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ABC Kinematic Axes

The direction of maximum flow or slip is termed 'an' axis, the plane ab is the slip plane and c are the slip plane normal. The terminology first evolved at the time the concepts for Petro fabric analysis were being evolved by Bruno Sander. Later, the same became applicable to similar

ABC Kinematic Axes The direction of maximum flow or slip is termed 'an' axis, the plane

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folds since these were the only folds in which the cleavage planes were not of maximum longitudinal strain but of maximum displacement. Then the application came to the area of plate tectonics and movement of thrust sheets. Lastly, it became applicable to sheath folds and with the impetus on research on shear zones, the terminology has now become applicable to sheared rocks. Though the concept has become widely applicable, the usage of the very terms a, b and c appears to have been done away with. In orogenic deformation, the movement direction of thrust sheets is also 'a' or tectonic transport direction. Usually the thrust sheets are emplaced and are accompanied by transpression, a term coined by Harland in 1971.

ABC Kinematic Axes The direction of maximum flow or slip is termed 'an' axis, the plane

ramps to progressively shallower levels toward the trench. an accretionary prism and progressive continental collision

Accretionary Wedges: Accretionary wedges are accumulations of sediment scraped off from the down going (underthrust) slab during subduction. They are landward of oceanic trenches formed by the subduction process. Subduction may be of 'oceanic lithosphere' or beneath a continent (continental arcs) or beneath other 'oceanic lithosphere' (island arcs). Critical Wedge Taper in Accretionary Prisms (see this in this collection): The thickness of the wedge depends on the amount of scraped sediment available. The critical taper of the wedge is based on strength of the wedge material and on the basal shear strength of the edge. Proper accommodation of the taper involves thrusting, slumping, and normal faulting. Off scraping and underplating of the sediment beneath the accretionary prism is accomplished by thrust faulting. The wedge is underlain by a detachment fault on the top of the descending slab. This fault See ramps and flats. Subduction produces asymmetric foreland fold & thrust belt and will produce symmetric foreland fold and thrust belts with opposite vergence. Volcanic

arc rocks formed by subduction are complexly deformed during the eventual collision.

Accelerating Creep

Time dependent deformation during which the strain rate usually drops. The slope of the time strain curve generally starts decreasing. This is also known as primary creep. The time dependent deformation during which the rate of deformation is more or less constant. In other words, the slope of the time strain curve would be of the same degree. The most interesting characteristic of constant stress tests is that steady state creep is achieved. This is a state where the rock exhibits no change of strain with time. Steady state creep occurs during the linear portion of the strain-time curve.

ABC Kinematic Axes The direction of maximum flow or slip is termed 'an' axis, the plane

In tertiary creep, the strain rate again begins to fall. If the stress is tensile, the sample fails by first necking and then followed by rupture in tension.

Allochthonous Sheet: A sheet or pile of rocks that has moved considerable distance from the place where it was formed; in an orogenic belt, where it lies over an autochthonous block which has stayed in its own place. A surface of decollement separates the lower autochthon and an upper allochthon. Many Alpine and Himalayan nappes have formed in this manner by large scale mass transport. Sometimes, there is little deformation in the allochthonous nappes despite the long distance over which they have moved. The diagrams produced here are that of window and klippe, ramp and flat, and stretching lineations and stylolites together with syntectonic crack seal antitaxial, syntaxial, composite or stretched crystal veins. The features such as these together with imbricate faults, listric faults and decollement are also described in detail elsewhere in this assembly.

Alpine Fault: This is an intracontinental transform fault cross-cutting the two islands of New Zealand and continues as the Karmadoc subduction zone in Pacific Ocean. This photo taken from a book shows recent activity (displacement of alluvial fan) along this fault. The estimated total displacement along this fault since early Paleozoic is of the order of 450 km. The fault affects the Proterozoic granite greenstone association. Although not quite strictly true, most of the granite bodies occur to the east of the fault. The fault is a boundary between the Pacific and Indo Australian plates. Watch the BBC's online movie on bbc.co.uk as part of the series titled Horizon by the BBC. This one is titled the man who moved the mountains and also focuses on the movement of Indo-Australian plate with experiment by Tapponier et al. As one encounters younger rocks along the fault, the amount of displacement gradually diminishes. The earliest movements appear to have begun during the mid-Paleozoic.

Allochthonous Sheet: A sheet or pile of rocks that has moved considerable distance from the place

Amygdules: The vesicles in eruptive rocks are usually filled in by minerals such as calcite, quartz or zeolite. These initial spherical amygdales are deformed to acquire ellipsoidal shapes after deformation with recrystallization or plastic deformation of the mineral species comprising the amygdales. The amygdales afford a good material for use in determining the finite strain in rocks. The photograph is of deformed amygdales in the Bhimtal area of Garhwal Himalaya (by Prof D K Shrivastava, IIT, Roorkee, India) at bottom while the one at top left is from the book by J G Ramsay 1967. The one at right by author was taken in 1996 from the "Mehroni schist" supracrustal amphibolite in Central Indian Bundelkhand batholith.

Andersonian Faults: E M Anderson (1951) divided all faults into three principal types depending upon whether the maximum principal compressive stress, s 1 intermediate principal compressive stress s2 or least principal compressive stress s3 was in the earth's gravitational field. If the maximum principal compressive stress is vertical, grabens result, and the crust is extended. When this is horizontal, but the least principal compressive stress is vertical, crustal thickening and shortening occurs and thrust faults are generated as in most of the orogenic belts. However, if both maximum and minimum principal stresses are horizontal or tangential to the earth's surface and intermediate principal stress

vertical, then there is no appreciable extension or shortening of the earth's crust and transcurrent faults or strike slip faults are generated.

Allochthonous Sheet: A sheet or pile of rocks that has moved considerable distance from the place

Angular Unconformity: An erosional surface underlain by rocks that show more complex structural style than in the younger rocks above. In simple cases, the older strata are either folded or homoclinally inclined and the younger ones are only gently inclined or are sub horizontal. The photograph shows this latter type in the northwest highlands of Scotland close to the Irish sea. In some cases, the younger strata just overlie the igneous plutonic rocks, this being a nonconformity. In cases where the strata above and below have the same attitude, the term disconformity is used. Obviously, in case of the last, there was no change in the attitude before the deposition of younger strata began, the only event being the uplift and erosion. Hence, both the sets show the same attitude as they were subjected to the diastrophic movements or tectonic forces together, after the formation of erosional surface.

Anisotropy: A rock usually deformed and metamorphosed with distinct planes, either discrete or nearly so. The response to applied stress on such a rock is different in different directions and depends on the shear as well as compression modulus which itself depends on the angle between applied stress and anisotropy planes and the degree of anisotropy. In contrast an isotropic material has the same moduli of shear and compression in all directions. The figure that accompanies this text is after Cobbold et al. 1971 who investigated experimentally Biot's theory of folding in laminated media. The interlayer slip and anisotropy are maximum to a layer parallel and layer normal shortening, but progressively decrease on applied stress changing its orientation from these two extreme situations. If the compression is layer parallel and interlayer slip not hampered, ideal conjugate kink bands are formed. If the interlayer slip gets hampered on account of lack of layer continuity or bounding material does not allow slip, the anisotropy is reduced, and sinusoidal folds are formed in preference. If the compression applied is at angle to the layering, the anisotropy decreases (i.e. N and Q are not at variance but come pretty close to each other so that their ratio is not too great), then single kink-bands are formed in preference to conjugate, other conditions having been met with. Under layer normal conditions, again the anisotropy is high and extensional kink-bands (normal) result as also other structures under low slip such as internal boudinage. The four sets of figures show how the anisotropy is under four idealized conditions chose by Cobbold, Cosgrove and Summers. Just as the anomalous thick competent layer affects the chevron fold model stability, so does that of the development of conjugate kink-bands if the anisotropy becomes lower because of the presence of an anomalous thick layer. At this place is shown four experiments carried out by Summers. In the first stage, the anomalous layer is too thick, and the structures produced are sinusoidal folds of type 1 instability when the interlayer slip is hampered. But as the thickness of the central layer is reduced, we start getting first the type 3 structures of intermediate anisotropy until finally high anisotropy conjugate kink-bands are produced when the layer thickness is same as that of the other layers in the same complex. These last depict high anisotropy and easy interlayer slip on account of compressive and shear moduli being at great variance.

Angular Unconformity: An erosional surface underlain by rocks that show more complex structural style than in

Anticline and Syncline: An upward or downward closing fold in the core of which the Stata found are the oldest in the entire sequence is called an anticline. In case of sideways closing fold, it may have to be ascertained if the fold acquired this style during its evolution and if it has originally been an anticline or a syncline. A syncline is an upward or downward closing fold in the core of which the strata found or rocks found are relatively younger. Again, in case of neutral or sideways closing fold, similar facts as enumerated may have to be ascertained. Anticlinorium and Synclinorium is a large or major anticline or a syncline on whose limbs are fund minor folds, both anti and synclines, generally asymmetrical and on opposite senses of the two limbs.

Antiform and Synform

Angular Unconformity: An erosional surface underlain by rocks that show more complex structural style than in

An upward closing fold. Not related to the stratigraphy. It could be an anticline or a syncline, depending on whether the core contains relatively older or younger rocks of the sequence. A downward closing fold is called a Synform. Not related to the stratigraphy. It could be an anticline or a syncline, depending on whether the core contains relatively older or younger rocks of the sequence. A sideways closing fold is a neutral fold, it could be recumbent if its axial plane is horizontal or reclined if its axial plane is inclined and the plunge of the fold hinge and axial plane dip are equal, and the azimuth of plunge and azimuth of axial plane are the same.

An upward closing fold. Not related to the stratigraphy. It could be an anticline or a