-a 'b a m -* bam*j'r '"•j

L-J------- L.j, Z±= f=E=="i J - .............. |
-----------------

ofc dm * cry ja r -m€j

,, *|f H i r; , JT [■.■j— yfl-l
j- --U l-b^i y -*-*

C /m jr/m Al-e* - b urn wtiU-ymf fe*— to*»- jo m ^ jV g _

— ► ------------------- h*-----------f«-------- -y--"-' . — ■f-------------------- 1
v4— 4 ---- H -------------------- H ------------ 1---------- 14— ----------- H
0k

Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
381

l)*i , r f t i. .n , , H " F f = |j
- J - r --
|

■ r
'i
btm-'fo 0 m tmj --

1
( o f * firm Abo -

j irf=j g== = * =
-

frjfr f j j U=l k / f* l■ 1 LT
=|=| 1
1
I
» A l-c - Km t . .

n f.—

The sustained voice provides a sustained tone as a means of
supporting the repeated phrase. Notice that, in this
instance, the sustained voice does not shift to the
dominant harmony in the concluding measures. The sustained
voice does not function as an "active" voice at this point
since the arrangement is being concluded. Therefore, there
will be no need to have the sustained voice change pitch.
Go to frame 192.

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382

192. Turning on your own manuscript paper to the ending of the
fourth verse of SHENANDOAH, apply the device just
presented. Then return to this frame to confirm your
response.

Here is the ending of SHENANDOAH using the device
just explained:

j J— -<r /.
OU an* dak, «k 4**n an Je*kf

j n . f n ^ 4 < n M
Ok an doth, <k SLananAaak,

m -==?=
4- CMf 4b* aatia_ nn- &n-r*._ 4' ce#4be nif-

rrrr
A - C/Off 4b* uiJ * .
^ - £
Hi*-j»C* ri
4 7 ft i q rip
A - flitftf w i « — H‘£-

Go to the next page.

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383

M

=
__________________ j

lx h 1 1 i
— ----

CV-lK --7T ^ — \
YJ b\j — iA
.> o m .-r«.

Go on to frame 193.

193. Two methods of concluding your practice arrangement have
been demonstrated. Since either of these devices is
suitable, you are free to choose one to conclude your
arrangement.
Before filling in information about Verse Transition
Devices on your TEXT CHART, formulate your ability to
describe these devices by responding to questions in the
following frames.

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384

194. For your practice arrangement, what Verse Transition Device
would you employ at the conclusion of the first verse?
(You may supply the response mentally, then check it below
the black line.)

Your response could have resembled either of the
following:
1. A fermata
2. Place a fermata over the final pitch of every
voice part.
Go on to frame 195.

195. For your practice arrangement, what Verse Transition Device
would you employ between the ending of the second verse and
beginning of the third verse?

Your response may resemble either of the
following:
1. Overlap the verses by repeating the final
phrase of the verse and begin the next verse
as the last verse concludes.
2. Overlap the verses by merging the repeated
phrase with the beginning of the next verse.
Go to the next frame.

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385

196. What Verse Transition Device would you employ between the
ending of the third verse and the beginning of the fourth
verse?

Your response may be similar to this:
The sustained voice extends for two measures, the
next verse enters in the first measure of
extension.
Go to frame 197.

197. In what manner would you conclude the choral arrangement?

There are two methods:
1. Repeat the final phrase of the melody and
extend it for one measure beyond its original
length.
2. Repeat the final phrase of the melody in one
voice part while another voice part sustains
the last word of the ostinato pattern (which
resolves to the tonic pitch, if necessary) and
add one measure to both voice parts.

A TEXT CHART bearing the information contained within this
unit appears on the next page. Transfer the information
regarding Verse Transition Devices and conclusion devices
to your TEXT CHART. Use your own wording in the boxes
marked by the diagonal words VERSE TRANS DEVICE. What has
been written within the boxes may serve as a comparison.
Follow the instructions given after you have completed this
task.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: SHENANDOAH
RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

MOOD: L G C S
L N S I P E
TEMPO: A I E 0 M L M C E £
R C C B A A O S N
TEXT: (UNDERLINE coherent phrases) E I I M N C C V R A
(BOX ostlnato phrase) V 0 0 0 Y 0 C E E R E
O V V C D V A 0 V T D

1. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you. A P MELODY
And hear your rolling river. S op TRANSFER
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, ONISON A of FERMATA
'Hay, we're bound away, AT of MELODY
Across the wide Missouri. ATB f LAYERING
2. I long to see your sailing valley. S ap MELODY REPEAT
And hear your rolling river, ST of LAYERING PHRASE -
I long to see your sailing valley, ONISON A f MEL-TRANS. OVERLAP
'Hay, we're bound away, AB of MELODY NEXT
Across the wide Missouri. SATB tup LAYERING VERSE
3. 'Tis seven Iona years since last SUSTAINED
t see you. S/A f VOICE
And hear vour rolling river, TOO” S/T mf MELODY ♦ EXiaiDED
'Tis seven long years since last PART 2 MEAS.
I see you, B/A no SUSTAINED 4TH VERSE
•Hay, we're bound away. SB/AT mf VOICE BRERS
Across the wide Missouri. SB/AT f
4. IOh ShenandoahI. I long to see you," S/A P REPEAT
And hear your rolling river. TWO- S/A op MELODY ♦ LAST PHR.
Oh Shenandoah. I long to see you, PART TB/SA mf W/OPTION
‘Hay, we're bound away. TB/SA mp OSTINATO USING SOS
Across the wide Missouri. TB/SA P VOICE

You have now completed the musical arranging of SHENANDOAH.
It is time to proceed to the last aspect of organizing your
practice arrangewent into its final fora. Proceed to UNIT
10 .

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
UNIT 10

At: the conclusion of this unit, you will incorporate
manuscript, mechanics which provide additional information for
the musical portion of your choral arrangement.

Manuscript mechanics provide technical information which
are written on the arrangement to:
1. Identify the title of the arrangement and its arranger;
2. Identify the mood and tempo of the arrangement;
3. Provide dynamic level indications for the performer;
4. Identify rehearsal locations by measure number;
5. Identify page numbers;
6. Indicate the conclusion of the arrangement.
These mechanical considerations are to be added to the
choral arrangement you have just completed. They provide for
the performer final necessary information not supplied by the
text and notation.
As each item is presented, you will be aslced to write it on
your practice arrangement in the appropriate location(s).
Go to frame 198.

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388

198. The title of the choral arrangement should be centered
above first staff. The arranger's name is placed above
the first staff to the far right beneath the words,
"Arranged by:". Write these two items on your practice
arrangement at this time, then return to this frame to
compare what you have written.

Here is the top of the first page of your practice
arrangement as it should appear. Compare yours
for accuracy.

F#F=n ----------------- '- - -rE-v - - - - — 1
1 t-U'M 1 Lf u
A*Jl_ lH*r___yaus

■J— J = ■= ^ 5 If f - f ' 1
— -1
Ok XI y**,—

%=F
p=^
!

Go to frame 199.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
389

199. From your TEXT CHART write the two terms which indicate the
mood and tempo. These should be placed on the first page
to the far left above the first staff. The mood term
should be written first with the tempo indication placed
directly after it. Write these two items on your practice
arrangement, then return to this frame to compare what you
have 'written (your mood term may differ from the one used
in the confirmation).

Here is the top of the first page, once more, with
the mood and tempo indications appropriately
placed.

Co.Lih } - 6 0 ~ S o S h & lC tf\(L o C L h . ArsaMjgd. b y :

m m
AmL_ ___yous coi-U*<j

=f f n
-J— J ^ — E f -r ‘ 1 = = i
Oh <*tj**,—

m , —

— :

Go to frame 200.

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390

200. The next: items to be placed on your practice arrangement
are all dynamic levels which appear on your TEXT CHART.
Dynamic levels cure written above the staff and adjacent to
the voice part which they affect. This example will serve
as an illustration:

0k Sk&HtHdanU ' s
You will need to transfer all dynamic level indications to
your TEXT CHART recalling at this time two features of
their placement:
a. They are written above the staff.
b. They are written adjacent to the voice part which
they affect.
When you have completed this task, go on to frame 201.

201. In order to identify rehearsal locations for the director
and performer, measure numbers must be written on your
manuscript. Follow these two guidelines when placing
measure numbers on your manuscript:
a. Measure numbers begin in the fifth measure *:ith the
number 5 and continue in increments of five from
that point forward (5, 10, 15, 20, and so on).
b. Measure numbers are written directly sb-jve the
staff and immediately to the right of the barline
that marks the beginning of the measure. They are
usually enclosed in a box or circle (your choice).
Look at this illustration:

dk ;(<«» «»4aa k,— X to

Write the appropriate measure numbers on your practice
arrangement at this time. After you have completed this
task, go on to frame 202.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
391

202. Another important item organizing your manuscript is the
placement of consecutive page numbers, beginning with 1 on
the first page, centered at the bottom of each page. Place
the correct page numbers on your arrangement of SHENANDOAH,
then go on to frame 203.

203. The last item to be place on your practice arrangement is a
double barline which signifies that the arrangement has
ended. Even though the conclusion of the arrangementis
acknowledged when the voices cease to sing, the technical
ending of the arrangement is marked by a double barline at
the close of the final measure. Look at this illustration:

...L— = = = = = --------—

m =— - ___ ■■■■ ------- ■
\-+------------

i ' F 7 1 n i
hi— # i.------- J— J
t ~ 1 ------
r*------------
i 4- trot* uiUt —

- * = * = = ----f— f-4 \ ------------ \
-/-+!r fr— 1 1-4" "1— L---J 1 ---- 1------- 1------- t - t t t -H
Ir
A ' cftK't\#w>de fCf

As you can see, one long line is drawn for all four staves,
then four other lines are drawn to the left of the longer
line, one at the end of each staff.
Go to your practice arrangement and complete this task,
then go on to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
392

At this point, your choral arrangement should be completely
assembled, it is in "loose" form because you have been piecing
it together, unit by unit. However, when you complete the
posttest, you will have a finished product suitable for copying,
distributing to a chorus, rehearsing, and performing.
The completed arrangement of SHENANDOAH may serve as a guide
for your posttest arrangement. Therefore, you will want to make
sure that all components of this arrangement are correct
according to the guidelines of this program. Onit 11 will
assist you in checking your completed arrangement. You may go
there now.
Please turn the page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
393

UNIT 11

At the conclusion of this unit, you will have completed an
evaluation check of your choral arrangement to insure that all
components have been assembled correctly into a suitable
product according to the guidelines of this program.

The evaluation checklist contains all of the topics covered
within this program. Once you have proofread your arrangement
and corrected any errors, you may place a check mark (y0 beside
the topic just evaluated and proceed to the next topic.
The process of evaluation will be your own. In other words,
the Choral Arrangement Evaluation Checklist will suggest
components of your choral arrangement which should be checked
for accuracy. You are responsible for locating and correcting
any errors. The arrangement found at the end of this unit
should be consulted only after you have completed the checklist.
After you have completed the Choral Arrangement Evaluation
Checklist, a completed copy of your practice arrangement
SHENANDOAH will appear for any comparison you may wish to make.
The Choral Arrangement Evaluation Checklist is located in
the back pocket. Please remove it and begin your evaluation at
this time. Follow instructions at the end of the checklist once
you have completed your evaluation

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
SHEMNDOflH
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395

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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
402

INDEX

aAa
Amazing Grace 75-6;77-8;79-80;117-18;219;pocket
Anacrusis 183-85
Antecedence 92
Arch dynamic level 65
Arrange 74
Arrival 94

bBb
Be Thou my vision 103;104-5
Billy boy 196;197
Blow the candles out 95
Blow the man down 206;208
Bold-faced lettering 39
Buffalo gals 142-43;144-45

cCc
Cadence 94
Cindy 37
Clementine 192
Coherent 11
Complete thought 12-15
Conclusion devices 218;229-34
Consequence 92
Context of verse 32
Crawdad song 86-87;99;179-80;190-91

dDd
Departure 92
Diagonal 16,44
Dixie 157;158-60
Double barline 244
Dynamic level
arched 65
decreasing 53
fixed 64.69
increasing 53.69
indication 52
mood, belief, state
of mind 58.61.69

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Entry level skills ii-iii
Evaluation check list 246;247-49
Every night when the
89-90;130;132;133

fPf
Fare thee well 94;106;107-8
Fermata 219
Fixed dynamic patterns 64,69
Four-stave brace 103
Freight train 177;185;186

gGg

fiHh
Harmonic language 126
Harmonic shift 127-28
He*s gone away 109;110
How can I_ keep
from singing 87,88
Hush little baby 178

ili
I am in love 83,84
Imitation 170
I've been working
on the railroad 171; 185
I*ve got to travel on 38

jJj
Jenny Jenkins 209;211
Jerusalem my happy home 114; 115
Johnny has gone
for a soldier 38;96;221-22
kKk

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
404

11*1

Legibility of arrangement 74,100
Life 173

Manuscript mechanics 240
Arranger's name 241
Double barline 244
Dynamic levels 243
Measure numbers 243
Mood/tempo indications 242
Page numbers 244
Title 241
Measure numbers 243
Melody layering 74; 77
Melody transfer 74; 75
Melody transfer/layering 74; 79
Mood term 8,9,242
Musical phrases
Beginning 94,95,98
Cadence 94
Ending 94,95;98
Imbalanced 93,94
Symmetrically balanced 92;94
My gentle harp 111;112-13

nNn
New river train 182

oOo
Objectives
Terminal i
unit 1 iv; 1
unit 2 8
unit 3 11
unit 4 30
unit 5 52
unit 6 73
unit 7 125
unit 8 170

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Objectives— continued
unit 9 218
unit 10 240
unit 11 246
O dear, what can
the matter be? 150;152-53
Oh Susanna 163?164-65;229-30;233-34
On top of old Smokey 93;99
Ostinato 170
Ostinato pattern 172
Beginning of 183;185;198
Characteristics of 171-75
Ending of 192
ceases 192;195-96,199
sustained 192;193;193
Shift to dominant (V) 187-90,198
Overall voicing
Two-part 30,44
Unison 30,32
Overlapping of verses 221-22

pPp
Page numbers 244
Parenthesis 16
Peter Gray 91,92
Phrase 12
Pick-tip note 183
Polly wolly doodle 81-82
Posttest pocket
Pretest - pocket

qQq

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
406

ntr
Ranges
Alto 2
Bass 4
Soprano 1
Tenor 3
Range of melody 35
Red river valley 93;98
Rehearsal locations 243
Repose 94
Rhythm
Flexible 204
Rock-a-my soul 199; 201
Roman numeral analysis 127

sSs
Sequence 170
Shalom Chaverim 36
She*11 be coming
round the mountain 195
Shenandoah
arrangement of 250-57
melody in program pocket;120-21;123-24;167-69;214-
16;220;224;227-28;231-32;235-
36;241;242;244;
Spirit of the melody 173
Sustained voice 125;126-28;156;166
Sweet Betsy from Pike 184;193,194
Symmetrically balanced
musical phrase 92-94

tTt
Tempo indication 8,9,242
Terrace dynamic level 64
Text 12
TEXT CHART 6
TEXT CHART for
Amazing Grace pocket
Shenandoah pocket;7;10;29;31;51;72;217;239;

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
407

TEXT CHART for

When Johnny comes
marching home pocket
Text underlining sheet 23;pocket
The Fox 176;183;187;188
Title 241
Tom Dooley 203;205
Transition devices 218
Fermata 219;220
Overlapping verses 221-22
Sustained voice 225-26
Two-part 44

uOu
Onison 32

vSV
Verse 12
VOCAL ACCOMPANIMENT DEVICE 11;19;73;149

When Jesus wept 127
When Johnny comes
marching home 137;138;225-26;pocket
Whither thou goest
pilgrim stranger 101;102
Wondrous love 125

xXx

yxy

zZz

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX E

M A T E R IA L S LO CATED IN POCKET OF PR O G R A M M ED IN S T R U C T IO N

PRETEST
T E X T C H A R T F O R SHENANDOAH
T E X T U N D E R L IN IN G S H E E T F O R U N IT 3
C H O R A L A R R A N G E M E N T E V A L U A T IO N C H E C K L IS T
PO STTEST
A T T IT U D E Q U E S T IO N N A IR E

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
409

PRETEST

On the following pages are two folk melodies. Each melody
contains four verses and is written upon a device which has been
labelled a TEXT CHART. Your instructions are to:
1. Choose one* folk melody (the reason for your selection
is up to you): AMAZING GRACE or WHEN JOHNNY COMES
MARCHING HOME.
2. Arrange the folk melody for the Soprano, Alto, Tenor,
and Bass voice parts, a cappella, using one staff for
each voice part using manuscript paper located in the
pocket.
3. Employ the ranges appropriate for an average high school
chorus.
4. Use this overall voicing:
vsl— Unison incoporating Melody Transfer and/or Melody
Layering.
vs2— Unison incorporating Melody Transfer and/or Melody
Layering.
vs3— Two-part incorporating a sustained voice
accompaniment.
vs4— Two-part incorporating an ostinato voice
accompaniment.
5. Demonstrate a suitable musical transition from verse to
verse and a suitable musical conclusion to the
arrangement.
6. Supply all proper musical indications which should
appear on the manuscript.
*You willjise the same folk melody for both pre- and posttest
arrangements.
After you have completed your arrangement, return to the
place in the program which you left.
You may now proceed to make your selection of the melody
which you want to arrange from the two which follow.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
410

CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART FOR: AMAZING GRACE

RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

MOCO: EXPRESSIVEEX/WITH FERVOR
P E E
TSfflO: » L M C E S C
A 0 I S N I
TECX: (DNOFHLINE coherent phrases) C C V R A V
(BCK ostinato phrase) 0 C E E R E
V A 0 IV T D i
1. Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound
That sawed a wretch like me;
I once was lost, hot now am found,
Mas blind, but now I see.
2. 'Twas Grace that taught ay heart
to fear.
And Grace ay fears relieved.
How precious did that Grace appear,
The hour 1 first believed.
3. Through many dangers, toils
and snares,
I have already came;
‘Tis Grace has brought me safe
thus far.
And Grace will lead me home.
4. The Lord has promised good to me.
His Hard ay hope secure.
He will ay shield and portion be.
As long as life endures.

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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
411

CHORAL ARRANGING TSCT CHART PCRi WHEN JCBtff COffiS MARCHING BCME
RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor

MOQO: J0BIL»ir/30gqL/WnH EMCXTBB g
P E E
TOCO: L M C E S C
A O I S N I
THCT: (OtCERLINE coherent phrases) C C V R A V
(BOX ostinato phrase) 0 C E E R E
V A D V T 0 I
1. Wien Johnny cones earthing hoco
again, hurrah, hurrah!
He111 give bin a hearty welcome
then, hurrah, hurrah!
The can will cheer, the boys will
shout.
The ladies they will all turn out.
And we'll all feel gay, when
Johnny comes marching home.
2. The old church bell will peal
with joy, hurrah, hurrah!
To welcome home our darling boy,
hurrah, hurrah!
The village lads and lassies say,
with roses they will strew the way.
And we'll all feel gay, Wien
Johnny comes marching home.
3. Get ready far the jubilee,
hurrah, hurrah!
We'll give the hero three times
three, hurrah, hurrah!
The laurel wreath is ready now
TO place upon his loyal brow.
And we'll all feel gay, when
Johnny aarching hffti
4. When Johnny cornea marching home
again, hurrah, hurrah!
We'll give him a hearty welcome
then, hurrah, hurrah!
The men will cheer, the bays will
shout.
The ladies they will all turn out.
And we'll all feel gay, Wien
Johnny comes marching home.
(Tha melody appears on the next page)

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412

ijhujijn j
U/ttCM foUm-tuf cn*ti +te*ck'U$ k*mt *-f9m --- //or-
I

- ^ *m«» w*Uck«7|iit« bo^« wWI iUijft*

V _ _ . .
t
s s
fttf mc*, AtJue'H cJi je e i jay y tfJu-w

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
413

CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART EORs SHQWDOAH

RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor n»w

MOOD:
P E E
TQOO: L M C E S C
A O I S N I
TEXT: (QNuEfrUNE coherent phrases) C C V R A V
(BOX ostinato phrase) 0 C E E R E
V A D V T D
1. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you.
And hear your rolling river.
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you,
'Way, we're bound away.
Across t*e wide Missouri.
2. I long to see your smiling valley.
And hear your rolling river,
I long to see your smiling valley,
'way, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.
3. 'Tis seven long years since last
I see you.
And hear your rolling river,
'Tis seven long years since last
I see you,
'nay, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.
4. Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you.
And hear your rolling river.
Oh Shenandoah, I long to see you,
’nay, we're bound away.
Across the wide Missouri.

uarabewj — 4- —

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TEXT UNDERLINING SHEET FOR UNIT 3

Frame;
31. Come all you fair and pretty ladies.
Take warning how you court young men.
For they are like a bright star of a summer evenin'
They first appear, and then they're gone.

32. I don't want none of your weevily wheat,
I don't want none of your barley,
I want some flour and half an hour
To bake a cake for Charlie.

33. Where, oh where, issweetlittle Nellie?
Where, oh where, issweetlittle Nellie?
Where, oh where, issweetlittle Nellie?
Way down yonder in the pawpaw patch!

34. There's a low green valley on the old Kentucky shore,
There I've whiled many happy hours away,
A-sitting and a-singing by the little cottage door.
Where lived my darling Nellie Gray.

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415

CHORAL ARRANGEMENT EVALUATION CHECKLIST

TOPIC CONSIDER EVALUATION COMPLETED

Shenandoah Post­
test
Ranges Violations of upper/lower
limits of all four voice
parts ...............
Mood Term Word selected from TEXT CHART
is written on first page,
upper left above staff. . . .
Tempo
Indication Selected symbols (note value
and numerical value) from
TEXT CHART are written to the
right of the Mood Term. . . .
Text Are underlined phrases on
TEXT CHART the same as those
used in Choral Arrangement?
Is underlined text coherent?
Is text written beneath the
notation using correct
punctuation?............
Overall
Voicing Unison: Verse 1 & 2
Two-part: Verse 3 & 4
Voice
Combinations Choices are made according
to text considerations. . .
Range restrictions of melody
Dynamic Are chosen according to
Levels guidelines..............
Are written above staff
adjacent to voice part.

Go to the next page.

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416

TOPIC CONSIDER EVALUATION COMPLETED
Shenandoah Post­
test
VAD:
Melody
Transfer &
Layering Voice parts are changed
at phrase beginnings. .
VAD:
Sustained
Voice Sustained voice begins with
melody. . . . ............
Harmonic shift (I-V-I). . . .
Text is distributed evenly. .
Dynamic level is lower than
that assigned to the melody .
VAD:
Ostinato Begins correctly as an
anacrusis ...............
or on strong beat ........
Harmonic shift (I-V-I)
retains same contour and uses
dominant pitches..........
Ends using a sustained voice
or ceasing...............
Dynamic level is lower than
that assigned to the melody .
Verse
Transition
Devices vl-v2: Fermata (/S\)........
v2-v3: Overlapping voices. .
v3-v4: Sustained voice with
melody............
v4—||: 1. Repeat final
phrase........
2. Repeat phrase with
sustained voice
treatment . . . .
3. Add one measure
to end of melody.

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417

TOPIC CONSIDER EVALUATION COMPLETED
Shenandoah Post­
test
Manuscript
Mechanics 1. Title-centered ;
arranger's name— upper
right above staff . . . .
2. Rehearsal numbers marked
(5,10, etc) ..........
3. Page numbers centered
at bottom of page . . .
4. Double barline at close
of last measure . . . .

Once you have made any necessary changes in your manuscript,
you may compare your arrangement of SHENANDOAH with the one
which appears on pages 247-254 of this program.
After you finish editing your manuscript, proceed to the
posttest which can be found in the pocket on the back cover of
this booklet. Follow the instructions given there. If you
wish, you may use this Choral Arrangement Evaluation Checklist
to check the accuracy of your posttest arrangement.

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418

POSTTEST

On the following pages are two folk melodies. Each melody
four verses and is written upon a device which has been
cont a i n s
labelled a TEXT CHART. Your instructions are to:
1. Choose one* folk melody (the reason for your selection
is up to you): AMAZING GRACE or WHEN JOHNNY COMES
MARCHING HOME.
2. Arrange the folk melody for the Soprano, Alto, Tenor,
and Bass voice parts, a cappela, using one staff for
each voice part.
3. Employ the ranges appropriate for an average high school
chorus.
4. Use this overall voicing:
vsl— Unison incoporating Melody Transfer and/or Melody
Layering.
vs2— Unison incorporating Melody Transfer and/or Melody
Layering.
vs3— Two-part incorporating a sustained voice
accompaniment.
vs4— Two-part incorporating an ostinato voice
accompaniment.
5. Demonstrate a suitable musical transition from verse to
verse and a suitable musical conclusion to the
arrangement.
6. Supply all proper musical indications which should
appear on the manuscript.
7. You may refer to the program for any assistance you need
while completing your posttest arrangement. The table
of contents and index may serve to assist you in
locating any concepts which help to refresh your memory.
♦Please remember to use the same folk melody for both pre- and
posttest arrangements.

Go to the next page.

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419

After you have completed your arrangement:
1. Please answer the Questionnaire located in the
pocket of this booklet. You may return the
Questionnaire to the pocket after it has been
completed.
2. Place all of your instructional materials
in the box on Dr. Kirk's office door.
You may now proceed to arrange the melody which you selected
from the pretest. Remember that you may use the Choral
Arrangement Evaluation Checklist to check your arrangement once
it is completed.

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420

CHORAL ARRANGING TEXT CHART PCRs AMAZING GRACE

RANGES: <&£*■***> Aito Tenor Bass

MOOD: BffiRESSIVEIg/wrag FEBKCR
PS s
TEMPO: » L M C E S C
A O I S N I
TECT: (QtrFPr.ruE coherent phrases) C C V R A V
(Bax ostinato phrase) 0 C E E R E
V A D IV T D i
*i
1. Amazing Grace, bow suaet the sound
That sawed a wretch Like nes
I once was lose, hot now am found.
Has blind, but now I see.
2. 'Twas Grace that taught ay heart
to fear.
And Grace ay fears relieved.
Bow precious did that Grace appear.
The hour I first believed.
3. Through many dangers, toils
and snares,
I have already come:
'Tis Grace has brought am safe
far#
And Grace will lead am heme.
-i. The Lord has premised good to am.
His Word ay hope secure.
Be will ay shield and portion be.
As long as life endures.

4- ftm»

urefck '•••<; L**t fet-lMW-A*

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CaORRL ARRANGING TEXT CHART ECRi KBEN JCOCff COMES MARCHING HOME

RANGES: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass

s
MOOD: JOBHAOT/JCKFOL/WnH EXCXTSBTT L 6 c s
L N s I P E
TEMPO: A I E O M L M C E S <
R C C B A A 0 I S N I
TEXT: (DNDERLINE coherent phrases) E I I M N C C V R A V
(BOK oseinato phrase) V o c 0 C E E R E
O V V C D V A D V T D
1. when Jhhnry comes marching home
again, hurrah, hurrah! ___ __
We' 11 give him a hearty welcome
then, hurrah, hurrah!___________________ ___ __
The men will cheer, the boys will
shout.
The ladles they will all turn out, ___ __
And we'll all feel gay, when
Johnny comes marching home. j
2. The old church bell will peal I
with joy, hurrah, hurrah! j
TO welcome home our darling boy, i
hurrah, hurrah! ” i
The village lads and lassies say, |
With roses they will strew the way, I
And we'll all feel gay, when I
Johnny cones marching home. I
3. Get ready for the jubilee,
hurrah, hurrah!
He'll give the hero three times
three, hurrah, hurrah!
The laurel wreath is ready now
TO place upon his loyal brow.
And we'll all feel gay, when
Johnny comps marching home.
4. Mien Johnny comes marching home
again, hurrah, hurrah!
He'll give him a hearty welcome
then, hurrah, hurrah!
The men will cheer, the boys will
shout.
The ladies they will all turn out.
And we'll all feel gay, when
Johnny comes marching home.
(The melody appears on the next page)

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
422

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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
423

ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE
Please answer the following questions regarding the
instruction you have just completed. Your responses will enable
me to better understand your reaction to AN INTRODUCTION TO
CHORAL ARRANGING, and assist me in revising instruction . After
you have finished the Questionnaire, please place it in the
pocket of your booklet and return all instructional materials to
me or Dr. Kirk.
You may reach me at the following phone numbers:
home: 2228912
work(tmh): 6815416 thurs-sun 7:00am-3:00pm
work(fsu): 6443434 thurs-sat 4:3Opm-11:00pm

A. MOTIVATION
1. Did you possess an interest in choral arranging prior to
taking this instruction?
yes____
n o ____
2. After finishing this program, would you arrange another
melody on your own?
yes ____
no ____
maybe____
3. Did you find the amount of humor
not enough ____
about right____
too much
4. Was two weeks a sufficient amount of time to complete
the program?
too much time ____
about right ____
not enough time____

Go to the next page.

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424

B. OBJECTIVES
1. Prior to beginning the program, did you understand that
you would write a complete choral arrangement at the end
of this instruction?
yes____
no ____
2. Were the objectives stated in terms you could
understand?
yes____
no ____
3. Did you understand what you were supposed to do after
you read each objective located at the beginning of each
unit?
yes____
no ____

C. ENTRY BEHAVIORS
1. Were there any unfamiliar topics and terms that were not
adequately defined?
no ____ (skip to question D 1.)
yes (answer the next question)
2. Which topics and terms were not adequately defined?

D. TESTS
1. Were the instructions on the pre-posttest clear?
yes (skip to question D 3.)
no (answer question D 2.)

Go to the next page.

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425

O. TESTS (continued)

2. What was unclear about the instructions?

3. Which melody did you choose to arrange?

4. Why?

E. INSTRUCTION
1. Regarding exercises, were there
too few ____
too many ____
about enough____
2. Was the vocabulary
too simple ____
about right ____
too sophisticated____
3. Were required responses...
too long ____
about right____
too short ____
...to demonstrate knowledge of the concept being tested.
4. Did the information (feedback) found with the
confirmation aid you in evaluating your understanding of
the concept?
yes (skip to question E 5.)
no (why not?)
You may respond on the next page.

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426

E. INSTRUCTION (continued)

5. Were there enough melodies used as examples?
yes____
no ____
6. Was the TEXT CHART a useful device?
yes____
no ____
7. Did you experience any difficulty getting from frame to
frame?
no ____ (skip to question E 8.)
yes (in what way?)

8. Did you use the index?
no ____ (skip to question F 1.)
yes (answer the next question)
Was any terra or concept missing?
no (skip to question F 1.)
yes (which term or concept was missing?)

Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
427

F. OVERALL
1. Did you enjoy taking the program?
yes____
no
2. When you completed the program, did you feel better able
to arrange? •"
yes_
no ~
3. What was the best aspect of this instruction?

4. What would you suggest to improve this instruction?

THANK YOU FOR TAKING MY PROGRAM! (The check is in the mail.)

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX F

RESULTS OF ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE:

SMALL-GROUP EVALUATION

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429

Results of Attitude Questionnaire

SMALL-GROUP EVALUATION

Please answer the following questions regarding the
instruction you have just completed. Your responses will
enable me to better understand your reaction to AN INTRODUCTION
TO CHORAL ARRANGING, and assist me in revising instruction .
After you have finished the Questionnaire, please place it in
the pocket of your booklet and return all instructional
materials to me or Dr. Kirk.
You may reach me at the following phone numbers:
home: 222 8912
work(tmh): 681 5416 thurs-sun 7:00am-3:00pm
work(fsu): 644 3434 thurs-sat 4:30pm-ll:00pm

A. MOTIVATION
Did you possess an interest in choral arranging prior to
taking this instruction?
yes 75%
no _____ 25
After finishing this program, would you arrange another
melody on your own?

yes _____ 87.5%
no ______ 0
maybe 12.5

Did you find the amount of humor

not enough _____ 12.5%
just right _____ 87.5
too much 0
Was two weeks a sufficient amount of time to complete the
program?

too much time _____ 0%
just right _____ 50
not enough time 50

Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
430

B. OBJECTIVES
Did you understand that you would write a complete choral
arrangement at the end of this instruction?

yes 87.5%
no _____ 12.5

Were the objectives stated in terms you could understand?

yes 100%
no ______ 0

Did you understand what you were supposed to do as stated
in each objective.

yes 100%
no 0

C. ENTRY BEHAVIORS

Were the topics and terminology familiar to you?

yes 75%
no _____ 25
Did you wish that more topics and terminology had been
explained or defined?

yes 0%
no 100

D. TESTS

Were the instructions on the pre-posttest clear?
yes 75% (skip the next question)
no _____ 25 (answer the next question)

What was unclear about the instructions?

Go to the next page.

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431

Which melody did you choose to arrange? Why?

E. INSTRUCTION

Regarding exercises, were there

too few _____ 0%
too many _____ 50
just enough _____ 50
Was the vocabulary

too easy _____ 0%
just right _____ 100
too hard 0
Were there enough melodies used as examples?

yes _____ 100%
no _____ 0

Was the TEXT CHART a useful device?

yes 100%
no _____ 0

Did the feedback help you?

yes _____ 100%
no 0 (if not, why not?)

Go the the next page.

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432

Did you use the index?
yes 25% (if so, was any term or concept missing?
Which one(s)?)

no _____ 75

F. OVERALL

Did you enjoy taking the program?

yes 100%
no _____ 0

When you completed the program, did you feel better able
to arrange?

yes 100%
no _____ 0
What was the best aspect of this instruction?

What would you suggest to improve this instruction?

THANK YOU FOR TAKING MY PROGRAM I (The check is in the
mail.)

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX G

RESULTS OF ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE:

FIELD-TRIAL EVALUATION

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434

Results of Attitude Questionnaire
FIELD-TRIAL EVALUATION

Please answer the following questions regarding the
instruction you have just completed. Your responses will
enable me to better understand your reaction to AN INTRODUCTION
TO CHORAL ARRANGING, and assist me in revising instruction .
After you have finished the Questionnaire, please place it in
the pocket of your booklet and return all instructional
materials to me or Dr. Kirk.
You may reach me at the following phone numbers:

home; 222 8912
work(tmh): 681 5416 thurs-sun 7:00am-3:00pm
work(fsu): 644 3434 thurs-sat 4:30pm-ll:00pm

A. MOTIVATION
1. Did you possess an interest in choral arranging prior
to taking this instruction?

yes 81%
no _____ 19
2. After finishing this program, would you arrange
another melody on your own?
yes _____ 71%
no _____ 0
maybe 29
3. Did you find the amount of humor

not enough _____ 3%
about right 97
too much 0
4. Was two weeks a stafficient amount of time to complete
the program?

too much time _____ 13%
about right _____ 58
not enough time 29

Go to the next page.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
435

B. OBJECTIVES
1. Prior to beginning the program, did you understand
that you would write a complete choral arrangement at
the end of this instruction?

yes 94%
no _____ 6
2. Were the objectives stated in terms you could
understand?

yes 100%
no _____ 0
3. Did you understand what you were supposed to do after
you read each objective located at the beginning of
each unit?

yes 100%
no 0

C. ENTRY BEHAVIORS
1. Were there any unfamiliar topics and terms that were
not adequately defined?
no _____ 97% (skip to question D 1.)
yes 3 (answer the next question)

2. Which topics and terms were not adequately defined?

TESTS

1. Were the instructions on the pre-posttest clear?
yes 87% (skip to question D 3.)
no _____ 13 (answer question D 2.)

Go to the next page.

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436

D. TESTS (continued)
2. What was unclear about the instructions?

3. Which melody did you choose to arrange?

4. Why?

E. INSTRUCTION

1. Regarding exercises, were there

too few _____ 0%
too many _____ 61
about enough_____ 39

2- Was the vocabulary

too simple 13%
about right 87
too sophisticated _____ 0
3. Were required responses...

too long _____ 29%
about right 71
too short _____ 0

...to demonstrate knowledge of the concept being
tested.

Go to the next page.

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437

E. INSTRUCTION (continued)

4. Did the information (feedback) found with the
confirmation aid you in evaluating your understanding
of the concept?
yes 100% (skip to question E 5.)
no 0 (why not?)

5. Were there enough melodies used as examples?

yes 100%
no _____ 0

6. Was the TEXT CHART a useful device?
yes_____ 97%
no _____ 3
7. Did you experience any difficulty getting from frame
to frame?

no _____ 100% (skip to question E 8.)
yes 0 (in what way?)

8. Did you use the index?
no _____ 67% (skip to question F 1.)
yes 33 (answer the next question)

Go to the next page.

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438

Was any term or concept missing?
no _____ 97% (skip to question F 1.)
yes 3 (which term or concept was
missing?)

F. OVERALL

1. Did you enjoy taking the program?

yes 84%
no _____ 16
2. When you completed the program, did you feel better
able to arrange?

yes 94%
no ______ 6

3- What was the best aspect of this instruction?

4. What would you suggest to improve this instruction?

THANK YOU FOR TAKING MY PROGRAM! (The check is in the
mail.)

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX H

FOLK SONG SOURCE BIBLIOGRAPHY

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440

FOLK SONG SOURCE BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, W. F., Ware, C. P., & Garrison, L. (Eds.). (1971).

Slave songs of the Onited States. New York: Books for
Libraries.

Andrews, E. D. (1967). The Gift to be Simple. New York:
Dover.

Arnold, B. (1950). Folksongs of Alabama. University,

Alabama: University of Alabama.

Asch, M., & Lomax, A. (1962). The Leadbelly songbook.

Ny: Oak.

Bantok, G. (Ed.). (1914). One hundred songs of

England. Bryn Mawr, PA: Oliver Ditson.

Baring-Gould, S., & Sheppard, H. F. (Colls.). (1895). A

garland of country song: English folk songs with

their traditional melodies. London: Methuen.

Beck, E. C. (1956). They knew Paul Bunyon. Aim Arbor:

University of Michigan.

Boette, M. (1971). Singa hipsy doodle and other folk songs of

West Virginia. Parsons, West Virginia: McClain Printing.

Boni, M. B. (1966). Fireside book of folk songs. New York:

Simon & Schuster.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
441

Botsford, F. H. (Comp. & Ed.). (1922). Botsford

col lection of folk-songs. New York: G. Schirmer.

Boyer, W. E., Buffington, A. F., & Yoder, D. (Eds.). (1951).

Songs along the Mahantongo. Lancaster, PA: Pennsylvania

Dutch Folklore Center.

Brewster, P. G. (Coll. & Ed.). (1940). Ballads and songs

of Indiana. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Burt, O. W. (Ed.). (1958). American murder ballads and their

stories. New York: Oxford University.

Carmer, C. (Ed.). (1942). Songs of the rivers of America.

New York: Farrar & Rinehart.

Cazden, N. (Arr. & Ed.). (1958). The Abelard folk song

book. New York: Abelard Schuman.

Child, F. J. (Ed.). (1966). The English and Scottish
popular ballads. (Reprint of 1882 Edition). New York:

Dover.

Christ-Janer, A., Hughes, C. W . , & Smith, C. S. (1980).

American hymns old and new. New York: Columbia University

Press.

Combs, Josiah H. (Coll. & Ed.). (1939). Folk-songs from the

Kentucky highlands. New York: Schirmer.

Cox, J. H. (Ed.). (1925). Folk-songs of the south.
Cambridge: Harvard.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
442

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