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tension steel, in.

Ec = modulus of elasticity = 33w1c.5 f lc , psi
ε
ASTM STANDARD REINFORCING BARS

2
BAR SIZE DIAMETER, IN. AREA, IN WEIGHT, LB/FT

#3 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 2.257 4.00 13.60

Design Aid 15.5.3 Wires Used in Structural Welded-Wire Reinforcementa

Nominal Nominal Area, in.2/ft of width
Wire size numberb
diameter, weight, Center to center spacing, in.
c d in. lb/ft 3 4 6 12
Plain Deformed
W45 D45 0.757 1.530 1.800 1.350 0.900 0.450
W34 D34 0.658 1.160 1.360 1.020 0.680 0.340
W31 D31 0.628 1.054 1.240 0.930 0.620 0.310
W25 D25 0.564 0.850 1.000 0.750 0.500 0.250
W24 D24 0.553 0.816 0.960 0.720 0.480 0.240
W23 D23 0.541 0.782 0.920 0.690 0.460 0.230
W22 D22 0.529 0.748 0.880 0.660 0.440 0.220
W20 D20 0.504 0.680 0.800 0.600 0.400 0.200
W18 D18 0.478 0.612 0.720 0.540 0.360 0.180
W16 D16 0.451 0.544 0.640 0.480 0.320 0.160
W14 D14 0.422 0.476 0.560 0.420 0.280 0.140
W12 D12 0.390 0.408 0.480 0.360 0.240 0.120
W11 D11 0.374 0.374 0.440 0.330 0.220 0.110
W10.5 D10.5 0.366 0.357 0.420 0.315 0.210 0.105
W10 D10 0.356 0.340 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100
W9.5 D9.5 0.348 0.323 0.380 0.285 0.190 0.095
W9 D9 0.338 0.306 0.360 0.270 0.180 0.090
W8.5 D8.5 0.329 0.289 0.340 0.255 0.170 0.085
W8 D8 0.319 0.272 0.320 0.240 0.160 0.080
W7.5 D7.5 0.309 0.255 0.300 0.225 0.150 0.075
W7 D7 0.298 0.238 0.280 0.210 0.140 0.070
W6.5 D6.5 0.288 0.221 0.260 0.195 0.130 0.065
W6 D6 0.276 0.204 0.240 0.180 0.120 0.060
W5.5 D5.5 0.264 0.187 0.220 0.165 0.110 0.055
W5 D5 0.252 0.170 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050
W4.5 D4.5 0.240 0.153 0.180 0.135 0.090 0.045
W4 D4 0.225 1/4" 0.136 0.160 0.120 0.080 0.040
W3.5 0.211 0.119 0.140 0.105 0.070 0.035
W3 0.195 0.102 0.120 0.090 0.060 0.030
W2.9 0.192 0.098 0.116 0.087 0.058 0.029
W2.5 SPAND 0.178 0.085 0.100 0.075 0.050 0.025
W2.1 0.162 0.070 0.084 0.063 0.042 0.021
W2 DTEES 0.159 3/16" 0.068 0.080 0.060 0.040 0.020
W1.5 0.138 0.051 0.060 0.045 0.030 0.015
W1.4 0.135 0.049 0.056 0.042 0.028 0.014

a. Source: Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI): Manual of Standard Practice – Structural Welded Wire Reinforcement (Hartford, CT: WRI, 2008).
b. The number following W or D identifies the cross-sectional area of the wire in hundreths of a square inch.
c. ASTM A82, available fy = 65,000 psi to 80,000 psi in 2500 psi increments.
d. ASTM A496, available fy = 70,000 psi to 80,000 psi in 2500 psi increments.
GENERAL DESIGN INFORMATION CHAPTER 15

Design Aid 15.4.4 Required Development Lengths,a in., for Reinforcing Bars (Grade 60)
Tension development length: (f) For tension lap splices, item (e) does not apply.
d Lap splice lengths must conform to ACI 318-05,
ld = 2400 b ' ; min. 12 in. (#6 and smaller)
fc Section 12.15.
db Compression development length:
ld = 3000 ; min. 12 in. (#7 and larger) 1200d b
fc' ldc = larger of or 18db but no less than 8 in.
fc'
Note: For Grade 40 bars, replace 2400 and 3000 with 1600
and 2000, respectively. Note: For Grade 40 bars, replace 1200 with 800 and 18 with
12.
Multiply ld values by : Multiply ld values by:
(a) 1.3 for lightweight concrete (a) As (required)/As (provided) for excess
(b) 1.3 for “top bars”b reinforcement
(c) 1.5 for epoxy-coated bars with cover < 3db or clear (b) 0.75 for adequate spiral or tie enclosure
spacing < 6db, otherwise multiply by 1.2 (see ACI 318-05, Section 12.3.3b)
Note: Product of factors (b) and (c) need not exceed Compression splice lap length:
1.7. Lap length = 30db; min. 12 in. for fy = 60,000 psi
(d) 1.5 for bars with less than minimum stirrups or ties, Lap length = (0.0009fy – 24) db for fy > 60,000 psi
clear spacing less than 2db, or clear cover less than
db
The values of fc' used in these equations shall not exceed
(e) As (required)/As (provided) for excess reinforce-ment
100 psi (see ACI 318-05, Section 12.1.2).
unless development of fy is specifically required. This
multiplier is not to be applied to lap splices per
ACI 318-05, Section R12.15.1. 15

fc' = 3000 psi fc' = 4000 psi fc' = 5000 psi fc' = 6000 psi
Bar Com- Com- Com- Com- Min.
size, Tension pres- Tension pres- Tension pres- Tension pres- comp.
# sion sion sion sion splice
ld 1.3ld 1.5ld ld ld 1.3ld 1.5ld ld ld 1.3ld 1.5ld ld ld 1.3ld 1.5ld ld
3 16 21 25 8 14 18 21 8 13 17 19 8 12 15 17 8 12
4 22 28 33 11 19 25 28 9 17 22 25 9 15 20 23 9 15
5 27 36 41 14 24 31 36 12 21 28 32 11 19 25 29 11 19
6 33 43 49 16 28 37 43 14 25 33 38 14 23 30 35 14 23
7 48 62 72 19 42 54 62 17 37 48 56 16 34 44 51 16 26
8 55 71 82 22 47 62 71 19 42 55 64 18 39 50 58 18 30
9 62 80 93 25 54 70 80 21 48 62 72 20 44 57 66 20 34
10 70 90 104 28 60 78 90 24 54 70 81 23 49 64 74 23 38
11 77 100 116 31 67 87 100 27 60 78 90 25 55 71 82 25 42

fc' = 7000 psi fc' = 8000 psi fc' = 9000 psi fc' ≥ 10,000 psi
Bar Com- Com- Com- Com- Min.
size, Tension pres- Tension pres- Tension pres- Tension pres- comp.
# sion sion sion sion splice
ld 1.3ld 1.5ld ld ld 1.3ld 1.5ld ld ld 1.3ld 1.5ld ld ld 1.3ld 1.5ld ld
3 12 14 16 8 12 13 15 8 12 12 14 8 9 12 14 8 12
4 14 19 22 9 13 17 20 9 13 16 19 8 12 16 18 8 15
5 18 23 27 11 17 22 25 11 16 21 24 8 15 20 23 8 19
6 22 28 32 14 20 26 30 14 19 25 28 9 18 23 27 9 23
7 31 41 47 16 29 38 44 16 28 36 42 11 26 34 39 11 26
8 36 47 54 18 34 44 50 18 32 41 47 13 30 39 45 12 30
9 40 53 61 20 38 49 57 20 36 46 54 14 34 44 51 14 34
10 46 59 68 23 43 55 64 23 40 52 60 16 38 49 56 15 38
11 51 66 76 25 47 61 71 25 45 58 67 17 41 54 62 17 42
a. For limitations and items related to hooked bars, stirrups or ties in excess of minimum, and spacing of non-contact lap splices, etc., see ACI 318-05, Chapter 12.
b. A top bar is any horizontal reinforcement placed such that more than 12 in. of fresh concrete is cast below the development length.
Note: comp. = compression; min. = minimum.

PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK/SEVENTH EDITION First Printing/CD-ROM Edition 15–39
CHAPTER 15 GENERAL DESIGN INFORMATION

15.4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES — REINFORCING BARS
Design Aid 15.4.1 Reinforcing Bar Data
ASTM standard reinforcing bars
Bar size Nominal dimensions
designationa Diameter Area Weight or mass
U.S. customary, # SI, # in. mm in.2 mm2 lb/ft kg/m
3 10 0.375 9.5 0.11 71 0.376 0.560
4 13 0.500 12.7 0.20 129 0.668 0.994
5 16 0.625 15.9 0.31 199 1.043 1.552
6 19 0.750 19.1 0.44 284 1.502 2.235
7 22 0.875 22.2 0.60 387 2.044 3.042
8 25 1.000 25.4 0.79 510 2.670 3.973
9 29 1.128 28.7 1.00 645 3.400 5.060
10 32 1.270 32.3 1.27 819 4.303 6.404
11 36 1.410 35.8 1.56 1006 5.313 7.907
14 43 1.693 43.0 2.25 1452 7.650 11.380
18 57 2.257 57.3 4.00 2581 13.600 20.240
a. Many mills will mark and supply bars only with metric (SI) designation, which is a soft conversion. Soft conversion means that the metric (SI) bars have exactly
the same dimensions and properties as the equivalent U.S. customary designation.

Standard hooks Stirrup and tie-hooks
15
Detailing Hook
db dimension A or G

J
A or G

A or G
12db for #6, 7, 8

Hook
D 6db for #3, 4, 5

4d or 21/2 in. minimum
dimension H
dimension

J
Detailing
Detailing

Detailing
db 6db
db dimension D

D D
A or G
D 12db

Bar size, 180° 90° 90° 135°
D D
# A or G J A or G A or G A or G H
3 2 ⁄4
1
5 3 6 1 ⁄2
1
4 4 /4 1
21⁄2
4 3 6 4 8 2 41⁄2 41⁄2 3
5 33⁄4 7 5 10 21⁄2 6 51⁄2 33⁄4
6 41⁄2 8 6 1–0 41⁄2 1–0 8 41⁄2
7 51⁄4a 10 7 1–2 51⁄4 1–2 9 51⁄4
8 6a 11 8 1–4 6 1–4 101⁄2 6
9 9 1–3 111⁄4 1–7
10 10 1–5 1–01⁄2 1–10
U.S. customary units: in. or ft-in.
11 11 1–7 1–13⁄4 2–0
14 1–51⁄2 2–3 1–9 2–7
18 1–101⁄2 3–0 2–3 3–5
a. ASTM A767 requires that bars bent cold prior to hot-dip galvanizing must be fabricated to a minimum bend diameter equal to 7 in. for #7
bar and 8 in. for #8 bar.

15–34 First Printing/CD-ROM Edition PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK/SEVENTH EDITION
GENERAL DESIGN INFORMATION CHAPTER 15

Design Aid 15.4.2 Typical Bar Bends

H G A G A G A G
A H H
A G

B D B D B D B D B D

C C C C C
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

Lap - G
D
A G B B G
U A
G
A C
B D H C E C E (circumference)

C
( Blength
= total
) D D
B O
S6 S11 T1 T2 T3

A E K K
B A E
A G G
C E B D B D A
H H G
B
D C C
T6 T7 T8 T9
15
A G A
A G
J

J

B B B

1 1A 2

O O O
B F B F B F
J C E J C E C E
H H A H G
A D G A D D
3 3A 4

O
O O
B F B
G B
J C E H J C C
A H J A H G
D A D D
4A 5 6

Notes:
1. All dimensions are out-to-out of bar except A and G on standard 180 and 135 deg hooks.
2. J dimensions on 180 deg hooks to be shown only where necessary to restrict hook size, otherwise ACI standard hooks are to be used.
3. Where J is not shown, J will be kept equal or less than H on Types 3, 5, and 22. Where J can exceed H, it should be shown.
4. H dimension stirrups to be shown where necessary to fit within concrete.
5. Where bars are to be bent more accurately than standard fabricating tolerances, bending dimensions that require closer fabrication should
have limits indicated.
6. Figures in circles show types.
7. For recommended diameter D of bends and hooks, and for dimensions of hooks, see Design Aid 15.4.1.
8. Type S1 through T3, T6 through T9; apply to bar sizes #3 through #8.
9. Source: American Concrete Institute (ACI): Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement (ACI 315-99) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 1999).

PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK/SEVENTH EDITION First Printing/CD-ROM Edition 15–35
CHAPTER 15 GENERAL DESIGN INFORMATION

Design Aid 15.4.2 Typical Bar Bends (Cont.)

O B
R
C E A
H H
A J G G
B
D O
K
7 8 9

R B O K
C
J
A B D
B J H
H A

A C R
C D
O O

10 11 12
K
K
C C

B
J J
B B H
D H
A A R G
H
C
O O D
15 O

12A 12B 13

O O O

A E A A

H B D H B D H B
C C
K K

14 14A 14B

K K

C C

D D
B H B H B D

A
C
O O

16 16A 17

Notes:
1. All dimensions are out-to-out of bar except A and G on standard 180 and 135 deg hooks.
2. J dimensions on 180 deg hooks to be shown only where necessary to restrict hook size, otherwise ACI standard hooks are to be used.
3. Where J is not shown, J will be kept equal or less than H on Types 3, 5, and 22. Where J can exceed H, it should be shown.
4. H dimension stirrups to be shown where necessary to fit within concrete.
5. Where bars are to be bent more accurately than standard fabricating tolerances, bending dimensions that require closer fabrication should
have limits indicated.
6. Figures in circles show types.
7. For recommended diameter D of bends and hooks, and for dimensions of hooks, see Design Aid 15.4.1.
8. Type S1 through T3, T6 through T9; apply to bar sizes #3 through #8.
9. Source: American Concrete Institute (ACI): Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement (ACI 315-99) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 1999).

15–36 First Printing/CD-ROM Edition PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK/SEVENTH EDITION
GENERAL DESIGN INFORMATION CHAPTER 15

Design Aid 15.4.2 Typical Bar Bends (Cont.)

O
K
B A
B
J H C

C B C D
17A 18 19

O
F
B B B
H C C E K
C J H
D G
A D
19A 20 22

O Standee D
F A (isometric
B
C E G J view) C
A H K E
B H
D
G
23 24 B

K
F
D D 25
Standee Standee
(isometric view)
C
(isometric
C 15
E B E
B view)
F F B
26 26A

C
J D D
D D
Standee H
Standee C
(isometric D
(isometric C view) B
view) K D
B
26C 26B
Enlarged view showing
bar bending details

Notes:
1. All dimensions are out-to-out of bar except A and G on standard 180 and 135 deg hooks.
2. J dimensions on 180 deg hooks to be shown only where necessary to restrict hook size, otherwise ACI standard hooks are to be used.
3. Where J is not shown, J will be kept equal or less than H on Types 3, 5, and 22. Where J can exceed H, it should be shown.
4. H dimension stirrups to be shown where necessary to fit within concrete.
5. Where bars are to be bent more accurately than standard fabricating tolerances, bending dimensions that require closer fabrication should
have limits indicated.
6. Figures in circles show types.
7. For recommended diameter D of bends and hooks, and for dimensions of hooks, see Design Aid 15.4.1.
8. Type S1 through T3, T6 through T9; apply to bar sizes #3 through #8.
9. Source: American Concrete Institute (ACI): Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement (ACI 315-99) (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI, 1999).

PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK/SEVENTH EDITION First Printing/CD-ROM Edition 15–37
CHAPTER 15 GENERAL DESIGN INFORMATION

Design Aid 15.4.3 Location of Reinforcement Confined by Stirrups or Ties

z Cover

Stirrup
or tie

Main
reinforcement

Main z dimension, in.
reinforcement Stirrup or tie size
size, # #3 #4 #5
4 7
⁄8 1 ⁄16
1
11⁄4
5 7
⁄8 1 ⁄8
1
15⁄16
6 ⁄16
15
13⁄16 13⁄8
7 1 13⁄16 17⁄16
8 1 ⁄16
1
1 ⁄4
1
17⁄16
15 9 11⁄16 15⁄16 11⁄2
10 1 ⁄8
1
1 ⁄16
5
11⁄2
11 13⁄16 13⁄8 19⁄16

To determine location of main reinforcement, add specified cover to the z dimension from the table.

15–38 First Printing/CD-ROM Edition PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK/SEVENTH EDITION
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN OF PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

3 5

4 ld
1 11/ " maximum 2
5 2
2
/3d maximum

h d
Vua + Nu(h-d) Ah

Av As D
H
Nu Ash
a H-d ld
Vu Assh
A'

lp

Center of gravity of flexure reinforcement
H-D ld

Critical, minimize

5 D
H
Ash

Critical, minimize A'
Assh

Critical, minimize
H-D ld

Common alternative A'sh anchorage
The development of A'sh at the bottom is
ensured by the extension of ld beyond crack 5

Assh bar anchorage
Alternative A'
For design of welded bar anchor, see ACI
318-05 Section 11.9.6 (not recommended
for thin stems)

Fig. 5.6.3 Potential failure modes and required reinforcement in dapped-end connections.

5–80 First Printing/CD-ROM Edition PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK/SEVENTH EDITION
17.3—General requirements for strength of
R17.3.2a and b).
anchors
17.3.1 Strength design of anchors shall be based either on
computation using design models that satisfy the require-
ments of 17.3.2, or on test evaluation using the 5 percent
fractile of applicable test results for the following:
In addition, anchors shall satisfy the required edge
distances, spacings, and thicknesses to preclude splitting
failure, as required in 17.7.
17.3.1.1 The design of anchors shall be in accordance
Fig. R17.3.2a—Breakout cone for tension. with Table 17.3.1.1. In addition, the design of anchors shall
satisfy 17.2.3 for earthquake loading and 17.3.1.2 for adhe-
sive anchors subject to sustained tensile loading.

Table 17.3.1.1—Required strength of anchors,
except as noted in 17.2.3
Anchor group[1]
Individual
Single anchor in a Anchors as
Failure mode anchor group a group
Steel strength in
tension (17.4.1)
ϕNsa ≥ Nua ϕNsa ≥ Nua,i φVs = φNs = φ(n)(As
Concrete breakout strength in φNcb = φN
ϕNcb ≥ Nua ϕNcbg ≥ Nua,g
tension (17.4.2)
Pullout strength in tension
ϕNpn ≥ Nua ϕNpn ≥ Nua,i
(17.4.3)
Concrete side-face blowout
ϕNsb ≥ Nua ϕNsbg ≥ Nua,g
strength in tension (17.4.4)
Bond strength of adhesive
ϕNa ≥ Nua ϕNag ≥ Nua,g
anchor in tension (17.4.5)
Steel strength in shear
(17.5.1)
ϕVsa ≥ Vua ϕVsa ≥ Vua,i φVs = φNs = φ(n)(As
Concrete breakout strength in
ϕVcb ≥ Vua ϕVcbg ≥ Vua,g φVc3 = φ
shear (17.5.2)
Concrete pryout strength in
ϕVcp ≥ Vua ϕVcpg ≥ Vua,g
shear (17.5.3)
[1]
Required strengths for steel and pullout failure modes shall be calculated for the
most highly stressed anchor in the group.

6.6.1 Design Flexural Strength
The design flexural strength of a steel section is:
Fig. R17.3.2b—Breakout cone for shear.
φMp = φFyZp (Eq. 6-31)

where:
φ = 0.9
Fy = material yield strength
Zp = plastic section modulus

Fig. R17.5.2.1a—Calculation of AVco.
R17.4.2.9 For conditions where the factored tensile force R17.5.2.9 For conditions where the factored shear force
exceeds the concrete breakout strength of the anchor(s) or exceeds the concrete breakout strength of the anchor(s)
where the breakout strength is not evaluated, the nominal in shear, or where the breakout strength is not evaluated,
strength can be that of anchor reinforcement properly the nominal strength can be that of anchor reinforcement
anchored, as illustrated in Fig. R17.4.2.9. Care needs properly anchored, as shown in Fig. R17.5.2.9a and Fig.
to be taken in the selection and positioning of the anchor R17.5.2.9b. To ensure yielding of the anchor reinforcement,

Fig. R17.5.2.9a—Hairpin anchor reinforcement for shear.

Fig. R17.4.2.9—Anchor reinforcement for tension.

Fig. R17.5.2.9b—Edge reinforcement and anchor reinforce-
ment for shear.
17.7—Required edge distances, spacings, and 17.7.6 Unless determined from tension tests in accordance
thicknesses to preclude splitting failure with ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4, the critical edge distance cac
Minimum spacings and edge distances for anchors and shall not be taken less than:
minimum thicknesses of members shall conform to 17.7.1
through 17.7.6, unless supplementary reinforcement is Adhesive anchors......................................................... 2hef
provided to control splitting. Lesser values from product- Undercut anchors....................................................... 2.5hef
specific tests performed in accordance with ACI 355.2 or Torque-controlled expansion anchors.......................... 4hef
ACI 355.4 shall be permitted. Displacement-controlled expansion anchors................ 4hef

17.7.1 Unless determined in accordance with 17.7.4,
17.7.7 Construction documents shall specify use of
minimum center-to-center spacing of anchors shall be 4da
anchors with a minimum edge distance as assumed in design.
for cast-in anchors that will not be torqued, and 6da for
torqued cast-in anchors and post-installed anchors.

17.7.2 Unless determined in accordance with 17.7.4,
minimum edge distances for cast-in anchors that will not
be torqued shall be based on specified cover requirements
for reinforcement in 20.6.1. For cast-in anchors that will be
torqued, the minimum edge distances shall be 6da.

17.7.3 Unless determined in accordance with 17.7.4,
minimum edge distances for post-installed anchors shall be
based on the greater of specified cover requirements for rein-
forcement in 20.6.1, or minimum edge distance requirements
for the products as determined by tests in accordance with
ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4, and shall not be less than twice the
maximum aggregate size. In the absence of product-specific
ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4 test information, the minimum edge
distance shall not be less than:

Adhesive anchors.......................................................... 6da
Undercut anchors........................................................... 6da
Torque-controlled anchors............................................. 8da
Displacement-controlled anchors................................ 10da

17.7.4 For anchors where installation does not produce
a splitting force and that will not be torqued, if the edge
distance or spacing is less than those specified in 17.7.1 to
17.7.3, calculations shall be performed by substituting for
da a smaller value da′ that meets the requirements of 17.7.1
to 17.7.3. Calculated forces applied to the anchor shall be
limited to the values corresponding to an anchor having a
diameter of da′.

17.7.5 Unless determined from tests in accordance with
ACI 355.2, the value of hef for an expansion or undercut
post-installed anchor shall not exceed the greater of 2/3 of
the member thickness, ha, and the member thickness minus
4 in.