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Index

Abse, Dannie 275 structural devices in art forms 269–71
Achebe, Chinua 277 Asante, Molefe Kete 346
adinkra symbols 343–4 Ascherson, Neal 243
Adorno, Theodor 259–60 Ashanti culture, Ghana 343–4
Akan people, Ghana 340, 343–4, 346, 347 Asimov, Isaac: Foundation Trilogy 222–4
aleph nought 183 assessment 384–405
Allen, Louise 372 choice of assessor 384
Allen, Woody: Annie Hall 288 criteria of assessment 384–5, 386
American Anthropological Association (AAA) 141–2 essay 390–400
anchoring 165–6 example essay 397–400
Annales school 248 introduction 390–1
anthropology 141–2, 156–7, 161–2, 167 planning/writing 392–6
anti-essentialism 255 teacher involvement 396
Appiah, Kwame Anthony 273, 344 essay/presentation: differences/similarities 390
applied mathematics 177–9 global impression mark 385
applied science 100 introduction 384–5
architecture 204, 369 overview 386–7
Ardagh, John 215–16 presentation 400–5
areas of knowledge (AOKs) 66–94 example presentation planning form 404–5
applications 75–7 introduction 400
disciplines/shared organized knowledge 66–7 planning/delivering 400–4
historical development 88–92 technical aspects of presenting 404
introduction 66–9 Augustine, saint 292
language and concepts 77–83 axioms 188
links to personal knowledge 92–4 Ayer, AJ 154
knowledge framework 68–9
methodology 83–7 Bacon, Francis 128, 362
scope 69–75 Barnes, Julian 212
Aristotle 42, 61, 79–80, 173, 269–70, 299–300 Bauer, HH 77–8
Armbruster, Dieter 159 Bayeux tapestry 272
Armstrong, Karen 310–11, 312, 319, 320 beauty 203–8, 276–7
Armstrong, Lance 282 Beethoven, Ludwig van 276
Arrow, Kenneth 168 behavioural economics 163–4
art 205, 251–2, 253–4, 261, 264–6, 375 behaviourism 153–4, 155
emotion and 41–2, 277 belief 60–2: see also faith
arts 250–79 Bell, Clive 277
arts, definition of 250–1, 253–5 Berio, Luciano 276
arts and knowledge 251–2 Bernal, Martin 228
controlling expectations 266–7 Betts, Doris 62
conventions: definition of 263–6 Bhagavad Gita 38
evaluation of 278–9 biology 67, 90, 91, 98
historical scenes 272–4 biospheres 348
and mathematics 205 Blair, Tony 227
personal/shared knowledge, links to 276–8 Blake, William: The Marriage of Heaven and Hell 58
problems addressed by arts 256–63, 268–9 Bloch, Marc 248
referencing other artworks 274–6 blogosphere 368
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Boas, Franz 167 Council of Nicaea 319–20
body, and intuition 46–7 Crease, Robert P. 220
Bombieri, Enrico 45 creation stories 58
botany 109–10 Croce, Benedetto 229
Brahms, Johannes 275 cross-disciplinarity 74
Braque, George 252 Cult of Reason 308, 309, 318
Brenan, Gerald 49
Britten, Benjamin 275 dabblerism 4
Bronowski, Jacob 19 Dalai Lama XIV: 304–5, 321
Brooks, David 40–1 Damasio, Antonio 38, 41, 46–7
brute facts 143 Darwin, Charles 38
Buchbinder, Amnon 48 Davis, Wade 330–1, 348
Buddhism 43, 63, 312, 321, 323 de Bono, Edward 56
Butler, Samuel 57 de Botton, Alain 247
bystander effect 285 Dead Sea Scrolls 371
Debussy, Claude 205, 271
Cannadine, David 247 deductive reasoning 31–3, 35
Cannon–Bard theory 38 Delaroche, Hippolyte 273, 274
Cantor, Georg 183, 185–6 deontology 294–5
Cao, Huai-Dong, Chinese mathematician 374 determinism 292
Carr, Edward Hallett 230 Dholavira citadel, India 362
Carroll, Lewis 49, 51 Diamond, Jared 238–9
Cary, Joyce 39 Diogenes Laertius 93–4
categorical imperative 295 Dirac, Paul 206–7
causation 106, 126–7, 145–6, 232–4 Dirichlet, Gustav Lejeune 373
Cavendish, Henry 87 Druett, Joan 348–9
ceque system, Incan Empire 336, 361 du Sautoy, Marcus 172, 177, 179, 373
Cezanne, Paul 268 Duchamp, Marcel 271, 276
cheating 296, 299 Dutton, Dennis 262
chemistry 67, 71, 98, 123–4 duty 295
Christianity 126, 247, 300, 312, 317, 319–20
Catholicism 323, 326 Ebert, Roger 36
Protestantism 319, 323, 326 Eco, Umberto 71
cliodynamics 239–45 economics 76, 82, 136–8, 140, 144, 148–50, 158, 166,
Cocks, Tim 347–8 167–8, 365
Code of Hammurabi 298 Einstein, Albert 46, 53, 113, 116–18, 120, 206, 271
collective memories 52–3 Ekman, Paul 38
communication 77 Elgar, Edward 275–6
compassion 310–11, 325 Eliade, Mircea 315
Confucianism 312 Elliott, Jane 86
Confucius 21, 67, 292, 298 elliptic geometry 192, 193
conjectures 190 Elton, Geoffrey 230
consilience 72–3 emotion 19, 36–43, 120–1, 277, 293–4, 320, 323
Constable, John 257–8 empiricism 28
Constantine, Roman emperor 319, 320 encyclopaedias 2, 3, 4
conventions 108–9, 143, 251–2, 263–6, 318, 364 environmentalism 76
Copernicus, Nicolaus 29 episodic memory 51
Copley, John Singleton 273 epistemic egalitarianism 4
correlation 126 ethics 35, 282–305
cosmology 105 and art 262
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authority/spiritual sources 293 Funder, Anna 216, 218
classical/contemporary 166 Fussell, Paul 229
contemporary thinking 300–2
defining one’s own morality 285–6
Galileo Galilei 58, 206
and emotion 42, 293–4, 297
Garraghan, Gilbert 237
ethics, definition of 288–9
Garton Ash, Timothy 217, 228
intuition 293–4, 297
Gauss, Carl Friedrich 177, 178–9, 180
language, limitations of 288–9
Gaut, Berys 254
in natural sciences 101–4
Geertz, Clifford 25, 167
practical problem solving 284
general relativity equation 206
realism/relativism 289–91
generalization 33–4
reasoning 294–7
geometries 190–3
and religion 300, 325
germ theory 90–1
scholars of ethics 283–4
German Democratic Republic (GDR) 215–18
and scope of inquiry 76–7
Gershon, Michael 48
truth-telling 291–2
Gestalt 29
underlying assumptions 292–3
Gettysburg Address 384
ethics of care 300–1
Gilligan, Carol 300–1, 303–4
ethnobiology 339–40
Gladwell, Malcolm 43–4, 47, 352–3
ethnography 156–7
Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems 201, 209
Euclid 176–7, 179, 190–2, 193–4, 203
golden ratio (φ) 200–1, 203–5, 271
Evans, Richard 222, 227, 230, 232, 240
Goleman, Daniel 40
evolutionary psychology 167
Gombrich, EH 264, 273
experiments 150–1
Gould, Stephen Jay 92–3
expressionism 262
gravity 220–1
Gregory I, Pope 39
faith 19, 58–63, 121, 247, 248, 319, 322, 323
Guillen, Michael 220–1
falsificationism 124–5
Gyekye, Kwame 340
feelings 39
Ferguson, Niall 236
Fernyhough, Charles 50 Hadamard, Jacques 373
Fewell, Jennifer 159 Haidt, Jonathan 161, 301, 302
Feynman, Richard 102–3 Hancock, Herbie 352, 353, 354, 366–7, 370
Fibonacci sequence 200–1 happiness 42–3
first impressions 46 Hardy, GH 373
formalism 188, 198 Harris, Sam 61, 311, 312
Foucault, Michel 379 Harrison, David 342
fractals 185–7 Haverkort, Bertus 335
framing 165 Haydn, Joseph 275
Frankfurt School 259, 260 Hayek, Friedrich 76
freedom of choice 292 Hegel, Georg 225
Freeman, Charles 247–8 Hempel’s Raven Paradox 125
Freeman, Derek 157 Henke, Klaus-Dietmar 216
Freud, Sigmund 167 Herndon, Thomas 136
Friedman, Milton 149, 150 Hero of Alexandria 2
Froude, James Anthony 221 Hersch, Reuben 197–8
Fukuyama, Francis 228 Hesse, Hermann 188
Fulbrook, Mary 216–17 heuristics 164–6
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 53 Hilbert, David 75, 76
functions 182–3 Hinduism 323
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history 212–48 as AOK 332
cause and effect 232–4 Ashanti culture 343–4
cliodynamics 239–45 concrete/empirical 338–9
comparison: real vs imaginary/real vs real 238 development issues 347–50
facts, evidence and theory 230–2 definition of ‘indigenous’ 332–3
as geography and ecology 238–9 ethnobiology 339–40
identity formation/development 246–7 features of 331
importation of concepts 234–5 Inca ceque system 336
language, role of 235 Inuit people 349–50
metaphors 235–6 Kakadu aboriginal people, Australia 334–5
progress, decline, cycles 234 Kapayó people, Brazil 341
sources 236–7 knowledge differences between cultures 345–7
WOKs, role of 244–5 Krahô people, Brazil 335
Hitchens, Christopher 319 limitations of knowledge application 337–8
Hobbes, Thomas 160, 161 localism 334–5
Honnecourt, Villard de 369 Micronesian navigational knowledge 330–1, 332, 376
Hoving, Thomas 48 and other knowledge systems 335–6
human nature 160–2 Samburu people, Kenya 336
human relationships: and art 257 Shona people, Zimbabwe 335
human sciences 96, 136–70 Tupaia 348–9
approaches to 153–4 Turkana people, Kenya 347–8
assumptions of rationality and heuristics 162–6 Tzeltal people, Mexico 340–1
causes and reasons 145–6 inductive reasoning 33–5, 121, 124–5, 128, 182
conventions in 143 infinite sets 183–4
culture 144–5 infinity 183–6
ethics 152–3 injective (one–one) mapping 182–3
experiments 150–1 intelligences, multiple 45
key terms 144–5 inter-disciplinarity 73–4
mathematical models 158–60 internationalism 11
metaphors 144 internet, invention of 363
and natural sciences 139–41 introspection 155
nature of science 141–2 intuition 19, 43–8, 107, 120, 208–9, 293, 297, 321, 323
observation and theory 147–50 Inuit people 261, 349–50
participant observers 155–7 Irving, David 247
polls, questionnaires and surveys 146 Islam 312, 324
underlying assumptions 160–2 Islamic Golden Age 94
varieties of 138
human survival: and art 262 Jack, Ian 243
humanism 153–4, 197–8 James, William 378
Hume, David 39, 287 James–Lange theory 38
hyperbolic geometry 193 Janacek, Leos 276
Johnson, Samuel 57
Icarus experiment 131, 132 Jorgensen, Palle 207
identity 49, 246–7 Josipovici, Gabriel 276
imaginary number 174 Judaism 323
imagination 19, 53–8, 120, 251, 252, 321, 323 judgement: models of 162–6
implication 106
Incan Empire, Peru 336, 358, 361, 364 Kahnemann, Daniel 163–4
indigenous knowledge systems 330–50 Kakadu aboriginal people, Australia 334–5
Akan people, Ghana 340, 343–4, 346, 347 Kallawaya people, Bolivia 342–3
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Kant, Immanuel 295–6 Lorenz, Konrad 72, 77
Kapayó people, Brazil 341 Lott, John 374
Kapuściński, Ryszard 240–3 Luther, Martin 319
Keats, John 202, 203 lying 296
Keller, Helen 22
Kelvin, Lord 88 Machiavelli, Niccolo 160, 161
Kennick, William 254 Magritte, René 267
Kerkulé, August 120 Mahler, Gustav 276
Keynes, John Maynard 46, 76 Mandelbrot set 187
Kierkegaard, Soren 62 Manuism 308, 309
killing 288, 296 Marcus, Harold 242
Kimball, Miles 136–7 Marsden, Brian 110–11
Kitching, William Walrond 212–14 mathematics 172–210, 373–4
Klein, Gary 44–5 applied mathematics 177–9
Klusterman, Chuck 49 and architecture 204
knowledge framework 66–94 and beauty 203–8
historical development 88–92 constructivist view 172, 196–7, 210
language and concepts 77–83 definition of 173–5
links to personal knowledge 92–4 Euclidian geometry 190–2
methology 83–7 evaluation of 209–10
and natural sciences 96–7 and formalism 188, 198
scope and applications 69–77 fractals 185–7
knowledge maps 69–73, 75–6 humanist view 197–8
known (un)knowns 91 and intuition 45–6, 208–9
Koch, Robert 90–1 models 194–6
Kołakowski, Leszek 228 in nature 199–202
Korzybski, Alfred 69–70 non-Euclidian geometries 192–3
Krahô people, Brazil 335 and other AOKs 172–3
Krishnamurti, Jiddu 22 personal qualities and 209
Kuhn, Thomas 88, 129–30 Platonic view 172, 198, 199, 210
proofs 187–90, 193–4
language 19, 20–4, 52, 120 pure mathematics 176–7, 178–9
Latour, Bruno 338 purpose of 175–6
laws of nature 114–15, 126 sets 181–5
Le Guin, Ursula 297 structures and patterns 172
Lefkowitz, Mary 228 symmetry in 174–5, 203, 206–7
Lévi-Brühl, Lucien 345 Maxwell, James Clerk 206
Levi–Strauss, Claude 338–9, 343, 345 Mead, Margaret 157
Lewinsky, Monica 292 meaning 28, 31
Library of Alexandria 2 mediated knowledge/authority 24
Linné, Carl von (Linnaeus) 109–10 memory 19, 49–53
literacy: centrality of 375–7 Mendelssohn, Felix 275–6
Littlewood, JE 373 Merton, Robert 87
local knowledge 380–1 Messaien, Olivier 277
localism 334–5 meta-ethics 283, 286
Locke, John 161 metaphors 81–2, 107, 123, 144, 235–6, 316–17
Loftus, Elizabeth 50–1 methodological behaviourism 155
logic 31–3 Micronesians: navigational knowledge 330–1, 332, 376
logical behaviourism 155 Mill, John Stuart 296–7
Lopate, Phillip 391 mind reading 53
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Mises, Ludwig von 89–90 nuclear bombs 102–3
modus tollens 120 number theory 176–7, 178–9
Mondrian, Piet 205, 271 Nussbaum, Martha 42
Montaigne, Michel de 9, 390, 391
Monty Hall game 208–9 obligation 292–3
moral dilemmas 288 Ohlsson, Bengt 275
moral psychology 301 one–one correspondence 183
moral relativism 290 Opera experiment 130–2
moral virtue 299–300 optical illusions/paradoxical perceptions 29–30
Morris, Ian 89 OPVL method 237, 244
Mosolov, Alexander: Zavod 260 oral knowledge 342–3, 376
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 205 orthodoxy 318
multi-disciplinarity 74 orthopraxy 318
music 205, 266, 270, 275–6, 375 Orwell, George 219

natural sciences 96–133, 173 Page, PK: Stefan 23
Bacon 128–9 Paley, William 321
classification systems 109–10 Panchatantra 30
concepts 105 paradigm theory 88, 129–31
conventions 108–9 Pascal, Blaise: Pensées 39
definition of 98–9 peer review 107
ethics in 101–4 Peguy, Charles 217
feedback mechanisms 113 Pentecostalism 324
formal language 104 Perelman, Grigoriy 374
group mastermind 115–16 personal knowledge 13, 19–20, 352, 366–79, 380
hypothetico-deductive method 112–13, 115–16, 120–1 and architecture 369
induction 121, 124–5 distinguishing between shared/personal knowledge
knowledge-generating methods 112–21 354–5
logical language 105–6 features 367
as means of sharing knowledge 106–7 literacy, centrality of 375–7
metaphors 107 and personal perspective 367, 377–9
models in 121–5 skills 354
particle game 118–19 types of 368–75
purpose of 100–1 perspective 264–6
theory in 114–15 phase space 195
underlying assumptions 126–7 Phelps, Edmund 149
WOKs 120–1 Phillips curve 148–50
see also Einstein physics 79, 80, 82, 88, 98, 115,118, 130–2, 133
natural world: and art 257–8 Picasso, Pablo 266, 274–5
necessary truths 106 Pinker, Steven 22, 161, 262, 293–4, 301
neutrinos, faster-than-light 130–2 Plato 39, 60, 67, 191, 298–9
Newlyn–Philips water model 158 Platonism: mathematics 172, 198, 199, 210
Newton, Isaac 113, 115, 220–1 politics 160–1, 166, 258–60
Nicene Creed 317 Pollock, Jackson 172
Nietzsche, Friedrich 258 pollution 78–9
Noë, Alva 25 Polyani, Michael 21
non-Euclidian geometry 192–3 Polynesians 331
normal science 88, 129–30 Popper, Karl 124–5
normative ethics 283 positivism 153–4
Norris, Kathleen 62 positivity bias 155
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Powys, Llewelyn 45–6 metaphors 316–17
practices 84–5 practical problem solving 313–14
prime numbers 176–7, 178–9, 193–4, 199–200 reason 319–20
printing press, invention of 362–3 religious languages 317–18
procedural knowledge 380 sense perception 320–1, 323
propositional knowledge 380 Weber thesis 326
Propp, Vladimir 71 reminiscent effect 51
Protagoras 93–4 Renan, Ernest 227
Protestantism 319 revelation 321, 323
Prothero, Stephen 311, 312, 326 revisionism 227
proverbs: Ghanaian 66 revolutionary science 88, 129–30
psychology 144, 151, 153–4, 166, 167 Ribot, Theodule 54
public key cryptography 179 Ricard, Matthieu 43
punctuated equilibrium 92 Riemann hypothesis 76
Purcell, Henry 275 Robinson, Ken 56
pure mathematics 176–7, 178–9 Rogoff, Kenneth 136–7
pure science 100 Roszak, Theodore 82–3
Roussea, Jean-Jacques 160–1, 161
Qaujimajatuqangit 349–50 Rumi, Jalaluddin 328
quipu system, Incan Empire 361, 364 Rumsfeld, Donald 91
Russell, Bertrand 57, 179, 290
race 89–90
Rachmaninov, Sergei 275 Saint Saëns, Camille 275
racial biology 104 Samburu people, Kenya 336
Ramanujan, Srinivasa 355, 373–4 Sanger, Larry 2
Ranke, Leopold von 245–6 Santayana, George 225
rationality, see reason; reasoning; reasons Sartre, Jean Paul 20
realism (objectivism) 289–91, 298–9 scientism 73
reason 19, 30–7, 39, 120, 162–4, 319–20 Scruton, Roger 276–7
reasoning 164, 247–8, 294–7 search engines 2, 363
reasons 145–6 Searle, John 143, 197
reductio ad absurdum (proof by contradiction) 193–4 Semmelweiss, Ignaz 58
Reinert, Erik 82 Sen, Amartya 168–9
Reinhart, Carmen 136–7 Senghor, Léopold 346
Reisman, David 51 sense perception 19, 25–30, 51, 120, 320–1, 323, 338–9
relativism (subjectivism) 290 Seven Deadly Sins 39
reliabilism 3 Shahadah 317
religious knowledge systems 308–28, 378 Sharapova, Maria 352, 353, 354, 366–7
argument from design 321 shared knowledge 13, 19–20, 24, 352–82
art and 261 concepts and conventions 364
conventions, role of 318 conditions for sharing 358–65
definition of religion 314 conditions/requirements for 368–75
emotion and 320, 323 distinguishing between shared/personal knowledge
and ethics 325 354–5
evaluation of religious knowledge 325–8 history 366
faith 319, 322, 323 knowledge framework 365–6
imagination, intuition, revelation 321, 323 language and concepts 359–60, 366
key concepts 315 methodology 366
language, role of 315 perspectives and international-mindedness 380–2
memory 322 scope and applications 366
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shared history 365 truth-telling 291–2
shared methodology 364 Tupaia, Cook’s navigator 348–9
shared problems/motivations 358–9 Turchin, Peter 239
technology for sharing 361–3 Turkana people, Kenya 347–8
Shermer, Michael 98–9, 114 Tutu, Desmond 326–7
Shona people, Zimbabwe 335 Tversky, Amos 163–4
Shostakovich, Dmitri 259 Tzeltal people, Mexico 340–1
Silver, Nate 159–60
simplicity, law of 28–9 uniformitarianism 85–6
skills 354 universal principle 295
Skinner, BF 153 unknown unknowns 91
Smart, Ninian 315, 321 utilitarianism 294–5, 296–7
Smith, Adam 67
Smolin, Lee 116–18 values 86–7
snap judgements 44–5 van Gogh, Vincent 266
Snow, C. P. 77, 78, 91, 92, 237 Velásquez, Diego: Las Meninas 274–5
social facts 143, 196–7, 253–4, 263 virtue ethics 299
social sciences, see human sciences visual arts 270–1
Socialist Realism 260
sociology 166 Wade, Nicholas 141–2
Socratic method 298–9 Wampole, Christy 390–1
Söderberg, Hjalmar 275 Wang, Yichuan 136–7
somatic marker hypothesis 38 ways of knowing (WOKs) 13–14, 18–63, 85
Southgate, Beverley 247 emotion 19, 36–43
special relativity: and art 271 faith 19, 58–63
Spengler, Oswald 235–6 imagination 19, 53–8
sport: mathematical models in 159–60 introduction to 18–20
stealing 288–9, 296 intuition 19, 43–8
Stewart, Ian 189 language 19, 20–4
Stradivari, Antonio 358–9 memory 19, 49–53
sufficient conditions 106 reason 19, 30–6
Sufism 328 sense perception 19, 25–30
Summers, Lawrence 78 as tools 19–20
surjective (onto) mapping 183 Weber thesis 326
syllogisms 32–3, 35 White, Hayden 240
symmetry 172, 174–5, 203, 206–7 Wikipedia 2, 3, 4
synapses 66 Williams, Heathcote: Mokusatsu 21
Système International 108 Williams, Tennessee 49
Wilson, Ed 73, 73, 77
tacit knowledge 21 Wilson, Erasmus 40
theorems 188 Winter, Alison 50
theory of knowledge (TOK) 4–8, 10–11, 12, 13–16 Wiredu, Kwasi 344–5, 346
Thucydides 225 Wittgenstein, Ludwig 254
time zones 360 Wöhler, Friedrich 91
T’oegye 38 writing 361–2, 376
Tofa people, Siberia 343
Tolstoy, Leo 262, 276 Yoruba man with a bicycle (sculpture) 273
Toynbee, Arthur 225–6
trans-disciplinarity 74 Zhu Xiping, Chinese mathematician 374
Trevelyan, George Macaulay 237, 244 Zola, Emile 257
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