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# AIR POLLUTION

ECW445
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
AND SUSTAINABILITY
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this chapter, students should be
able to :
- Identify the sources of air pollution
- Explain on air quality assessment and the
tools of measurement
- discuss the impact of air pollution to
environment, economic and human health
Air pollution is the modification of
the natural characteristics of the
mixture of invisible tasteless gases
(atmosphere) by a chemical,
particulate matter, or biological agent.
ATMOSPHERE LAYERS
GASES COMPOSITION
POLLUTANT FORM

## Gas Vapor Particle

AIR POLLUTION PATHWAYS
ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES
ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES
ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

## 1. "Stationary Sources" as smoke stacks of power

plants, manufacturing facilities, municipal waste
incinerators
2. "Mobile Sources" as motor vehicles, aircraft marine
vessels ( e.g cruise ships) etc.
3. Controlled/open burn practices used in agriculture
and forestry management
ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES
4. Chemicals, dust and crop waste burning in farming,
5. Fumes from paint, aerosol sprays etc
6. Waste deposition in landfills, which generate
methane.
7. Military uses, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases
and rocketry.
NATURAL SOURCES
NATURAL SOURCES

## 1. Dust from natural sources, usually large areas

of land with little or no vegetation.
2. Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by
animals, for example cattle.
Earth's crust.
4. Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires.
5. Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur,
chlorine, and ash particulates.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS
Ideal Gas Law

ρ = (1/R)(PM/T)

## Where ρ = density of gas, kg/m3

P = absolue pressure, kPa*
M = molecular mass, grams/mole
*1 Pascal(P) = 1 Newton/m2; 1 Newton = 1kg.m/s2
T = absolute temperature, K
R = universal gas constant = 8.3143 J/K. mole = 8.3143 Pa.m3/K.mole

The density is mass per unit volume, or number of moles per unit volume, n/𝛻 ,
the expression may be rewritten in the general from as
P 𝛻 = nRT
Where:𝛻 is the volume occupied by n moles of gas. At 273.15K and 101.325
kPa, 1 mole of an ideal gas occupies 22.414 L
DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES
 Stack and exhaust sampling measurements are made with instruments
calibrated with air. Combustion products have an entirely different composition than
 Dalton’s Law forms the basis for the calculation of the correction factor.
Dalton found that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the
sum of the pressure that each type of gas would exert if it alone occupied the
container.
 Pt = P1 + P2 + P3 + ……

##  Where: Pt = total pressure of mixture

 P1 + P2 + P3 = pressure of each gas if it were in container alone,
 that is partial pressure

##  Dalton’s Law rewritten as;

 Pt = n1(RT/𝛻) + n2(RT/𝛻) + n3(RT/𝛻) + ...
 = (n1+n2+n3+...) (RT/𝛻)
 Air pollution meteorology is a consequence of the thermodynamic processes of the
atmosphere One such process is adiabatic expansion and contraction. An adiabatic process is
one that takes place with no addition or removal of heat and with sufficient slowness so that
the gas can be considered to be equilibrium at all times.
 Consider piston and cylinder. The cylinder and piston face are assumed to be perfectly
insulated. The gas is at pressure P. A force, F equal to PA must be applied to the piston to
maintained equilibrium. If the force is increased and the volume is compressed, the pressure will
increase and work will be done on the gas by the piston. As no heat enters or leaves the gas,
the work will go into increasing the thermal energy of the gas in accordance with the first
principle of thermodynamics, that is;
 (Heat added to gas) = (Increase in thermal energy) + (External work done by or on the gas)

## Because the left side of the equation is

zero (it is an adiabatic process), the
increase in thermal energy is equal to
work done. The increase in thermal
energy is reflected by an increase in
temperature of the gas. If the gas is
will decrease
PPM IN WATER IS MASS TO MASS PPM IN AIR IS VOLUME TO
RATIO VOLUME RATIO
FORMATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE
AND NITROGEN OXIDES IN
COMBUSTION

S + O2  SO2
N + O2 

REFER EXAMPLE 9-1 PAGE 582
MECHANISMS

Abrasion/scuff
Deposition and Removal
Direct Chemical Attack
Indirect Chemical Attack
Electrochemical Corrosion
EFFECT OF MOISTURE
HIGHER HUMIDITY INCREASES RATE OF DETERIORATION.

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
H I G H E R T E M P E R AT U R E I N C R E A S E S R AT E O F
D E T E R I O R AT I O N .

EFFECT OF SUNLIGHT
M O R E S U N L I G H T I N C R E A S E S R AT E O F
D E T E R I O R AT I O N .
IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION
HEALTH IMPACTS OF AIR
POLLUTIONS
From WHO statistics;
 2.4 million people die each year from causes directly
attributable to air pollution . Many of these mortalities
are attributable to indoor air pollution.
 Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to air
pollution than to automobile accidents. Published in
2005 suggests that 310,000 Europeans die from air
pollution annually.
 Direct causes of air pollution related deaths include
aggravated asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung and
heart diseases, and respiratory allergies.
Pollutant Acute health effect Chronic or toxic health effect
SO2 Narrowing down the airways, particularly Increase prevalence to chronic
in sensitive individuals, producing bronchitis and other respiratory
Sulfur symptoms ranging from coughing and diseases; differences in lung function
dioxide wheezing to bronchitis and asthma; no
observable threshold (NOT)
SPM Increase mortality from cardiovascular Increased respiratory mortality and
and respiratory diseases; NOT morbidity; decreased pulmonary
Suspended function; NOT
particulate
matter

NO2 Sensitises lungs to other pollutants and No definite effects from outdoor
Nitrogen allergens; increase frequency of eye exposure but indoor exposure suggest
dioxide irritation; sore throat and phlegm a range of effects upon lung function; in
animal studies morphological,
biochemical and immunological changes
were detected.
O3 Powerful oxidant reacting with most It has been recently suggested that O3 is
ozone biological substances; a lung irritant and a genotoxin but adequate investigations
sensitises to other pollutants and are not available; high level long-term
allergens; can produce runny eyes and exposure in animal studies induced
sore throats morphological changes in lung
Pollutant Acute health effect Chronic or toxic health effect
CO Reduce oxygen carrying capacity of the Excess risk from arteriosclerotic heart
blood by binding with hemoglobin. disease; affects developing fetus.
Lead None known Neurotoxin (suggestion of impaired
cognitive recognition); affect blood
chemistry and can raise blood pressure.

## PAHs None known Benzo-a-pyrene and certain other

Polycyclic aromatic species are carcinogenic
hydrocarbons

leukemia

## 1-3 None known Genotoxic carcinogen, increases risk of

Butadiene cancer of the lymphoid system and
bone marrow
AIR POLLUTANTS

## Pollutants can be classified as either primary or

secondary.
1. Primary pollutants are substances directly emitted
from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption
or the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle
exhaust.
2. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather,
they form in the air when primary pollutants react or
interact. An important example of a secondary
pollutant is ground level ozone.
PRIMARY POLLUTANTS

## 1. Sulfur oxides (SOx) especially sulfur dioxide

are emitted from burning of coal and oil.
2. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) especially nitrogen
dioxide are emitted from high temperature
combustion.
3. Carbon monoxide (CO) is colourless,
odourless, non-irritating but very poisonous
gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion
of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood.
PRIMARY POLLUTANTS
4. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas
emitted from combustion activities
5. Particulate Matter (PM), measured as
smoke and dust.PM2.5 has a maximum
particle size of 2.5 µm and will enter the
bronchies and lungs.
6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC), such
as hydrocarbon fuel vapors and solvents.
copper.
PRIMARY POLLUTANTS

## 8. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), harmful to

the ozone layer emitted from products
currently banned from use.
9. Ammonia (NH3) from agricultural
processes.
10. Odors, such as from garbage, sewage
11. Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear
explosions and war explosives, and natural
SECONDARY POLLUTANTS

## 1. Particulate matter formed from gaseous

primary pollutants and compounds in
photochemical smog, such as nitrogen dioxide.
2. Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx
and VOCs.
3. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) similarly formed
from NOx and VOCs.
AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENT
Parameter Devices
Temperature thermometer, infrared
thermometer
Humidity hygrometer
Air speed anemometer,
velocity manometer
Gas level sampler pump
ACID RAIN
Cross section of an intact leaf
GROSS SULFUR DIOXIDE (FROM ACID RAIN)
DAMAGE TO TREES
SULFUR DIOXIDE
DAMAGE TO CORN
OZONE DAMAGE TO RADISH PLANT RESULTING IN SMALLER
OZONE DAMAGE TO ROMAINE LETTUCE – SILVER SHINE
REDUCES VALUE
OZONE DAMAGE TO ALFALFA
– REDUCES NUTRITIONAL VALUE AS ANIMAL FORAGE/FOOD
FLUORIDE DAMAGE TO CONIFER – LOSS OF NEEDLES
ON NEW GROWTH
PLUME OF SODIUM CHLORIDE KILLS TREES
The
respiratory
system
FLY ASH PARTICLES. PARTICLE SIZES IN RANGE 1
TO 5 MM DIAMETER.
NOTE HIGHLY IRREGULAR SHAPE.
UPPER AND LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT PARTICLE
DEPOSITION.
HEALTHY ALVEOLI
PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA (CAUSE
SHORTNESS OF BREATH)
BRONCHIAL ASTHMA (CAUSE ASTHMA,
TIGHTNESS IN CHEST, COUGH)
EXERCISE

## Find air quality ambient/standard

guideline in Malaysia
AIR QUALITY STANDARD
There are no ambient air quality standards in
Malaysia.
The Malaysian government, however, established
ambient air quality guidelines in 1988.
Pollutants addressed in the guidelines include
ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur
dioxide, total suspended particles, particulate
matter under 10 microns, lead and dust fall.
AIR QUALITY STANDARD
 The averaging time, which varies from 1 to 24 hours
for the different air pollutants in the RMAQG
 It represents the period of time over which
measurements is monitored and reported for the
assessment of human health impacts of specific air
pollutants.
AIR QUALITY STANDARD
MALAYSIAN AIR QUALITY
INDEX (MAQI)
 In 1993, DOE developed the MAQI
 In 1996 it was revised and Air Pollutant Index
(API) was adopted (similar to the Pollutant
Standard Index (PSI), USA).
 The pollutant included in Malaysia’s API are
ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen
dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and
suspended particulate matter less than 10
microns in size (PM10).
API STATUS INDICATOR
Example on API calculation
OUTDOOR AIR QUALITY
MEASUREMENT
INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ)

## A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where

people often spend the majority of their time.
POLLUTANTS IN THE HOUSE
 Plyurethane common in mattresses,
 Formaldehyde and organic chemicals like Dioxin,
Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) and Poly-brominated
Biphenyl (PBB) used in lots of furniture and other
interior elements are all harmful to us humans.
 Drapes, carpets and other absorbent fabrics can help
trap these nasty, along with dust, mites and other
allergens, and our modern, mostly airtight homes keep
them inside.
TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION OF AIR
POLLUTION

1) Wind Character
a) Wind Speed
b) Wind Direction

2) Turbulence
a) Temperature
b) height
WIND
VELOCITY
AIR
DISPERSION
COMMON FEATURES OF AIR POLLUTION
EPISODES
• Large Source
• Not recognized
• Stable atmosphere
• Water droplets (fog)
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS
WHICH AFFECT AIR POLLUTION

## Wind direction and speed

temperature profile turbulence
Precipitation
Neutral Stability
Unstable
Stable
Inversion = Very Stable
INVERSION IN LOS ANGELES, CA
INVERSION AT FOUR CORNERS POWER PLANT
Land breeze during night
Lake breeze during day
Effect of lake breeze on plume dispersion
Plume dispersion coordinate system
Horizontal dispersion
coefficient
Vertical dispersion
coefficient
Effect of elevated inversion on dispersion
EXAMPLE PROBLEM:
Determine the distance downwind from a
stack at which we must switch to the
“inversion form” of the dispersion model
given the following meteorological situation:
EXAMPLE PROBLEM
CONTINUED...
Effective Stack Height = 50 m
Inversion Base = 350 m
Wind Speed = 7.3 m/s
Cloud Cover = none
Time = 1130 h
Season = Summer
AIR POLLUTION MITIGATION
STRATEGIES
 There are many air pollution control technologies and urban
planning strategies available to reduce air pollution; however,
worldwide costs of addressing the issue are high.
 These costs are a small fraction of the economic damage
that air pollution will inflict on every nation of earth.
 Within the last decade the cost of air pollution annually in
most of Europe is between 1-3 percent GDP (gross
domestic product) and is at least 5 percent GDP of China.
ENGINEERING CONTROL
STRATEGIES
1. Process Change
2. Fuel change
3. Pollution removal
4. Disposal of Pollutant
5. Pollution Prevention
AIR POLLUTION MITIGATION
STRATEGIES
1. Management Perspective
 Institutional Set-up – clear line of responsibility &
accountability.
 Regulatory and Economic Instruments – punishments &
rewards; policies on public transport
 Strict Enforcement
AIR POLLUTION MITIGATION
STRATEGIES
2. Technological Perspective
The US EPA estimates that a proposed set of changes in
diesel engine technology (Tier 2) could result in ;
 12,000 fewer premature mortalities,
 15,000 fewer heart attacks,
 6,000 fewer emergency room visits by children with
asthma, and
 8,900 fewer respiratory-related hospital admissions
each year in the United States.
Particulate control
Mechanical collectors (dust cyclones,
multicyclones)
Electrostatic precipitators
Baghouses
Particulate scrubbers
Baghouses
►Scrubbers
o Baffle spray scrubber
o Cyclonic spray scrubber
o Ejector venturi scrubber
o Mechanically aided scrubber
o Spray tower
o Wet scrubber
 NOx control
 Low NOx burners
 Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
 Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)
 NOx scrubbers
 Exhaust gas recirculation
 Catalytic converter (also for VOC control)

## Low NOx burners

VOC abatement
activated carbon
o Flares
o Thermal oxidizers Biofilters
o Catalytic oxidizers
o Biofilters
o Absorption (scrubbing)
o Cryogenic condensers
o Vapor recovery systems

Thermal oxidizers

activated carbon
 Acid Gas / SO2 control
 Wet scrubbers
 Dry scrubbers
 Flue gas desulfurization
 Mercury control
 Sorbent Injection Technology
 Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO)
 K-Fuel
 Miscellaneous associated equipment
 Source capturing systems
 Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)
AIR POLLUTION MITIGATION
STRATEGIES
3. Public Awareness
 Education
 Reduce consumption
 Refrain from using polluting products
 User pay principle
 Change travel habits – use public transport;
TRAGEDIES OF AIR
POLLUTION
Case 1;
 During the early hours of 3 December 1984 the world’s worst
industrial accident unfolded in the Indian city of Bhopal.
 Poisonous gas escaped from a chemical plant and killed 3,000
people, according to official estimates. Other estimates put the
number at between 8,000 and 10,000.Around 50,000 suffered
permanent disabilities, and more died later.

Case 2;
 The United Kingdom suffered its worst air pollution event
when the December 4th Great Smog of 1952 formed over
London. In six days more than 4,000 died, and 8,000 more died
within the following months.
TRAGEDIES OF AIR POLLUTION
Case 3;
 An accidental leak of anthrax spores from a biological warfare
laboratory in the former USSR in 1979 near Sverdlovsk is
believed to have been the cause of hundreds of civilian deaths.

Case 4;
 The worst single incident of air pollution to occur in the United
States of America occurred in Donora, Pennsylvania in late
October, 1948, when 20 people died and over 7,000 were injured.
An air inversion trapped industrial effluent (air pollution) from
the American Steel and Wire plant and Donora Zinc Works
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