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McDonald’s Draft (2010). Modified by Kreassig and Gould (2014) for use with student teachers.

Revised August 2015
Teacher: Nicholas Kowalski Date: 11/5-9/2018

Title of Lesson: Manifest Destiny and War Cooperating Teacher: Mark Hustead

Core Components
Subject, Content Area, or Topic
AP US History
Student Population
36 students; 17 girls, 19 boys; spread over two classes. No 504 or IEP plans in this group.
Learning Objectives
 Students will have an understanding of how and why the US expanded in the early to mid
19th century, and how this resulted in several conflicts with other nations and groups.
 Students will be able to analyze multiple primary and secondary source documents in order
to determine historical events.
 Students will compare and contrast ideas presented in documents.
 Students will be able to synthesize their content knowledge and analysis skills in order to
produce written products designed to support a student’s thesis or claim.
 Students will be able to create a high quality thesis statement that makes a historically
defensible position.
Virginia Essential Knowledge and Skills (SOL)

SOL VUS 1adefj: The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic
decision making, and responsible citizenship by synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and
secondary sources to obtain information about events in Virginia and United States history; constructing
arguments, using evidence from multiple sources; comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic,
and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history; explaining how indirect cause-and-effect
relationships impact people, places, and events in Virginia and United States history; investigating and
researching to develop products orally and in writing.

SOL VUS 6f: The student will apply social science skills to understand major events in Virginia and United
States history during the first half of the nineteenth century by explaining how Manifest Destiny and
President James K. Polk’s policies impacted the nation.

Materials/Resources
Manifest Destiny Powerpoint
Texas Revolution Overview
Santa Anna letter to Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson letter to Santa Anna
Polk’s War Message and annotation
Lincoln Letter objecting to the Mexican American War
Wilmot Proviso Overview
Wimot Proviso
Cass Response to Wilmot Proviso
Paper
Pen/Pencil

McDonald’s Draft (2010). Modified by Kreassig and Gould (2014) for use with student teachers.
Revised August 2015
High Yield Instructional Strategies Used (Marzano, 2001)

Check if Used
Strategy Return
Identifying Similarities & Differences 45%
Summarizing & Note Taking 34%
Reinforcing Efforts & Providing Recognition 29%
Homework & Practice 28%
Nonlinguistic Representations 27%
Cooperative Learning 23%
Setting Goals & Providing Feedback 23%
Generating & Testing Hypothesis 23%
Questions, Cues, & Advanced Organizers 22%
DOES YOUR INSTRUCTIONAL INPUT & MODELING YIELD THE POSITIVE RETURNS
YOU WANT FOR YOUR STUDENTS?
Check if Used Strategy Return
Teach Others/Immediate Use of Learning 95%
Practice by Doing 75%
Discussion 50%
Demonstration 30%
Audio Visual 20%
Reading 10%
Lecture 05%
Safety (if applicable)
N/A

Time
(min.) Process Components
3-5 *Anticipatory Set
min The teacher will open up by framing the nation as one of growing nationalism and this in
turn causes a burning desire to spread out and achieve what many people believe to be
our destiny. This is spurred on by the antebellum culture that we have gone over.
1-2 *State the Objectives (grade-level terms)
min  Students will have an understanding of how and why the US expanded in the early to mid 19th
century, and how this resulted in several conflicts with other nations and groups.
 Students will be able to analyze multiple primary and secondary source documents in order to
determine historical events.
 Students will compare and contrast ideas presented in documents.
 Students will be able to synthesize their content knowledge and analysis skills in order to produce
written products designed to support a student’s thesis or claim.
 Students will be able to create a high quality thesis statement that makes a historically defensible
position.
130- *Instructional Input or Procedure
140 1. The teacher will start by overviewing the class on various causes and effects of American
min. expansion during the early to mid 19th century.
2. The teacher will discuss John Tyler and how he expanded squatter’s right’s and was
abandoned by the Whig party for his position’s on state’s rights.
3. The teacher will explain Manifest destiny and how expansionism fueled a driving force
west as well as the interest in the Texas Revolution, and conflict with Canada over the
Maine border.
McDonald’s Draft (2010). Modified by Kreassig and Gould (2014) for use with student teachers.
Revised August 2015
4. The teacher will introduce students to a collection of secondary and primary sources
covering the topic of the Texas Revolution. Including a secondary overview and letters
from Andrew Jackson and Santa Anna to each other concerning the end of the war.
5. The teacher will explain that they will be put into pairs in order to read through and
analyze these documents.
6. The teacher will explain that at the end of the readings there are main concept questions
that ask them to think critically about what they read and the first-person thoughts relate to
what actually happened.
7. The teacher will explain at the end of the readings they will have to create a thesis
responding to the prompt “why you think the end of the Texas revolution and the Treaty of
Velasco does not lead to lasting peace with Mexico.”
8. The teacher will then discuss this in the large group.
9. The teacher will then explain how manifest destiny and expansionism led to more conflicts
such as one with British in Canada over Oregon border, as well as loss due to those dying
heading west (Oregon trail).
10. The teacher will explain how this expansionist feeling (and Tyler’s loss of party) led to
Polk being elected President which in turn led to a massive increase in US land due to the
Mexican-American war (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo).
11. The teacher will introduce students to a collection of secondary and primary sources
covering the topic of Polk’s War Message; this includes the message itself, a secondary
annotation, and a response to the war from Abraham Lincoln.
12. The teacher will explain that at the end of the readings there are main concept questions
that ask them to think critically about what they read and the first-person thoughts relate to
what actually happened.
13. The teacher will explain at the end of the readings they will have to create a thesis
responding to the prompt “How do the key arguments, made by the Polk administration, in
favor of war with Mexico, compare to the reasoning put forth by Lincoln and other critics.”
14. The teacher will then discuss this with the large group.
15. The teacher will explain that after the war with Mexico a new crisis erupted over what to
do with the land that was obtained (if it should even be allowed to be taken in). A part of
this being the Wilmot Proviso (suggests none of this land should house slavery) and it’s
backlash.
16. The teacher will then ask student to relate this to the election of 1848 and how this tug in
both directions (Democrats/Free soil Party) led to the election of Zachery Taylor, and his
successor Millard Fillmore (even though the Whigs would then die over the issue
themselves).
17. The teacher will then explain how the issue was further exasperated by the California Gold
Rush, and a population boom in the west making the issue one that had to be determined
soon.
18. The teacher will also explain how this issue fostered policies such as the Ostend Manifesto
(the south trying to take Cuba by force).
19. The teacher will show how expansionism also drove technological, economic, and political
progression, through things like the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, the Gadsden Purchase, and
increase in western settlement/ fur trade.
20. The teacher will introduce students to a collection of secondary and primary sources
covering the topic of the Wilmot Proviso, including; a secondary overview of the Proviso,
the Proviso itself, and Lewis Cass’ response to this proviso.
21. The teacher will explain that they will be put into pairs in order to read through and
analyze these documents.
22. The teacher will explain that at the end of the readings there are main concept questions
that ask them to think critically about what they read and the first-person thoughts relate to
what actually happened.
McDonald’s Draft (2010). Modified by Kreassig and Gould (2014) for use with student teachers.
Revised August 2015
23. The teacher will explain at the end of the readings they will have to create a thesis
responding to the prompt “How did the support and opposition to the Wilmot Proviso
reflect and deepen sectional divides over the issue of slavery?”
24. The teacher will then discuss this with the large group.
5-10 *Modeling
min. The teacher will show how to write an appropriate thesis statement. Showing how it
makes a claim in direct response to a prompt or question, and includes a few broad
sections of arguments in slight detail.
<1 *Check for Understanding
min. The teacher will ask for a verbal confirmation of understanding.

130- *Independent Practice
140 Students will be given a few secondary and primary sources covering in detail an event,
min. person or concept. They will have to analyze these document through a variety of guided
reading questions and will have to come up with a thesis that answers a prompt question
related to this topic.
25-30 *Guided Practice
m Students will discuss in large their finding and insights from the various primary and
in secondary sources as well as the guided reading questions associated with them.
.
45 Assessment
min. Students will have a collection of prompts with which to work and they will then write an
outline of an AP style essay detailing a thesis statement, three major arguments or pieces of
evidence and a conclusion, and they will have a 10 question multiple choice quiz.
5 min. *Closure
The teacher will remark on how our expansion leads to new states entering the union and
how all of this conflict and expansions leads to the furthering of sectional division that will
eventually lead up the civil war.

Differentiation Strategies (enrichment, accommodations, remediation, or by learning style).
The inclusion of a more detailed glance into various topics act as enrichment for these advanced placement
students. There is an inclusion of videos, readings, and lecture, in order to meet the needs of students with
varying learning styles. Teamwork will also help to accommodate these students.
Classroom Management Issues (optional)
There are several students in these classes that have high-levels of energy and will occasionally
interrupt class.
Lesson Critique. To be completed following the lesson. Did your students meet the objective(s)? What part
of the lesson would you change? Why?

*Denotes Madeline Hunter lesson plan elements.

Intern Signature Cooperating Teacher Signature Date

McDonald’s Draft (2010). Modified by Kreassig and Gould (2014) for use with student teachers.
Revised August 2015