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Introduction Images formed by a converging lens

differ depending on their position. An


A lens is an optical device with object at infinity, forms an image which is
perfect or approximate axial symmetry real, inverted, smaller than the object and
which transmits and refracts light, the image is at the focus.
converging or diverging the beam. The word
lens comes from the Latin name of the lentil,
because a double-convex lens is lentil-
shaped. The genus of the lentil plant is Lens,
and the most commonly eaten species is
Lens culinaris. The lentil plant also gives its
name to a geometric figure. Most lenses are An object at twice the focus or the
spherical lenses: their two surfaces are parts center, the image formed are real, inverted,
of the surfaces of spheres, with the lens axis the same size, and at twice the focus
ideally perpendicular to both surfaces. Each
surface can be convex (bulging outwards
from the lens), concave (depressed into the
lens), or planar (flat). Lenses are used in
different ways. A single convex lens An object between twice the focus
mounted in a frame with a handle or stand is and the focus, the image formed are real,
a magnifying glass. Lenses are also used as inverted, larger than object, and beyond
prosthetics for the correction of visual twice the focus.
impairments. Other uses are in imaging
systems.

In this experiment, the determination


of the focal length of a converging lens, the
An object at Focus, no image is
characterization of image formed by the
formed since rays are refracted and rays are
converging lens, verification of the
parallel.
chromatic and spherical aberrations, and the
characterization of image formation by a
combination of lenses were performed.

Theory
An object between focus and lens, image
Convex lenses produce an image of formed are virtual, erected, larger than the
an object at infinity at their focus. For object and behind the object on the same
example, if the sun is imaged, much of the side of the lens Image formed by a diverging
visible and infrared light incident on the lens lens
is concentrated into the small image.
the camera lens not focusing different
wavelengths of light onto the exact same
focal plane and/or by the lens magnifying
different wavelengths differently.

As for the diverging lens, an object


at the focus characteristics of the image
regardless of object position. The images are
virtual, erect, smaller than the object, and
located between object and lens.

Spherical aberration is an optical effect


observed in an optical device that occurs due to
the increased refraction of light rays when they
As for the combination of lenses, the strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when
image formed by the first lens, serves as the they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison
object for the next lens. with those that strike nearer the centre.

In an ideal optical system, all rays of


light from a point in the object plane would
converge to the same point in the image
plane, forming a clear image. The influences
which cause different rays to converge to
different points are called aberrations. There
are different types of aberration: Spherical
aberration, coma, oblique astigmatism, In the experiment, the focal length
curvature of field, distortion, and chromatic was calculated by using the following
aberration. formula:

Chromatic aberration is a common 1 1 1


= +
lens error visible in images as colored 𝑓 𝑝 𝑞
fringes or colored blur along edges. It is
Where, f is the focal length
caused by a different refractive index of
glass for light at different wavelength. It is p is the distance of the object
also known as color fringing, achromatism
or chromatic distortion. It also has nothing q is the distance of the image
to do with color rendition, purity or
saturation which are related to color
transmission and contrast. It is caused by