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On: 30 April 2012, At: 01:20

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**Journal of Difference Equations and
**

Applications

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**Almost periodic homogeneous linear
**

difference systems without almost

periodic solutions

a

Michal Veselý

a

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Masaryk University,

Kotlářská 2, Brno, 611 37, Czech Republic

Available online: 11 Oct 2011

**To cite this article: Michal Veselý (2011): Almost periodic homogeneous linear difference
**

systems without almost periodic solutions, Journal of Difference Equations and Applications,

DOI:10.1080/10236198.2011.585984

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Journal of Difference Equations and Applications

iFirst article, 2011, 1–25

**Almost periodic homogeneous linear difference systems without
**

almost periodic solutions

Michal Veselý*

**Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 611 37,
**

Czech Republic

(Received 5 September 2010; final version received 28 April 2011)

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**Almost periodic homogeneous linear difference systems are considered. It is supposed
**

that the coefficient matrices belong to a group. The aim was to find such groups that the

systems having no non-trivial almost periodic solution form a dense subset of the set of all

considered systems. A closer examination of the used methods reveals that the problem

can be treated in such a generality that the entries of coefficient matrices are allowed to

belong to any complete metric field. The concepts of transformable and strongly

transformable groups of matrices are introduced, and these concepts enable us to derive

efficient conditions for determining what matrix groups have the required property.

Keywords: almost periodic sequences; almost periodic solutions; groups of matrices;

linear difference systems; unitary matrices

AMS Subject Classification: 12H10; 20H20; 39A06; 39A24; 42A75; 51F25

1. Introduction

We will consider solutions of almost periodic systems of the form

x kþ1 ¼ A k · x k ; k [ Z:

**Our aim was to analyse the systems which have no non-trivial almost periodic solution.
**

We are motivated by the paper of Tkachenko [29], where unitary systems (determined by

unitary matrices A k ) are studied. One of the main statements of [29] says that the systems

whose solutions are not almost periodic form an everywhere dense subset in the space of

all considered unitary systems. We also note that important partial cases of the theorem

and the process are mentioned in [27,28], respectively.

In the proof of this result, it is substantially used that the group of considered matrices

is not commutative. Thus, for example, the dimension of the systems has to be at least 2.

We will use methods based on the general construction of almost periodic sequences

introduced in [31], because we want to also generalize the result for commutative groups of

matrices (especially, for the scalar case). It implies that we can treat the problem in a general

setting. Scalar sequences will attain values in a complete metric space on an infinite field

with continuous operations with respect to the metric similarly as scalar discrete processes

in [8], where the main results are proved for real or complex entries (see Theorem 3.8).

The almost periodicity of solutions of linear almost periodic difference equations is also

studied in [2,34] (non-homogeneous systems). We can refer to the known article [8] again.

*Email: michal.vesely@mail.muni.cz

**ISSN 1023-6198 print/ISSN 1563-5120 online
**

q 2011 Taylor & Francis

DOI: 10.1080/10236198.2011.585984

http://www.informaworld.com

2 M. Veselý

**Explicit almost periodic solutions are obtained for a class of these equations in [16].
**

For difference systems of general forms, criteria of the existence of almost periodic

solutions are presented in [35,36]. The existence of an almost periodic sequence of

solutions for an almost periodic difference equation is discussed in [18] (and [17] as in

[35]). Concerning the existing theorems for almost periodic solutions of almost periodic

delay difference systems, see [37]. Methods and techniques from that paper are similarly

used (and developed) in [38]. Classes of ‘constructible’ sequences having mean values

without being almost periodic are mentioned in [13], so these sequences can be obtained

as solutions of homogeneous linear difference systems whose coefficient matrices lie in

the circle.

Results about almost periodic unitary difference systems correspond to results about

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**almost periodic skew-Hermitian differential systems. It is proved in [32] that, in any
**

neighbourhood of an almost periodic skew-Hermitian differential system, there exists a

system which does not have non-trivial almost periodic solutions. The existence of an

almost periodic homogeneous linear differential system, which has bounded solutions and,

at the same time, all the systems from some neighbourhood of it do not have non-trivial

almost periodic solutions, is proved in [30].

Let us mention the paper by Nerurkar and Sussmann [24] where a method is presented

to construct minimal co-cycles arising as solutions of time-dependent homogeneous linear

differential systems for which one can prove the generic absence of almost periodic

solutions by minor modifications of used arguments. Here we also refer to the articles

[15,25]. Note that the time dependence of coefficient matrices in [24] is recurrent

(similarly as given in the main theorems).

This paper is organized as follows. We begin with notations and basic definitions

which are used throughout this work. First of all, we define the notion of the almost

periodicity in metric spaces. The definition is similar to the classical one of H. Bohr in

which only the modulus is replaced by the distance. Then, we introduce general

homogeneous linear difference systems, their almost periodicity, and a metric in the space

of all these almost periodic systems.

Since every non-trivial almost periodic solution of a homogeneous linear difference

system is bounded and does not have a subsequence converging to the zero vector

(see Lemma 3.10), it is interesting to consider only groups of matrices with eigenvalues

having absolute value 1 in the complex case and corresponding generalizations.

To formulate our results in a simple and consistent form, we introduce the concepts of

transformable and then strongly transformable groups of matrices. One of the conditions in

the definition of transformable groups means that it is possible to transform any matrix into

any other using finitely many arbitrarily small ‘jumps’ in the complex case (for usual

metrics on the group of considered matrices). We remark that the group has to be infinite

because we study solutions which are not periodic.

In Section 2, it is also shown that the group of all unitary matrices, the group of all

orthogonal matrices of a dimension at least 2 with determinant 1 and some of their

subgroups are strongly transformable. In addition, the subgroups from Remarks 3 and 5 are

commutative.

In Section 3, a fundamental necessary and sufficient condition for a sequence to be

almost periodic which is called the Bochner definition is formulated, what is equivalent

with the Bohr definition in complete metric spaces. We recall elements of the theory of

almost periodic sequences (in an extension as we will need it in this section). We show the

way one can generate almost periodic sequences with the given properties.

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 3

**Finally, we present conditions for strongly transformable groups and then
**

transformable groups ensuring that, in any neighbourhood of every considered system,

there exists a system which does not possess an almost periodic solution other than the

trivial one. Especially, it is proved as Theorem 3.6 (consider also Theorem 3.11) that, for a

strongly transformable group, this condition is the existence of matrices M 1 ; . . . ; M j ; . . .

from the group with the property that, for any non-zero vector x, one can find j [ N such

that M j x – x. In each case, the corresponding corollary about the Cauchy problem is

explicitly formulated.

**2. General almost periodic homogeneous linear difference systems
**

We will use the following notations: N0 , for the set of positive integers including zero; Rþ ,

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for the set of all positive reals; Rþ 0 , for the set of all non-negative real numbers. Let

F ¼ ðF; %; (Þ be an infinite field with a unit and a zero denoted as e1 and e0 , respectively,

and let m [ N be arbitrarily given. Hereafter, we will consider m as the dimension of

difference systems under consideration.

The symbol MatðF; mÞ will denote the set of all m £ m matrices with elements from F

and F m , the set of all m £ 1 vectors with entries attaining values from F. As usual, we

define the identity matrix I and the zero matrix O. Analogously, for the trivial vector, we

put o U ½e0 ; e0 ; . . . ; e0 T [ F m . Since F is a field, we have the notion of the non-singular

matrices from MatðF; mÞ. For any invertible matrix U, we denote the inverse matrix as

U 21 . For arbitrary U j ; . . . ; U jþn [ MatðF; mÞ; j [ Z; n [ N, we define

Y

jþn Y

j

U i U U j · U jþ1 · · ·U jþn ; U i U U jþn · U jþn21 · · ·U j :

i¼j i¼jþn

**Let @ be a metric on F and suppose that the operations % and ( are continuous with
**

respect to @ and that the metric space ðF; @Þ is complete. The metric @ induces the metrics

in F m and MatðF; mÞ as the sum of m and m 2 non-negative numbers given by @ in F,

respectively. We will also denote these metrics as @. For any 1 . 0 and a from a metric

space, the 1-neighbourhood of a will be denoted by O@1 ðaÞ. Note that the continuity of

% and ( implies that the multiplication · of matrices from MatðF; mÞ (and U · v,

U [ MatðF; mÞ, v [ F m ) is continuous.

All sequences, which we will consider, will be defined for k [ Z (or i; j [ N)

and will attain values in one of the metric spaces F, F m , MatðF; mÞ (or C). The vector-

valued (and scalar-valued) sequences will be denoted by the lower case letters,

the matrix-valued sequences by the capital letters and each one of the scalar-, vector- and

matrix-valued sequences by the symbols {wk},{ck} and {xk}, respectively.

Now we can recall a natural generalization of the almost periodicity. For more general

extensions of the Bohr concept, see [12,20,33].

A sequence {wk } is called almost periodic if for any 1 . 0, there exists a positive

integer lð1Þ such that any set consisting of lð1Þ consecutive integers contains at least one

integer l with the property that

@ðwkþl ; wk Þ , 1; k [ Z:

Integer l is called an 1-translation number of {wk }. For any 1 . 0, the set of all

1-translation numbers of the sequence {wk } is denoted by Tð{wk }; 1Þ.

We will consider m-dimensional homogeneous linear difference equations of the form

xkþ1 ¼ A k · xk ; k [ Z; ð1Þ

4 M. Veselý

**where {A k } is an almost periodic sequence of non-singular matrices from a given infinite
**

set X , MatðF; mÞ. We need the set of all considered A k to form the set X which has the

below given properties. The set of all these almost periodic systems will be denoted by the

symbol APðX Þ.

We will identify sequence {A k } with system (1) which is determined by {A k }.

In the space APðX Þ, we introduce the metric (obviously, every almost periodic sequence

is bounded)

s {A k }; {B k } U sup @ðA k ; B k Þ; {A k }; {B k } [ APðX Þ:

k[Z

**For 1 . 0, the symbol Os1 ð{A k }Þ
**

denotes the 1-neighbourhood of {A k } in APðX Þ.

We say that the infinite set X , MatðF; mÞ is transformable if the following

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**conditions are fulfilled (cf. [24], Definition 2.1):
**

(i) For all U; V [ X , it holds

U · V [ X; U 21 [ X :

(ii) For any L [ Rþ and 1 . 0, there exists p ¼ pðL; 1Þ [ N with the property that, for

any n $ pðn [ NÞ and any sequence {C 0 ; C 1 ; . . . ; C n } , X , L # @ðC i ; OÞ,

i [ {0; 1; . . . ; n}, one can find a sequence {D 1 ; . . . ; D n } , X for which

D i [ O@1 ðC i Þ; 1 # i # n; Dn . . . D2 · D1 ¼ C0:

(iii) The multiplication of matrices is uniformly continuous on X and has the Lipschitz

property on a neighbourhood of I in X . Especially, for every 1 . 0, there exists

h ¼ hð1Þ . 0 such that

C · D; D · C [ O@1 ðCÞ if C [ X ; D [ O@h ðIÞ > X ;

**and there exist z . 0 and P [ Rþ such that
**

C · D; D · C [ O@1P ðCÞ if C [ O@z ðIÞ > X ; D [ O@1 ðIÞ > X ; 1 [ ð0; zÞ:

**(iv) For any L [ Rþ , there exists Q ¼ QðLÞ [ Rþ with the property that, for every 1 . 0
**

and C; D [ X nO@L ðOÞ satisfying C [ O@1 ðDÞ, it is valid that

C 21 · D; D · C 21 [ O@1Q ðIÞ:

**For simplicity, in the below-mentioned examples, we will consider only the complex
**

or real case and we will speak about the classical case. Henceforth, we will use known

results of matrix analysis which can be found, e.g. in [14,19].

If

ðF; %; (Þ; @ð · ; ·Þ ¼ ðC; þ; ·Þ; j · 2 · j or ðF; %; (Þ; @ð · ; ·Þ ¼ ðR; þ; · Þ; j · 2 · j ;

**then, evidently, the multiplication of matrices satisfies the Lipschitz condition on any set
**

O@K ðOÞ. For an arbitrary matrix norm (especially, for the l1 norm) denoted by k · k, we have

21

21 A · E

A 2 ðA þ EÞ21 # A 21 ; ð2Þ

1 2 kA 21 · Ek

for any matrices A; E such that A is invertible and A 21 E , 1. If we have a bounded

group X , MatðC; mÞ, then from (2) it follows that the map C 7 ! C 21 ; C [ X has the

Lipschitz property too. Hence, condition (iv) is satisfied.

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 5

**Finally, conditions (iii) and (iv) are fulfilled for any bounded group X , MatðC; mÞ.
**

Furthermore, for any bounded group X , there exists 1 . 0 for which X > O@1 ðOÞ ¼ Y.

At the same time, from condition (ii), we know that X > O@1 ðOÞ ¼ Y for any transformable

set X , MatðC; mÞ. Indeed, it suffices to consider C 0 ¼ I and the constant sequence

{C 1 ; . . . ; C n } given by a matrix C such that kCk , 1.

Let 1 . 0, a bounded group X , MatðC; mÞ, and C 0 ; C 1 ; . . . ; C n [ X be arbitrarily

given. The uniform continuity of the multiplication of matrices on X implies the existence

of h ¼ hð1Þ . 0 such that CD; DC [ O@1 ðCÞ; if D [ Oh@ ðIÞ > X ; C [ X (see (ii)).

We define the maps H 1 ; H 2 on X £ X by

H 1 ððC; DÞÞ U C · D · C 21 ; H 2 ðC; DÞ U C 21 · D · C:

Since H 1 ; H 2 satisfy the Lipschitz condition, there exists R [ Rþ such that the images of

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**{C} £ Oh@ =R ðIÞ > X in both of H 1 and H 2 are subsets of O@h ðIÞ for all C [ X .
**

If we replace

Y

1 Y

n Y

n

F i1 · C i2 by Ei · Ci;

i1 ¼n i2 ¼1 i¼1

where

F 1 ¼ H 1 ððI; E 1 ÞÞ; F 2 ¼ H 1 ððE 1 · C 1 ; E 2 ÞÞ; ... F n ¼ H 1 ððE 1 · C 1 · · ·E n21 · C n21 ; E n ÞÞ;

then we see that F i [ Oh@ =R ðIÞ

> X , i [ {1; . . . ; n} implies E i [ O@h ðIÞ, i [ {1; . . . ; n}.

Thus, from the existence of matrices F 1 ; . . . ; F n [ Oh@ =R ðIÞ > X for which

Y

1 Y

n

F i1 · C i2 ¼ C 0 ;

i1 ¼n i2 ¼1

**it follows the existence of matrices D 1 ; . . . ; D n [ X satisfying
**

D i [ O@1 ðC i Þ; 1 # i # n; D n . . . D 2 · D 1 ¼ C 0 :

It means that a bounded group X , MatðC; mÞ is transformable if for any sufficiently

small 1 . 0, there exists pð1Þ [ N such that, for all n $ pð1Þ ðn [ NÞ, any matrix from X

can be expressed as a product of n matrices from O@1 ðIÞ > X . We remark that several

processes in the proofs of the below given results can be simplified in the classical case.

For example, in the proofs of Lemmas 3.4 and 3.10, one can use that, for any 1 . 0,

K [ Rþ and n [ N, there exists j ¼ jð1; K; nÞ . 0 for which

@ðM 1 · M 2 . . . M n ; OÞ , 1; M 1 ; M 2 ; . . . ; M n [ O@K ðOÞ;

and

@ðM 1 · · ·M n · u; oÞ , 1; M 1 ; . . . ; M n [ O@K ðOÞ; u [ O@K ðoÞ;

if we have M i [ O@j ðOÞ for at least one i [ {1; . . . ; n} or u [ O@j ðoÞ, respectively.

**Remark 1. The group of all unitary matrices is transformable. Obviously, it suffices to
**

show that, for every 1 . 0, any unitary matrix can be obtained as the nth power of some

unitary matrix from the 1-neighbourhood of I for all sufficiently large n [ N. To show

this, let 1 . 0, n [ N and a m £ m unitary matrix U with eigenvalues eil1 ; . . . ; eilm , where

l1 ; . . . ; lm [ ½2p; pÞ be arbitrarily given. We have

U ¼ W · J · W* for some unitary matrix W ¼ WðUÞ;

6 M. Veselý

**where J ¼ diag ½eil1 ; . . . ; eilm and W * denotes the conjugate transpose of W. We find a
**

unitary matrix V for which V n ¼ U. By

W * · V n · W ¼ ðW * · V · WÞn ¼ J;

we obtain

h i

V ¼ W · diag eil1 =n ; . . . ; eilm =n · W * :

**Since the multiplication of matrices is uniformly continuous on the set of all unitary
**

matrices, it remains to consider sufficiently large n [ N.

**Remark 2. Let m $ 2 and F ¼ R. Now we will show that the group of all m £ m
**

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**orthogonal matrices with determinant 1 is transformable. Analogously as for unitary
**

matrices, it is enough to prove that any orthogonal matrix U for which det U ¼ 1 is

products of n $ pð1Þ, n [ N orthogonal matrices from the 1-neighbourhood of I for

arbitrary 1 . 0 and some pð1Þ [ N. Indeed, it is seen that there exists a neighbourhood of

I, which contains only orthogonal matrices with determinant 1.

Let m ¼ 2. Observe that a 2D orthogonal matrix has the form

" #

cos a 2sin a

;

sin a cos a

**where a [ ½2p; pÞ, if and only if its determinant is 1. It can be easily computed that
**

" # " # " #

cos a1 2sin a1 cos a2 2sin a2 cosða1 þ a2 Þ 2sinða1 þ a2 Þ

· ¼ ;

sin a1 cos a1 sin a2 cos a2 sinða1 þ a2 Þ cosða1 þ a2 Þ

**for a1 ; a2 [ R and that, consequently, any of these matrices (for some a [ ½2p; pÞ) can
**

be obtained as the nth power of the orthogonal matrix of this type given by the argument

a=n for all n [ N.

Now we use the induction principle with respect to m. Assume that the statement is

true for m 2 1 $ 2 and prove it for m. Let U be an orthogonal m £ m matrix which is not in

any one of the forms

" # " #

1 oT V o

; ; ð3Þ

o V oT 1

**where V is an orthogonal matrix of dimension m 2 1, o [ F m21 , and suppose that U has
**

the element on the position ð1; mÞ different from 0 (in the second case, we put U 2 U U in

the below given process). We multiply U from the left by an orthogonal matrix U 1 , which

is in the second form from (3) and satisfies that U 2 U U 1 · U has 0 on the position ð1; mÞ.

For U 2 , we define an orthogonal matrix U 3 , so that the mth row of U 3 is the last column of

U 2 and so that the first column and the first row of U 3 are zero except the number 1 on the

position ð1; 1Þ. Obviously, the product U 4 U U 3 · U 2 is equal to a matrix, which has the

second form from (3). Summarizing, we get U ¼ UT1 · UT3 · U 4 . Thus, one can express any

orthogonal matrix U as a product of at most three matrices of the forms given in (3).

Furthermore, the matrices of this product can be evidently chosen so that the determinant

of all of them is 1 if the determinant of the given matrix is 1 too. Now the induction

hypothesis gives the validity of the above statement.

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 7

**In the complex case, i.e. for m $ 2 and F ¼ C, the group of all m £ m unitary matrices
**

with determinant 1 is transformable as well. It suffices to consider Remark 1 and

diagonalizations of unitary matrices.

**Remark 3. Let a unitary matrix S be given. Let X S be the set of the unitary matrices which
**

are simultaneously diagonalizable for the single similarity matrix S, i.e. let

X S ¼ S 21 · diag eil1 ; . . . ; eilm · S; l1 ; . . . ; lm [ ½2p; pÞ :

Obviously, X S is a subgroup of the m £ m unitary group (different from this group for

m $ 2). Since diagonalizable (normal) matrices are simultaneously (unitarily)

diagonalizable if and only if they commute under multiplication, X S is a commutative

group. Analogously as in Remark 1, one can show that X S is transformable. Furthermore,

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**X S is transformable also for arbitrary non-singular matrix S. Especially, a transformable
**

set does not need to be a subgroup of the m £ m unitary group.

**Remark 4. Now we consider the set of the unitary matrices with the determinant in the
**

form eir , r [ Q or r [ Z. Evidently, these matrices form a group as well. Considering

diagonalizations of unitary matrices and the uniform continuity of the multiplication of

unitary matrices, we get that this group is dense in the group of all unitary matrices. Thus

(see Remark 1), it satisfies condition (ii). Finally, it is transformable. In general, any dense

subgroup of a transformable set is transformable as well.

**Remark 5. Let a unitary matrix S be given. Analogously as in Remarks 3 and 4, we can
**

show that the group

*

S · diag eil1 ; . . . ; eilm · S; l1 ; . . . ; lm [ Q

is transformable. In general, the matrices with eigenvalues in the form eir , where r [ Q or

r [ Z, from a given commutative transformable subgroup of the m £ m unitary group,

form transformable set if it is infinite. Indeed, if complex matrices A; B commute and have

eigenvalues l1 ; . . . ; lm and m1 ; . . . ; mm , respectively, then the eigenvalues of AB are

l1 mj1 ; l2 mj2 ; . . . ; lm mjm for some permutation j1 ; . . . ; jm of the indices 1; . . . ; m.

**Remark 6. If X is transformable, then, for any {Li }i[N , Rþ and j $ 2 ðj [ NÞ, one can
**

find {1i }i[N ; {1i ð{Li }; jÞ}i[N , Rþ satisfying

X1

1i , 1;

i¼1

j i $ pðLgðiÞ ; 1i Þ for infinitely many i [ N; some gðiÞ [ N; ð4Þ

where gðiÞ ! 1 for i ! 1. This follows directly from (ii). Indeed, one can put

1i U 22k ; i ¼ f ðkÞ for some k [ N;

1i U 2 ; 2i

i {f ðkÞ; k [ N}; i [ N;

for arbitrarily given increasing discrete function f : N ! N with the property that

j f ðkÞ $ pðLk ; 22k Þ; k [ N;

whose inverse function is considered in (4) as g.

Of course, inequality (4) from the previous remark does not need to be true for all i [ N

or for a set of i which is relatively dense in N. This fact motivates the next definition.

8 M. Veselý

**The set X is strongly transformable if it is transformable and if for any L [ Rþ , there
**

exist j ¼ jðLÞ [ N and a sequence {1i }i[N ; {1i ðLÞ}i[N , Rþ such that

X

1

1i , 1; ð5Þ

i¼1

j i $ pðL; 1i Þ for all i [ N: ð6Þ

**Remark 7. Since we considered only maps which satisfy the Lipschitz condition in the
**

above examples (in the classical case) and since we can choose

pðL; 1; m þ 1Þ # 3pðL; 1; mÞ;

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**in (ii) when using the induction principle with respect to m (see Remark 2), all transformable
**

sets of matrices mentioned in Remarks 1–5 are actually strongly transformable.

**Remark 8. In concrete computations, it is useful to consider Theorem 3.6 of P [31] and
**

sequences {1i }i[N ; {1i ðLÞ}i[N , Rþ , {ji }i[N ; {ji ðLÞ}i[N # N for which 1 i¼1 1i ji ,

1 and qi $ pðL; 1i Þ for infinitely many i [ N if X is transformable, and for sufficiently

large i [ N if X is strongly transformable, where q1 U 1, qiþ1 U ð2ji þ 1Þqi ; i [ N.

**3. Systems without almost periodic solutions
**

Before considering the gist of this paper, we recall the following results about almost

periodic sequences which we will need later and which can be easily proved using

methods from the classical theory of almost periodic functions (see [3,7] for the classical

cases and see [4] for generalizations).

**Theorem 3.1. Let {wk } be given. The sequence {wk } is almost periodic if and only if from
**

any sequence of the form {{wkþhi }k[Z }i[N , where {hi }i[N # Z, one can extract a

subsequence converging uniformly for k [ Z.

Proof. See, e.g. [31] (Theorem 2.3). A

**Theorem 3.2. For every sequence of almost periodic sequences
**

{w1k }; . . . ; {wik }; . . . ;

the sequence of limi!1 wik is almost periodic if the convergence is uniform with respect to k.

**Proof. The proof can be easily obtained by a modification of the proof of [7] (Theorem
**

6.4). A

Using Theorems 3.1 and 3.2, one can obtain the following corollary.

**Corollary 3.3. For an almost periodic sequence {wk } and an arbitrary sequence of
**

integers h1 ; . . . ; hi ; . . . , there exists a subsequence {h~ i }i[N of {hi }i[N such that

lim lim wkþh~ i 2h~ j ¼ wk :

j!1 i!1

**Remark 9. It is possible to prove that a sequence {wk } is almost periodic if and only if every
**

pair of sequences {hi }i[N ; {li }i[N # Z have common subsequences {h~ i }i[N ; {~li }i[N with

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 9

**the property that
**

lim lim w ~ ~ ¼ lim wkþh~ i þ~li ; pointwise for k [ Z: ð7Þ

j!1 i!1 kþhi þlj i!1

**In fact, condition (7) is necessary and sufficient in any one of the two modes of the
**

convergence; i.e. in the strongest version, this condition is necessary in the uniform sense

and sufficient in the pointwise sense. For almost periodic functions defined on R with

values in C, the above result is due to Bochner and it can be found in [5]. The proof from

that paper can be generalized for complete metric spaces. If this necessary and sufficient

condition is applied only to the case {li } ; {2 hi } (as in Corollary 3.3), then one gets a

different class of sequences called almost automorphic sequences – see [6,26].

To prove the main results, we also need the following steps.

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**Lemma 3.4. If an almost periodic sequence of non-singular A k [ MatðF; mÞ is such that,
**

for any 1 . 0, there exists i ¼ ið1Þ [ Z for which @ðO; A i Þ , 1, then the system

xkþ1 ¼ A k xk , k [ Z does not have a non-trivial almost periodic solution.

**Proof. By contradiction, suppose that we have an almost periodic sequence {A k }, a
**

sequence {hi }i[N # Z satisfying

1

@ðO; A hi Þ , ; i [ N; ð8Þ

i

and a non-trivial almost periodic solution {xk } of the system xkþ1 ¼ A k xk . Using Theorem

3.1, we get uniformly convergent common subsequences {{A kþh~ i }k[Z }i[N and

{{xkþh~ i }k[Z }i[N of the sequences {{A kþhi }k[Z }i[N and {{xkþhi }k[Z }i[N , respectively.

The limits will be denoted as {B k } and {yk }.

We put 1 U @ðx0 ; oÞ=2 . 0. Because of the almost periodicity of {xk }, there exists

some lð1Þ. We will consider the sets N i U {i þ 1; i þ 2; . . . ; i þ lð1Þ} for i [ Z. Any one

of the sets N i contains a number l [ Tð{xk }; 1Þ. Thus,

xl O@1 ðoÞ: ð9Þ

From (8), it follows that B 0 ¼ O. Since the multiplication of matrices is continuous,

one can find q . 0 for which

C j . . . C 0 · y [ O@1 ðoÞ; j ¼ 0; 1; . . . ; lð1Þ 2 1;

if y [ O@q ðy0 Þ and C i [ O@q ðB i Þ,

i [ {0; . . . ; j}. There exists i [ N such that

@ A kþh~ i ; B k , q; @ xkþh~ i ; yk , q; k [ Z:

Therefore,

xjþh~ i [ O@1 ðoÞ; j ¼ 1; . . . ; lð1Þ:

Indeed, it is valid that

xjþh~ i ¼ A jþh~ i 21 · · ·A h~ i · xh~ i ; j ¼ 1; . . . ; lð1Þ:

Thus, this contradiction (see (9)) gives the proof. A

Next, we present a technical statement which facilitates to find almost periodic

sequences having certain properties. Methods of generating almost periodic functions and

sequences with prescribed properties are also mentioned in [22,23], respectively.

10 M. Veselý

**Lemma 3.5. Let w0 ; . . . ; wn and j [ N be given and {r i }i[N , Rþ
**

0 be arbitrary so that

X1

ri , 1 ð10Þ

i¼1

**holds. Then, every sequence {wk } for which it is true
**

wk [ Or1 wk2ðnþ1Þ ; k [ n þ 1; ... ;2ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

. ..

wk [ Or1 wk2jðnþ1Þ ; k [ jðn þ 1Þ; ... ;ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

wk [ Or2 wkþðjþ1Þðnþ1Þ ; k [ 2ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . ..; 21 ;

. ..

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wk [ Or2 wkþjðjþ1Þðnþ1Þ ;

k [ 2jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . ..; 2ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

wk [ Or3 wk2ðjþ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; ... ;ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

. ..

wk [ Or3 wk2jðjþ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; ... ;ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

wk [ Or4 wkþðjþ1Þ3 ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ 2ðj þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; .. .; 2jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

. ..

wk [ Or4 wkþjðjþ1Þ3 ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ 2jðj þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; ... ;2ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

. ..

wk [ Or2i wkþðjþ1Þ2i21 ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ 2 ðj þ 1Þ2i21 þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ3 þ jðj þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ; .. .;

2 jðj þ 1Þ2i23 þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ3 þ jðj þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

. ..

wk [ Or2i wkþjðjþ1Þ2i21 ðnþ1Þ ; k [ 2 jðj þ 1Þ2i21 þ ··· þ jðj þ 1Þ3 þ jðj þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ; . ..;

2 ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ2i21 þ ·· · þ jðj þ 1Þ3 þ jðj þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

wk [ Or2iþ1 wk2ðjþ1Þ2i ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ; .. .;

ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ þ ðj þ 1Þ2i ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

. ..

wk [ Or2iþ1 wk2jðjþ1Þ2i ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ2i ðn þ 1Þ; ... ;

ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ2i ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ; . ..

is almost periodic.

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 11

Proof. See [31] (Theorem 3.5). A

**Theorem 3.6. Let X be strongly transformable. Let {A k } [ APðX Þ and 1 . 0 be
**

arbitrarily given. If there exist L [ Rþ and {M i }i[N such that

M i ; M21

i [ X nO@L ðOÞ; i [ N; ð11Þ

and that, for any non-zero vector u [ F m , one can find i ¼ iðuÞ [ N with the property

that M i u – u, then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ which does not possess a non-trivial

almost periodic solution.

**Proof. If {A k } has a non-trivial almost periodic solution, then there exists K [ Rþ such
**

that @ðA k ; OÞ . K for all k. Indeed, it follows from Lemma 3.4. Since it suffices to

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

**consider only very small 1 . 0, we can assume without loss of the generality that
**

L þ 1 , @ðI; OÞ; L þ 1 , @ðA k ; OÞ; k [ Z; ð12Þ

otherwise, we can put B k U A k , k [ Z.

Let h ¼ hð1=2Þ, z, P and Q ¼ QðLÞ be from (iii) and (iv), respectively. Furthermore,

let h , 1 , z and let {1i }i[N , Rþ , n [ N, and j $ 2 ðj [ NÞ satisfy

X1

h

1i , ; ð13Þ

i¼1

PQ

**j i ðn þ 1Þ $ pðL; 1i Þ for all i [ N: ð14Þ
**

Inequality (13) follows from (5), if we omit finitely many values of 1i , and (14) from the

fact that n and j can be arbitrarily large and from (6). We remark that P; Q $ 1.

We put

B k U A k ; C k U I for k [ {0; 1; . . . ; n}

and we choose

B k ¼ A k · C k for some C k [ O@12 Q C k2ðnþ1Þ > X ; k [ fn þ 1; . . . ; 2ðn þ 1Þ 2 1g;

···

Bk ¼ Ak · Ck; Ck [ O@12 Q C k2j 4 ðnþ1Þ > X ; k [ j 4 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

**arbitrarily such that
**

Y

nþ1 Y

nþ1 Y

nþ1

Bk ¼ M1; Bk ¼ B k ¼ I:

k¼ðj 2 þ1Þðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 3 þ j 2 Þðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ21

For

C 1 ; . . . ; C n ; D 1 ; . . . ; D n [ X ; D i [ O@q ðC i Þ;

where q . 0, L þ q # @ C i ; O , i [ {1; . . . ; n}, and n $ pðL; qÞ, we can express

21

D n · · ·D 2 · D 1 ¼ C n · C21 n · D n · · ·C 1 · C1 · D 1 ;

where

@

C21

i · D i [ OqQ ðIÞ; i [ {1; . . . ; n}:

**Using this fact and considering (11), (12) and (14), we get the existence of the above
**

matrices C k .

12 M. Veselý

**In the second step, we put
**

B k U A k · C kþðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ ; k [ 2ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 21 ;

...

B k U A k · C kþj 4 ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ ; k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 2ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

and we denote

C k U A21

k · Bk ; k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 21 :

Now we choose

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

**B k ¼ A k · C k ; C k [ O@14 PQ C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ > X ;
**

k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

...

B k ¼ A k · C k ; C k [ O@14 PQ C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ > X ;

k [ j 4 þ 1 þ ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1

**arbitrarily such that
**

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y

Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;

k¼j 7 ðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 7 þj 6 2j 0 Þðnþ1Þ21

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y

Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;

k¼j 8 ðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 8 þj 6 2j 3 Þðnþ1Þ21

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y

Bk ¼ M2; B k ¼ I;

k¼j 9 ðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 9 þj 6 2j 0 Þðnþ1Þ21

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y

Bk ¼ M2; B k ¼ I;

k¼j 10 ðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 10 þj 6 2j 3 Þðnþ1Þ21

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ

Y

B k ¼ I:

k¼ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þþj 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ21

**Such matrices C k exist. Indeed, we can transform
**

~ k U A k · C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;

B

k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

...

~B k U A k · C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ j 4 þ 1 þ ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 13

into B k by

~ k;

B k ¼ A k · C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ · C

4

k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

...

~ k;

B k ¼ A k · C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ · C

4

k [ j þ 1 þ ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

4 4

**where C ~ k [ O@ ðIÞ for all considered k (see condition (iv)), and hence we have
**

14 Q

(see condition (iii) and also (18) and (19))

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

~ k [ O@

C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ · C 14 PQ C k2ðj þ1Þ ðnþ1Þ ;

4 2

4

k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

...

~k [

C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ · C O@14 PQ

C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ j 4 þ 1 þ ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 :

~ k.

Thus, we can obtain C k from the previous step and from the above C

We put

**B k U A k · C kþðj 4 þ1Þ3 ðnþ1Þ ;
**

k [ 2ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

···

k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ;

B k U A k · C kþj 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ3 ðnþ1Þ ;

2ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

and we denote

C k U A21

k · Bk;

4 4

k [ 2j ðj þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 :

**We proceed further in the same way. In the ð2i 2 1Þ-th step, we choose
**

B k ¼ A k · C k ; C k [ O@12i PQ C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2i22 ðnþ1Þ > X ;

k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ;

. . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ

þðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

···

B k ¼ A k · C k ; C k [ O@12i PQ C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2i22 ðnþ1Þ > X ;

k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ

þ ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ

þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

14 M. Veselý

such that

Y

qðiÞ Y

qðiÞ

Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;

k¼p01 21 k¼p01 þðj 3i 2j 0 Þðnþ1Þ21

Y

qðiÞ Y

qðiÞ

Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;

k¼p11 21 k¼p11 þðj 3i 2j 3 Þðnþ1Þ21

···

Y

qðiÞ Y

qðiÞ

Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;

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k¼pi21

1

21 k¼pi21

1

þðj 3i 2j 3ði21Þ Þðnþ1Þ21

···

Y

qðiÞ Y

qðiÞ

Bk ¼ Mi; B k ¼ I;

k¼p0i 21 k¼p0i þðj 3i 2j 0 Þðnþ1Þ21

Y

qðiÞ Y

qðiÞ

Bk ¼ Mi; B k ¼ I;

k¼p1i 21 k¼p1i þðj 3i 2j 3 Þðnþ1Þ21

···

Y

qðiÞ Y

qðiÞ

Bk ¼ Mi; B k ¼ I;

k¼pi21

i 21 k¼pi21 3i

i þðj 2j

3ði21Þ Þðnþ1Þ21

and

Y

qðiÞ

B k ¼ I;

k¼pðiÞ

**where p01 ; . . . ; p1i21 ; . . . ; p0i ; . . . ; pi21
**

i are arbitrary positive integers for which

qðiÞ þ j 2i ðn þ 1Þ # p01 ;

and

p01 þ ðj 2i þ j 3i Þðn þ 1Þ # p11 ; ... pi22 2i 3i i21

1 þ ðj þ j Þðn þ 1Þ # p1 ;

pi21

1 þ ðj 2i þ j 3i Þðn þ 1Þ # p02 ;

···

p0i 2i 3i

þ ðj þ j Þðn þ 1Þ # p1i ; ... pi22

i þ ðj 2i þ j 3i Þðn þ 1Þ # pi21

i ;

pi21

i þ ðj þ j 3i Þðn þ 1Þ # pðiÞ;

2i

if

**qðiÞ ¼ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ;
**

pðiÞ ¼ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1:

The existence of these numbers follows from

**pðiÞ 2 qðiÞ ¼ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 $ ðj 2i þ j 3i Þði 2 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; i; j $ 2ði; j [ NÞ; n [ N;
**

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 15

and the existence of the above matrices B k follows from (14) and from

j 3i 2 j 3ði2kÞ $ j 2i ; k [ {1; . . . ; i}; i [ N; j $ 2ðj [ NÞ:

In the 2i-th step, we put

**B k U A k · C kþðj 4 þ1Þ2i21 ðnþ1Þ ;
**

k [ 2 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ;

. . . ; 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i23 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

···

B k U A k · C kþj 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2i21 ðnþ1Þ ;

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

k [ 2j 4 ððj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ ðj 4 þ 1ÞÞðn þ 1Þ;

. . . ; 2 ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

and we denote

C k U A21

k · Bk ; k [ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ;

. . . ; 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i23 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 :

**Using this construction, we obtain the sequence {B k }k[Z # X .
**

We will consider the system

x kþ1 ¼ B k · x k ; k [ Z: ð15Þ

**Suppose that there exists a non-zero vector u [ F m for which the solution {x k } of (15)
**

satisfying x nþ1 ¼ u is almost periodic. We know that

Y

nþ1

xk ¼ Bi · u for k . n þ 1; k [ N: ð16Þ

i¼k21

**If we choose {hi }i[N ; {j 3ði21Þ ðn þ 1Þ}i[N for {wk } ; {x k } in Theorem 3.1, then, for any
**

q . 0, we get the existence of an infinite set N ¼ NðqÞ # N0 such that

@ x kþj 3i1 ðnþ1Þ ; x kþj 3i2 ðnþ1Þ , q; k [ Z; i1 ; i2 [ N: ð17Þ

**Thus, for every q . 0, there exist infinitely many q-translation numbers in the form
**

ðj 3i1 2 j 3i2 Þ ðn þ 1Þ, where i1. i2 ði1 ; i2 [ NÞ. For some i [ N with the property that

M i u – u, we choose q , @ M i u; u and the above i1 . i2 . i ði1 ; i2 [ NÞ arbitrarily.

We have (see (17))

@ x kþðj 3i1 2j 3i2 Þðnþ1Þ ; x k , q; k [ Z:

**From (16) and the construction of {B k }, we obtain
**

@ x kþðj 3i1 2j 3i2 Þðnþ1Þ ; x k . q for at least one k [ N:

**This contradiction gives that {x k } cannot be almost periodic. It means that system (15)
**

does not have a non-trivial almost periodic solution.

16 M. Veselý

**Now it suffices to show that {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ; i.e. B k [ O@1~ ðA k Þ for all k and some
**

1~ [ ð0; 1Þ and that {B k } is almost periodic. It is seen that

C k [ O@12 Q ðIÞ; k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 0; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

C k [ O@ð12 þ14 ÞPQ ðIÞ; k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

C k [ O@ð12 þ14 ÞPQ ðIÞ; k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ;

2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

and that, for all i $ 3 ði [ NÞ, it is valid

**C k [ O@ð12 þ14 þ· · ·þ12i ÞPQ ðIÞ;
**

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ;

4

j þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

C k [ O@ð12 þ14 þ· · ·þ12i ÞPQ ðIÞ;

k [ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ;

2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i23 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 :

**Thus, we have (see (13))
**

C k [ O@h ðIÞ; k [ Z; ð18Þ

and hence (see condition (iii))

B k [ O@1=2 ðA k Þ; k [ Z: ð19Þ

Indeed,

Bk ¼ Ak · Ck for all k [ Z: ð20Þ

**From Lemma 3.5, it follows that the sequence {C k } is almost periodic. Using the
**

almost periodicity of {A k }, we see that the set

T {A k }; d > T {C k }; d is relatively dense in Z; ð21Þ

**for any d . 0. Since the multiplication of matrices is uniformly continuous on X , we have
**

(consider (20))

T {A k }; dðqÞ > T {C k }; dðqÞ # T {B k }; q ; ð22Þ

**for arbitrary q . 0, where dðqÞ . 0 is the number corresponding to q from the definition
**

of the uniform continuity of the multiplication of two matrices. Finally, (21) and (22) give

the almost periodicity of {B k }, which completes the proof. A

**Remark 10. All groups of matrices from Remarks 1 –5 (except the general case in
**

Remark 5) satisfy the conditions of Theorem 3.6.

From the proof of the above theorem, we get the following result.

**Corollary 3.7. Let X be strongly transformable. Let {A k } [ APðX Þ, 1 . 0, and u – o,
**

u [ F m be given. If there exists a matrix M [ X such that Mu – u, then there exists

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 17

**{B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ for which the solution of
**

x kþ1 ¼ B k · x k ; k [ Z; x 0 ¼ u;

is not almost periodic.

Note that, in Theorem 3.6, condition (11) can be omitted, i.e. we can put L ¼ 0.

We will obtain this fact from the below given Theorem 3.11. Now, for the later

comparison, let us recall a statement from [8], see also [1] (Theorem 2.10.1), and one of its

known consequences.

**Theorem 3.8. Let ðF; @ð · ; ·ÞÞ ¼ ðC; j · 2 · jÞ. If a vector-valued sequence {b k } is almost
**

periodic and a matrix A [ MatðC; mÞ is non-singular, then a solution of

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x kþ1 ¼ A · x k þ b k ; k [ Z;

is almost periodic if and only if it is bounded.

**Corollary 3.9. Let ðF; @ð · ; · ÞÞ ¼ ðC; j · 2 · jÞ. Let a periodic sequence {A k } of m £ m
**

non-singular matrices with complex elements be given. Then, a solution of the system

x kþ1 ¼ A k x k , k [ Z, is almost periodic if and only if it is bounded.

**Proof. Every almost periodic sequence is bounded, and hence we need only to show that
**

the boundedness of a solution implies its almost periodicity. Assume that we have a

periodic system x kþ1 ¼ A k x k , k [ Z, and its bounded solution {x k }. Let n [ N be a

period of {A k }. Applying Theorem 3.8, we get that the sequence {y1k } ; {x nk }, i.e.

Y

0 Y

21

y10 ¼ x 0 ; y1k ¼ A i · x 0 ; k [ N; y1k ¼ A21

i · x0; k [ ZnN;

i¼nk21 i¼nk

**is almost periodic. Indeed, {y1k } is a bounded solution of the constant system
**

y kþ1 ¼ A n21 · · ·A 1 · A 0 · y k ; k [ Z:

Analogously, one can show that the sequences {yjk } ; {x nkþj21 }, j [ {2; 3; . . . ; n} are

almost periodic. The almost periodicity of {x k } follows from Theorem 3.1. A

**Remark 11. We note that it is possible to obtain several modifications of Corollary 3.9 for
**

non-homogeneous systems if the non-homogeneousness is almost periodic. Let us mention

at least the most important one – the continuous version for differential systems – e.g. see

[10] (Corollary 6.5). If a complex matrix-valued function AðtÞ, t [ R, is periodic and a

complex vector-valued function bðtÞ, t [ R, is almost periodic, then any solution of

x0 ðtÞ ¼ AðtÞxðtÞ þ bðtÞ, t [ R, is almost periodic if and only if it is bounded.

**Remark 12. Consider again ðF; @ð · ; · ÞÞ ¼ ðC; j · 2 · jÞ. We want to document that
**

Corollary 3.9 is no longer true if {A k } is only almost periodic. In [31], it is shown that the

real sequence {ak } defined by the recurrent formula

1

a0 U 1; a1 U 0; a2n þk U ak 2 ; n [ N; k ¼ 0; . . . ; 2n 2 1 ð23Þ

2n

on N0 and by the prescription

ak U 2a2k21 for k [ ZnN0 ; ð24Þ

18 M. Veselý

**is almost periodic and that it satisfies (see [31], Lemma 4.4)
**

n

2X 21 2nþjX

þ2n 21

1

ak ¼ 1; ak ¼ 2 2 ; n [ N0 ; j [ N: ð25Þ

k¼0 k¼0

2j

Let X be the set of all m £ m diagonal matrices with numbers on the diagonal which

has absolute value 1. (It is easily seen that, in this case, X is strongly transformable. See

also Remarks 3 and 7.) All solutions of the system of form (1) given by the sequence

{A k } ; diag½eiak ; . . . ; eiak are obviously bounded but we will show that they are not

almost periodic (except the trivial one).

It suffices to consider the scalar case, i.e. m ¼ 1. Assume that the system has an almost

periodic solution {xk }. We have

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

Pk21

i a

xk ¼ e j¼0 j · x0 ; k [ N:

Especially (see (25)),

2j

x2n ¼ ei · x0 ; x2nþj þ2n ¼ e2i22 i

· x0 ; n [ N0 ; j [ N: ð26Þ

j

Using Theorem 3.1 for the sequence {2 }j[N , for any 1 . 0, we get an infinite set

N ¼ Nð1Þ # N such that

xkþ2jð1Þ 2 xkþ2jð2Þ , 1 for all k [ Z; jð1Þ; jð2Þ [ N:

**For some jð1Þ [ N, the choice k ¼ 2jð1Þ and (26) give
**

i jð1Þ2jð2Þ

e 2 e2i22 i

· jx0 j , 1; jð1Þ , jð2Þ; jð1Þ; jð2Þ [ N:

**Since 1 can be arbitrarily small and jð2Þ . jð1Þ can be found for every 1 . 0, we obtain
**

x0 ¼ 0. Thus, the system does not have a non-trivial almost periodic solution.

In the above remark, we see that the boundedness is necessary to the almost periodicity

of solutions of considered almost periodic systems but not sufficient. Now we prove a

more important necessary (also not sufficient, see again Remark 12) condition about the

limitation of almost periodic solutions in the next lemma.

**Lemma 3.10. Let an almost periodic sequence of non-singular A k [ MatðF; mÞ be given.
**

Let {x k } be an almost periodic solution of the system x kþ1 ¼ A k x k , k [ Z. Then, it is valid

either x k ¼ o, k [ Z or

inf @ ðx k ; oÞ . 0:

k[Z

**Proof. Suppose that a solution {x k } of a system satisfies infk[Z @ ðx k ; oÞ ¼ 0. Let
**

{hi }i[N # Z be such that

lim @ ðx hi ; oÞ ¼ 0: ð27Þ

i!1

**Considering Theorems 3.1 and 3.2 and Corollary 3.3, we get a subsequence {h~ i } of {hi }
**

for which there exist almost periodic sequences {B k }, {y k } satisfying

lim A kþh~ i ¼ B k ; lim B k2h~ i ¼ A k ; lim x kþh~ i ¼ y k ; lim y ~ ¼ xk;

i!1 i!1 i!1 i!1 k2hi

**where the convergences can be uniform with respect to k [ Z (see Remark 9). We have
**

y kþ1 ¼ B k y k , k [ Z and y 0 ¼ o (see equation (27)). Thus {y k } ; {o}. Consequently,

x k ¼ limi!1 y k2h~ i ¼ o for k [ Z. A

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 19

**Remark 13. Similarly as for Corollary 3.9, modifications of Lemma 3.10 can be proved.
**

For example, it is possible to prove the almost automorphic version of the result

(consider Remark 9), i.e. if {x k } is almost automorphic, then the conclusion of the above

lemma is true.

**Remark 14. Applying Lemma 3.5 for n ¼ 0, w0 ¼ 2, j ¼ 1 and r i ¼ 3=2i , i [ N, we
**

construct the non-zero almost periodic sequence everywhere

1 1

b0 U 2; b1 U 2 2 1; b22 U 2 2 ; b21 U 1 2 ;

2 2

...

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

1

bk U bkþ22i21 2 2i21 ; k [ 222i21 2 · · · 2 23 2 2; . . . ; 222i23 2 · · · 2 23 2 2 2 1 ;

2

1

bk U bk222i 2 2i ; k [ 2 þ 22 þ · · · þ 22i22 ; . . . ; 2 þ 22 þ · · · þ 22i22 þ 22i 2 1 ;

2

...

**in the space ðR; j · 2 · jÞ. Since
**

lim b20 221 þ22 223 þ· · ·þð22Þi ¼ 0;

i!1

**the equation xkþ1 ¼ bk xk , k [ Z, does not have a non-trivial almost periodic solution
**

(see Lemma 3.4), and the vector-valued sequence {bk u}, where u – o, u [ Rm , is not a

solution of an almost periodic homogeneous linear difference system. Moreover, for any

bounded countable set of real numbers, it is shown in [11] that there exists an almost

periodic sequence whose range is the set (and which assumes each value in the set

periodically). It means that there exists a large class of almost periodic sequences which

cannot be solutions of any almost periodic system (1).

**Theorem 3.11. Let X be transformable and let {A k } [ APðX Þ and 1 . 0 be arbitrary.
**

If there exists a matrix MðqÞ [ O@q ðOÞ > X for any q . 0, then there exists {B k } [

Os1 ð{A k }Þ which does not have an almost periodic solution other than the trivial one.

Proof. We put Li U @ M i ; O for matrices M i [ X , i [ N such that

lim Li ¼ 0; Liþ1 , Li ; i [ N: ð28Þ

i!1

**Let h ¼ hð1=2Þ, z and P, and Q ¼ QðL1 Þ be from conditions (iii) and (iv), respectively.
**

As in the proof of Theorem 3.6, we can assume (or choose {B k } ; {A k }) that

h , 1 , z; L1 þ 1 , @ðA k ; OÞ; k [ Z;

þ

and that (see also Remark 6) we have {1i }i[N , R , j $ 2 ðj [ NÞ, and n [ N satisfying

X

1

h

1i , ;

i¼1

PQ ð29Þ

j ðn þ 1Þ $ pðLgðiÞ ; 1i Þ for infinitely many odd i [ N;

i

**where gðiÞ is from Remark 6 too.
**

The set of all i – 1 ði [ NÞ, which are not divisible by 2 and for which (29) is valid,

will be denoted by N. Let N ¼ {i1 ; i2 ; . . . ; il ; . . . }, where il , ilþ1 , l [ N. Since we can

20 M. Veselý

**redefine Li (choose other M i ), we can also assume that gðil Þ $ l, l [ N. We will construct
**

sequences {B k } and {C k } as in the proof of Theorem 3.6 for j 4 replaced by j. First of all we

put

pl U j þ 1 þ jðj þ 1Þ2 þ · · · þ jðj þ 1Þil 23 ðn þ 1Þ; l [ N;

ql U j þ 1 þ jðj þ 1Þ2 þ · · · þ jðj þ 1Þil 21 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1; l [ N:

Before the i1 th step (for k # p1 2 1), we choose the matrices C k (consequently B k )

arbitrarily. We will obtain B k and define

Y

0 Y

0

J1 U Bk ; J2 U Bk ; . . . :

k¼p1 k¼p2

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

**In the i1 th step, we choose the matrices C k arbitrarily if J 1 [ O@L1 ðOÞ, and so that
**

Y

0

Bk ¼ M1 if J 1 O@L1 ðOÞ:

k¼q1

**Between the i1 th step and the i2 th step, we choose them again arbitrarily. In the i2 th step,
**

we choose them arbitrarily if J 2 [ O@L2 ðOÞ, and so that

Y

0

Bk ¼ M2 if J 2 O@L2 ðOÞ:

k¼q2

**If we proceed further in the same way, then we get matrices C k , B k for all k [ Z.
**

Analogously, as in the proof of Theorem 3.6, we can prove that {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ.

We have

!

Y0

@ B k ; O # Ll for r l [ {pl ; ql }; l [ N: ð30Þ

k¼rl

m

for any u [ F@ and m . 0, there exists d ¼ dðu; mÞ . 0 with the property that

Evidently,

@ Cu; o , m if C [ Od ðOÞ. Using this, from (28), (30) and Lemma 3.10, we get that all

non-trivial solutions of the system of the form (1) given by {B k } are not almost

periodic. A

**Remark 15. The condition of Theorem 3.11 cannot be satisfied if the metric @
**

(in MatðF; mÞ) is given by a matrix norm (see condition (ii)). Of course, there exist

transformable sets which satisfy the condition (it is seen if, e.g. one considers ‘large’ fields

as the field of all meromorphic functions on a connected open set or the field of all rational

functions on a variety).

**Corollary 3.12. Let X be transformable, {A k } [ APðX Þ, non-zero u [ F m , and 1 . 0
**

be arbitrary. If there exists a sequence {M i }i[N # X with the property that

limi!1 @ ðM i u; oÞ ¼ 0, then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ for which the solution of

x kþ1 ¼ B k · x k ; k [ Z; x 0 ¼ u;

is not almost periodic.

**Proof. It suffices to consider Lemma 3.10, the construction from the proof of Theorem 3.6,
**

and the sequence {B k } from the proof of Theorem 3.11. A

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 21

Combining Theorems 3.6 and 3.11, we obtain the following theorem.

**Theorem 3.13. Let X be strongly transformable and have a dense countable subset.
**

Let {A k } [ APðX Þ and 1 . 0 be arbitrarily given. If for any vector u – o, u [ F m , there

exists MðuÞ [ X for which

MðuÞ · u – u;

then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ which does not have almost periodic solutions.

It remains to examine the case for transformable X when there exists L [ Rþ for

which X > O@L ðOÞ ¼ Y.

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

**Theorem 3.14. Let X be transformable and let {A k } [ APðX Þ and 1 . 0 be arbitrary. If
**

there exist a precompact transformable set X 0 # X and M [ X 0 for which @ðMu; uÞ . 0

for all u – o, u [ F m , and if there exists {u i }i[N # F m such that, for any q . 0 and

u – o, u [ F m , it is possible to find d ¼ dðu; qÞ . 0 and i ¼ iðuÞ [ N with the property

that, for every C [ X nO@q ðIÞ, one can choose Nðu i ; CÞ [ X satisfying

@ Nðu i ; CÞ · u; C · Nðu i ; CÞ · u . d; ð31Þ

then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ which does not possess an almost periodic solution

other than the trivial one.

**Proof. From Theorem 3.11 it follows that, without loss of the generality, we can assume
**

the existence of L [ Rþ such that X > O@L ðOÞ ¼ Y. From (ii) for C 0 ¼ M, C i ¼ I,

i [ {1; . . . ; n} and (iii), we get that, for every qð1Þ . 0, there exist matrices

D 1 ð1Þ; . . . ; D nð1Þ ð1Þ [ X 0 satisfying

D 1 ð1Þ [ O@qð1Þ ðIÞ; D nð1Þ ð1Þ [ O@qð1Þ ðMÞ;

D i ð1Þ [ O@qð1Þ D iþ1 ð1Þ ; i [ f1; . . . ; nð1Þ 2 1g:

We put D 0 ð1Þ U I, D nð1Þþ1 ð1Þ U M. For every number qð2Þ [ ð0; qð1ÞÞ and each

i [ {1; . . . ; nð1Þ þ 1}, analogously (consider C 0 ¼ D i ð1Þ, C 1 ¼ D i21 ð1Þ, C l ¼ I for

l [ {2; . . . ; n}), there exist matrices D 1 ð2; iÞ; . . . ; D nð2Þ ð2; iÞ [ X 0 satisfying

D 1 ð2; iÞ [ O@qð2Þ ðD i21 ð1ÞÞ; D nð2Þ ð2; iÞ [ O@qð2Þ ðD i ð1ÞÞ;

D l ð2; iÞ [ O@qð2Þ D lþ1 ð2; iÞ ; l [ f1; . . . ; nð2Þ 2 1g:

Since we can proceed in the same way for a sequence of positive numbers q1 . q2 .

· · · . qn . · · · converging to 0, X 0 is precompact, and since the space MatðF; mÞ

is complete, there exists a continuous map F : ½0; 1 ! MatðF; mÞ such that

Fð0Þ ¼ I; Fð1Þ ¼ M; the set F ½0; 1 > X is dense in Fð½0; 1Þ: ð32Þ

Let T denote the set of all t [ ½21; 1 for which FðjtjÞ [ X . If we extend the domain of

definition of F by the formula Fð2tÞ U ðFðtÞÞ21 , t [ T > ð0; 1, then we get continuous

F : T ! X . Indeed, the map C 7 ! C 21 , C [ X is uniformly continuous – consider

conditions (iii) and (iv) and the composition C 7 ! C 21 D 7 ! C 21 DD 21 for given D [ X

from a neighbourhood of C.

Let the almost periodic sequence {ak } be from Remark 12. Directly from (23) and (24),

it is seen that {ak ; k [ Z} , ½21; 1. We can assume that ak [ T for all k (consider (32)).

From [31] (Theorem 4.7), we know that the system {Fðak Þ} does not have a non-zero

almost periodic solution.

22 M. Veselý

**Suppose that there exists p [ N satisfying A kþp21 · · ·A kþ1 · A k ¼ I for all k. Let n~ [ N
**

be such that FðaÞ [ O@1=2 ðFðbÞÞ if ja 2 bj # 212~n , a; b [ T. From condition (ii), we obtain

the existence of a number l [ N for which we can construct periodic {A ~ k } [ Os ð{A k }Þ

1=2

n~

with a period 2 lp and with the property that

Y

0 Y

lp ð2n~Y

21Þlp

~ k ¼ Fða0 Þ;

A ~ k ¼ Fða1 Þ;

A ... ~ k ¼ F a2n~ 21 :

A

k¼lp21 k¼2lp21 k¼2n~ lp21

**~ klp21 to B klp21 for k [ Z in order that
**

Now we change the matrices A

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

ði21Þlp

Y

B k ¼ Fðai21 Þ; i [ Z:

k¼ilp21

~

We define B k U A k for the other numbers k. Considering (23) and (24), consequently

ak 2 akþi2n~ # 212~n , i; k [ Z, we have

B k [ O@1=2 ðA

~ k Þ; k [ Z:

**Thus, B k [ O1@~ðA k Þ for all k and some 1~ , 1. From Theorem 3.1, the almost periodicity of
**

{Fðak Þ} and {A~ k }, and conditions (iii) and (iv), we get the almost periodicity of {B k }. We

emphasize that {Fðak Þ} does not have a non-zero almost periodic solution. Finally,

{B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ and this system cannot have non-trivial almost periodic solutions.

We put q U hð1=2Þ=QðLÞ. If A kþp21 . . . A kþ1 A k [ O@q ðIÞ, k [ Z for some p [ N, it

suffices to replace matrices A kp21 by B kp21 for k [ Z so that

B kp21 · A kp22 . . . A kp2p ¼ I; k [ Z:

Indeed, considering conditions (iii), (iv) and

B kp21 ¼ A21 21 21

kp2p . . . Akp22 · Akp21 · A kp21 ; k [ Z; ð33Þ

**we have that B kp21 [ O@1=2 ðA kp21 Þ, k [ Z; the almost periodicity of the sequence
**

{A21 21 21

kp2p . . . Akp22 Akp21 } and, consequently (see also (33)), the almost periodicity of the

obtained sequence follow from Theorem 3.1, the almost periodicity of {A k }, the uniform

continuity of the multiplication of matrices on X and the map C 7 ! C 21 , C [ X .

It remains to consider the case that A kþp21 . . . A kþ1 A k Oq@ =2 ðIÞ for all p [ N and

infinitely many k [ N which depend on p. It has to be valid for infinitely many k, not

finitely many only, because {A k } is almost periodic. Now we can construct {B k } [

Os1=3 ð{A k }Þ as in the proof of Theorem 3.6. Since X is only transformable, we can get

matrices B k having certain properties generally in infinitely many steps as in the proof of

Theorem 3.11 (see also Remark 6) for arbitrarily given j $ 2 (j [ N) and n [ N. If we

obtain B kþp21 . . . B kþ1 B k [ O@q ðIÞ for all k and some p after finitely many steps of the

process, then we can use the above-mentioned construction. Thus, we can assume without

Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 23

**loss of generality that we can choose matrices B k in odd steps i1 ; . . . ; il ; . . . so that
**

Y

0

B k ¼ Nðu 1 ; C11 Þ; B p11 ¼ C11 Oq@ =2 ðIÞ;

k¼p11 21

...

1

pl

Y

0 Y

Bk ¼ Nðu 1 ; C1l Þ; B k ¼ C1l Oq@ =2 ðIÞ;

k¼p1l 21 k¼p1l þl21

...

l

pl

Y

0 Y

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

**Bk ¼ Nðu l ; Cll Þ; B k ¼ Cll Oq@ =2 ðIÞ;
**

k¼pll 21 k¼pll þl21

···

where p1l ; . . . ; pll are positive integers for which

p1l þ l þ j il ðn þ 1Þ # p2l ; . . . ; pl21

l þ l þ j il ðn þ 1Þ # pll :

Suppose now that the solution {x k } of x kþ1 ¼ B k x k , k [ Z, x 0 ¼ u is almost periodic

for some u – o, u [ F m . Let d and i be the numbers corresponding to u from the

statement of the theorem. Immediately from the above construction and from (31) it

follows that the set Tð{x k }; dÞ does not contain numbers greater than i. This contradiction

proves the theorem. A

**Remark 16. Obviously, the m £ m unitary group and the group of all orthogonal matrices
**

of dimension m $ 2 with determinant 1 satisfy the conditions of Theorem 3.14 (as any

dense transformable subset of one of them). The groups from Remarks 3 and 5 do not

satisfy the conditions for m $ 2; consider, e.g. S ¼ I,

" #

T T I o

u ¼ 1; o ; C ¼ ;

o T ei

**where o and I have dimension m 2 1. We add that we can obtain examples of
**

transformable sets, which are not strongly transformable using changes of the metric in

Remarks 1– 5.

**Corollary 3.15. Let X be transformable and that X > O@L ðOÞ ¼ Y for some L [ Rþ ,
**

and let {A k } [ APðX Þ, u – o, u [ F m , and 1 . 0 be arbitrary. If there exists a

precompact transformable set X 0 # X and M [ X 0 satisfying @ðMu; uÞ . 0 and if there

exists d . 0 and, for any C [ X nOh@ ð1=2Þ=2QðLÞ ðIÞ, there exists NðCÞ [ X with the property

that

@ NðCÞ · u; C · NðCÞ · u . d;

then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ for which the solution of

x kþ1 ¼ B k · x k ; k [ Z; x0 ¼ u

is not almost periodic.

**Proof. It follows from the proof of Theorem 3.14 and [31] (Remark 4.8). A
**

24 M. Veselý

**At the end, we say that it is possible to obtain various generalizations and
**

modifications of results presented in this section. For simplicity, we considered only

sufficiently general and, at the same time, more important cases. Especially in [31], the

constructions are used for a ring with a pseudometric. For almost periodic sequences

defined for k [ N (or k [ N0 ), it suffices to replace Theorem 3.1 by Remark 2.2 of [31]

(or to apply [21]) and Lemma 3.5 by Theorem 3.1 of [31]. The basic theory of almost

periodic sequences on N is established, e.g. in [9].

Again for simplicity, we required in condition (ii) that matrices D 1 ; . . . ; D n with the

given property exist for all n $ p, not only for an infinite set of n (relative dense in N).

Hence, the group of all real orthogonal matrices of dimension m $ 2 is not transformable.

Indeed, one can find 1 . 0 such that, in the 1-neighbourhood of an orthogonal matrix,

Downloaded by [University of Saskatchewan Library] at 01:20 30 April 2012

**there are only orthogonal matrices with the same determinant. Let an almost periodic
**

sequence of orthogonal matrices A k be given. Using the fact that the sequence of det A k is

periodic, we can modify the proof of Theorem 3.6 and get the statement of this theorem.

4. Conclusion

In this paper, we studied non-almost periodic solutions of almost periodic difference

equations. We considered homogeneous linear difference systems all of whose solutions

can be almost periodic (e.g. unitary systems) in a general setting when coefficients belong

to a complete metric field. We found classes of these systems such that in any

neighbourhood of an arbitrary system there exists a system from the same class, which

does not possess any non-trivial almost periodic solution. Note that an analogous general

statement for differential equations is not known.

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the grant 201/09/J009 of the Czech Grant Agency. The author would like

to thank the referees for useful comments and suggestions.

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