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McKenna Baker

English 101

Dr. Cassel

5 November 2018

Annotated Bibliography

I will be researching the topic of college students and their sleep schedules, what is

considered a healthy sleep schedule, how to achieve a healthy sleep schedule, and the best

things you can do to avoid not getting enough sleep. What are the effects of little to no sleep?

Why should we be getting a certain amount of sleep? Is there such thing as too much sleep?

How much sleep should I be getting? What are the effects of too much sleep? Is there a specific

sleep schedule I should be following? Will my sleep schedule change when I am done with

college? Should my sleep schedule change from when I was in high school?

Sleep tips: 6 steps to better sleep.” Mayoclinic, Mayo Clinic Staff, 3 May 2017,

Lao, Henry C. F., et al. “Theory of Planned Behaviour and Healthy Sleep of College

Students.” Australian Journal of Psychology, vol. 68, no. 1, Mar. 2016, pp. 20–28.

EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/ajpy.12094.

According to the, getting at least 7 hours of sleep each night is definitely

a very important thing to be able to achieve optimal health. Getting a healthy amount of sleep

each night is a key factor in making healthy decisions and creating good habits throughout the

day. Not getting enough sleep can create a negative mood and bad temper and will also make it

harder to focus on daily tasks. Sleep deprivation is extremely harmful on your body and also on

your mind. Lack of sleep can also influence what you eat and how much you eat. Sleep also
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regulates hormones so when you do not get that much sleep then you will feel a lot angrier and

grumpier and not yourself. Sleep lets your mind and body rest, recover, and rejuvenate from

whatever you did that day. There are four ways to create a healthy sleep schedule and they are,

make a set sleep goal. Try to get at least seven hours each night so that you can wake up

refreshed and ready for that day’s activities. Sleep will help to keep you motivated an energized

throughout the day. Establish a bedtime and stick to it. Putting your electronic device in

another room or away from your bed will help with this. Eating healthier meals and snacks

throughout the day and not eating mindlessly will increase a better sleep schedule. Easing into

sleep is the final step to improving your sleep habits. Set aside a little time before going to sleep

for relaxing. Take deep breaths and stretch gently.

Lao, Henry C. F., et al. “Theory of Planned Behaviour and Healthy Sleep of College Students.”

Australian Journal of Psychology, vol. 68, no. 1, Mar. 2016, pp. 20–28. EBSCOhost,


Healthy sleep is extremely important in many ways. A few of those ways are lengthening

your life, a healthy sleep schedule can produce more years of life. Sleep can make you

physically healthy. Also, sleep can help with remembering things and can even lead to

knowledge gain and a better memory. The results from the analysis supported the main claim

of the theory that healthy sleep for college students can improve one’s behavior. Healthy sleep

patterns were reported to be positively associated with behavior. With college students who

are 18-25 years old, there are plenty of reasons on why someone would not have a healthy

sleep schedule, but by using the methods and framework of doctors and professionals’

opinions, anyone can achieve a healthy sleep schedule which will provide them with a healthier
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life. A healthier life would include a longer lifespan, a healthier body, more energy, it can make

it easier to focus, easier to remember things, and easier to learn new things. Also, a healthy

sleep schedule will directly affect someone’s attitude into a positive thing which is being kinder

and wanting to be a better person.

Iarovici, Doris. Mental health issues and the university student. Baltimore: The John Hopkins

University Press, 2014.

As one starts college, they face many challenges already such as the school work, the

reading assignments, the papers, the social aspect, trying to squeeze three meals a day in and

then on top of that, adding in getting a healthy amount of sleep can seem impossible. But alas, it

can be done. The John Hopkins University Press talks about how students are now starting to

seek help with managing their sleep schedules on campus in their school’s mental health

department. Other things that hinder a healthy sleep cycle are substance abuse, relationship

difficulties, eating disorders, depression and anxiety, and also culture barriers. It is also very

important to feel safe in your sleep environment and then you can begin your journey on having

a healthy and happy sleep schedule.

Brody, Jane E. “An Unsung Key to College Success: Sleep.” New York Times, vol. 167, no.

58054, 14 Aug. 2018, p. D5. EBSCOhost,


Sleep deprivation can cause so many problems in the human body. It causes fatigue,

daytime sleepiness, clumsiness, and weight loss or weight gain. It can mess with your body

physically and it can also mess with your mind. College years is a time of a very important

transition from adolescence to adulthood. This transition is involved with a bad sleep schedule.
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This sleep deprivation may cause a bad academic performance, mood swings, and not being

completely present throughout the day. Taking further action and researching a healthy sleep

schedule should be a priority for all college students.

Muazzam, Amina, and Amna Ahmad. “Predictors of Sleep Disturbances among College

Students: Interplay of Media Exposure and Health Related Quality of Life.” Pakistan

Journal of Psychological Research, vol. 32, no. 2, Winter 2017, pp. 393–

406. EBSCOhost,


This article from a journal is predicting what is disturbing sleep of college students. They

look at media and how it plays into the loss of sleep and also how sleep can relate to the quality

of life. Sleep disturbance of college students is a major problem for academics. Social media is

one of the biggest influences of sleep disturbance of college students. Social media is proven to

be more of a problem than any physical and mental health problems. Another major hindrance of

sleep at night is sleeping in the afternoon. Once again, media was proven to be a bigger

disturbance for college students.