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Journal of Difference Equations and
Applications
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Almost periodic homogeneous linear
difference systems without almost
periodic solutions
a
Michal Veselý
a
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Masaryk University,
Kotlářská 2, Brno, 611 37, Czech Republic

Available online: 11 Oct 2011

To cite this article: Michal Veselý (2011): Almost periodic homogeneous linear difference
systems without almost periodic solutions, Journal of Difference Equations and Applications,
DOI:10.1080/10236198.2011.585984

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Journal of Difference Equations and Applications
iFirst article, 2011, 1–25

Almost periodic homogeneous linear difference systems without
almost periodic solutions
Michal Veselý*

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 611 37,
Czech Republic
(Received 5 September 2010; final version received 28 April 2011)
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Almost periodic homogeneous linear difference systems are considered. It is supposed
that the coefficient matrices belong to a group. The aim was to find such groups that the
systems having no non-trivial almost periodic solution form a dense subset of the set of all
considered systems. A closer examination of the used methods reveals that the problem
can be treated in such a generality that the entries of coefficient matrices are allowed to
belong to any complete metric field. The concepts of transformable and strongly
transformable groups of matrices are introduced, and these concepts enable us to derive
efficient conditions for determining what matrix groups have the required property.
Keywords: almost periodic sequences; almost periodic solutions; groups of matrices;
linear difference systems; unitary matrices
AMS Subject Classification: 12H10; 20H20; 39A06; 39A24; 42A75; 51F25

1. Introduction
We will consider solutions of almost periodic systems of the form

x kþ1 ¼ A k · x k ; k [ Z:

Our aim was to analyse the systems which have no non-trivial almost periodic solution.
We are motivated by the paper of Tkachenko [29], where unitary systems (determined by
unitary matrices A k ) are studied. One of the main statements of [29] says that the systems
whose solutions are not almost periodic form an everywhere dense subset in the space of
all considered unitary systems. We also note that important partial cases of the theorem
and the process are mentioned in [27,28], respectively.
In the proof of this result, it is substantially used that the group of considered matrices
is not commutative. Thus, for example, the dimension of the systems has to be at least 2.
We will use methods based on the general construction of almost periodic sequences
introduced in [31], because we want to also generalize the result for commutative groups of
matrices (especially, for the scalar case). It implies that we can treat the problem in a general
setting. Scalar sequences will attain values in a complete metric space on an infinite field
with continuous operations with respect to the metric similarly as scalar discrete processes
in [8], where the main results are proved for real or complex entries (see Theorem 3.8).
The almost periodicity of solutions of linear almost periodic difference equations is also
studied in [2,34] (non-homogeneous systems). We can refer to the known article [8] again.

*Email: michal.vesely@mail.muni.cz

ISSN 1023-6198 print/ISSN 1563-5120 online
q 2011 Taylor & Francis
DOI: 10.1080/10236198.2011.585984
http://www.informaworld.com
2 M. Veselý

Explicit almost periodic solutions are obtained for a class of these equations in [16].
For difference systems of general forms, criteria of the existence of almost periodic
solutions are presented in [35,36]. The existence of an almost periodic sequence of
solutions for an almost periodic difference equation is discussed in [18] (and [17] as in
[35]). Concerning the existing theorems for almost periodic solutions of almost periodic
delay difference systems, see [37]. Methods and techniques from that paper are similarly
used (and developed) in [38]. Classes of ‘constructible’ sequences having mean values
without being almost periodic are mentioned in [13], so these sequences can be obtained
as solutions of homogeneous linear difference systems whose coefficient matrices lie in
the circle.
Results about almost periodic unitary difference systems correspond to results about
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almost periodic skew-Hermitian differential systems. It is proved in [32] that, in any
neighbourhood of an almost periodic skew-Hermitian differential system, there exists a
system which does not have non-trivial almost periodic solutions. The existence of an
almost periodic homogeneous linear differential system, which has bounded solutions and,
at the same time, all the systems from some neighbourhood of it do not have non-trivial
almost periodic solutions, is proved in [30].
Let us mention the paper by Nerurkar and Sussmann [24] where a method is presented
to construct minimal co-cycles arising as solutions of time-dependent homogeneous linear
differential systems for which one can prove the generic absence of almost periodic
solutions by minor modifications of used arguments. Here we also refer to the articles
[15,25]. Note that the time dependence of coefficient matrices in [24] is recurrent
(similarly as given in the main theorems).
This paper is organized as follows. We begin with notations and basic definitions
which are used throughout this work. First of all, we define the notion of the almost
periodicity in metric spaces. The definition is similar to the classical one of H. Bohr in
which only the modulus is replaced by the distance. Then, we introduce general
homogeneous linear difference systems, their almost periodicity, and a metric in the space
of all these almost periodic systems.
Since every non-trivial almost periodic solution of a homogeneous linear difference
system is bounded and does not have a subsequence converging to the zero vector
(see Lemma 3.10), it is interesting to consider only groups of matrices with eigenvalues
having absolute value 1 in the complex case and corresponding generalizations.
To formulate our results in a simple and consistent form, we introduce the concepts of
transformable and then strongly transformable groups of matrices. One of the conditions in
the definition of transformable groups means that it is possible to transform any matrix into
any other using finitely many arbitrarily small ‘jumps’ in the complex case (for usual
metrics on the group of considered matrices). We remark that the group has to be infinite
because we study solutions which are not periodic.
In Section 2, it is also shown that the group of all unitary matrices, the group of all
orthogonal matrices of a dimension at least 2 with determinant 1 and some of their
subgroups are strongly transformable. In addition, the subgroups from Remarks 3 and 5 are
commutative.
In Section 3, a fundamental necessary and sufficient condition for a sequence to be
almost periodic which is called the Bochner definition is formulated, what is equivalent
with the Bohr definition in complete metric spaces. We recall elements of the theory of
almost periodic sequences (in an extension as we will need it in this section). We show the
way one can generate almost periodic sequences with the given properties.
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 3

Finally, we present conditions for strongly transformable groups and then
transformable groups ensuring that, in any neighbourhood of every considered system,
there exists a system which does not possess an almost periodic solution other than the
trivial one. Especially, it is proved as Theorem 3.6 (consider also Theorem 3.11) that, for a
strongly transformable group, this condition is the existence of matrices M 1 ; . . . ; M j ; . . .
from the group with the property that, for any non-zero vector x, one can find j [ N such
that M j x – x. In each case, the corresponding corollary about the Cauchy problem is
explicitly formulated.

2. General almost periodic homogeneous linear difference systems
We will use the following notations: N0 , for the set of positive integers including zero; Rþ ,
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for the set of all positive reals; Rþ 0 , for the set of all non-negative real numbers. Let
F ¼ ðF; %; (Þ be an infinite field with a unit and a zero denoted as e1 and e0 , respectively,
and let m [ N be arbitrarily given. Hereafter, we will consider m as the dimension of
difference systems under consideration.
The symbol MatðF; mÞ will denote the set of all m £ m matrices with elements from F
and F m , the set of all m £ 1 vectors with entries attaining values from F. As usual, we
define the identity matrix I and the zero matrix O. Analogously, for the trivial vector, we
put o U ½e0 ; e0 ; . . . ; e0 T [ F m . Since F is a field, we have the notion of the non-singular
matrices from MatðF; mÞ. For any invertible matrix U, we denote the inverse matrix as
U 21 . For arbitrary U j ; . . . ; U jþn [ MatðF; mÞ; j [ Z; n [ N, we define
Y
jþn Y
j
U i U U j · U jþ1 · · ·U jþn ; U i U U jþn · U jþn21 · · ·U j :
i¼j i¼jþn

Let @ be a metric on F and suppose that the operations % and ( are continuous with
respect to @ and that the metric space ðF; @Þ is complete. The metric @ induces the metrics
in F m and MatðF; mÞ as the sum of m and m 2 non-negative numbers given by @ in F,
respectively. We will also denote these metrics as @. For any 1 . 0 and a from a metric
space, the 1-neighbourhood of a will be denoted by O@1 ðaÞ. Note that the continuity of
% and ( implies that the multiplication · of matrices from MatðF; mÞ (and U · v,
U [ MatðF; mÞ, v [ F m ) is continuous.
All sequences, which we will consider, will be defined for k [ Z (or i; j [ N)
and will attain values in one of the metric spaces F, F m , MatðF; mÞ (or C). The vector-
valued (and scalar-valued) sequences will be denoted by the lower case letters,
the matrix-valued sequences by the capital letters and each one of the scalar-, vector- and
matrix-valued sequences by the symbols {wk},{ck} and {xk}, respectively.
Now we can recall a natural generalization of the almost periodicity. For more general
extensions of the Bohr concept, see [12,20,33].
A sequence {wk } is called almost periodic if for any 1 . 0, there exists a positive
integer lð1Þ such that any set consisting of lð1Þ consecutive integers contains at least one
integer l with the property that
@ðwkþl ; wk Þ , 1; k [ Z:
Integer l is called an 1-translation number of {wk }. For any 1 . 0, the set of all
1-translation numbers of the sequence {wk } is denoted by Tð{wk }; 1Þ.
We will consider m-dimensional homogeneous linear difference equations of the form
xkþ1 ¼ A k · xk ; k [ Z; ð1Þ
4 M. Veselý

where {A k } is an almost periodic sequence of non-singular matrices from a given infinite
set X , MatðF; mÞ. We need the set of all considered A k to form the set X which has the
below given properties. The set of all these almost periodic systems will be denoted by the
symbol APðX Þ.
We will identify sequence {A k } with system (1) which is determined by {A k }.
In the space APðX Þ, we introduce the metric (obviously, every almost periodic sequence
is bounded)
 
s {A k }; {B k } U sup @ðA k ; B k Þ; {A k }; {B k } [ APðX Þ:
k[Z

For 1 . 0, the symbol Os1 ð{A k }Þ
denotes the 1-neighbourhood of {A k } in APðX Þ.
We say that the infinite set X , MatðF; mÞ is transformable if the following
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conditions are fulfilled (cf. [24], Definition 2.1):
(i) For all U; V [ X , it holds
U · V [ X; U 21 [ X :
(ii) For any L [ Rþ and 1 . 0, there exists p ¼ pðL; 1Þ [ N with the property that, for
any n $ pðn [ NÞ and any sequence {C 0 ; C 1 ; . . . ; C n } , X , L # @ðC i ; OÞ,
i [ {0; 1; . . . ; n}, one can find a sequence {D 1 ; . . . ; D n } , X for which
D i [ O@1 ðC i Þ; 1 # i # n; Dn . . . D2 · D1 ¼ C0:
(iii) The multiplication of matrices is uniformly continuous on X and has the Lipschitz
property on a neighbourhood of I in X . Especially, for every 1 . 0, there exists
h ¼ hð1Þ . 0 such that
C · D; D · C [ O@1 ðCÞ if C [ X ; D [ O@h ðIÞ > X ;

and there exist z . 0 and P [ Rþ such that
C · D; D · C [ O@1P ðCÞ if C [ O@z ðIÞ > X ; D [ O@1 ðIÞ > X ; 1 [ ð0; zÞ:

(iv) For any L [ Rþ , there exists Q ¼ QðLÞ [ Rþ with the property that, for every 1 . 0
and C; D [ X nO@L ðOÞ satisfying C [ O@1 ðDÞ, it is valid that
C 21 · D; D · C 21 [ O@1Q ðIÞ:

For simplicity, in the below-mentioned examples, we will consider only the complex
or real case and we will speak about the classical case. Henceforth, we will use known
results of matrix analysis which can be found, e.g. in [14,19].
If
       
ðF; %; (Þ; @ð · ; ·Þ ¼ ðC; þ; ·Þ; j · 2 · j or ðF; %; (Þ; @ð · ; ·Þ ¼ ðR; þ; · Þ; j · 2 · j ;

then, evidently, the multiplication of matrices satisfies the Lipschitz condition on any set
O@K ðOÞ. For an arbitrary matrix norm (especially, for the l1 norm) denoted by k · k, we have
 21 
 21  A · E  
A 2 ðA þ EÞ21  # A 21 ; ð2Þ
1 2 kA 21 · Ek
 
for any matrices A; E such that A is invertible and A 21 E , 1. If we have a bounded
group X , MatðC; mÞ, then from (2) it follows that the map C 7 ! C 21 ; C [ X has the
Lipschitz property too. Hence, condition (iv) is satisfied.
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 5

Finally, conditions (iii) and (iv) are fulfilled for any bounded group X , MatðC; mÞ.
Furthermore, for any bounded group X , there exists 1 . 0 for which X > O@1 ðOÞ ¼ Y.
At the same time, from condition (ii), we know that X > O@1 ðOÞ ¼ Y for any transformable
set X , MatðC; mÞ. Indeed, it suffices to consider C 0 ¼ I and the constant sequence
{C 1 ; . . . ; C n } given by a matrix C such that kCk , 1.
Let 1 . 0, a bounded group X , MatðC; mÞ, and C 0 ; C 1 ; . . . ; C n [ X be arbitrarily
given. The uniform continuity of the multiplication of matrices on X implies the existence
of h ¼ hð1Þ . 0 such that CD; DC [ O@1 ðCÞ; if D [ Oh@ ðIÞ > X ; C [ X (see (ii)).
We define the maps H 1 ; H 2 on X £ X by
 
H 1 ððC; DÞÞ U C · D · C 21 ; H 2 ðC; DÞ U C 21 · D · C:
Since H 1 ; H 2 satisfy the Lipschitz condition, there exists R [ Rþ such that the images of
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{C} £ Oh@ =R ðIÞ > X in both of H 1 and H 2 are subsets of O@h ðIÞ for all C [ X .
If we replace
Y
1 Y
n Y
n
F i1 · C i2 by Ei · Ci;
i1 ¼n i2 ¼1 i¼1

where
F 1 ¼ H 1 ððI; E 1 ÞÞ; F 2 ¼ H 1 ððE 1 · C 1 ; E 2 ÞÞ; ... F n ¼ H 1 ððE 1 · C 1 · · ·E n21 · C n21 ; E n ÞÞ;
then we see that F i [ Oh@ =R ðIÞ
> X , i [ {1; . . . ; n} implies E i [ O@h ðIÞ, i [ {1; . . . ; n}.
Thus, from the existence of matrices F 1 ; . . . ; F n [ Oh@ =R ðIÞ > X for which
Y
1 Y
n
F i1 · C i2 ¼ C 0 ;
i1 ¼n i2 ¼1

it follows the existence of matrices D 1 ; . . . ; D n [ X satisfying
D i [ O@1 ðC i Þ; 1 # i # n; D n . . . D 2 · D 1 ¼ C 0 :
It means that a bounded group X , MatðC; mÞ is transformable if for any sufficiently
small 1 . 0, there exists pð1Þ [ N such that, for all n $ pð1Þ ðn [ NÞ, any matrix from X
can be expressed as a product of n matrices from O@1 ðIÞ > X . We remark that several
processes in the proofs of the below given results can be simplified in the classical case.
For example, in the proofs of Lemmas 3.4 and 3.10, one can use that, for any 1 . 0,
K [ Rþ and n [ N, there exists j ¼ jð1; K; nÞ . 0 for which
@ðM 1 · M 2 . . . M n ; OÞ , 1; M 1 ; M 2 ; . . . ; M n [ O@K ðOÞ;
and
@ðM 1 · · ·M n · u; oÞ , 1; M 1 ; . . . ; M n [ O@K ðOÞ; u [ O@K ðoÞ;
if we have M i [ O@j ðOÞ for at least one i [ {1; . . . ; n} or u [ O@j ðoÞ, respectively.

Remark 1. The group of all unitary matrices is transformable. Obviously, it suffices to
show that, for every 1 . 0, any unitary matrix can be obtained as the nth power of some
unitary matrix from the 1-neighbourhood of I for all sufficiently large n [ N. To show
this, let 1 . 0, n [ N and a m £ m unitary matrix U with eigenvalues eil1 ; . . . ; eilm , where
l1 ; . . . ; lm [ ½2p; pÞ be arbitrarily given. We have
U ¼ W · J · W* for some unitary matrix W ¼ WðUÞ;
6 M. Veselý

where J ¼ diag ½eil1 ; . . . ; eilm  and W * denotes the conjugate transpose of W. We find a
unitary matrix V for which V n ¼ U. By
W * · V n · W ¼ ðW * · V · WÞn ¼ J;
we obtain
h i
V ¼ W · diag eil1 =n ; . . . ; eilm =n · W * :

Since the multiplication of matrices is uniformly continuous on the set of all unitary
matrices, it remains to consider sufficiently large n [ N.

Remark 2. Let m $ 2 and F ¼ R. Now we will show that the group of all m £ m
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orthogonal matrices with determinant 1 is transformable. Analogously as for unitary
matrices, it is enough to prove that any orthogonal matrix U for which det U ¼ 1 is
products of n $ pð1Þ, n [ N orthogonal matrices from the 1-neighbourhood of I for
arbitrary 1 . 0 and some pð1Þ [ N. Indeed, it is seen that there exists a neighbourhood of
I, which contains only orthogonal matrices with determinant 1.
Let m ¼ 2. Observe that a 2D orthogonal matrix has the form
" #
cos a 2sin a
;
sin a cos a

where a [ ½2p; pÞ, if and only if its determinant is 1. It can be easily computed that
" # " # " #
cos a1 2sin a1 cos a2 2sin a2 cosða1 þ a2 Þ 2sinða1 þ a2 Þ
· ¼ ;
sin a1 cos a1 sin a2 cos a2 sinða1 þ a2 Þ cosða1 þ a2 Þ

for a1 ; a2 [ R and that, consequently, any of these matrices (for some a [ ½2p; pÞ) can
be obtained as the nth power of the orthogonal matrix of this type given by the argument
a=n for all n [ N.
Now we use the induction principle with respect to m. Assume that the statement is
true for m 2 1 $ 2 and prove it for m. Let U be an orthogonal m £ m matrix which is not in
any one of the forms
" # " #
1 oT V o
; ; ð3Þ
o V oT 1

where V is an orthogonal matrix of dimension m 2 1, o [ F m21 , and suppose that U has
the element on the position ð1; mÞ different from 0 (in the second case, we put U 2 U U in
the below given process). We multiply U from the left by an orthogonal matrix U 1 , which
is in the second form from (3) and satisfies that U 2 U U 1 · U has 0 on the position ð1; mÞ.
For U 2 , we define an orthogonal matrix U 3 , so that the mth row of U 3 is the last column of
U 2 and so that the first column and the first row of U 3 are zero except the number 1 on the
position ð1; 1Þ. Obviously, the product U 4 U U 3 · U 2 is equal to a matrix, which has the
second form from (3). Summarizing, we get U ¼ UT1 · UT3 · U 4 . Thus, one can express any
orthogonal matrix U as a product of at most three matrices of the forms given in (3).
Furthermore, the matrices of this product can be evidently chosen so that the determinant
of all of them is 1 if the determinant of the given matrix is 1 too. Now the induction
hypothesis gives the validity of the above statement.
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 7

In the complex case, i.e. for m $ 2 and F ¼ C, the group of all m £ m unitary matrices
with determinant 1 is transformable as well. It suffices to consider Remark 1 and
diagonalizations of unitary matrices.

Remark 3. Let a unitary matrix S be given. Let X S be the set of the unitary matrices which
are simultaneously diagonalizable for the single similarity matrix S, i.e. let
   
X S ¼ S 21 · diag eil1 ; . . . ; eilm · S; l1 ; . . . ; lm [ ½2p; pÞ :
Obviously, X S is a subgroup of the m £ m unitary group (different from this group for
m $ 2). Since diagonalizable (normal) matrices are simultaneously (unitarily)
diagonalizable if and only if they commute under multiplication, X S is a commutative
group. Analogously as in Remark 1, one can show that X S is transformable. Furthermore,
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X S is transformable also for arbitrary non-singular matrix S. Especially, a transformable
set does not need to be a subgroup of the m £ m unitary group.

Remark 4. Now we consider the set of the unitary matrices with the determinant in the
form eir , r [ Q or r [ Z. Evidently, these matrices form a group as well. Considering
diagonalizations of unitary matrices and the uniform continuity of the multiplication of
unitary matrices, we get that this group is dense in the group of all unitary matrices. Thus
(see Remark 1), it satisfies condition (ii). Finally, it is transformable. In general, any dense
subgroup of a transformable set is transformable as well.

Remark 5. Let a unitary matrix S be given. Analogously as in Remarks 3 and 4, we can
show that the group
 *   
S · diag eil1 ; . . . ; eilm · S; l1 ; . . . ; lm [ Q
is transformable. In general, the matrices with eigenvalues in the form eir , where r [ Q or
r [ Z, from a given commutative transformable subgroup of the m £ m unitary group,
form transformable set if it is infinite. Indeed, if complex matrices A; B commute and have
eigenvalues l1 ; . . . ; lm and m1 ; . . . ; mm , respectively, then the eigenvalues of AB are
l1 mj1 ; l2 mj2 ; . . . ; lm mjm for some permutation j1 ; . . . ; jm of the indices 1; . . . ; m.

Remark 6. If X is transformable, then, for any {Li }i[N , Rþ and j $ 2 ðj [ NÞ, one can
find {1i }i[N ; {1i ð{Li }; jÞ}i[N , Rþ satisfying
X1
1i , 1;
i¼1
j i $ pðLgðiÞ ; 1i Þ for infinitely many i [ N; some gðiÞ [ N; ð4Þ
where gðiÞ ! 1 for i ! 1. This follows directly from (ii). Indeed, one can put
1i U 22k ; i ¼ f ðkÞ for some k [ N;
1i U 2 ; 2i
i  {f ðkÞ; k [ N}; i [ N;
for arbitrarily given increasing discrete function f : N ! N with the property that
j f ðkÞ $ pðLk ; 22k Þ; k [ N;
whose inverse function is considered in (4) as g.
Of course, inequality (4) from the previous remark does not need to be true for all i [ N
or for a set of i which is relatively dense in N. This fact motivates the next definition.
8 M. Veselý

The set X is strongly transformable if it is transformable and if for any L [ Rþ , there
exist j ¼ jðLÞ [ N and a sequence {1i }i[N ; {1i ðLÞ}i[N , Rþ such that
X
1
1i , 1; ð5Þ
i¼1

j i $ pðL; 1i Þ for all i [ N: ð6Þ

Remark 7. Since we considered only maps which satisfy the Lipschitz condition in the
above examples (in the classical case) and since we can choose
pðL; 1; m þ 1Þ # 3pðL; 1; mÞ;
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in (ii) when using the induction principle with respect to m (see Remark 2), all transformable
sets of matrices mentioned in Remarks 1–5 are actually strongly transformable.

Remark 8. In concrete computations, it is useful to consider Theorem 3.6 of P [31] and
sequences {1i }i[N ; {1i ðLÞ}i[N , Rþ , {ji }i[N ; {ji ðLÞ}i[N # N for which 1 i¼1 1i ji ,
1 and qi $ pðL; 1i Þ for infinitely many i [ N if X is transformable, and for sufficiently
large i [ N if X is strongly transformable, where q1 U 1, qiþ1 U ð2ji þ 1Þqi ; i [ N.

3. Systems without almost periodic solutions
Before considering the gist of this paper, we recall the following results about almost
periodic sequences which we will need later and which can be easily proved using
methods from the classical theory of almost periodic functions (see [3,7] for the classical
cases and see [4] for generalizations).

Theorem 3.1. Let {wk } be given. The sequence {wk } is almost periodic if and only if from
any sequence of the form {{wkþhi }k[Z }i[N , where {hi }i[N # Z, one can extract a
subsequence converging uniformly for k [ Z.

Proof. See, e.g. [31] (Theorem 2.3). A

Theorem 3.2. For every sequence of almost periodic sequences
{w1k }; . . . ; {wik }; . . . ;
the sequence of limi!1 wik is almost periodic if the convergence is uniform with respect to k.

Proof. The proof can be easily obtained by a modification of the proof of [7] (Theorem
6.4). A
Using Theorems 3.1 and 3.2, one can obtain the following corollary.

Corollary 3.3. For an almost periodic sequence {wk } and an arbitrary sequence of
integers h1 ; . . . ; hi ; . . . , there exists a subsequence {h~ i }i[N of {hi }i[N such that

lim lim wkþh~ i 2h~ j ¼ wk :
j!1 i!1

Remark 9. It is possible to prove that a sequence {wk } is almost periodic if and only if every
pair of sequences {hi }i[N ; {li }i[N # Z have common subsequences {h~ i }i[N ; {~li }i[N with
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 9

the property that

lim lim w ~ ~ ¼ lim wkþh~ i þ~li ; pointwise for k [ Z: ð7Þ
j!1 i!1 kþhi þlj i!1

In fact, condition (7) is necessary and sufficient in any one of the two modes of the
convergence; i.e. in the strongest version, this condition is necessary in the uniform sense
and sufficient in the pointwise sense. For almost periodic functions defined on R with
values in C, the above result is due to Bochner and it can be found in [5]. The proof from
that paper can be generalized for complete metric spaces. If this necessary and sufficient
condition is applied only to the case {li } ; {2 hi } (as in Corollary 3.3), then one gets a
different class of sequences called almost automorphic sequences – see [6,26].
To prove the main results, we also need the following steps.
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Lemma 3.4. If an almost periodic sequence of non-singular A k [ MatðF; mÞ is such that,
for any 1 . 0, there exists i ¼ ið1Þ [ Z for which @ðO; A i Þ , 1, then the system
xkþ1 ¼ A k xk , k [ Z does not have a non-trivial almost periodic solution.

Proof. By contradiction, suppose that we have an almost periodic sequence {A k }, a
sequence {hi }i[N # Z satisfying
1
@ðO; A hi Þ , ; i [ N; ð8Þ
i
and a non-trivial almost periodic solution {xk } of the system xkþ1 ¼ A k xk . Using Theorem
3.1, we get uniformly convergent common subsequences {{A kþh~ i }k[Z }i[N and
{{xkþh~ i }k[Z }i[N of the sequences {{A kþhi }k[Z }i[N and {{xkþhi }k[Z }i[N , respectively.
The limits will be denoted as {B k } and {yk }.
We put 1 U @ðx0 ; oÞ=2 . 0. Because of the almost periodicity of {xk }, there exists
some lð1Þ. We will consider the sets N i U {i þ 1; i þ 2; . . . ; i þ lð1Þ} for i [ Z. Any one
of the sets N i contains a number l [ Tð{xk }; 1Þ. Thus,
xl  O@1 ðoÞ: ð9Þ
From (8), it follows that B 0 ¼ O. Since the multiplication of matrices is continuous,
one can find q . 0 for which
C j . . . C 0 · y [ O@1 ðoÞ; j ¼ 0; 1; . . . ; lð1Þ 2 1;
if y [ O@q ðy0 Þ and C i [ O@q ðB i Þ,
i [ {0; . . . ; j}. There exists i [ N such that



@ A kþh~ i ; B k , q; @ xkþh~ i ; yk , q; k [ Z:

Therefore,
xjþh~ i [ O@1 ðoÞ; j ¼ 1; . . . ; lð1Þ:
Indeed, it is valid that
xjþh~ i ¼ A jþh~ i 21 · · ·A h~ i · xh~ i ; j ¼ 1; . . . ; lð1Þ:
Thus, this contradiction (see (9)) gives the proof. A
Next, we present a technical statement which facilitates to find almost periodic
sequences having certain properties. Methods of generating almost periodic functions and
sequences with prescribed properties are also mentioned in [22,23], respectively.
10 M. Veselý

Lemma 3.5. Let w0 ; . . . ; wn and j [ N be given and {r i }i[N , Rþ
0 be arbitrary so that
X1
ri , 1 ð10Þ
i¼1

holds. Then, every sequence {wk } for which it is true
   
wk [ Or1 wk2ðnþ1Þ ; k [ n þ 1; ... ;2ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
. ..
   
wk [ Or1 wk2jðnþ1Þ ; k [ jðn þ 1Þ; ... ;ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
   
wk [ Or2 wkþðjþ1Þðnþ1Þ ; k [ 2ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . ..; 21 ;
. ..
 
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wk [ Or2 wkþjðjþ1Þðnþ1Þ ;
 
k [ 2jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . ..; 2ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;


wk [ Or3 wk2ðjþ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;
 
k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; ... ;ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
. ..


wk [ Or3 wk2jðjþ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;
 
k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; ... ;ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;


wk [ Or4 wkþðjþ1Þ3 ðnþ1Þ ;
 
k [ 2ðj þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; .. .; 2jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
. ..


wk [ Or4 wkþjðjþ1Þ3 ðnþ1Þ ;
 
k [ 2jðj þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; ... ;2ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 jðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
. ..


wk [ Or2i wkþðjþ1Þ2i21 ðnþ1Þ ;
  
k [ 2 ðj þ 1Þ2i21 þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ3 þ jðj þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ; .. .;
  
2 jðj þ 1Þ2i23 þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ3 þ jðj þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
. ..

  
wk [ Or2i wkþjðjþ1Þ2i21 ðnþ1Þ ; k [ 2 jðj þ 1Þ2i21 þ ··· þ jðj þ 1Þ3 þ jðj þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ; . ..;
  
2 ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ2i21 þ ·· · þ jðj þ 1Þ3 þ jðj þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;


wk [ Or2iþ1 wk2ðjþ1Þ2i ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ; .. .;

ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ þ ðj þ 1Þ2i ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
. ..


wk [ Or2iþ1 wk2jðjþ1Þ2i ðnþ1Þ ;

k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ2i ðn þ 1Þ; ... ;

ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ jðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · ·· þ jðj þ 1Þ2i ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ; . ..

is almost periodic.
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 11

Proof. See [31] (Theorem 3.5). A

Theorem 3.6. Let X be strongly transformable. Let {A k } [ APðX Þ and 1 . 0 be
arbitrarily given. If there exist L [ Rþ and {M i }i[N such that
M i ; M21
i [ X nO@L ðOÞ; i [ N; ð11Þ
and that, for any non-zero vector u [ F m , one can find i ¼ iðuÞ [ N with the property
that M i u – u, then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ which does not possess a non-trivial
almost periodic solution.

Proof. If {A k } has a non-trivial almost periodic solution, then there exists K [ Rþ such
that @ðA k ; OÞ . K for all k. Indeed, it follows from Lemma 3.4. Since it suffices to
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consider only very small 1 . 0, we can assume without loss of the generality that
L þ 1 , @ðI; OÞ; L þ 1 , @ðA k ; OÞ; k [ Z; ð12Þ
otherwise, we can put B k U A k , k [ Z.
Let h ¼ hð1=2Þ, z, P and Q ¼ QðLÞ be from (iii) and (iv), respectively. Furthermore,
let h , 1 , z and let {1i }i[N , Rþ , n [ N, and j $ 2 ðj [ NÞ satisfy
X1
h
1i , ; ð13Þ
i¼1
PQ

j i ðn þ 1Þ $ pðL; 1i Þ for all i [ N: ð14Þ
Inequality (13) follows from (5), if we omit finitely many values of 1i , and (14) from the
fact that n and j can be arbitrarily large and from (6). We remark that P; Q $ 1.
We put
B k U A k ; C k U I for k [ {0; 1; . . . ; n}
and we choose
 
B k ¼ A k · C k for some C k [ O@12 Q C k2ðnþ1Þ > X ; k [ fn þ 1; . . . ; 2ðn þ 1Þ 2 1g;
···
   
Bk ¼ Ak · Ck; Ck [ O@12 Q C k2j 4 ðnþ1Þ > X ; k [ j 4 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

arbitrarily such that
Y
nþ1 Y
nþ1 Y
nþ1
Bk ¼ M1; Bk ¼ B k ¼ I:
k¼ðj 2 þ1Þðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 3 þ j 2 Þðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ21

For
C 1 ; . . . ; C n ; D 1 ; . . . ; D n [ X ; D i [ O@q ðC i Þ;
 
where q . 0, L þ q # @ C i ; O , i [ {1; . . . ; n}, and n $ pðL; qÞ, we can express
   21 
D n · · ·D 2 · D 1 ¼ C n · C21 n · D n · · ·C 1 · C1 · D 1 ;

where
  @
C21
i · D i [ OqQ ðIÞ; i [ {1; . . . ; n}:

Using this fact and considering (11), (12) and (14), we get the existence of the above
matrices C k .
12 M. Veselý

In the second step, we put
 
B k U A k · C kþðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ ; k [ 2ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 21 ;
...
 
B k U A k · C kþj 4 ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ ; k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 2ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

and we denote
 
C k U A21
k · Bk ; k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 21 :

Now we choose


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B k ¼ A k · C k ; C k [ O@14 PQ C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ > X ;
 
k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
...


B k ¼ A k · C k ; C k [ O@14 PQ C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ > X ;
    
k [ j 4 þ 1 þ ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1

arbitrarily such that
ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y
Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;
k¼j 7 ðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 7 þj 6 2j 0 Þðnþ1Þ21

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y
Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;
k¼j 8 ðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 8 þj 6 2j 3 Þðnþ1Þ21

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y
Bk ¼ M2; B k ¼ I;
k¼j 9 ðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 9 þj 6 2j 0 Þðnþ1Þ21

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y
Bk ¼ M2; B k ¼ I;
k¼j 10 ðnþ1Þ21 k¼ðj 10 þj 6 2j 3 Þðnþ1Þ21

ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þ
Y
B k ¼ I:
k¼ðj 4 þ1Þðnþ1Þþj 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ21

Such matrices C k exist. Indeed, we can transform
~ k U A k · C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;
B
 
k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
...
~B k U A k · C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;
    
k [ j 4 þ 1 þ ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 13

into B k by
~ k;
B k ¼ A k · C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ · C
 4 
k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
...
~ k;
B k ¼ A k · C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ · C
 4    
k [ j þ 1 þ ðj 2 1Þðj þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
4 4

where C ~ k [ O@ ðIÞ for all considered k (see condition (iv)), and hence we have
14 Q
(see condition (iii) and also (18) and (19))


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~ k [ O@
C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ · C 14 PQ C k2ðj þ1Þ ðnþ1Þ ;
4 2

 4 
k [ ðj þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
...


~k [
C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ · C O@14 PQ
C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2 ðnþ1Þ ;
    
k [ j 4 þ 1 þ ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 :
~ k.
Thus, we can obtain C k from the previous step and from the above C
We put

B k U A k · C kþðj 4 þ1Þ3 ðnþ1Þ ;
 
k [ 2ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
···

k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ;
B k U A k · C kþj 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ3 ðnþ1Þ ;

2ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

and we denote

C k U A21
k · Bk;
 4 4 
k [ 2j ðj þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 :

We proceed further in the same way. In the ð2i 2 1Þ-th step, we choose


B k ¼ A k · C k ; C k [ O@12i PQ C k2ðj 4 þ1Þ2i22 ðnþ1Þ > X ;

k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ;
. . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ

þðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
···


B k ¼ A k · C k ; C k [ O@12i PQ C k2j 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2i22 ðnþ1Þ > X ;

k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ
þ ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ

þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
14 M. Veselý

such that
Y
qðiÞ Y
qðiÞ
Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;
k¼p01 21 k¼p01 þðj 3i 2j 0 Þðnþ1Þ21

Y
qðiÞ Y
qðiÞ
Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;
k¼p11 21 k¼p11 þðj 3i 2j 3 Þðnþ1Þ21

···
Y
qðiÞ Y
qðiÞ
Bk ¼ M1; B k ¼ I;
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k¼pi21
1
21 k¼pi21
1
þðj 3i 2j 3ði21Þ Þðnþ1Þ21

···
Y
qðiÞ Y
qðiÞ
Bk ¼ Mi; B k ¼ I;
k¼p0i 21 k¼p0i þðj 3i 2j 0 Þðnþ1Þ21

Y
qðiÞ Y
qðiÞ
Bk ¼ Mi; B k ¼ I;
k¼p1i 21 k¼p1i þðj 3i 2j 3 Þðnþ1Þ21

···
Y
qðiÞ Y
qðiÞ
Bk ¼ Mi; B k ¼ I;
k¼pi21
i 21 k¼pi21 3i
i þðj 2j
3ði21Þ Þðnþ1Þ21

and
Y
qðiÞ
B k ¼ I;
k¼pðiÞ

where p01 ; . . . ; p1i21 ; . . . ; p0i ; . . . ; pi21
i are arbitrary positive integers for which
qðiÞ þ j 2i ðn þ 1Þ # p01 ;
and
p01 þ ðj 2i þ j 3i Þðn þ 1Þ # p11 ; ... pi22 2i 3i i21
1 þ ðj þ j Þðn þ 1Þ # p1 ;
pi21
1 þ ðj 2i þ j 3i Þðn þ 1Þ # p02 ;
···
p0i 2i 3i
þ ðj þ j Þðn þ 1Þ # p1i ; ... pi22
i þ ðj 2i þ j 3i Þðn þ 1Þ # pi21
i ;
pi21
i þ ðj þ j 3i Þðn þ 1Þ # pðiÞ;
2i

if

qðiÞ ¼ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ;
pðiÞ ¼ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1:

The existence of these numbers follows from

pðiÞ 2 qðiÞ ¼ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 $ ðj 2i þ j 3i Þði 2 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; i; j $ 2ði; j [ NÞ; n [ N;
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 15

and the existence of the above matrices B k follows from (14) and from

j 3i 2 j 3ði2kÞ $ j 2i ; k [ {1; . . . ; i}; i [ N; j $ 2ðj [ NÞ:

In the 2i-th step, we put

B k U A k · C kþðj 4 þ1Þ2i21 ðnþ1Þ ;
  
k [ 2 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ;
  
. . . ; 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i23 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
···
B k U A k · C kþj 4 ðj 4 þ1Þ2i21 ðnþ1Þ ;
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k [ 2j 4 ððj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ ðj 4 þ 1ÞÞðn þ 1Þ;
  
. . . ; 2 ðj 4 2 1Þðj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

and we denote
  
C k U A21
k · Bk ; k [ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ;
  
. . . ; 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i23 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 :

Using this construction, we obtain the sequence {B k }k[Z # X .
We will consider the system

x kþ1 ¼ B k · x k ; k [ Z: ð15Þ

Suppose that there exists a non-zero vector u [ F m for which the solution {x k } of (15)
satisfying x nþ1 ¼ u is almost periodic. We know that

Y
nþ1
xk ¼ Bi · u for k . n þ 1; k [ N: ð16Þ
i¼k21

If we choose {hi }i[N ; {j 3ði21Þ ðn þ 1Þ}i[N for {wk } ; {x k } in Theorem 3.1, then, for any
q . 0, we get the existence of an infinite set N ¼ NðqÞ # N0 such that
 
@ x kþj 3i1 ðnþ1Þ ; x kþj 3i2 ðnþ1Þ , q; k [ Z; i1 ; i2 [ N: ð17Þ

Thus, for every q . 0, there exist infinitely many q-translation numbers in the form
ðj 3i1 2 j 3i2 Þ ðn þ 1Þ, where i1. i2 ði1 ; i2 [ NÞ. For some i [ N with the property that
M i u – u, we choose q , @ M i u; u and the above i1 . i2 . i ði1 ; i2 [ NÞ arbitrarily.
We have (see (17))
 
@ x kþðj 3i1 2j 3i2 Þðnþ1Þ ; x k , q; k [ Z:

From (16) and the construction of {B k }, we obtain
 
@ x kþðj 3i1 2j 3i2 Þðnþ1Þ ; x k . q for at least one k [ N:

This contradiction gives that {x k } cannot be almost periodic. It means that system (15)
does not have a non-trivial almost periodic solution.
16 M. Veselý

Now it suffices to show that {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ; i.e. B k [ O@1~ ðA k Þ for all k and some
1~ [ ð0; 1Þ and that {B k } is almost periodic. It is seen that
 
C k [ O@12 Q ðIÞ; k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; 0; . . . ; ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
   
C k [ O@ð12 þ14 ÞPQ ðIÞ; k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ; j 4 þ 1 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

C k [ O@ð12 þ14 ÞPQ ðIÞ; k [ 2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 ðn þ 1Þ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ; . . . ;

2j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;

and that, for all i $ 3 ði [ NÞ, it is valid

C k [ O@ð12 þ14 þ· · ·þ12i ÞPQ ðIÞ;
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k [ ðj 4 þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i24 ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ;
 4 
j þ 1Þðn þ 1Þ þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2 ðn þ 1Þ þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i22 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 ;
C k [ O@ð12 þ14 þ· · ·þ12i ÞPQ ðIÞ;
  
k [ 2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i21 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ; . . . ;
  
2 j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ2i23 þ · · · þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ3 þ j 4 ðj 4 þ 1Þ ðn þ 1Þ 2 1 :

Thus, we have (see (13))
C k [ O@h ðIÞ; k [ Z; ð18Þ

and hence (see condition (iii))

B k [ O@1=2 ðA k Þ; k [ Z: ð19Þ

Indeed,
Bk ¼ Ak · Ck for all k [ Z: ð20Þ

From Lemma 3.5, it follows that the sequence {C k } is almost periodic. Using the
almost periodicity of {A k }, we see that the set
   
T {A k }; d > T {C k }; d is relatively dense in Z; ð21Þ

for any d . 0. Since the multiplication of matrices is uniformly continuous on X , we have
(consider (20))
     
T {A k }; dðqÞ > T {C k }; dðqÞ # T {B k }; q ; ð22Þ

for arbitrary q . 0, where dðqÞ . 0 is the number corresponding to q from the definition
of the uniform continuity of the multiplication of two matrices. Finally, (21) and (22) give
the almost periodicity of {B k }, which completes the proof. A

Remark 10. All groups of matrices from Remarks 1 –5 (except the general case in
Remark 5) satisfy the conditions of Theorem 3.6.
From the proof of the above theorem, we get the following result.

Corollary 3.7. Let X be strongly transformable. Let {A k } [ APðX Þ, 1 . 0, and u – o,
u [ F m be given. If there exists a matrix M [ X such that Mu – u, then there exists
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 17

{B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ for which the solution of
x kþ1 ¼ B k · x k ; k [ Z; x 0 ¼ u;
is not almost periodic.
Note that, in Theorem 3.6, condition (11) can be omitted, i.e. we can put L ¼ 0.
We will obtain this fact from the below given Theorem 3.11. Now, for the later
comparison, let us recall a statement from [8], see also [1] (Theorem 2.10.1), and one of its
known consequences.

Theorem 3.8. Let ðF; @ð · ; ·ÞÞ ¼ ðC; j · 2 · jÞ. If a vector-valued sequence {b k } is almost
periodic and a matrix A [ MatðC; mÞ is non-singular, then a solution of
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x kþ1 ¼ A · x k þ b k ; k [ Z;
is almost periodic if and only if it is bounded.

Corollary 3.9. Let ðF; @ð · ; · ÞÞ ¼ ðC; j · 2 · jÞ. Let a periodic sequence {A k } of m £ m
non-singular matrices with complex elements be given. Then, a solution of the system
x kþ1 ¼ A k x k , k [ Z, is almost periodic if and only if it is bounded.

Proof. Every almost periodic sequence is bounded, and hence we need only to show that
the boundedness of a solution implies its almost periodicity. Assume that we have a
periodic system x kþ1 ¼ A k x k , k [ Z, and its bounded solution {x k }. Let n [ N be a
period of {A k }. Applying Theorem 3.8, we get that the sequence {y1k } ; {x nk }, i.e.
Y
0 Y
21
y10 ¼ x 0 ; y1k ¼ A i · x 0 ; k [ N; y1k ¼ A21
i · x0; k [ ZnN;
i¼nk21 i¼nk

is almost periodic. Indeed, {y1k } is a bounded solution of the constant system
y kþ1 ¼ A n21 · · ·A 1 · A 0 · y k ; k [ Z:
Analogously, one can show that the sequences {yjk } ; {x nkþj21 }, j [ {2; 3; . . . ; n} are
almost periodic. The almost periodicity of {x k } follows from Theorem 3.1. A

Remark 11. We note that it is possible to obtain several modifications of Corollary 3.9 for
non-homogeneous systems if the non-homogeneousness is almost periodic. Let us mention
at least the most important one – the continuous version for differential systems – e.g. see
[10] (Corollary 6.5). If a complex matrix-valued function AðtÞ, t [ R, is periodic and a
complex vector-valued function bðtÞ, t [ R, is almost periodic, then any solution of
x0 ðtÞ ¼ AðtÞxðtÞ þ bðtÞ, t [ R, is almost periodic if and only if it is bounded.

Remark 12. Consider again ðF; @ð · ; · ÞÞ ¼ ðC; j · 2 · jÞ. We want to document that
Corollary 3.9 is no longer true if {A k } is only almost periodic. In [31], it is shown that the
real sequence {ak } defined by the recurrent formula
1
a0 U 1; a1 U 0; a2n þk U ak 2 ; n [ N; k ¼ 0; . . . ; 2n 2 1 ð23Þ
2n
on N0 and by the prescription
ak U 2a2k21 for k [ ZnN0 ; ð24Þ
18 M. Veselý

is almost periodic and that it satisfies (see [31], Lemma 4.4)
n
2X 21 2nþjX
þ2n 21
1
ak ¼ 1; ak ¼ 2 2 ; n [ N0 ; j [ N: ð25Þ
k¼0 k¼0
2j
Let X be the set of all m £ m diagonal matrices with numbers on the diagonal which
has absolute value 1. (It is easily seen that, in this case, X is strongly transformable. See
also Remarks 3 and 7.) All solutions of the system of form (1) given by the sequence
{A k } ; diag½eiak ; . . . ; eiak  are obviously bounded but we will show that they are not
almost periodic (except the trivial one).
It suffices to consider the scalar case, i.e. m ¼ 1. Assume that the system has an almost
periodic solution {xk }. We have
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Pk21
i a
xk ¼ e j¼0 j · x0 ; k [ N:
Especially (see (25)),
2j
x2n ¼ ei · x0 ; x2nþj þ2n ¼ e2i22 i
· x0 ; n [ N0 ; j [ N: ð26Þ
j
Using Theorem 3.1 for the sequence {2 }j[N , for any 1 . 0, we get an infinite set
N ¼ Nð1Þ # N such that

xkþ2jð1Þ 2 xkþ2jð2Þ , 1 for all k [ Z; jð1Þ; jð2Þ [ N:

For some jð1Þ [ N, the choice k ¼ 2jð1Þ and (26) give

i jð1Þ2jð2Þ
e 2 e2i22 i
· jx0 j , 1; jð1Þ , jð2Þ; jð1Þ; jð2Þ [ N:

Since 1 can be arbitrarily small and jð2Þ . jð1Þ can be found for every 1 . 0, we obtain
x0 ¼ 0. Thus, the system does not have a non-trivial almost periodic solution.
In the above remark, we see that the boundedness is necessary to the almost periodicity
of solutions of considered almost periodic systems but not sufficient. Now we prove a
more important necessary (also not sufficient, see again Remark 12) condition about the
limitation of almost periodic solutions in the next lemma.

Lemma 3.10. Let an almost periodic sequence of non-singular A k [ MatðF; mÞ be given.
Let {x k } be an almost periodic solution of the system x kþ1 ¼ A k x k , k [ Z. Then, it is valid
either x k ¼ o, k [ Z or
inf @ ðx k ; oÞ . 0:
k[Z

Proof. Suppose that a solution {x k } of a system satisfies infk[Z @ ðx k ; oÞ ¼ 0. Let
{hi }i[N # Z be such that
lim @ ðx hi ; oÞ ¼ 0: ð27Þ
i!1

Considering Theorems 3.1 and 3.2 and Corollary 3.3, we get a subsequence {h~ i } of {hi }
for which there exist almost periodic sequences {B k }, {y k } satisfying
lim A kþh~ i ¼ B k ; lim B k2h~ i ¼ A k ; lim x kþh~ i ¼ y k ; lim y ~ ¼ xk;
i!1 i!1 i!1 i!1 k2hi

where the convergences can be uniform with respect to k [ Z (see Remark 9). We have
y kþ1 ¼ B k y k , k [ Z and y 0 ¼ o (see equation (27)). Thus {y k } ; {o}. Consequently,
x k ¼ limi!1 y k2h~ i ¼ o for k [ Z. A
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 19

Remark 13. Similarly as for Corollary 3.9, modifications of Lemma 3.10 can be proved.
For example, it is possible to prove the almost automorphic version of the result
(consider Remark 9), i.e. if {x k } is almost automorphic, then the conclusion of the above
lemma is true.

Remark 14. Applying Lemma 3.5 for n ¼ 0, w0 ¼ 2, j ¼ 1 and r i ¼ 3=2i , i [ N, we
construct the non-zero almost periodic sequence everywhere
1 1
b0 U 2; b1 U 2 2 1; b22 U 2 2 ; b21 U 1 2 ;
2 2
...
 
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1
bk U bkþ22i21 2 2i21 ; k [ 222i21 2 · · · 2 23 2 2; . . . ; 222i23 2 · · · 2 23 2 2 2 1 ;
2
1  
bk U bk222i 2 2i ; k [ 2 þ 22 þ · · · þ 22i22 ; . . . ; 2 þ 22 þ · · · þ 22i22 þ 22i 2 1 ;
2
...

in the space ðR; j · 2 · jÞ. Since
lim b20 221 þ22 223 þ· · ·þð22Þi ¼ 0;
i!1

the equation xkþ1 ¼ bk xk , k [ Z, does not have a non-trivial almost periodic solution
(see Lemma 3.4), and the vector-valued sequence {bk u}, where u – o, u [ Rm , is not a
solution of an almost periodic homogeneous linear difference system. Moreover, for any
bounded countable set of real numbers, it is shown in [11] that there exists an almost
periodic sequence whose range is the set (and which assumes each value in the set
periodically). It means that there exists a large class of almost periodic sequences which
cannot be solutions of any almost periodic system (1).

Theorem 3.11. Let X be transformable and let {A k } [ APðX Þ and 1 . 0 be arbitrary.
If there exists a matrix MðqÞ [ O@q ðOÞ > X for any q . 0, then there exists {B k } [
Os1 ð{A k }Þ which does not have an almost periodic solution other than the trivial one.
 
Proof. We put Li U @ M i ; O for matrices M i [ X , i [ N such that
lim Li ¼ 0; Liþ1 , Li ; i [ N: ð28Þ
i!1

Let h ¼ hð1=2Þ, z and P, and Q ¼ QðL1 Þ be from conditions (iii) and (iv), respectively.
As in the proof of Theorem 3.6, we can assume (or choose {B k } ; {A k }) that
h , 1 , z; L1 þ 1 , @ðA k ; OÞ; k [ Z;
þ
and that (see also Remark 6) we have {1i }i[N , R , j $ 2 ðj [ NÞ, and n [ N satisfying
X
1
h
1i , ;
i¼1
PQ ð29Þ
j ðn þ 1Þ $ pðLgðiÞ ; 1i Þ for infinitely many odd i [ N;
i

where gðiÞ is from Remark 6 too.
The set of all i – 1 ði [ NÞ, which are not divisible by 2 and for which (29) is valid,
will be denoted by N. Let N ¼ {i1 ; i2 ; . . . ; il ; . . . }, where il , ilþ1 , l [ N. Since we can
20 M. Veselý

redefine Li (choose other M i ), we can also assume that gðil Þ $ l, l [ N. We will construct
sequences {B k } and {C k } as in the proof of Theorem 3.6 for j 4 replaced by j. First of all we
put
 
pl U j þ 1 þ jðj þ 1Þ2 þ · · · þ jðj þ 1Þil 23 ðn þ 1Þ; l [ N;
 
ql U j þ 1 þ jðj þ 1Þ2 þ · · · þ jðj þ 1Þil 21 ðn þ 1Þ 2 1; l [ N:
Before the i1 th step (for k # p1 2 1), we choose the matrices C k (consequently B k )
arbitrarily. We will obtain B k and define
Y
0 Y
0
J1 U Bk ; J2 U Bk ; . . . :
k¼p1 k¼p2
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In the i1 th step, we choose the matrices C k arbitrarily if J 1 [ O@L1 ðOÞ, and so that
Y
0
Bk ¼ M1 if J 1  O@L1 ðOÞ:
k¼q1

Between the i1 th step and the i2 th step, we choose them again arbitrarily. In the i2 th step,
we choose them arbitrarily if J 2 [ O@L2 ðOÞ, and so that
Y
0
Bk ¼ M2 if J 2  O@L2 ðOÞ:
k¼q2

If we proceed further in the same way, then we get matrices C k , B k for all k [ Z.
Analogously, as in the proof of Theorem 3.6, we can prove that {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ.
We have
!
Y0
@ B k ; O # Ll for r l [ {pl ; ql }; l [ N: ð30Þ
k¼rl
m
 for any u [ F@ and m . 0, there exists d ¼ dðu; mÞ . 0 with the property that
Evidently,

@ Cu; o , m if C [ Od ðOÞ. Using this, from (28), (30) and Lemma 3.10, we get that all
non-trivial solutions of the system of the form (1) given by {B k } are not almost
periodic. A

Remark 15. The condition of Theorem 3.11 cannot be satisfied if the metric @
(in MatðF; mÞ) is given by a matrix norm (see condition (ii)). Of course, there exist
transformable sets which satisfy the condition (it is seen if, e.g. one considers ‘large’ fields
as the field of all meromorphic functions on a connected open set or the field of all rational
functions on a variety).

Corollary 3.12. Let X be transformable, {A k } [ APðX Þ, non-zero u [ F m , and 1 . 0
be arbitrary. If there exists a sequence {M i }i[N # X with the property that
limi!1 @ ðM i u; oÞ ¼ 0, then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ for which the solution of
x kþ1 ¼ B k · x k ; k [ Z; x 0 ¼ u;
is not almost periodic.

Proof. It suffices to consider Lemma 3.10, the construction from the proof of Theorem 3.6,
and the sequence {B k } from the proof of Theorem 3.11. A
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 21

Combining Theorems 3.6 and 3.11, we obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 3.13. Let X be strongly transformable and have a dense countable subset.
Let {A k } [ APðX Þ and 1 . 0 be arbitrarily given. If for any vector u – o, u [ F m , there
exists MðuÞ [ X for which
MðuÞ · u – u;
then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ which does not have almost periodic solutions.
It remains to examine the case for transformable X when there exists L [ Rþ for
which X > O@L ðOÞ ¼ Y.
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Theorem 3.14. Let X be transformable and let {A k } [ APðX Þ and 1 . 0 be arbitrary. If
there exist a precompact transformable set X 0 # X and M [ X 0 for which @ðMu; uÞ . 0
for all u – o, u [ F m , and if there exists {u i }i[N # F m such that, for any q . 0 and
u – o, u [ F m , it is possible to find d ¼ dðu; qÞ . 0 and i ¼ iðuÞ [ N with the property
that, for every C [ X nO@q ðIÞ, one can choose Nðu i ; CÞ [ X satisfying
 
@ Nðu i ; CÞ · u; C · Nðu i ; CÞ · u . d; ð31Þ
then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ which does not possess an almost periodic solution
other than the trivial one.

Proof. From Theorem 3.11 it follows that, without loss of the generality, we can assume
the existence of L [ Rþ such that X > O@L ðOÞ ¼ Y. From (ii) for C 0 ¼ M, C i ¼ I,
i [ {1; . . . ; n} and (iii), we get that, for every qð1Þ . 0, there exist matrices
D 1 ð1Þ; . . . ; D nð1Þ ð1Þ [ X 0 satisfying
D 1 ð1Þ [ O@qð1Þ ðIÞ; D nð1Þ ð1Þ [ O@qð1Þ ðMÞ;
 
D i ð1Þ [ O@qð1Þ D iþ1 ð1Þ ; i [ f1; . . . ; nð1Þ 2 1g:
We put D 0 ð1Þ U I, D nð1Þþ1 ð1Þ U M. For every number qð2Þ [ ð0; qð1ÞÞ and each
i [ {1; . . . ; nð1Þ þ 1}, analogously (consider C 0 ¼ D i ð1Þ, C 1 ¼ D i21 ð1Þ, C l ¼ I for
l [ {2; . . . ; n}), there exist matrices D 1 ð2; iÞ; . . . ; D nð2Þ ð2; iÞ [ X 0 satisfying
D 1 ð2; iÞ [ O@qð2Þ ðD i21 ð1ÞÞ; D nð2Þ ð2; iÞ [ O@qð2Þ ðD i ð1ÞÞ;
 
D l ð2; iÞ [ O@qð2Þ D lþ1 ð2; iÞ ; l [ f1; . . . ; nð2Þ 2 1g:
Since we can proceed in the same way for a sequence of positive numbers q1 . q2 .
· · · . qn . · · · converging to 0, X 0 is precompact, and since the space MatðF; mÞ
is complete, there exists a continuous map F : ½0; 1 ! MatðF; mÞ such that
 
Fð0Þ ¼ I; Fð1Þ ¼ M; the set F ½0; 1 > X is dense in Fð½0; 1Þ: ð32Þ
Let T denote the set of all t [ ½21; 1 for which FðjtjÞ [ X . If we extend the domain of
definition of F by the formula Fð2tÞ U ðFðtÞÞ21 , t [ T > ð0; 1, then we get continuous
F : T ! X . Indeed, the map C 7 ! C 21 , C [ X is uniformly continuous – consider
conditions (iii) and (iv) and the composition C 7 ! C 21 D 7 ! C 21 DD 21 for given D [ X
from a neighbourhood of C.
Let the almost periodic sequence {ak } be from Remark 12. Directly from (23) and (24),
it is seen that {ak ; k [ Z} , ½21; 1. We can assume that ak [ T for all k (consider (32)).
From [31] (Theorem 4.7), we know that the system {Fðak Þ} does not have a non-zero
almost periodic solution.
22 M. Veselý

Suppose that there exists p [ N satisfying A kþp21 · · ·A kþ1 · A k ¼ I for all k. Let n~ [ N
be such that FðaÞ [ O@1=2 ðFðbÞÞ if ja 2 bj # 212~n , a; b [ T. From condition (ii), we obtain
the existence of a number l [ N for which we can construct periodic {A ~ k } [ Os ð{A k }Þ
1=2
n~
with a period 2 lp and with the property that

Y
0 Y
lp ð2n~Y
21Þlp
 
~ k ¼ Fða0 Þ;
A ~ k ¼ Fða1 Þ;
A ... ~ k ¼ F a2n~ 21 :
A
k¼lp21 k¼2lp21 k¼2n~ lp21

~ klp21 to B klp21 for k [ Z in order that
Now we change the matrices A
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ði21Þlp
Y
B k ¼ Fðai21 Þ; i [ Z:
k¼ilp21

~
We define B k U A k for the other numbers k. Considering (23) and (24), consequently
ak 2 akþi2n~ # 212~n , i; k [ Z, we have

B k [ O@1=2 ðA
~ k Þ; k [ Z:

Thus, B k [ O1@~ðA k Þ for all k and some 1~ , 1. From Theorem 3.1, the almost periodicity of
{Fðak Þ} and {A~ k }, and conditions (iii) and (iv), we get the almost periodicity of {B k }. We
emphasize that {Fðak Þ} does not have a non-zero almost periodic solution. Finally,
{B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ and this system cannot have non-trivial almost periodic solutions.
We put q U hð1=2Þ=QðLÞ. If A kþp21 . . . A kþ1 A k [ O@q ðIÞ, k [ Z for some p [ N, it
suffices to replace matrices A kp21 by B kp21 for k [ Z so that

B kp21 · A kp22 . . . A kp2p ¼ I; k [ Z:

Indeed, considering conditions (iii), (iv) and

B kp21 ¼ A21 21 21
kp2p . . . Akp22 · Akp21 · A kp21 ; k [ Z; ð33Þ

we have that B kp21 [ O@1=2 ðA kp21 Þ, k [ Z; the almost periodicity of the sequence
{A21 21 21
kp2p . . . Akp22 Akp21 } and, consequently (see also (33)), the almost periodicity of the
obtained sequence follow from Theorem 3.1, the almost periodicity of {A k }, the uniform
continuity of the multiplication of matrices on X and the map C 7 ! C 21 , C [ X .
It remains to consider the case that A kþp21 . . . A kþ1 A k  Oq@ =2 ðIÞ for all p [ N and
infinitely many k [ N which depend on p. It has to be valid for infinitely many k, not
finitely many only, because {A k } is almost periodic. Now we can construct {B k } [
Os1=3 ð{A k }Þ as in the proof of Theorem 3.6. Since X is only transformable, we can get
matrices B k having certain properties generally in infinitely many steps as in the proof of
Theorem 3.11 (see also Remark 6) for arbitrarily given j $ 2 (j [ N) and n [ N. If we
obtain B kþp21 . . . B kþ1 B k [ O@q ðIÞ for all k and some p after finitely many steps of the
process, then we can use the above-mentioned construction. Thus, we can assume without
Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 23

loss of generality that we can choose matrices B k in odd steps i1 ; . . . ; il ; . . . so that
Y
0
B k ¼ Nðu 1 ; C11 Þ; B p11 ¼ C11  Oq@ =2 ðIÞ;
k¼p11 21

...
1
pl
Y
0 Y
Bk ¼ Nðu 1 ; C1l Þ; B k ¼ C1l  Oq@ =2 ðIÞ;
k¼p1l 21 k¼p1l þl21

...
l
pl
Y
0 Y
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Bk ¼ Nðu l ; Cll Þ; B k ¼ Cll  Oq@ =2 ðIÞ;
k¼pll 21 k¼pll þl21

···
where p1l ; . . . ; pll are positive integers for which
p1l þ l þ j il ðn þ 1Þ # p2l ; . . . ; pl21
l þ l þ j il ðn þ 1Þ # pll :
Suppose now that the solution {x k } of x kþ1 ¼ B k x k , k [ Z, x 0 ¼ u is almost periodic
for some u – o, u [ F m . Let d and i be the numbers corresponding to u from the
statement of the theorem. Immediately from the above construction and from (31) it
follows that the set Tð{x k }; dÞ does not contain numbers greater than i. This contradiction
proves the theorem. A

Remark 16. Obviously, the m £ m unitary group and the group of all orthogonal matrices
of dimension m $ 2 with determinant 1 satisfy the conditions of Theorem 3.14 (as any
dense transformable subset of one of them). The groups from Remarks 3 and 5 do not
satisfy the conditions for m $ 2; consider, e.g. S ¼ I,
" #
 T T I o
u ¼ 1; o ; C ¼ ;
o T ei

where o and I have dimension m 2 1. We add that we can obtain examples of
transformable sets, which are not strongly transformable using changes of the metric in
Remarks 1– 5.

Corollary 3.15. Let X be transformable and that X > O@L ðOÞ ¼ Y for some L [ Rþ ,
and let {A k } [ APðX Þ, u – o, u [ F m , and 1 . 0 be arbitrary. If there exists a
precompact transformable set X 0 # X and M [ X 0 satisfying @ðMu; uÞ . 0 and if there
exists d . 0 and, for any C [ X nOh@ ð1=2Þ=2QðLÞ ðIÞ, there exists NðCÞ [ X with the property
that
 
@ NðCÞ · u; C · NðCÞ · u . d;
then there exists {B k } [ Os1 ð{A k }Þ for which the solution of
x kþ1 ¼ B k · x k ; k [ Z; x0 ¼ u
is not almost periodic.

Proof. It follows from the proof of Theorem 3.14 and [31] (Remark 4.8). A
24 M. Veselý

At the end, we say that it is possible to obtain various generalizations and
modifications of results presented in this section. For simplicity, we considered only
sufficiently general and, at the same time, more important cases. Especially in [31], the
constructions are used for a ring with a pseudometric. For almost periodic sequences
defined for k [ N (or k [ N0 ), it suffices to replace Theorem 3.1 by Remark 2.2 of [31]
(or to apply [21]) and Lemma 3.5 by Theorem 3.1 of [31]. The basic theory of almost
periodic sequences on N is established, e.g. in [9].
Again for simplicity, we required in condition (ii) that matrices D 1 ; . . . ; D n with the
given property exist for all n $ p, not only for an infinite set of n (relative dense in N).
Hence, the group of all real orthogonal matrices of dimension m $ 2 is not transformable.
Indeed, one can find 1 . 0 such that, in the 1-neighbourhood of an orthogonal matrix,
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there are only orthogonal matrices with the same determinant. Let an almost periodic
sequence of orthogonal matrices A k be given. Using the fact that the sequence of det A k is
periodic, we can modify the proof of Theorem 3.6 and get the statement of this theorem.

4. Conclusion
In this paper, we studied non-almost periodic solutions of almost periodic difference
equations. We considered homogeneous linear difference systems all of whose solutions
can be almost periodic (e.g. unitary systems) in a general setting when coefficients belong
to a complete metric field. We found classes of these systems such that in any
neighbourhood of an arbitrary system there exists a system from the same class, which
does not possess any non-trivial almost periodic solution. Note that an analogous general
statement for differential equations is not known.

Acknowledgements
This work is supported by the grant 201/09/J009 of the Czech Grant Agency. The author would like
to thank the referees for useful comments and suggestions.

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