WAY MAWSTON
if,:l J r < l k l A R YAI'I~I.I(~,YI'IOX
'1.1 r:or< I<I.:~ peda~lccwoulcl be 10 ohms, allcl
onatil irlcI~lc~ri\/c cap;~citive(LC) the entire signal voltage would
filters these days arc in high l ~ gc~ieratrd
r across k.
f'rcque~~c). c:ircuits. 'l'licse f i l  Tiic signal currents through
Lers. like resis:i\le capacsirive INPUT
e f f c c ~ i \ / cr e s i s t a ~ ~ c .Re flow
(I<Cl filters cxn easil!. be dc through (' and I., whirh both
signed to perform lowpass. have Ieac:tanc.cs 100 t i m e s
highpass, bandpass, or north greater than tlie val11e of K ill
filtcrinq, b ~ l the!. t have [he addi n l ~ m s Coiisec~~~cn~ljr.
. the signal
tional l;e~ic.fi~ ol'oi'fcriiig at lcasl ;f b
12 dB pcr oc:tav: of rolloff. (,om 4 7   .  . .
. 
pared LO the 6 dE3 per octa\~eof FIG. 1LC SERIESRESONANT filters: f
RC lilters, cl.llic,h sharDer simplified
. .. .
schematic, a, and equivalent 'I I
cutoff characteristics at all oier I
ating frequencies. OHMS
The series and the parallel At some specific frequency,
resonant LC filters are the two the reactances of C and L could
"watershed" LC designs from be 10 kilohms and I kilohm, re
which all others are derived. spectively Therefore the filters
Figure I  a shows a circuit for a input impedance (ignoring the
seriesresonant filter, and Fig. value of R ) will be 9 kilohms at
1b shows its simplified equiv that frequency. Many other sim:
alent circuit. The R represents ilar examples can be given.
the resistance of the coil. The key point to be made here
is that at resonant frequency,J,,
Seriesresonant filter the reactances of C and L will be
The fundamental response of equal (but 90" out of phase),
the series filter is that capacitive and the filter input impedance
reactance C decreases with in will equal the value of R, as indi
creased frequency, while induc
tive reactance decreases. The
cated by the dotted line at the
bottom of the impedance vs. fre FREQUENCY,

a
b 2.
inverse relationship also holds. quency characteristic curve Fig. 0
in
FIG. 2LC SERIESRESONANT FILTER: z
The filler's input impedance is 2a. For example, if this occurs
equal to the difference between when the reactances of C and L
Plot of input impedance vs. frequency at
resonance, a, plot of voltage output vs.
2
these two reactances, pius the are both 1000 o h m s , a n d R frequency at resonance taken across L
value of resistor R. equals 10 ohms, the input im or C, Is. 69
voltage generated across C and Notice in Fig. 2b that the in
L is 100 times greater than the ductive and capacitive voltages
actual input signal voltage, as are 90" out of phase, and the
shown in Fig. 2b, the curve of voltage generated across the se
voltage vs. frequency. This volt ries LC combination is effec
age magnification, indicated by tively zero. The impedence of
the sharp peak, is known as the the filter at f, is known as the
circuit's Q. filter's characteristic imped
ance, Z,, and it equals a.
Figure 3 shows two ways to
make practical use of a series
resonant LC filter: In Fig. 3a,
2.2 kilohm resistor R, and the
filter act together a s a frequen
cyselective a t t e n u a t o r t h a t
gives high attenuation at the
r e s o n a n t frequency f,, a n d
lower attenuation above or be
low that resonant frequency.
(The filter is a notch rejector.)
In Fig. 3b, the input signal is
applied directly to the filter, and
the output is taken across the
inductor L. This filter circuit
acts a s a notch acceptor that
provides high gain at resonant
notch rejector, a, and notch acceptor, b. frequencyf,and low gain above
or below that frequency. I
Table 1 lists the principal for
rnulas that can be applied to
both series and parallelreso
nant LC circuits.
Parallelresonant filters
Figure 4a shows the sche
matic for a parallelresonant fil
ter, a n d Fig. 4b shows i t s
equivalent circuit. The induc
tor's resistance is represented
by R. In this filter, capacitive re
actance decreases with increas
ing frequency,and inductive
reactance increases with in
creasing frequency. The re
ciprocal relationship also holds.
Each component draws a sig
nal current that is prop?rtional
to its reactance, but the two cur
rents are 90" outofphase, s o FIG. 5LC TUNED AMPLlFlERS with
ters: simple schematic, a, equivalent cir
lowimpedance outputs: transformer
cuit, b, and plot of input impedance vs. the total signal current is equal coupiing, a, autotransformer coupling,
frequency, c. to the difference between the L b, and capacitivedivider coupling, c.
and C currents. At resonance, L
and C are equal so the total cur
rent falls nearly to zero.
As a result, the filter acts as a
nearinfinite impedance. In
practical filters,the presence of
equivalent resistance R modi
fies the response by reducing
'the impedance at the resonant
frequency f,, Z,, to Zo2/R. For
example, if Zo equals 1 kilohm
and R equals 10 ohms, the value
of Z , will be 100 kilohms.
come this drawback are illus LC oscillators
trated in Fig. 5. Figures 6 through 10 illus
One way to obtairi output trate the different schemes for
coupling is to consider the pri using a parallelresonant filter
mary winding of an RF trans as the tuning element in tran
former as the filter's inductive sistorized LC oscillators. The
component, and to take the out simplest of the LC oscillators is
put from the transformer's sec the tunedcollector feedback
ondary, as shown in Fig. 5a. form shown in Fig. 6.
This approach provides a fully Transistor Q1 is connected a s
floating output. If the trans a commonemitter amplifier, L1
former has a 10:l turns ratio, and C1 form the tuned collector
the output signal will have an filter, and L2 provides the collec
attenuation factor a of 10. tortobase feedback. Inductor
In a second method, the coil L2 is inductively coupled to L1,
FIG. GTUNEDCOLLECTOR feedback can be tapped as shown in Fig. providing transformer action.
LC oscillator. 5b, to obtain an output by au By adjusting the phase of this
totransformer action. In the feedback signal, the circuit will
third method, as shown in Fig. give zero phase shift at the
5c, the required tuning capaci tuned frequency so that, if the
loop gain (determined by Tl's
turns ratio) is greater than uni
ty, the circuit oscillates. With
the component values shown,
oscillation frequency can be var
ied from 1 MHz to 2 MHz by
trimmer capacitor C1.
Figure 7 is the schematic for a
simple Hartley oscillator. The
turns of collector load inductor
L1 are tapped at a point 20%
down from the top of the coil,
and the circuit's positive power
supply is connected to this tap
FIG. 7SIMPLE HARTLEY LC oscillator. FIG. &COLPITTS LC OSCILLATOR pro
point. As a result, L1 acts as an
duces a 37kHz output. autotransformer so that the sig
Figure 4c is the filter's fre nal voltage appearing at the top
quency response: a plot of input of L1 is 180" out of phase with
impedance vs. frequency show the voltage at its low end (near
ing how the input impedance est Ql's collector.)
peaks at the resonant frequency The signal voltage at the top of
f,. All of the formulas in Table 1 the coil, (which is 180" out of
apply to the parallelresonant phase with the signal at Ql's col
filter as well. lector) is coupled the base of Q1
base by isolating capacitor C2.
Output coupling In this arrangement the circuit
The two most popular ap oscillates at a center frequency
plications for parallelresonant
tuned filters are in narrow fre
quency band amplifiers and in
LC oscillators. In narrowband FIG. 9CLAPP OR GOURlET LC 0s
amplifiers t h e filter usually cillator producese an 80kHz output.
functions as the collector load
for commonemitter amplifiers tance is obtained from two se
a s shown by three simplified riesconnected capacitors. An
schematics in Fig. 5. The filter output can be obtained across
provides high gain at its reso the larger capacitor by capaci
nant frequency and lower gain tive divider action.
above and below that frequency. In these schematics each cir
The drawback to these cir cuit has arbitrarily been given
cuits is the problem of gaining a n attenuation factor a of 10.
access to the circuit's output Each has an output impedance
s i g n a l s w i t h o u t loading t h e of Z,/a2. Thus, if Z, equals 100
tuned circuit and lowering its kilohms and a equals 10, the Z
effective Q . Three ways to over output equals 1 kilohm. cillator.
Gouriet oscillator offers excel
lent frequency stability. With
the component values shown in
the schematic, it will oscillate at
about 80 kHz.
Figure 10 is a schematic for a
Reinartz oscillator. Its tuning
coil has three inductively cou
pled windings. Positive feed
back is obtained by coupling
the collector and emitter signals
of the transistor through coils
L1 and L2. Both windings are
inductively coupled to L3. The
Reinartz oscillator oscillates at a
frequency determined by the
values of L3 and C1. The coil
turns ratios are typical for a cir
cuit designed to oscillate at a
few thousand kHz.
FIG. 13LTYPE HIGHPASS FILTER:
FIG. 11FALSE LTYPE LOWPASS fil
schematic, a, and frequency response
ter: schematic a, and frequency re
curve. b.
sponse curve.
determined by the values of L
and C.
In general, circuit oscillation
depends on tapping a common
signal at a point in the tuned
circuit so that phasesplitting
autotransformer response is
obtained. This tap point need
not be made in the tuning coil;
it can be made in the tuning
capacitor, as in the Colpitts os
cillator shown in schematic Fig.
9. With the component values in
that figure, the oscillator will os
cillate at about 37 kHz.
In Fig. 8, C1 is in parallel with FIG. 14LOWPASS LC FILTERS: Tsec
transistor Ql's output capaci tion schematic, a, and %section,b.
tance, and C2 is in parallel with FIG. 12TRUE LTYPE LBWPASS filter:
Ql's i n p u t capacitance. Con schematic, a, and frequency response
sequently, capacitance changes curve, b.
caused by ambient and compo
nent temperature changes can Lowpass and highpass
shift the oscillation frequency. Figure Ila is a schematic for
This shift can be minimized a "false" Ltype lowpass filter.
and good frequency stability Inductor L and capacitor C act
can be obtained by selecting val together as a frequencydepen
ues for C1 and C2 that are large dent attenuator. At low frequen
with respect to Ql's internal ca cies the reactance of L is low and
pacitance. the reactance of C is high, so the
Figure 9 shows a modifified circuit offers negligible attenua
3 version of the Colpitts oscillator, tion. At high frequencies the're
8 known as the Clapp or Gouriet actance of L is high and that of
$ oscillator. Another capacitor, C is low, so the circuit offers
FIG. 15HIGHPASS LC FILTERS: Tsec
C3, with a value that is small high attenuation. tion schematic, a, and %section,b.
relative to C1 and C2, is put in Consequently, the circuit acts
series with L1. This circuit's res like a lowpass filter. It is called it circuit is actually a seriesreso
onant frequency is determined a "false" filter because the cir nant filter (like Fig. 1) with its
2 output taken from across ca
5 principally by the values of L1 cuit will only function correctly
and C3 and it is almost inde if it is driven from a source im pacitor C.
pendent of variations in tran pedance equal to 2,. (This is If the circuit is driven from a
72 sistor capacitance. The Clappl not shown in the diagram.) The continued on page 89
duce a required soundpressure all play a part in squeezing the max but informative, powerhandling ca
level from a given loudspeaker, it imum power rating from any .given pability specification, such as that
clips the positive and/or negative speaker. used by Allison Acoustics: ' a t least
peaks of the musical waveforms. The test signal used to derive a 15 watts continuous at any frequen
Shortduration overloads may not system's power rating must be cy. Over most of the frequency
be audible; longer overloads are fre chosen carefully. The ubiquitous range, at least 350 watts for 0.1
quently perceived as level compres pinknoise signal used in so many second, 125 watts for 1 second, 60
sion, rather than distortion. How other audio tests is totally inap watts for 10 seconds."
ever, badly overdriven amplifiers propriate for power testing be N o t e the distinctions Allison
produce a raspy distortion, not un cause, unlike music, it has equal makes between continuous and
like that of a mistracking phono car energy per octave. In contrast with transient wattage levels. The dif
tridge. Low bass passages are likely the midrange energy hump dis ference between them is what al
to take on a "mushy" quality be played by most music, pink noise lows you to play very loud music
cause of the spurious harmonics shows up on a realtime analyzer as without problems, even though a
generated by the overload. And as a virtually straight line, which is a continuous sinewave at the same
discussed earlier, prolonged opera poor representation of music. peak level would certainly damage
tion with hard clipping is a frequent The single rms ratings used by your audio equipment. In other
cause of driver damage, so clipping some manufacturers imply the use words, your 100watt (or even 200
should be avoided. of a sinewave test signal, which, watt) amplifier is certainly safe to
again, is totally unlike a musical use with typical speakers rated at
Proper power ratings waveform in shape or energy con 50 watts maximum so long as you
Arriving at a speaker system's tent. The most valld and informative don't feed continuous tones or pink
power rating is no easy task, even way for a manufacturer to specify a noise to them, drive the amplifier
for its designer. Ideally, a manufac speaker's powerhandling capability into hard clipping, drop a tone arm,
turer designs for the highest power is to state, however loosely, the or lose a cable ground at high vol
capability that can be achleved with power it can handle in a specific ume. In short, you have to abuse
in his cost and size constraints for a frequency range for a specific your speakers (and your ears) be
given model. Special hightempera amount of time. fore disaster is likely to strike. If you
ture materials such as voicecoil Listing specifications that way don't ask for trouble, it probably
wire, voicecoil forms, and cements gives rise to a somewhat complex, won't happen. (I
puts loaded by, a specific imped
ance value. S u c h filters can
readily be cascaded to yield very
high levels of signal rejection.
lowimpedance source, the out Among those filters are the T
put will produce a steep signal section and pisection lowpass
peak a t f,,as shown in the fre filters that are shown in Fig. 14,
quencyresponse curve of Fig. and the Tsection and pisection
11b. The magnitude of this highpass filters that are shown
peak is proportional to the cir in Fig. 15.
cuit's Q. All of these filters exhibit a n
Figure 12a shows how Fig. output rolloff of about 12 dB per
11a can be modified so that it filter reiects interference on the power octave (40dB per decade). Their
behaves like a true Ltype low line to about 25 MHz. outputs must be correctly load
pass filter. Resistor Rx is placed ed by a matching filter section
in series with the circuit's input rather than across capacitor C, or terminating load. The design
so that the s u m of R, and R, The value of equivalent resistor formulas for them are given in
(the input signal's source im Ex in both of these circuits can Table 1.
pedance) and R (the equivalent be reduced to zero if the filters Figure 16 shows an applica
resistance of L) equals the cir 2, value is selected to match R,, tion for a Tsection lowpass fil 2
cuits characteristic impedance as given in formula 2 of Table 1. teran AC powerline filter that +
2,. The addition of this resis The outputs of these filters, like will block interference that is on 2
tance reduces the circuit's Q to
unity, but it results in a clean
those of the series and parallel
resonant filters, must "see" only
the line from reaching a sen
sitive unit of equipment while "
C3
lowpass filter output shape as highimpedance loads to oper also blocking any interference $
shown in Fig. 12b. ate properly from that might be generated 2.
Figure 13 illustrates how the The most popular lowpass internally by t h a t u n i t from
principle just discussed can be
applied to make a n efficient L
and highpass filters are bal
anced, with matched imped
reaching the power lines. This
circuit can be made t o operate f
type highpass filter. The output ances that are designed to be at frequencies up to about 25
i s t a k e n across i n d u c t o r L driven from, and have their out MHz. 12 89