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if,:l J r < l k l A R YAI'I~I.I(~,YI'IOX

'1.1 r:or< I<I.:~- peda~lccwoulcl be 10 ohms, allcl
onatil irlcI~lc~ri\/c cap;~citive(LC) the entire signal voltage would
filters these days arc in high- l ~ gc~ieratrd
r across k.
f'rcque~~c). c:ircuits. 'l'licse f i l - Tiic signal currents through
Lers. like resis:i\le capacsirive INPUT
e f f c c ~ i \ / cr e s i s t a ~ ~ c .Re flow
(I<Cl filters cxn easil!. be dc- through (' and I., whirh both
signed to perform low-pass. have I-eac:tanc.cs 100 t i m e s
high-pass, bandpass, or north greater than tlie val11e of K ill
filtcrinq, b ~ l the!. t have [he addi- n l ~ m s Coiisec~~~cn~ljr.
. the signal
tional l; ol'oi'fcriiig at lcasl ;f b
12 dB pcr oc:tav: of rolloff. (,om- -4 7 - - . - -. .
. -
pared LO the 6 dE3 per octa\~eof FIG. 1-LC SERIES-RESONANT filters: f
RC lilters, cl.llic,h sharDer simplified
. .. .
schematic, a, and equivalent 'I I
cutoff characteristics at all oier- I
ating frequencies. OHMS
The series- and the parallel- At some specific frequency,
resonant LC filters are the two the reactances of C and L could
"watershed" LC designs from be 10 kilohms and I kilohm, re-
which all others are derived. spectively Therefore the filters
Figure I - a shows a circuit for a input impedance (ignoring the
series-resonant filter, and Fig. value of R ) will be 9 kilohms at
1-b shows its simplified equiv- that frequency. Many other sim:
alent circuit. The R represents ilar examples can be given.
the resistance of the coil. The key point to be made here
is that at resonant frequency,J,,
Series-resonant filter the reactances of C and L will be
The fundamental response of equal (but 90" out of phase),
the series filter is that capacitive and the filter input impedance
reactance C decreases with in- will equal the value of R, as indi-
creased frequency, while induc-
tive reactance decreases. The
cated by the dotted line at the
bottom of the impedance vs. fre- FREQUENCY---,
b 2.
inverse relationship also holds. quency characteristic curve Fig. 0
The filler's input impedance is 2-a. For example, if this occurs
equal to the difference between when the reactances of C and L
Plot of input impedance vs. frequency at
resonance, a, plot of voltage output vs.
these two reactances, pius the are both 1000 o h m s , a n d R frequency at resonance taken across L
value of resistor R. equals 10 ohms, the input im- or C, Is. 69
voltage generated across C and Notice in Fig. 2-b that the in-
L is 100 times greater than the ductive and capacitive voltages
actual input signal voltage, as are 90" out of phase, and the
shown in Fig. 2-b, the curve of voltage generated across the se-
voltage vs. frequency. This volt- ries LC combination is effec-
age magnification, indicated by tively zero. The impedence of
the sharp peak, is known as the the filter at f, is known as the
circuit's Q. filter's characteristic imped-
ance, Z,, and it equals a.
Figure 3 shows two ways to
make practical use of a series-
resonant LC filter: In Fig. 3-a,
2.2 kilohm resistor R, and the
filter act together a s a frequen-
cy-selective a t t e n u a t o r t h a t
gives high attenuation at the
r e s o n a n t frequency f,, a n d
lower attenuation above or be-
low that resonant frequency.
(The filter is a notch rejector.)
In Fig. 3-b, the input signal is
applied directly to the filter, and
the output is taken across the
inductor L. This filter circuit
acts a s a notch acceptor that
provides high gain at resonant
notch rejector, a, and notch acceptor, b. frequencyf,and low gain above
or below that frequency. I

Table 1 lists the principal for-

rnulas that can be applied to
both series- and parallel-reso-
nant LC circuits.
Parallel-resonant filters
Figure 4-a shows the sche-
matic for a parallel-resonant fil-
ter, a n d Fig. 4-b shows i t s
equivalent circuit. The induc-
tor's resistance is represented
by R. In this filter, capacitive re-
actance decreases with increas-
ing frequency,and inductive
reactance increases with in-
creasing frequency. The re-
ciprocal relationship also holds.
Each component draws a sig-
nal current that is prop?rtional
to its reactance, but the two cur-
rents are 90" out-of-phase, s o FIG. 5-LC TUNED AMPLlFlERS with
ters: simple schematic, a, equivalent cir-
low-impedance outputs: transformer
cuit, b, and plot of input impedance vs. the total signal current is equal coupiing, a, auto-transformer coupling,
frequency, c. to the difference between the L b, and capacitive-divider coupling, c.

and C currents. At resonance, L

and C are equal so the total cur-
rent falls nearly to zero.
As a result, the filter acts as a
near-infinite impedance. In
practical filters,the presence of
equivalent resistance R modi-
fies the response by reducing
'the impedance at the resonant
frequency f,, Z,, to Zo2/R. For
example, if Zo equals 1 kilohm
and R equals 10 ohms, the value
of Z , will be 100 kilohms.
come this drawback are illus- LC oscillators
trated in Fig. 5. Figures 6 through 10 illus-
One way to obtairi output trate the different schemes for
coupling is to consider the pri- using a parallel-resonant filter
mary winding of an RF trans- as the tuning element in tran-
former as the filter's inductive sistorized LC oscillators. The
component, and to take the out- simplest of the LC oscillators is
put from the transformer's sec- the tuned-collector feedback
ondary, as shown in Fig. 5-a. form shown in Fig. 6.
This approach provides a fully Transistor Q1 is connected a s
floating output. If the trans- a common-emitter amplifier, L1
former has a 10:l turns ratio, and C1 form the tuned collector
the output signal will have an filter, and L2 provides the collec-
attenuation factor a of 10. tor-to-base feedback. Inductor
In a second method, the coil L2 is inductively coupled to L1,
FIG. GTUNED-COLLECTOR feedback can be tapped as shown in Fig. providing transformer action.
LC oscillator. 5-b, to obtain an output by au- By adjusting the phase of this
totransformer action. In the feedback signal, the circuit will
third method, as shown in Fig. give zero phase shift at the
5-c, the required tuning capaci- tuned frequency so that, if the
loop gain (determined by Tl's
turns ratio) is greater than uni-
ty, the circuit oscillates. With
the component values shown,
oscillation frequency can be var-
ied from 1 MHz to 2 MHz by
trimmer capacitor C1.
Figure 7 is the schematic for a
simple Hartley oscillator. The
turns of collector load inductor
L1 are tapped at a point 20%
down from the top of the coil,
and the circuit's positive power
supply is connected to this tap
point. As a result, L1 acts as an
duces a 37-kHz output. autotransformer so that the sig-
Figure 4-c is the filter's fre- nal voltage appearing at the top
quency response: a plot of input of L1 is 180" out of phase with
impedance vs. frequency show- the voltage at its low end (near-
ing how the input impedance est Ql's collector.)
peaks at the resonant frequency The signal voltage at the top of
f,. All of the formulas in Table 1 the coil, (which is 180" out of
apply to the parallel-resonant phase with the signal at Ql's col-
filter as well. lector) is coupled the base of Q1
base by isolating capacitor C2.
Output coupling In this arrangement the circuit
The two most popular ap- oscillates at a center frequency
plications for parallel-resonant
tuned filters are in narrow fre-
quency band amplifiers and in
LC oscillators. In narrow-band FIG. 9-CLAPP OR GOURlET LC 0s-
amplifiers t h e filter usually cillator producese an 80-kHz output.
functions as the collector load
for common-emitter amplifiers tance is obtained from two se-
a s shown by three simplified ries-connected capacitors. An
schematics in Fig. 5. The filter output can be obtained across
provides high gain at its reso- the larger capacitor by capaci-
nant frequency and lower gain tive divider action.
above and below that frequency. In these schematics each cir-
The drawback to these cir- cuit has arbitrarily been given
cuits is the problem of gaining a n attenuation factor a of 10.
access to the circuit's output Each has an output impedance
s i g n a l s w i t h o u t loading t h e of Z,/a2. Thus, if Z, equals 100
tuned circuit and lowering its kilohms and a equals 10, the Z
effective Q . Three ways to over- output equals 1 kilohm. cillator.
Gouriet oscillator offers excel-
lent frequency stability. With
the component values shown in
the schematic, it will oscillate at
about 80 kHz.
Figure 10 is a schematic for a
Reinartz oscillator. Its tuning
coil has three inductively cou-
pled windings. Positive feed-
back is obtained by coupling
the collector and emitter signals
of the transistor through coils
L1 and L2. Both windings are
inductively coupled to L3. The
Reinartz oscillator oscillates at a
frequency determined by the
values of L3 and C1. The coil-
turns ratios are typical for a cir-
cuit designed to oscillate at a
few thousand kHz.
schematic, a, and frequency response
ter: schematic a, and frequency re-
curve. b.
sponse curve.

determined by the values of L

and C.
In general, circuit oscillation
depends on tapping a common
signal at a point in the tuned
circuit so that phase-splitting
autotransformer response is
obtained. This tap point need
not be made in the tuning coil;
it can be made in the tuning
capacitor, as in the Colpitts os-
cillator shown in schematic Fig.
9. With the component values in
that figure, the oscillator will os-
cillate at about 37 kHz.
In Fig. 8, C1 is in parallel with FIG. 14-LOW-PASS LC FILTERS: T-sec-
transistor Ql's output capaci- tion schematic, a, and %-section,b.
tance, and C2 is in parallel with FIG. 12-TRUE L-TYPE LBW-PASS filter:
Ql's i n p u t capacitance. Con- schematic, a, and frequency response
sequently, capacitance changes curve, b.
caused by ambient and compo-
nent temperature changes can Low-pass and high-pass
shift the oscillation frequency. Figure Il-a is a schematic for
This shift can be minimized a "false" L-type low-pass filter.
and good frequency stability Inductor L and capacitor C act
can be obtained by selecting val- together as a frequency-depen-
ues for C1 and C2 that are large dent attenuator. At low frequen-
with respect to Ql's internal ca- cies the reactance of L is low and
pacitance. the reactance of C is high, so the
Figure 9 shows a modifified circuit offers negligible attenua-
3 version of the Colpitts oscillator, tion. At high frequencies the're-
8 known as the Clapp or Gouriet actance of L is high and that of
$ oscillator. Another capacitor, C is low, so the circuit offers
C3, with a value that is small high attenuation. tion schematic, a, and %-section,b.
relative to C1 and C2, is put in Consequently, the circuit acts
series with L1. This circuit's res- like a low-pass filter. It is called it circuit is actually a series-reso-
onant frequency is determined a "false" filter because the cir- nant filter (like Fig. 1) with its
2 output taken from across ca-
5 principally by the values of L1 cuit will only function correctly
and C3 and it is almost inde- if it is driven from a source im- pacitor C.
pendent of variations in tran- pedance equal to 2,. (This is If the circuit is driven from a
72 sistor capacitance. The Clappl not shown in the diagram.) The continued on page 89
duce a required sound-pressure all play a part in squeezing the max- but informative, power-handling ca-
level from a given loudspeaker, it imum power rating from any .given pability specification, such as that
clips the positive and/or negative speaker. used by Allison Acoustics: ' a t least
peaks of the musical waveforms. The test signal used to derive a 15 watts continuous at any frequen-
Short-duration overloads may not system's power rating must be cy. Over most of the frequency
be audible; longer overloads are fre- chosen carefully. The ubiquitous range, at least 350 watts for 0.1
quently perceived as level compres- pink-noise signal used in so many second, 125 watts for 1 second, 60
sion, rather than distortion. How- other audio tests is totally inap- watts for 10 seconds."
ever, badly overdriven amplifiers propriate for power testing be- N o t e the distinctions Allison
produce a raspy distortion, not un- cause, unlike music, it has equal makes between continuous and
like that of a mistracking phono car- energy per octave. In contrast with transient wattage levels. The dif-
tridge. Low bass passages are likely the midrange energy hump dis- ference between them is what al-
to take on a "mushy" quality be- played by most music, pink noise lows you to play very loud music
cause of the spurious harmonics shows up on a real-time analyzer as without problems, even though a
generated by the overload. And as a virtually straight line, which is a continuous sinewave at the same
discussed earlier, prolonged opera- poor representation of music. peak level would certainly damage
tion with hard clipping is a frequent The single rms ratings used by your audio equipment. In other
cause of driver damage, so clipping some manufacturers imply the use words, your 100-watt (or even 200-
should be avoided. of a sinewave test signal, which, watt) amplifier is certainly safe to
again, is totally unlike a musical use with typical speakers rated at
Proper power ratings waveform in shape or energy con- 50 watts maximum so long as you
Arriving at a speaker system's tent. The most valld and informative don't feed continuous tones or pink
power rating is no easy task, even way for a manufacturer to specify a noise to them, drive the amplifier
for its designer. Ideally, a manufac- speaker's power-handling capability into hard clipping, drop a tone arm,
turer designs for the highest power is to state, however loosely, the or lose a cable ground at high vol-
capability that can be achleved with- power it can handle in a specific ume. In short, you have to abuse
in his cost and size constraints for a frequency range for a specific your speakers (and your ears) be-
given model. Special high-tempera- amount of time. fore disaster is likely to strike. If you
ture materials such as voice-coil Listing specifications that way don't ask for trouble, it probably
wire, voice-coil forms, and cements gives rise to a somewhat complex, won't happen. (I

puts loaded by, a specific imped-

ance value. S u c h filters can
readily be cascaded to yield very
high levels of signal rejection.
low-impedance source, the out- Among those filters are the T-
put will produce a steep signal section and pi-section low-pass
peak a t f,,as shown in the fre- filters that are shown in Fig. 14,
quency-response curve of Fig. and the T-section and pi-section
11-b. The magnitude of this high-pass filters that are shown
peak is proportional to the cir- in Fig. 15.
cuit's Q. All of these filters exhibit a n
Figure 12-a shows how Fig. output rolloff of about 12 dB per
11-a can be modified so that it filter reiects interference on the power octave (40dB per decade). Their-
behaves like a true L-type low- line to about 25 MHz. outputs must be correctly load-
pass filter. Resistor Rx is placed ed by a matching filter section
in series with the circuit's input rather than across capacitor C, or terminating load. The design
so that the s u m of R, and R, The value of equivalent resistor formulas for them are given in
(the input signal's source im- Ex in both of these circuits can Table 1.
pedance) and R (the equivalent be reduced to zero if the filters Figure 16 shows an applica-
resistance of L) equals the cir- 2, value is selected to match R,, tion for a T-section low-pass fil- 2
cuits characteristic impedance as given in formula 2 of Table 1. ter-an AC power-line filter that +
2,. The addition of this resis- The outputs of these filters, like will block interference that is on 2
tance reduces the circuit's Q to
unity, but it results in a clean
those of the series and parallel-
resonant filters, must "see" only
the line from reaching a sen-
sitive unit of equipment while "

low-pass filter output shape as high-impedance loads to oper- also blocking any interference $
shown in Fig. 12-b. ate properly from that might be generated 2.
Figure 13 illustrates how the The most popular low-pass internally by t h a t u n i t from
principle just discussed can be
applied to make a n efficient L-
and high-pass filters are bal-
anced, with matched imped-
reaching the power lines. This
circuit can be made t o operate f
type high-pass filter. The output ances that are designed to be at frequencies up to about 25
i s t a k e n across i n d u c t o r L driven from, and have their out- MHz. 12 89