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News analysis Health Business

1000 deaths feared Doctors ‘need to talk Battle for gold: Weak legal regime What is behind Africa’s
in DR Congo Ebola early about dying fuelling rivalry amongst refineries crypto-phobia?

Issue No. 545 Nov 02 - 08, 2018 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Can Museveni kick Mutebile,

Kasekende out of BoU?
Leaked documents raise
concerns about central bank

Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 Fax: +256-312-637-396
E-mail:,, Website:
Nov 02 - 08, 2018

Issue No. 545 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
Can Museveni kick Mutebile,
Kasekende out of BoU?
4 The Week
60 FDC leaders quit FDC
for Muntu’s group Money in America’s midterm
elections: U.S. politics has
been corrupted by money,
9 The Last Word
gerrymandering and massive
Chasing the wind: Why the belief attempts at disenfranchisement
that Ugandans are angry because
youth lack jobs and other economic
36 Health
opportunities is mistaken
Sickness and death: Doctors
14 Analysis ‘need to start early conversation
with patients about dying’
1000 deaths feared in DR Congo Ebola : Uganda,
surrounding countries face increasing risk as Trump
blocks American experts
39 Arts & Culture
27 Business
What is beautiful exhibit:
Battle for gold: Weak legal regime Sekajugo’s artist inspired by
fueling rivalry amongst refineries prejudices around identity

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Flavia Nassaka, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Agnes Nantaba, Julius Businge.

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 | Fax: +256-312-637-396 E-mail: | | Website:

2 Nov 02 - 08, 2018


Zakynthos, Greece:
A child examines the
damaged pier at the
port of Zakynthos
following an earthquake
off the island

“One of them kicked me, they were

asking for rooms where my colleagues
were. They started squeezing and pulling
down my testicles. They threatened
to kill me if I did not stop fighting
President Museveni”Francis Zaake, Mityana
Municipality MP narrating his torture ordeal
Arriaga, Mexico: An
aerial view of Honduran
migrants heading in a
caravan to the US

“I do not believe in politics of

agitation but this is how [Robert]
Kyagulanyi and others think.”Former
Minister Bidandi Sali on People Power

Wellington, New
Zealand: The Duchess
of Sussex receives
a hongi, a traditional
Maori greeting, at
an official welcome
ceremony at
Government House in

“FDC is free entry and free exit”

Patrick Amuriat, FDC president

Former Crane Bank staff LDUs who have so Money World Bank gave
400 who are demanding terminal
benefits worth Shs48bn
6436 far been recruited
by the UPDF
$360m to 14 municipalities for a
four year project

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 3

Bamugemereire attacks
judges over land evictions
Justice Catherine Bamugemereire
(Pictured), the chairperson of the
commission of inquiry into land
management has attacked fellow judges for
“catalysing rising land distress, grabbing
of protected and fragile areas causing
landlessness and a state of lawlessness.”
Bamugemereire said judicial officers are
Ankole leaders who joined New Formation responsible for the eviction of thousands
of bibanja holders and the giving away of
60 FDC leaders quit FDC for Muntu’s group wetlands and forest reserves. She decried
the rising number of orders, rulings,
Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) strongly worded statement, the FDC lead- judgments, and injunctions that have
is dealing with another defection after 60 ers of Ankole sub region, “we have tried caused evictions. Last week, President
district leaders announced they had quit everything humanly possible to engage our Museveni halted the eviction of residents
the party to join Mugisha Muntu’s New fellow leaders from the defiance group on in Mukono district after a cry out from
Formation at an event held in Mbarara. how best we can harmonise these tenden- affected families. Bamugemereire cited
The leaders led by Daniel Kafureka, the cies and be accommodated within the party a recent judgment by Justice Godfrey
General Secretary FDC Mbarara district, but all our efforts yielded no fruits.” The Namundi on June 28 which ruled that about
said that the inability to reconcile differing event happened as FDC President Patrick one square mile that is part of Kajjansi
strategies made it very difficult for them Amuriat prepared his homecoming party Central Forest Reserve belonged to Eria
to be accommodated within the party. In a in Soroti. Mubiru, Vivian Keza and Peninah Busingye
Kabingani, because the trio have land titles
over the land. She cited other four court
Pre-entry exams will frustrate new LDC centres- minister orders have been granted over Namanve
Forest Reserve where its titles were
Kahinda Otafiire, the issued on an existent forest reserve. The
minister for justice and Bamugemereire commission started in 2017
constitutional affairs and is expected to go on until next year. It
says pre-entry exams for has demanded for an extra Shs23billion to
students who wish to do continue its work into the inquiry into the
a bar course will frustrate effectiveness of law, policies and processes
the government’s efforts of land in Uganda.
at decetrnalising Law
Development Centre
(LDC); the institution
accredited for teaching LDC students at a graduation ceremony.
the bar course in Uganda.
This was in Otafiire’s law and that it would minister said that cabinet
speech read by deputy be unfair to block those would table proposals to
attorney general Mwesigwa students from accessing remove impediments to
Rukutana at the opening bar course training. He accessing the bar course.
of a new LDC in Mbarara added that LDC has the The Mbarara centre has
recently. Otafiire noted that necessary measures to 200 students. Plans are
the government licensed weed out those who unable underway to open LDC
many universities to teach to become advocates. The centres in Lira and Mbale.

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4 Nov 02 - 08, 2018


Case backlog: DPP decries low funding

that it is not possible to
deploy more prosecutors
in more than 40 established

courts. He said the low pay
of prosecutors makes it
hard to pay and retain high
quality staff. Chibita said
there is also need to provide Are you a Photo Journalist?
security to personnel We are looking for someone with
handling sensitive cases.
Amos Ngolobe, the deputy a great sense of imagination,
DPP while appearing before an eye for detail and a knack for
PAC over audit queries
raised by the Auditor
following news events.
General in his report for the
financial year ending June
2016, revealed that 400,377
cases were brought forward
at the start of that financial
year and another 130, 472
were accumulated by June
Justice Mike Chibita 2017. The prosecutors strike
(Pictured), the Director of last year worsened matters.
Public Prosecutions (DPP) Now in a new statutory
has written to the Minister instrument issued by
of Finance Matia Kasaija Principal Judge Yorokamu
over the low funding his Bamwine, the judiciary has Send CV to:
office receives worsening increased the number of
the case backlog crippling chief magisterial areas to E-mail:
the judiciary. Chibita in 82 and those of Grade One Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4
two letters one in April and Magistrate to 402.
the other in October, said

e-passports for January

The government has said Ugandan citizens shall be relying on the National Identity
will start receiving electronic (biometric) Registration Authority (NIRA) database in
passports beginning January 2019. “Uganda the issuance of passports.” In the East African
is ready to migrate from the current machine- Community, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi and
readable passports to e-passports in January Rwanda are already issuing e-passports.
2019,” Dr Benon Mutambi, the Internal Ugandans who have the traditional passports
Affairs ministry’s Permanent Secretary, will have to surrender the old one and pay
announced via Twitter. Mutambi added for the e one. The East African Community
in the tweet, “This will come along with (EAC) set December 31 as a deadline for
improved service delivery. Immigration phasing out the traditional passports.

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Nov 02 - 08, 2018 5


Auditor General opens Jay Bolsonaro is Brazil’s next President

office in Moroto
Speaker Rebecca Kadaga has
commended the Auditor General for
reaching out to the people in their
different districts. “As Parliament
we supervise the Auditor General’s
Office and we depend on each
other for success. By opening up
different regional offices, the service
is brought closer to the people,”
she said. The Auditor General is
appointed by the President with
the approval of Parliament. The
Auditor General audits on the public
accounts of Uganda and of all public
offices before submitting an annual
report of the audited accounts to
Parliament. The Auditor General, John It is a hard time for liberals in Brazil as Jay sive support across the country and led the
Muwanga, said that the regional office Bolsonaro, dubbed by some as Latin Amer- polls throughout the campaign. Hordes of
which was curved out of the Soroti ica’s Doanld Trump, won the presidential Bolsonaro supporters flocked the streets
Regional Office will serve Moroto, election on a campaign to radically reform of Brazil where they sang Brazil’s national
Nakapiripirit, Kotido, Kaabong, Abim, Brazil’s socio-economic structure. Bolso- anthem and set off fireworks. The 63 year
Amudat and Napak districts. Moroto naro is known for his hostility to black, gay old paratrooper secured 55.1% of the vote
is 11th regional office after Masaka, and indigenous Brazilians and to women, while his leftist rival Fernando Haddad, got
Mbarara, Fort Portal, Arua, Kampala, as well as for his admiration of dictatorial 44.8% of votes. Bolsonaro has promised to
Soroti, Jinja, Mbale, Hoima and Gulu . regimes, including the one that ruled Brazil extinguish communism from Brazil.
from 1964 until 1985. However he had mas-

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6 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

Humour Did you know?

Just how clever crows

really are
Crows have proved they are anything
but bird-brained on dozens of occasions,
but some incredible new research shows
that the dark masters of the avian world
are perhaps even smarter than we ever
999 toll-free emergency services for police collapses as realized.
members of the public were being charged for airtime. A new study has found that New
Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides)
can make their own tools by combining
several different independent parts,
an ability that’s previously only been
observed in great apes (including us).
Even children can’t master this feat for
several years of their early life as it requires
a fair deal of foresight, brain power, and
problem-solving skills.
As reported in the journal Scientific
Reports, scientists presented eight of their
feathered friends with a see-through box
containing a tray of food. To acquire the
treat, the crows had to poke a stick through
a small hole and push the food over to an
opening on the side of the box.
At first, the researchers left sufficiently
long sticks laying near the box. Sure
enough, the crows quickly learned that
they could pick them up, poke them in the
The Archbishop of Kampala Archdiocese, Dr Cyprian Kizito Lwanga has proposed that the central hole, and get the treat. Simple. However,
government should start deducting 10 per cent tithe from monthly salaries of Catholic believers. they then left smaller pieces, too short to
reach the food, which could potentially be
combined with each other to make a long-
enough stick.
Remarkably, four of the eight crows
pieced together the sticks to make a longer
stick, then used it to poke out the food –
they had made their own tool.
One crow, an especially smart dude
called Mango, was even able to make
compound tools out of three and even four
parts, creating a super-long stick capable
of poking out the food from a considerable
It’s widely known that crows are among
the few animals that can master the use of
tools both in the wild and in captivity. Just
recently, another study showed that they
can learn new tool-making techniques and
apply them from memory in a way never
before seen in animals besides ourselves
Umeme wants Shs4m to shift a pole from the road. and our ancestors.

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 7

Zhejiang, China: A reader takes a selfie
on the opening of the Snail library in
Hangzhou. The library aims to offer readers
online resources alongside traditional
library and services
The Last Word Opinion

Chasing the wind

By Andrew M. Mwenda
Why the belief that Ugandans are angry because youth
lack jobs and other economic opportunities is mistaken

ast week, President Yoweri Mu- that number is down to less than 25%. In generate increased anger, anxiety and
seveni inaugurated a $600 milliom 2008, about 65% of the budget was going to social frustration. If the anger is insufficient
fertilizer and aluminum plant in recurrent expenses, today 60% of the budget to topple him, it is because Museveni has
Tororo. A few days before, he had goes to development. On such issues as life been less successful. Our country remains a
opened a new $150 million bridge over the expectancy, prevalence of malaria, child rural society dependent on agriculture, not
River Nile in Jinja. And a few days earlier and infant mortality, availability of drugs industry. If the last eight years has witness
he had been to Kapeka where he opened a in public hospitals, the quality of houses for growing public anger, it is because they
Chinese ceramics factory that will produce ordinary people and the gini-coefficient (the have been the most successful. Holding
40,000 square meters of floor and wall tiles measure of income distribution) there was many other factors constant, if Museveni
per day. Even a few days before that he been a lot of improvement in the ten last were to be more successful in transforma-
visited the $2 billion Karuma hydro elec- years. tion he would face a social revolution.
tricity project that will produce 600MW of I do not want to clog this column with Of course the claim that increasing pros-
electricity. statistics demonstrating quantitative and perity produces anger and frustration in the
There is a lot happening in our country qualitative improvements in the indicators masses does not hold in every society. There
that the priests of the new secular religion I have referred to above. I hope the reader are rare examples such as Singapore where
of development would cheer at. Yet there will trust that I am writing this on the basis increasing prosperity led to a broad con-
is widespread anger, social frustration, of hard data. Suffice it to say that on the sensus among elites in favour of the growth
and anxiety on social media and in streets. most critical indicators the Museveni gov- model. The same is happening in China
Many elite commentators say the Museveni ernment has done more in the last ten years today. But South Korea’s experience mir-
administration has gotten worse and is than it did in the first 22. Therefore, anyone rored that of most of Western Europe and
doing little or nothing. They argue that following this government’s performance the USA. In Africa, Ethiopia is the most suc-
people are angry because government has would refer to the period 2008 to 2018 as cessful state in promoting rapid economic
failed to deliver public goods and services its golden age. Yet for most elite Ugandans growth but is equally beset by constant pro-
and jobs. I hold the opposite view: that the online and on the street this is the worst tests. Rwanda is the second best performer
anger we see is because the government has period in Uganda’s history. Why? in Africa but has secured a broad elite con-
actually been very successful in promoting This brings me to the central argument sensus in favour of its growth ambitions.
economic and social change. of this column already highlighted in the Creating more economic opportunities
From the mid 1990s to the mid 2000s, I title – chasing the wind. It is a common will not cure widespread social frustration
was one of the critics of this government. belief (or assumption) among many ana- and anger in Uganda. The angriest critics
My quarry was poor investment in trans- lysts that economic prosperity leads to of Museveni are not ordinary peasants in
port and energy infrastructure plus wide- individual and public satisfaction with the the villages or even the much hyped unem-
spread corruption and incompetence, espe- government seen as responsible for it. Even ployed youth in towns. They are Ugandan
cially in the army. At the time most roads Museveni believes that creating more eco- professionals with jobs. The lesson is that
were in a state of disrepair with potholes nomic opportunities and jobs for the masses as growth picks apace, people go to schools
everywhere. Electricity was being rationed; would increase public confidence in and and urban areas where they are exposed
public sector employees were being paid support for his administration. Yet on the to the outside world. Their expectations
wages below subsistence; the army was contrary and historically, rapid economic and aspirations grow faster than the rate
full of ghosts and was procuring junk mili- improvement has produced anxiety, frus- at which the economy can produce oppor-
tary hardware, hospitals and schools were tration and anger among the public. tunities to satisfy them. It is the mismatch
missing, the cost of public administration For instance, the transition from back- between people’s expectations and available
(political patronage) was taking 20% of the ward, poor and feudal existence to modern, opportunities that leads to social frustration,
entire budget. affluent industrial nations in Western anger and anxiety.
Since 2008, the Museveni administration Europe was not smooth. It was accompa- As I have already noted with Singa-
embarked on a huge infrastructure-building nied by equally rapid growth in social frus- pore, China and Rwanda, it is possible for
program. Only 1,200km out of the 2,200Km trations and public anxiety leading to the economic transformation to be achieved
of paved roads that were in good condi- development of such ideologies and social without any major social upheaval. But
tion in 2008, today we have more than movements such as socialism, communism, this trajectory is rare and has only been
7,000km. From only 380MW of electricity in fascism, anarchism, nihilism, terrorism – seen in a few countries. For most of his-
2008, Uganda shall have over 2,000MW of (yes, terrorism was produced by capitalist tory, rapid social and economic change has
installed capacity by March next year when transformation in Western Europe). Indeed, produced anger and anxiety that Uganda is
Isimba and Karuma are completed. The it was in the struggle to stave off social unlikely to escape. In promoting economic
UPDF is today entirely different from the revolution at home that the European bour- prosperity in the hope of containing public
army Maj. Gen. James Kazini commanded geoisie sought colonies abroad. anger, Museveni is chasing the wind.
until his removal in 2003. The same applies to Uganda. The more
In 2008, Uganda was depending on successful Museveni’s administration is in
donors for nearly 50% of her budget. Today transforming the country the more it would

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 9

cover story

Can Museveni kick Mutebile,

Kasekende out of BoU?
Leaked documents raise
concerns about central bank

By Haggai Matsiko

10 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

cover story
ear of heads rolling at resolve the crisis that erupted after
BoU has intensified ever the sale of Crane Bank to DFCU; the
since it was confirmed that myriad court suits and countersuits
the Inspector General of and the negative publicity; including
Government (IGG) was allegation of insider dealings and
looking into the accounts corruption.
of top officials of the central bank, Faced with these, Mutebile was
including the Governor Tumusiime said to favour a quick negotiated
Mutebile and his deputy Louis settlement as ordered by Museveni.
Kasekende. But Kasekende insisted on a court
According to informed sources, IGG battle, which he insisted BoU would
Irene Mulyagonja has a trove of leaked win. While the successful outcome
documents that her team is going Kasekende promised was uncertain,
through as it looks into the wealth of the court case – it was feared – would
the top officials. be drawn-out, drag BoU in the mud,
In turn, more questions are and cost a tonnes of cash in lawyer
now being asked about why these Irene Mulyagonja
documents are leaking now and who By the time Kasekende met
is behind the leaks. Museveni’s contact person, he was also
The documents, some of which are in disagreement with Mutebile on how
in the public domain, are assumed to BoU should resolve issues of the shilling
be leaking as a result of point-scoring which was depreciating rapidly against
in a three-pronged fight over the take the dollar. One side reportedly favoured
over and sale of Crane Bank by the injecting dollars into the system but
central bank to DFCU bank. the other feared the dollars would be
One fight is between Sudhir gobbled by speculators and result in
Ruparelia; who was the majority an unsustainable spiral. These events,
shareholder in Crane Bank and BoU officials were concerned were further
officials, the other is between Sudhir, eating away BoU’s reputation.
BoU’s lawyers and DFCU, which At the meeting, Kasekende
bought Crane Bank from BoU, and reportedly raised concerns that he
the last is a clique battle among BoU was being witch-hunted. And even
senior managers. Now it appears that Abdul Katuntu though he did not put it explicitly, he
the battle has gone to the heart of reportedly suggested that his major
Uganda’s financial sector. concern was that Mutebile’s allies
According to informed sources, were fighting him.
President Museveni is so concerned At this point, Museveni’s confidante
about the dwindling reputation of reportedly dropped a bombshell.
the central bank and its impact on the “May be you should both leave,” the
economy that he is looking to shake confidante said.
up the top leadership and even get rid Insiders say that from that tone, the
of both Kasekende and Mutebile. scenario of getting both Kasekende
The only concern is that firing and Mutebile out of BoU was being
the two of them at once threatens considered. There was a sense
to distablise the central bank even Museveni’s contact was putting out
farther, yet it is a very sensitive feelers on what Kasekende’s reaction
institution with major implications for to leaving BoU could be, especially
the entire economy. what factors Kasekende would raise in
The issue reportedly was raised his case.
when Kasekende met a very close John Muwanga Part of the reason for this is that
contact of President Yoweri Museveni Kasekende is not an ordinary banker.
a few months back. At that time, reports had just Apart from being a well-published
At the time, Kasekende appeared emerged showing that President and well-respected economist
about to be sacked. But then after the Museveni was looking to shake up internationally, for years he has been
meeting, talk of imminent sacking the top leadership at the central bank seen as Mutebile’s natural successor.
abetted. Only to resurface now. partly because of disagreements And he belongs to Uganda’s two
between Kasekende and Mutebile. biggest political constituencies—he
Kasekende meets Museveni’s Insiders say Museveni was is a catholic and a Muganda. Not an
contact concerned that these disagreements ordinary Muganda, he is close to the
amongst senior officials at the central powerful Mengo establishment. The
The Independent has recently been bank were increasingly damaging catholic establishment and Mengo
given details of that meeting and now its reputation for monetary policy would not take easily to his firing.
reports that integrity. But Museveni might also not find it
Kasekende had been looking to The main disagreement between very easy to fire Mutebile, a long time
meet President Museveni in vain and them appeared to be a fall-out from loyal servant who also belonged to the
had just returned from a work trip the process of BoU’s takeover and powerful Kigezi region. In fact, part
abroad that week when he met with eventual disposal of Crane Bank. of the problem between Kasekende
Museveni’s contact person. The main contest was on how to and Mutebile was down to Museveni

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 11

cover story

12 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

cover story
having his hands tied. exposure of those who were at the
It is the reason Kasekende was centre of the transaction? What about
possibly not appointed the Governor claims the documents could be leaking
when Mutebile’s contract expired in from the office of the IGG?
2015 as had been anticipated. Kasekende played a central role in
According to informed sources, this transaction. In meetings at State
when former Prime Minister Amama House, as Sudhir fought to save his
Mbabazi declared intention to bank, Kasekende was on the other
challenge Museveni in the 2016 side with Bagyenda, BoU lawyers,
presidential election, the President felt Attorney General William Byaruhanga
that he could not replace Mutebile as and central Bank Governor Tumusiime
this would spoil the Kigezi vote. Mutebile.
He decided to renew Mutebile’s Mutebile was sickly and while he
contract. He, however, reportedly attended these meetings, Bagyenda
consulted the PS/Secretary to the and Kasekende were completely in
Treasury Keith Muhakanizi on whether charge of the hammer that would later
he could only renew the Governor’s crash Crane Bank.
contract for two years. But apparently, Tumubwine Twinemanzi The first sign that Mutebile was
Muhakanizi said that the laws not fully siding with especially
provided for only five years. Bagyenda, appeared in a Daily
A feud ensued as Mutebile now Monitor interview. In the interview,
sensed an opportunity to thwart Mutebile said while he would
Kasekende who was waiting for his job. take responsibility for what went
But following wrong with Crane Bank, he was not
Who is leaking?
criminally culpable.
But the endless slew of leaked When asked who was, Mutebile
documents from both the central
bank and several commercial banks appointment, replied: “Ask the (BoU) executive
director for supervision (Bagyenda)”.
is threatening the integrity of the
whole financial sector, and the jobs of
he said, BoU Insiders say Mutebile fell out with
Bagyenda because she hid critical
Mutebile and Kasekende could be on
the line.
was making documents from him regarding the
Crane Bank matters. According to
By the time of the meeting with good progress insider sources, when he appeared

with the
Museveni’s contact, a trove of before a committee appointed by
documents purported to expose President Museveni to answer

Kasekende’s wealth. There were also questions over a controversial
fears it would be a matter of time reshuffle he made in February, in
before documents exposing Mutebile which he ejected Bagyenda, Mutebile
too also emerge. repeated the same.
Amongst others, the documents Among others, he told the
showed that as scrutiny intensified, committee, that senior bank officials
Kasekende transferred some of his were in the habit of hiding information
properties into the names of another from him.
person who will remain unnamed. Juma Kisaame, the Managing Director
They also revealed a host of companies of DFCU; the bank that acquired Crane Katuntu’s committee
he has shares in, his financial Bank. Then another set of documents Museveni convened the committee
transactions over the years, and those and reports have also emerged led by Abdul Katuntu, the chairman
of his wife Edith Kasekende. showing that DFCU is allegedly in of the parliamentary committee on
The Independent could not report trouble. Commissions, Statutory Authorities
about these documents earlier because Finally, there is the case of DFCU and State Enterprises (COSASE) after
it could not confirm their veracity. The instructing its lawyers to issue Rajiv the IGG indicated she was ready to
Independent has since confirmed that Ruparelia, the son of Sudhir, with probe the central bank. Museveni
these documents ended up at the door an intention to sue accusing him of preferred a quieter investigation. So
of the IGG and are at the core of her being behind a campaign to tarnish he tasked Katuntu’s committee to get
investigations. their name through a series of articles to the bottom the crisis around the
There is a pattern too. The leaked published online. reshuffle but keep BoU matters out of
documents all emerged after the take Rajiv, who has recently taken more the press.
over and sale of Crane Bank to DFCU. charge running his father’s empire, This came as a surprise to those who
The first set of documents, for has hit back. He has threatened to thought President Museveni would
example, showed that the former sue DFCU for allegedly abusing the attempt to salvage the reputation
Executive Director Banking customer-client confidentiality by of the central bank by taking action
Supervision, Justine Bagyenda who revealing some details he shared with against its feuding senior managers.
was directly in charge of the take over them as a client, to their lawyers and In any case, Museveni has failed to
and sale of Crane Bank, is wealthier later, the public in the intention to sue put a lid on the leaks to the press.
than previously known. This has raised shared publicly. It has emerged that while Mutebile
querries about the source of her wealth. The Sudhir’s family is clearly did not get into names when he met
There are also documents purporting not happy about the takeover of with the committee, insiders say he
to show the bank account details of their bank. But are they behind the was possibly referring to Bagyenda

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 13

cover story
and her allies when he said senior to hold back tears while making the Mutebile explained that he made
official kept him in the dark. point that he made the changes in the changes in order to redirect the bank.
BoU records seen by The best interest of the bank. A source But before Mutebile appeared,
Independent reveal that Bagyenda knowledgeable about what transpired Bagyenda’s deputy, Benedict Sekabira
authorised the law firm, MMAKs during the meeting said at that point complained before the committee that
Advocates as the Transaction everyone went silent. the job Twiinemanzi took belonged to
Advisor for the Crane Bank sale To make his case, he went through him. Another senior official, Oketcho,
and also authorised the audit firm the chronology of events that led to also initially told the committee that
PriceWaterHouse Coopers to carry the reshuffle crisis. In our previous Mutebile’s appointments were outside
out a forensic audit of Crane Bank. reports, The Independent had BoU policy.
Insiders say when the report came already pieced this together basing He claimed that BoU hardly
out, Bagyenda did not share it with on correspondences between senior appoints people from outside its
Mutebile in its entirety. Mutebile was officials at the bank. walls. Unfortunately for him, the
later riled when he learnt about the In November, 2017 Mutebile had investigating team had already
existence of the entire document and declined to ratify the appointment of received information to the contrary.
received a copy from another source. assistant directors and instead directed While in the past BoU had a policy to
With Bagyenda’s successor, that the Internal Audit investigate the recruit about 20 people annually at the
Tumubwiine Twinemanzi, Mutebile entire process. lowest ranks who would be groomed
told the committee, this was a Then Chief Internal Auditor, to grow into senior positions that had
thing of the past. In fact, he added, Deborah Kabahweza concluded that changed.
while Bagyenda was still in charge, the process had issues and called for its Before BoU did not have to recruit
BoU had hit a dead end regarding termination. from outside its walls, however, over
the negotiations with Crane But the Executive Director the years this policy has been shunted
Bank proprietors. But following Administration (EDA) Solomon aside. Indeed, the investigating
committee was given a list of
over 100 staff who BoU recruited
from outside its walls. At that
point, Oketcho backtracked
and even apologized, a source
knowledgeable about the details
of the meeting intimated to The
Specifically, in Twiinemanzi’s
case, Mutebile said he was not the
first to be recruited from outside
BoU. He also said that he deemed
him qualified for the job given the
fact that he was in a senior position
at Uganda Communications
Commission (UCC) and had done
research about BoU.
Justine Bagyenda Sudhir Ruparelia Juma Kisaame Mutebile was the last of the
BoU officials to appear before this
committee. Many hoped its findings
Twinemanzi’s appointment, he said, Oketcho insisted that Mutebile ignores would help with reconciliation efforts
BoU was making good progress with Kabahweza’s recommendations and amongst the managers at BoU and also
the negotiations. approves the appointments. Mutebile guide the appointing authority on the way
Amongst all his appointees, refused. forward.
Tumubwiine Twinemanzi has been “We have to respect internal audit But the leaking of documents allegedly
the biggest problem. Twinemanzi’s and cancel,” Mutebile insisted. exposing Kasekende’s wealth might have
father, Manzi Tumubwiine, served on When board members were engaged, added fuel onto the fire in this fight. And
the BoU board in the past, is seen as a some suggested that since their term these documents come at a time BoU
friend of Mutebile, and also happens was about to expire, the appointments officials are set to appear before COSASE
to come from Kigezi. should be passed for now. But Mutebile over the revelations of the Auditor General’s
When Twiinemanzi was appointed, stuck to his guns. Shortly after this report exposing mismanagement of seven
IGG Mulyagonja received a Mutebile’s health deteriorated and he defunct banks including Crane Bank. Some
whistleblower’s report indicating that travelled abroad on sick leave. of the members of this committee have
Mutebile was driven by tribalism in When he returned, he found a already called for the resignation of both
appointing Twiinemanzi and others tonne of complaints about several Mutebile and Kasekende.
from western Uganda. Some board appointments. The board had been It is clear that what started as a
members first blocked Twiinemanzi petitioned but had ignored the disagreement between Sudhir and officials
from presenting before the board. complaints. Mutebile was concerned at the Central Bank has since spiraled into
Others always made sure they that he had not been consulted. the worst fight at the centre of Uganda’s
avoided attending board meetings if In the meantime, the bank was in a financial sector. In this fight, Sudhir
Twiinemanzi was to appear. crisis, it had suffered loss of confidence, already lost his bank. Bagyenda?
During the interface with the Crane Bank issues, and had been facing Her job. What will Mutebile and
investigating committee, Mutebile’s serious failures in some of its systems, Kasekende lose? The jury is still out.
voice reportedly cracked as he struggled according to insiders.

14 Nov 02 - 08, 2018


How do we measure gian and French physicians has shown that

even in a cohort of patients with chronic
locked-in syndrome, a majority reported

being happy.
The second problem is “valuation
neglect”. Valuing a life is a reflective activ-
ity that should not be reduced to feeling
happy or unhappy. Of course, Sen admits,
“it would be odd to claim that a person
And why happiness may be part of evaluating broken down by pain and misery is doing
very well”.
one’s well-being, but isn't the only element We should therefore not fully neglect
the importance of feeling well, but also
acknowledge it is not the only thing people
care about.
By Henry S. Richardson & Erik Schokkaert ible. But according to psychologists, hap- Together with Martha Nussbaum, Sen

piness and life satisfaction do not coincide. formulated an alternative: the capabil-
pinions differ on the definition Life satisfaction has a cognitive component ity approach, which stipulates that both
of well-being. Yet there’s a grow- – individuals have to step back to assess personal characteristics and social circum-
ing consensus that it cannot be their lives – while happiness reflects posi- stances affect what people can achieve with
reduced to material consumption tive and negative emotions that fluctuate. a given amount of resources.
and that other aspects of life, such as health A focus on positive and negative emo- Giving books to a person who cannot
and good social relations, are essential to tions can lead to understanding well-being read does not increase their well-being
being well. in an “hedonic” way, based in pleasure (probably the opposite), just as providing
Increasing well-being is generally accept- and the absence of pain. Looking instead them with a car does not increase mobility if
ed as one of the essential components of to individuals’ judgements about what is there are no decent roads.
social progress, but if different aspects of life worth seeking suggests a preference-based According to Sen, what the person man-
all contribute to well-being, can or should approach (a possibility we discuss below). ages to do or to be – such as being well-
we construct an overall measure of it? For People judge all sorts of different things to nourished or being able to appear in public
example, is “happiness” a good measure? be worth seeking. without shame – are what really matter for
Before we can begin to monitor social In other words, happiness may be an ele- well-being. Sen calls these achievements
progress in terms of well-being, we need ment in evaluating one’s well-being, but it is the “functionings” of the person. However,
more clarity on the concept itself. not the only one. he further claims that defining well-being
only in terms of functioning is insufficient,
Measuring happiness The capability approach because well-being also includes freedom.
One possibility is to use large opinion Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen has His classic example involves the com-
surveys in which individuals answer simple pointed out that understanding well-being parison between two undernourished indi-
questions on their degree of happiness or on the basis of feelings of satisfaction, plea- viduals. The first person is poor and cannot
life satisfaction. These have revealed robust sure, or happiness have two problems. afford food; the second is wealthy but
patterns, confirming that economic growth The first he calls “physical-condition chooses to fast for religious reasons. While
has a weaker than expected effect on satis- neglect”. Human beings adapt at least par- they achieve the same level of nourishment,
faction, and that other aspects of life, such as tially to unfavourable situations, meaning they cannot be said to enjoy the same level
health and unemployment, are important. the poor and the sick can still be relatively of well-being.
These simple survey measures seem cred- happy. One striking study by a team of Bel- Therefore, Sen suggests that well-being

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 15

should be understood in terms tion because they have adapted sceptical about preference- two countries is heavily influ-
of people’s real opportunities to their situation. This does based approaches because they enced by cultural differences.
– that is, all possible combina- not mean that they would not assume that human beings Germany and the Nether-
tions of functionings from prefer to have their health back have well-informed and well- lands also do worse on satisfac-
which they can choose. – and it certainly does not mean considered ideas about what tion than on income, but their
The capability approach is that citizens without locked-in makes a good life. Even if such equivalent income rankings
inherently multidimensional; syndrome would not mind fall- rational preferences exist, one confirm that they do rela-
but those seeking to guide pol- ing ill with it. struggles to measure them tively worse on the non-income
icy often think that rationally One example of a preference- because these are aspects of life dimensions.
dealing with trade-offs requires based measure, advocated by – family time, health – that are Greece has a remarkably low
having one single ultimate mea- the French economist Marc not traded on markets. level of life satisfaction. Cultural
sure. Adherents of the capabil- Fleurbaey, directs people to factors may play a role here, but
ity approach who succumb to choose reference values for all Does all this matter in Greece is also characterised by
this thought often mistrust indi- non-income aspects of life (such practice? high income inequality, which
vidual preferences and apply as health or number of hours is not captured by the averages
instead a set of indicators that worked). These reference values The following table, com- in the table.
are common to all individuals. will depend on the individual: piled by the Belgian economists These differences among
So-called “composite indica- everyone probably agrees that Koen Decancq and Erik Schok- various measures of well-being
tors” – like the United Nations’ not being ill is the best possible kaert, shows how differing hint at the important issues
Human Development Index, state, but a workaholic lawyer approaches to well-being can involved in deciding which
which adds together con- is likely to place a very differ- have practical consequences. measure of well-being – if any
sumption, life expectancy and ent value on work hours than It ranks 18 European coun- – to select. If we want to use
educational performance at the someone with an arduous and tries in 2010 (just after the finan- the measure to rank nations’
country level – are a frequent hazardous factory job. cial crisis) according to three performance at providing well-
outcome of this kind of think- Fleurbaey then suggests that possible measures: average being, then we will be pulled
ing. They have become popular people define a salary that, income, average life satisfac- towards a single, simple mea-
in policy circles, but they fall combined with the non-income- tion and average “equivalent sure, such as subjective happi-
victim to simply adding up based reference value, would income” (taking into account ness. If we seek to keep track,
scores on different dimensions, satisfy the individual as much health, unemployment, safety for policy purposes, of whether
all deemed equally important. as their current situation. and the quality of social interac- individuals are doing well in
The amount by which this tions). the respects that really matter,
Taking individual “equivalent income” differs Some results are striking. we will be pulled towards a
convictions seriously from the person’s actual work- Danes are much more satisfied more multi-dimensional assess-
based income can help answer than they are wealthy, while ment, such as that offered by
Beyond the subjective the question: “How much France is the opposite. These the capability approach. And
approach and the capability income you would be willing large divergences are not seen if we are most impressed by
approach, a third perspective – to give up for better health or when comparing equivalent disagreement among individu-
the preference-based approach more free time?” incomes, however; which sug- als as to what matters, we will
to well-being – takes into Some psychologists are gests that satisfaction in these have reason to understand
account that people disagree well-being along the lines sug-
about the relative importance of gested by the preference-based
different life dimensions. Income Subjective life Equivalent income approach.
Some people think that hard satisfaction This post belongs to a series
work is necessary to have a 1 Norway Denmark Norway of contributions coming from
valuable life while others prefer the International Panel on
to spend more time with fam- 2 Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Social Progress, a global aca-
ily. Some think that going out 3 Netherlands Finland Sweden demic initiative of more than
with friends is key, while others 4 Sweden Norway Denmark 300 scholars from all social
prefer reading a book in a quiet sciences and the humanities
place. 5 Great Britain Sweden Great Britain who prepare a report on the
The “preference-based” 6 Germany Netherlands Belgium perspectives for social progress
perspective starts from the idea 7 Denmark Belgium Netherlands
in the 21st Century. In partner-
that people are better off when ship with The Conversation,
their reality matches better 8 Belgium Spain Finland the posts offer a glimpse of the
what they themselves consider 9 Finland Germany France contents of the report and of
to be important. the authors’ research.
10 France Great Britain Germany
Preferences thus have a
cognitive “valuational” compo- 11 Spain Poland Spain Henry S. Richardson is professor
nent: they reflect people’s well- 12 Slovenia Slovenia Greece of Philosophy, Senior Research
informed and well-considered Scholar, Kennedy Institute of
13 Greece Estonia Slovenia
ideas about what a good life is, Ethics, Georgetown University
not merely their market behav- 14 Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic and Erik Schokkaert is Professor
iour. 15 Poland France Poland of Economics, KU Leuven.
This does not coincide with
subjective life satisfaction. 16 Hungary Hungary Estonia
Recall the example of patients 17 Russia Greece Russia
with the locked-in syndrome 18 Estonia Russia Hungary
reporting high levels of satisfac-

16 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

news analysis

Health workers carry out the body of a patient with unconfirmed Ebola virus on August 22, 2018 in Mangina, near Beni, in the North Kivu province./AFP

1000 deaths feared

in DR Congo Ebola
Uganda, surrounding countries face increasing
risk as Trump blocks American experts
By Agencies a government review of the security say they did not notice the CDC’s brief

risks, involving representatives from presence at all. A senior humanitarian
ne of the largest Ebola multiple government agencies and official not affiliated with the Trump
outbreaks in history shows departments. The review determined administration told Vox that he
no signs of slowing — and that CDC officials could not return to believed CDC experts were never in
the Trump administration areas where militant attacks threaten Beni.
has barred U.S. health experts security, including Beni. News outlets Another non-administration senior
who want to help at the outbreak’s first reported on Oct. 14 that the U.S. humanitarian official added that while
epicenter in the Democratic Republic had pulled out of the area. America has vehicles on the ground in
of Congo from traveling there. “It’s unprecedented that the CDC the city, they have gone unused.
Centers for Disease Control and expertise is not at the very center of “Those three armored U.S. Embassy
Prevention (CDC) officials were the response because that has been vehicles sitting in the UN parking lot
working in Beni; the city that’s ground the pattern for the other outbreaks,” in Beni for two months have never
zero for the outbreak in eastern DRC, Stephen Morrison, a global health moved,” the official said.
for a few days in late August and expert at the Center for Strategic and However, CDC officials insist in
early September. Experts say that is International Studies think tank in conversations with Vox that its experts
an unusually short period of time Washington, told Vox. “We have some did work in Beni.
for infectious disease responses. The people on CDC staff who are veterans The relatively tepid response from
CDC deployments usually last at least of almost two dozen outbreaks.” the U.S., at a time when the outbreak
four weeks, and many run for several Others who have been on the is spiraling, has former CDC officials
months. ground working to curb this Ebola and global health experts concerned.
But then the White House’s National outbreak, which had led to 251 cases “I do worry that in the worst-case
Security Council (NSC) coordinated and 127 deaths by Oct.26 and growing, scenario, we could have an outbreak

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 17

news analysis

A group of Congolese look on as a suspected Ebola victim is picked up, on the road linking Beni to
Mangina, on August 23, 2018 in Beni, in the North Kivu province. /AFP

of tens of thousands of people,” said support the response.” But even before boils down to this: It’s a dangerous
Daniel Bausch, the director of the UK then, CDC’s involvement in eastern area, and no one wants to put U.S.
Public Health Rapid Support Team, DRC was uncharacteristically limited. officials in harm’s way.
“and complete destabilisation of an The CDC said its director, Robert “This highly insecure environment
already unstable region.” Redfield, was in Beni for one day, makes this response extremely
This is an “unprecedented” response while other staff were there for only challenging and can complicate public
— in a bad way “several days.” health activities,” a State Department
Tom Frieden, the former head of Redfield has reportedly told a official told a journalist.
the CDC who responded to the Ebola journalist that he wants CDC officials Some experts agree. There are
outbreak in West Africa from 2014 to on the ground in the DRC’s eastern intensifying attacks by a militant
2016, said that “it’s unusual” and “not region to help with the outbreak group in the area, J. Peter Pham, an
optimal” for CDC experts not to work response, but that he was overruled by Africa expert at the Atlantic Council
at the outbreak’s epicenter. security concerns. in Washington, said. Just a few days
Others agree: The DRC health “The (Ebola responders are) at an earlier, 15 people were slaughtered in
workers and others who are on the enormous disadvantage by not having an attack there.
ground fighting the Ebola outbreak the expertise the CDC has on the “U.S. personnel are especially
“are not winning the game,” Morrison ground,” he said, adding that he’d vulnerable,” Pham said, because in the
said. “They need to have every be “happy” to travel there himself to event of an emergency, there are few
player they can get on the field that is help. U.S. troops or equipment in the area to
competent, experienced, and able to As of today, the CDC has only 18 help. And relations between the DRC
fix these problems.” staff deployed abroad to help with government and the U.S. have not
The outbreak started in July and the Ebola response, and not all of been warm lately.
has worsened in recent weeks, after a them are even in the DRC (outside of ACAPS, an independent group
spate of violent attacks on civilians by the outbreak’s epicenter) — they are that ranks humanitarian access in
Congolese rebels temporarily halted spread out in Uganda, Rwanda, South countries, calls the DRC “nearly
the public health response. Sudan, and Switzerland as well. inaccessible,” along with a handful
A CDC spokesperson said its staff The CDC wants to be in Beni. The of other countries including Libya,
has been in Kinshasa, 1,000 miles away administration says it’s too risky. Afghanistan, and Somalia. That’s
from the outbreak zone, since early The argument to keep American just one level below the worst global
September, “where they continue to health officials out of eastern DRC ranking of “inaccessible.”

18 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

deadly attacks on civilians, forcing early this year, the head of global
more than a million people from health security on the NSC, Rear
their homes, according to the United Adm. Tim Ziemer, left the Trump
Nations Refugee Agency. administration amid a reorganisation
But while the U.S. is staying by National Security Adviser John
back, officials from other countries, Bolton. That means the top White
including Canada and the United House official who would lead a
Kingdom, as well as NGOs and pandemic response is not there to
humanitarian groups are sending coordinate.
personnel to help with the Ebola The health security team Ziemer led
crisis. As of Oct.15, there were 450 was also dismantled. (According to the
responders on the ground. One of NSC press office, Ziemer’s team has
them — Scott Dowell of the Gates been “assigned to two different offices
Foundation — was a veteran of CDC’s that have a direct relationship to their
Ebola response unit, having helped in mission sets.”)
more than a dozen Ebola outbreaks. When asked why the administration
“We know the response is might not want to send people to
struggling,” said Morrison, the health DRC this time, especially since the
expert from the Center for Strategic U.S. government operates in many
and International Studies. “Something active war zones, Morrison offered
much more needs to happen here. ... a few ideas — some political, some
The security situation — security risks ideological.
— are real, but they are manageable.” “There’s a fear of making a mistake
Ron Klain, the former “Ebola czar” and getting clobbered by Congress.
during the 2014-’16 outbreak in West There’s a fear of a Benghazi-type
Africa, is also concerned about the situation, that Americans might be
lack of an American presence. targeted,” he said. “We’re looking at
“The fact that our country’s possible change of power in the House
top experts from CDC have been of Representatives in another 14 days.”
relegated to the sideline by the White (In 2012, an Islamic militant group
House shows an unwillingness to put attacked U.S. government facilities in
together the right team and security Benghazi, Libya, leading to the deaths
partnerships to enable these talented of four Americans.) The broader
men and women to do their jobs,” Trump administration ideology —
Klain said. prioritizing American interests and
“We are deeply concerned about “There’s a fear of a Benghazi-type letting others lead abroad — may also
continued loss of life due to armed situation” be a factor, Morrison said.
group attacks in the region,” the State In February, the Trump “I’m a believer the U.S. should be
Department official continued, adding administration announced deep cuts leading on the response; we have
that the department is “currently to the CDC, State Department, and exceptional capacity to lead and we’ll
engaged in an interagency deliberative USAID budgets. And because there bring others with us,” said Morrison.
process.” was no sign that the $1 billion pot of “We’re losing the game there and at
Other countries and NGOs are money Congress gave USAID and risk of a much bigger outbreak. And if
sending people to the DRC. The U.S. the CDC in 2015 to fight Ebola in there’s a much bigger outbreak and we
isn’t. West Africa would get replenished, are hanging on the sidelines, we will
The response to this DRC outbreak that prompted these agencies to plan be blamed.”
may be unusual in part because it’s the a retreat from 39 of the 49 foreign
first time Ebola has spread in an active countries they were working in. Source:
war zone. In eastern DRC, armed Just one day after a separate Ebola
opposition groups are carrying out outbreak was declared in the DRC

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 19


Broad day torture sign

of failing government
Dr Livingstone Ssewanyana is the Executive Director of Foundation for Human Rights Initiative. He spoke
to the Independent’s Agnes E Nantaba about implications of the vivid torture incidents in the country.

Comment on the recent torture means the state is under siege, is not
incidences of torture including DP’s
They are mindful functioning properly and this is not

Yusuf Kawooya. by accident, but by design. We started
he recent arbitrary arrests
of Yusuf Kawooya and
of the existing expressing our discomfort with the
arbitrariness in the maintenance of
subsequent treatment is a legal framework; law and order some time ago when
clear indication of a growing
culture of impunity in the conduct of especially ever we expressed disappointment with
the militarisation of the police; the
state affairs. Not only does it speak
volumes about the lack of respect
since we enacted army deals with enemies of the state
and the police is supposed to protect
for human dignity but it also shows the Prohibition people but when the two roles are
the lack of professionalism in the
law enforcement system. Like many Against Torture mixed up, the lines of responsibility
are lost. We expressed discomfort in
other previous ones, it is becoming
increasingly difficult to apportion
Act 2012 where the continued emergency of militia
groups like Kifeesi, Boda-boda 2010
responsibility and blame. While some one is held and as of now, you can’t know who is
may put the blame to CMI, SFC, police
or any other security organ, none individually liable exactly arresting people. Other times,
people have complained about police
of them comes out to clearly claim having many uniforms which makes
responsibility. This mix up indicates it hard to apportion responsibility
a country that is characterised by a and hold them accountable. The
democratic backlash; that the state creation of crime preventers who are
institutions now abdicate their now being deployed as reserve force
responsibility of being guardians of and just recently LDU’s which were
the law and become abusers of the created much earlier and proved
law creates a sense of hopelessness a problem. The state is using fear
in the population and leads to as an instrument of management
increasing cases of disappearance of state affairs that if you dissent
and killings which can’t be explained. then you must be mindful of the
That leaves the duty of the state to consequences. So no one can argue
protect people and their property that the state is inept or has no
hanging because when all these capacity. For instance, when it
senseless murders occur, it just comes to dispersing an opposition
rally, they are very fast and

20 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

effective but when it gets to rescuing against him in Makindye court were is no culture of constitutionalism. It
people, the police does not turn up. not successful. There have been would be too idealistic and optimistic
It is an unfortunate and worrying no attempts to implement the law. that these problems can disappear
trend but also creates the feeling that The people who are supposed to today. The broad agenda is transition,
Ugandans are capable of moving on implement the law are actually the fair play, equity, independence
irrespective of the abuses going on. targets of the law and that explains of institutions like judiciary and
why they are reluctant to implement legislature. Ideally there exist people
this law. who are not held accountable for
Often times, the police and other anything so they continue to abuse
security agencies like the army have Where do the increasing incidences rights and walk free. There has to be
been accused of engaging in massive of torture leave a country that is a renewed commitment to respect
cover-ups of the true suspects in party to the United Nations Torture for human rights, rule of law and
crimes of torture. What is your take Convention? democracy. This is a commitment
on that? It is misleading today to argue that of not only the citizens but the
They don’t want to be held Uganda has respect for international leadership. The NRM government in
responsible for acts of abuse. They obligations with the open admissions 1986 set out to commit to the respect
are mindful of the existing legal on many occasions that rights of the rule of law, democracy and
framework; especially ever since don’t matter and that human rights human rights but when they abdicated
we enacted the Prohibition Against defenders are a pain the neck. that, their behavior speaks to another
Torture Act 2012 where one is held Going by the outcome of the second context. There is also a challenge of
individually liable. Initially, it was Universal Periodic Review (UPR) increasingly trading off liberties in
the Attorney General who was held that Uganda underwent, Ugandan search for economic advantage which
liable on behalf of the state which has declined to uphold issues to do with makes it difficult to prioritise rule of
since changed. In an effort to avoid implementation of Torture Act. The law and respect for human rights.
that responsibility, they all claim whole question of the death penalty,
knowledge of who is responsible for electoral reforms, and freedom of Where does that leave human rights
the act, parade people to try to show association and assembly were noted defenders?
their attempts at dealing with the to be unaccepted by the Uganda It means that the rights are
problem but they don’t go far enough. government. In practice we are yet increasingly being relegated to the
They also know that the law states that to appreciate the importance of periphery; that the rights discourse
you are innocent until proven guilty. upholding these international norms is in danger and that there must
Many of the existing state practices are and values. be renewed efforts for the rights
diversionary. discourse to gain prominence. It is
What can be done to reduce or put an not new since there have always
To what extent have the provisions end to the increasing torture in the been periods globally when rights
of the Prohibition of the Torture country? have been under threat, at the lowest
Act been implemented since it was We should not view torture in and there were renewed struggles
passed in 2012? isolation; what we are witnessing is to bring them back to moments of
There were attempts; for instance to part of a broad governance challenge. peace and stability worldwide. There
have the DPC who tortured Andrew You can’t expect the police to treat is a very clear connection between
Lwanga the WBS TV journalist you humanely when they work under instability, insecurity and abuse of
tried under the Act but it was not poor conditions or when the lines rights; when abuse of rights gains
successful. There have also been of authority are not clear. You can’t more prominence, peace and security
attempts to bring to book former expect that we can uphold the law suffers. We need to renew the struggle
Inspector General of police Kale when the institutions of the state for us to enjoy these freedoms.
Kayihura but the charges brought are not independent or when there

*terms and conditions apply

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 21


Sarah Ntiro: First East Africa

graduate dies at 93
By Independent Reporter learnt was how to ride a bicycle – because

everyone rode bicycles Oxfordshire.
n 1944, Evangeline Sarah Nyendwoha, When she graduated in June 1954, she
might not have imagined it, but she became east Africa’s first female graduate.
was about to make a move that would And she returned home by boat so that she
change her life and that of many women could take her bicycle with her. She recalled
in Uganda. At the time, she was a 19-year that in Hoima there was a festival for about
old student at the prestigious King’s Col- a week. She also recalled riding her bicycle
lege Budo. She had joined the school from as her father took her to visit relatives.
Budo Junior when she was 13 years old. In Then she began teaching at Gayaza
1944, she was in the last of her six years and School, Uganda’s oldest girls’ secondary
possibly unsure of her next move. The only school, and another legend around her life
institution of higher learning then; Maker- was born. It is said she realised that, as a
ere College admitted only male students. woman, she was to earn less that her male
And to reaffirm its point, its motto was counterparts. And she protested, arguing
simply “Let Us be Men”. So Nyendwoha that she deserved equal pay for equal work.
considered herself locked out. When that failed, she offered to teach with-
Despite offering only post-school cer- out pay; as a volunteer teacher. Her protest
tificates and no degrees, 22-year old Mak- reached the wife of the colonial governor,
erere College was regarded the center for Ms Anne Cohen, who intervened and she
higher education in all of the east African started to receive equal salary with men.
region; which comprised pre-independence Her stay at Gayaza was short as in 1958
Uganda, Kenya, and then-Tanganyika (now she was appointed to Uganda’s legislative
Tanzania). council, as parliament was known then. She
Nyendwoha was possibly bitter that, for recalled that she immediately introduced a
her gender, she could not join this presti- to leave. So, for the sake of others, she private members’ Bill on equal pay for men
gious institution which was later to morph reportedly submitted and left the sciences and women.
into present day Makerere University Kam- section for the humanities where she stud- That same year, she married Tanzanian
pala. But change was coming. ied history, geography and English. She Prof. Sam Joseph Ntiro, a renowned artist
In 1945 the Makerere College motto was also did teaching practice at her alma mater, and one of the founders of the Margaret
suddenly changed to “We build for the King’s College Budo and Kyebambe Girls Trowel School of Fine Art, Makerere Uni-
future”. It went on to admit its first female School. versity. Joseph Ntiro went on to become
students. Among the six was Nyendwoha. However, in an interview in November Tanganyika’s High Commissioner to Britain
This girl from Hoima in the Bunyoro 2012 with the Financial Times newspaper and Nyendwoha returned to Britain. Her
kingdom of western Uganda was surely titled `First Person: Sarah Ntiro’ she said husband was a commissioner from 1961-64.
born lucky. Her parents; Erasto B. Nyend- simply that one of her teachers suggested They had two sons.
woha Akiiki and Jane Nsungwa Nyendwo- that academically the course at Makerere When she returned to Uganda, she joined
ha, were teachers, which meant they were was not stretching her enough, and that the civil service in the Ministry of Education
relatively educated, affluent, and liberal. At she should go to university. Of course, that from 1965- 1967and was instrumental in
a time when girls were only good for mar- meant going abroad, as there was no uni- starting the Teaching Service Commission.
rying, Nyendwoha’s parents found nothing versity in Uganda then. She was advised to She also worked for Makerere University.
odd about sending their two children; a boy apply to Oxford University, was admitted, Her life’s work, however, was devoted
and girl to school. A bright child, she easily and in 1951 started a history degree at St to fighting for equality for women. She
excelled and was admitted to King’s Col- Anne’s College, Oxford. founded many organisations to support
lege Budo which had only started admitting She explained that she chose to study women. She became an inspiration and
girls five years earlier in 1933. She stayed areas that she felt had some bearing on mentor for many girls and women and won
there for six years starting 1938. Then in her life back home. She studied England’s man accolades for it. In 2000 the Forum for
1945, another barrier against women was agricultural revolution because she came African Women Educationalists – Uganda
torn down and she joined Makerere College from an agricultural area and the French (FAWEU) started the Dr. Sarah Ntiro
to train as a teacher. revolution because she was proud of com- Lecture and Award Event to celebrate her
A story is often told about how she ing from Bunyoro Kingdom, and wanted to achievements.
preferred to train as a math teacher; since know why “anyone would be mad enough “I’d still like every woman to know that
that was her favourite subject, but she was to overthrow their king”. She also studied you can fight any battle, if it’s worth listen-
rejected by a British tutor who considered English settlement in America to under- ing to,” she said in the 2012 FT interview.
her better suited for “female subjects” like stand what inspired the settlers to make She might have been born to the right
knitting and tailoring. that dangerous journey across the Atlantic parents at the right time, but she also was a
According to that story, the tutor refused Ocean. warrior for women’s rights.
to teach the class when the teenager refused But, she said, the other big new thing she

22 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

By Robert Mahoney
Stop killing the messenger
Reporters need be allowed to work because silencing
them increases crimes and threatens democracy

hat does it cost to silence a country like Mexico, where cartel crime nationals suspected of gross human rights
muckraking reporter? In the goes unreported in huge swaths of the violations. Canada enacted its own Mag-
Philippines, officials needed country. Brave reporters who have refused nitsky law in October 2017, while Estonia,
just $250 in 2011 to buy the to be cowed have paid with their lives, and Lithuania, Latvia, and the United Kingdom
services of a journalist-slaying gunman. In cartel-linked killings have had the intended have introduced similar measures.
Slovakia, Ján Kuciak and his fiancée were effect of silencing others. In fact, most Mex- But enacting a law is not the same as
killed in February for about $80,000. ican journalists can instinctively identify using it. With the exception of several indi-
For corrupt politicians and crime bosses, “zones of silence” where democracy and viduals implicated in the 2004 murder of
neither sum is significant. The cost to transparency perish. Forbes editor Paul Klebnikov in Moscow,
democracy, however, is immeasurable. In 2013, the United Nations sought to Magnitsky-type laws have not been widely
Every year, more journalists are murdered bring global attention to the problem by deployed in the defense of journalists. Gov-
because of their reporting than die in war making November 2 the annual Interna- ernments committed to upholding democ-
zones. Since 1992, when the Committee to tional Day to End Impunity for Crimes racy should not hesitate to use the tools at
Protect Journalists (CPJ) began compiling Against Journalists. My organisation sup- their disposal to protect those who risk their
data, 1,324 journalists have been killed on ports this effort with our yearly Global lives defending free speech. Governments
the job, and 849 of them were executed for Impunity Index, which shows that democ- in Europe, in particular, have a responsi-
their work. But in nearly 90% of these mur- racies like Mexico, Brazil, India, Pakistan, bility to ensure that national and EU-level
ders, the people who ordered the attacks and the Philippines consistently fail to con- commitments are upheld.
escaped justice. On the rare occasion that a vict journalists’ killers. Press-freedom organisations can also
full investigation was conducted, only low- Journalists know that democracy and a do more to end impunity. In Mexico, for
level associates were ensnared. The big fish free press are mutually dependent, and example, CPJ worked with reporters and
usually got away. that when reporters are silenced, embezzle- advocacy groups to lobby the national
The problem is not confined to countries ment, extortion, and environmental crimes government to treat attacks on journal-
in the Global South. October 16 marked one increase. And while many are fighting back, ists as federal offenses – and to bypass
year since Daphne Caruana Galizia, a Mal- they could use some help. state-level law enforcement agencies when
tese journalist investigating corruption, was One of the most promising weapons in the corruption is suspected. The federal gov-
killed by a car bomb just minutes after filing struggle against impunity is sanctions. Since ernment responded by creating the Special
a story that seemed to forecast her death. 2016, the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Prosecutor for Attention to Crimes Against
Three men have been charged with her Accountability Act in the United States Freedom of Expression (FEADLE).
assassination, but the masterminds remain has authorized the US president to impose Still, a lack of funding for the prosecutor’s
at large. visa bans and freeze the assets of foreign office is threatening to reverse its modest
Similarly, Slovakia – like Malta a Euro- gains. The incoming government of Presi-
pean Union country – has failed to deliver dent-elect Andrés Manuel López Obrador
justice in the brutal murder of Kuciak and can tackle the impunity problem, but only if
his fiancée, Martina Kušnírová, at their FEADLE is fully resourced.
home near Bratislava. Although police have As governments dither, journalists are
made arrests in the case, not all of the orga-
nizers – who presumably did not want him One of defending themselves the best way they
know how: with journalism. The collective
digging into allegations of mafia activity in
the country – have been found. the most response to the deaths of Caruana Galizia
and Kuciak illustrates this well. Both were
And while Saudi Arabia has now
admitted that the journalist and Washington
promising members of international investigative
networks, and today, those groups are
Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi was killed
in the Kingdom’s consulate in Istanbul, the
weapons in following the leads and finishing the stories
that murder interrupted. The message
ongoing investigation of the case is equally the struggle to would-be assassins is simple: killing

unlikely to lead to the prosecution of all reporters will not kill the story.
those responsible for his disappearance.
Impunity in such cases is a cancer on
accountability and democracy. Reporters impunity is Robert Mahoney is Deputy Executive Director
need the rule of law to work effectively.
When law enforcement and the judiciary
sanctions of the Committee to Protect Journalists.

are in thrall to organised crime, journalists

know that no one will protect them when Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2018.
they dig up stories threatening the interests
of criminals or corrupt officials.
The consequences are easy to spot in a

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 23

By Joseph E. Stiglitz
Money in America’s midterm elections
U.S. politics has been corrupted by money, gerrymandering
and massive attempts at disenfranchisement

ll eyes are on the United States as come a long history of collusion with the and ensuring access to quality education
November’s Congressional elec- right, from President Bill Clinton’s capital – without the chokehold of student debt
tions approach. The outcome will gains tax cut (which enriched the top that so many graduates currently face
answer many alarming questions 1%) and financial market deregulation – and decent health care, regardless of
raised two years ago, when Donald Trump (which helped bring on the Great Reces- pre-existing medical conditions. They call
won the presidential election. sion), to the 2008 bank bailout (which for affordable housing and a secure retire-
Will the U.S. electorate declare that offered too little to displaced workers and ment in which the elderly are not preyed
Trump is not what America is about? homeowners facing foreclosure). Over the on by an avaricious financial sector. And
Will voters renounce his racism, last quarter-century, the party has some- they seek a more dynamic, competitive,
misogyny, nativism, and protectionism? times seemed more focused on winning and fair-market economy by curbing the
Will they say that his “America First” the support of those who live on capital excesses of market power, financialisation,
rejection of the international rule of law gains than those who live on wages. and globalisation, and by strengthening
is not what the U.S. stands for? Or will Many stay-at-home voters complain that workers’ bargaining power.
they make it clear that Trump’s win was the Democrats are relying on attacks on These perquisites of a middle-class life
not a historical accident resulting from Trump, rather than putting forward a real are attainable. They were affordable a
a Republican primary process that pro- alternative. half-century ago, when the country was
duced a flawed nominee and a Demo- The thirst for a different kind of con- substantially poorer than it is today; and
cratic primary process that produced tender is evident in voter support for they are affordable now. In fact, neither
Trump’s ideal opponent? progressive candidates like former presi- America’s economy nor its democracy
As America’s future hangs in the bal- dential candidate Senator Bernie Sanders can afford not to bolster the middle class.
ance, impassioned debates about what and New York’s 28-year-old Alexandria Government policies and programs –
caused the 2016 outcome are more than Ocasio-Cortez, who recently defeated including public options for health insur-
academic. At stake is how the Democratic the fourth-ranking Democrat in the U.S. ance, supplementary retirement benefits,
Party – and similar parties of the left in House of Representatives in a party pri- or mortgages – are crucial to realising this
Europe – should position themselves to mary. vision.
win the most votes. Should they lean Progressives like Sanders and Ocasio- I am encouraged by the outpouring of
toward the center or focus on mobilising Cortez have managed to present an support for these progressive proposals
young, progressive, and enthusiastic new- attractive message to the voters whom and the political leaders who support
comers? Democrats must mobilise to win. They them. In a normal democracy, these ideas
There are good reasons to believe that seek to restore access to a middle-class life would, I am confident, prevail. But U.S.
the latter course is more likely to bring by providing decent, well-paying jobs, politics has been corrupted by money,
electoral success and stymie the dangers reestablishing a sense of financial security, gerrymandering and massive attempts at
posed by Trump. disenfranchisement. The 2017 tax bill was
American voter turnout is abysmal, and nothing short of a bribe to corporations
worse in non-presidential-election years.
In 2010, just 41.8% of the electorate voted. In 2010, just and the wealthy to pour their financial
resources into the 2018 election. Statistics
In 2014, only 36.7% of eligible voters cast
ballots, according to data from the United 41.8% of the show that money matters enormously in
American politics.
States Elections Project. Democratic
turnout is even worse, although it appears
electorate Even with a flawed democracy –
including a concerted effort to prevent
to be on the upswing this election cycle.
People often say they don’t vote because
voted. In 2014, some from voting – the power of the
American electorate matters. We will
they think it makes no difference: the two only 36.7% of soon find out whether it matters more

eligible voters
parties are as similar as Tweedledee and than the money flowing into the Repub-
Tweedledum. Trump has shown that’s lican Party’s coffers. America’s political
not true. The Republicans who aban-
doned all pretense of fiscal rectitude and cast ballots, and economic future, and most likely the
peace and prosperity of the entire world,
voted last year for a massive tax cut for
billionaires and corporations have shown
according to depends on the answer.

it’s not true. And the Republican senators

who rallied behind the nomination of US
data from the Joseph E. Stiglitz is the winner of the 2001
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh,
despite his misleading testimony and
United States His most recent book is Globalization and its
Discontents Revisited: Anti-Globalization in
entirely credible evidence of past sexual Elections Project the Era of Trump.
misbehavior, have shown it’s not true.
But the Democrats are also responsible Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2018.
for voter apathy. The party must over-

24 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

By Barbara Ntambirweki
Dewayne Johnson v. Monsanto
Lessons for Uganda as parliament debates concerns
raised over National Biosafety Bill 2017

n August 2018, jurors in California, crops grown worldwide are engineered soil and air samples. In Uganda, several
USA, ruled that Roundup, a popular to tolerate being sprayed with glyphosate farmers are using various chemicals to kill
weed killer, was responsible for Mr. herbicides. The idea behind such crops weeds on their farms. Are they safe for
Dewayne Johnson’s terminal cancer is to simplify weed control for farmers. agricultural use? Are they a health hazard
illness. A former groundskeeper, Johnson The farmer could douse the entire field to our food chain? As a matter of impor-
was awarded US$289 million in damages with glyphosate herbicide, killing all tance we need to reflect on the toxicity
for Monsanto’s failure to warn a ground- weeds without killing the crop. In this of glyphosate in food to assess whether
skeeper that Monsanto’s weed killer, case Mr. Johnson developed a severe and foods sprayed with herbicides containing
Roundup, might cause cancer. Jurors fatal form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma glyphosate are safe to consume.
found that Monsanto acted with “malice” while working as a school groundskeeper, As members of parliament continue
and that its weed killers Roundup and repeatedly spraying with large quanti- to deliberate on the National Biosafety
the professional grade version RangerPro ties of Monsanto’s Roundup and other Bill 2017 to address the concerns raised
contributed “substantially” to Johnson’s glyphosate herbicide brands. by the President of Uganda, The pre-
terminal illness. Monsanto said it would This case is a massive precedent for cautionary principle should be followed
appeal the decision. Monsanto Vice thousands of other cases in the USA as the guiding principle of our law as
President, Scott Partridge, stated: “To- against the world’s largest agrochem- enshrined in the Cartagena Protocol
day’s decision does not change the fact ical company. Another trial is set for to which Uganda is a signatory. The
that more than 800 scientific studies and October where more than 450 lawsuits principle implies that there is a social
reviews—and conclusions by the U.S. are pending in U.S. District Court in San responsibility to protect the public from
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Francisco, filed by people alleging that exposure to harm. We need to ensure that
the U.S. National Institutes of Health and exposure to Roundup herbicide caused a strict liability is clearly stipulated in our
regulatory authorities around the world— them or their loved ones to develop non- law indicating that whoever introduces a
support the fact that glyphosate does not Hodgkin lymphoma, and that Monsanto GMO, or any other chemical, should be
cause cancer, and did not cause Mr. John- covered up the risks.  held strictly liable for any damage caused.
son’s cancer,” Increasingly there is growing evidence This will ensure that the big multinational
Bayer, a German Agro chemical com- linking the use of glyphosate weed killer companies are held accountable for the
pany, recently acquired Monsanto for to a range of health problems and dis- public health and other risks caused by
US$ 63 billion. Both Bayer and Monsanto eases. According to statistics available, their products and supplies.
are major global manufacturers of agro- glyphosate is used around the globe The Uganda National Bureau of Stan-
chemicals and seeds, including genetically (an estimated 826kg a year). It has been dards (UNBS) should endeavor to ensure
modified (GM) seed. The merged entity noted that glyphosate residues are com- that roundup, or any other Glyphosate-
will be the world’s largest supplier by monly found in food, water supplies, in containing herbicide, is not allowed in
sales of both seeds and pesticides, con- our markets. Perhaps cancer ailments are
trolling up to 30 percent of the world’s on the increase in Uganda partly because
commercial seed markets and 24 percent we are exposed to many carcinogenic
of the world’s pesticide markets. In 2015, substances: in this case efforts should be

In Uganda,
the World Health Organisation (WHO’s) made to investigate most-consumed prod-
International Agency for Research for ucts on the Ugandan market to establish

Cancer released a hazard statement their possible carcinogenic contents.
that found glyphosate to be “probably In light of the verdict of the Johnson

farmers are
carcinogenic to humans”. In December case, it is imperative that the controversy
2017, the United States Environmental surrounding glyphosate becomes the
Protection Agency released a draft human basis of discussion for deeper conversa-
health risk assessment that concluded that
“glyphosate is not likely to be carcino-
using various tion about future direction of Uganda’s
agriculture system. We need to shift from
genic to humans.” Monsanto claims that
several scientific studies have been done
chemicals to chemical input intensive weed manage-
ment to Agroecology methodologies.
proving that roundup does not cause
kill weeds on Agroecology is gaining interest world-
wide as an effective answer to climate
However, according to the evidence
produced in the Johnson case and internal
their farms change and interrelated challenges facing
food systems.
emails between Monsanto scientists, it
was acknowledged that roundup – the The writer is a Research Fellow with
glyphosate weed killer that Monsanto Advocates Coalition for Development and
sells, does cause damage. Glyphosate is Environment (ACODE) b.ntambirweki@
the world’s most used active ingredient
in herbicides. Genetically modified (GM)

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 25

President Museveni (R) interacts with officials of AGR at the official launch of the refinery in Entebbe on Feb.20, 2017.

Battle for gold lack of well-regulated system in Central

and East Africa.
However, AGR has also been accused
previously for being opaque when it
comes to disclosing the source of its gold
Weak legal regime fuelling and general business operations.
But in an email to The Independent, a
rivalry amongst refineries one Cheery, the administrator at AGR
said: “AGR handles and processes gold
from the approved licensed dealers.”
She said that since AGR started

By Julius Businge only impractical but also cumbersome. operations in Uganda in 2015, it has been
“We want to have a system which is declaring every single gold export and
xecutives at the East Africa’s more practical, cheaper and is easy for that Uganda Revenue Authority captures
largest refinery, Africa Gold African miners to operate,” he told The all the statistics that are also accessible at
Refinery are nervous about Independent. the Bank of Uganda.
the future of the country’s A source that understands the inner She said AGR has paid over
precious industry. workings of the Entebbe based refinery Shs1.8billion as tax to URA – which
The firm’s Chief Executive told The Independent that AGR business includes 18% VAT, PAYE, import duties,
Officer, Alain Goetz, said during the 2018 might not be sustainable if smuggling withholding tax, infrastructure levy,
Mineral Wealth Conference in Kampala and related irregular gold activities are excise duty, domestic VAT, environmental
that the fears emanates from smuggling not stopped. levy, motor vehicle registration and
and exports of raw gold, a situation that The source said for many decades, local taxes. And that the company also
could threaten formalized businesses gold has been trafficked directly out of employs 85 local workers who have been
such as theirs. the region via several gold market hubs, trained in gold trade by experts from
He said the government’s initiative of particularly to the Middle East due to Dubai and Europe.
mineral certification that comes out of the poorly considered fiscal regimes for This development comes barely three
Great Lakes region such as gold is not small-scale producers and traders and years since AGR opened its US$23million

26 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

refinery facility in Entebbe to process gold The report indicates that gold export
for exports. permits issued were for only 16.281
The company had in 2017 alone kilograms compared to records from URA
exported 7.3tonnes of pure gold out of the which indicated that 8,691 kilograms of
refined 7.6tonnes as at the end of October gold, valued at US$339.09 million were
16. exported.
This also coincides with the Uganda “There was equally no evidence of
Revenue Authority’s recent move to payment of royalties on the exported
license two new gold refinery companies gold. The above implies that, during the
– Bullion Gold and Simba Gold. financial year, the country lost revenue
This development coupled with the ranging from US$3.39m to US$16.95m
gold smuggling seems to have triggered in royalties from the undeclared gold
Alain Goetz Dicksons Kateshumbwa
panic among the AGR executives, and are exports and imports depending on
now calling for new measures to curb the the applicable rates of 1% and 5% for
vice. the imported or locally mined gold
Sources say smuggling of minerals The report indicates respectively,” the report revealed.
in the country including gold is aided that gold export Meanwhile, Kateshumbwa said they
by weaknesses in security checks at the had instituted an audit to investigate
Airport. permits issued were reports that the two new refineries
“Banning the transport of precious
metals as hand luggage at Entebbe for only 16.281 (Simba and Bullion) were not meeting the
standards stipulated in the manufacture
Airport is a significant factor to reduce the kilograms under bond license.
smuggling,” a source said, adding “apart “When you look at what they are
from this, there are some purported compared to exporting its characteristics are like those
refineries that do not have legitimate records from URA of AGR,” Kateshumbwa said.
refining facilities, but are exporting raw which indicated that He said that if the two companies are

gold without paying the 5% royalties.” found guilty, revoking their license and
The source said that there should be other penalties as provided for in the laws
refinery accreditation initiatives which will be applied.
certify gold and silver refinery regulated kilograms Kateshumbwa, however, said the two
by Bank of Uganda or other government of gold, valued at new refineries are ideally sparking a

entities. business rivalry with AGR given that gold
The source adds that the refinery is a scarce raw material.

company must also comply with He said having many refineries in the
international standards and strict criteria sector would help in fighting informality
prior to getting any related licenses as which has seen government lose billions
well as ensuring that the companies add were exported of taxes and Ugandans losing out on jobs.
value to the precious commodity. Don Binyina, the executive director at
Back in 2014, President Yoweri Africa Centre for Energy and Mineral
Museveni said during the 3rd Mineral Policy (ACEMP) told The Independent
Wealth Conference in Kampala that that these fights are happening
value-addition was the only pathway to exports its gold through Bullion Refinery partly because of the absence of the
job creation. for reasons that are known to them. comprehensive law to guide on mining,
“You should always bear this in mind, refining and exporting of gold.
add value to minerals so that we get more Tough law, audit in offing He said that the new mining policy
jobs as well as build technical capacity Robert Kasande, the permanent that was cleared by Cabinet in July this
and a strong base for the economy,” he secretary for the Ministry of Energy year would help to minimize the current
said then. and Mineral Development told The rivalry.
However, the absence of a law or Independent that they are reviewing the He also supports the idea of licensing
policy banning exports of this precious 2003 Mining Act to include value addition more gold refineries in the country as
commodity has seen traders export on all raw materials including gold as one way of fueling competition in the
unprocessed gold, leaving the country to measure to stop raw gold exports. sector, creating new jobs and taxes to
only reap peanuts. Asked to explain reports about government, and dealing with the issue of
Whereas AGR claims to refine gold to companies exporting raw gold and not gold smuggling.
99.99% for export and meets the other paying the legal 5% royalties, Kasande Data from Bank of Uganda shows
stringent requirements, sources in the said it was the responsibility of URA. that gold exports recorded an increase
industry claim Simba Gold Refinery and However, Dicksons Kateshumbwa, in earnings by US$36million to
Bullion Gold Refinery are refining only the Uganda Revenue Authority Assistant US$340million in 2016 compared with the
at 94%. Commissioner for Customs said the previous year even as the country was
Although The Independent could not Mining Act 2003 mandates the ministry of not known as a big gold exporter. This
get hold of the two companies, scanty energy to collect royalties. was good news because gold became
information on Bullion Refinery website The 2016/2017 Auditor General’s report Uganda’s second largest export good after
states that ‘it is Ugandan company revealed that gold exports recorded by coffee.
and employs Ugandan personnel in all the directorate of geological surveys and Therefore, any move by government to
technical processes to ensure a beneficial mines in the ministry of energy were fight smuggling and other irregular trade
transfer of skills and technology.” not tallying with ones declared by the of the mineral would yield more tangible
It is not clear where Simba refinery Uganda Revenue Authority – that means economic benefits.
operates from though sources said it officials have to wakeup.

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 27


What is behind Africa’s

African central banks should set up specialised units
dedicated to researching cryptocurrencies

By Allen Choruma from being a mere digital token into a exchange control circumventions,

digitised asset with an economic value. terrorism financing and other criminal
s the use of cryptocurrencies That is to say, users can earn it, store it, activities fuelling illicit financial
gains momentum, African trade it, transfer it, and sell it. transactions. While some of these
central banks, gripped by African central banks by and large do concerns are genuine, others tend to be
crypto-phobia, are pressing not recognise cryptocurrencies as money, rhetorical and hyperbolic, as traditional
panic buttons, with some taking the easy mediums of exchange or legal tender. financial systems are also fraught with
way out by banning the use and trading But this is not only unique to Africa as similar risks.
in cryptocurrencies in their territories. similar patterns are being experienced Gripped by crypto-phobia, African
What are they afraid of? African in other parts of the world, especially central banks have convulsed, issuing a
Business Magazines’ Allen Choruma developing countries. plethora of warnings against the use of
writes. In Europe and the US, central cryptocurrencies while others have gone
Cryptocurrencies, also known as banks have generally cautioned, but to extremes, outright banning trading
virtual currencies, are a digital medium not banned, the use of or trading in in them – an easier way out of what
of exchange, which is unlike our normal cryptocurrencies. Although trading they perceive as the ‘crypto-quagmire’.
fiat currency that exists in the form in cryptocurrencies in Africa has not According to a March 31, 2018 public
of physical bank notes or coins, or spread widely to people at the bottom notice issued by Adikwu Igoche,
commodity money, backed by gold or of the pyramid, their use is spiralling Manager, Research Development at
other precious stones. upward like a whirlwind in tandem with Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation
The blockchain digital technology is ICT technological advancements, high (NDIC), cryptocurrencies are not
as vital to cryptocurrencies as the central mobile penetration, growth in literacy, recognised as currency in Nigeria as
nervous system is to humans. Blockchain and financial inclusion and consumer they do not belong to the category of
uses cryptography to create (mine) sophistication. currencies or coins issued by the Central
and store units, secure transactions, African central banks link Bank of Nigeria (CBN).
transfer tokens and effect payments. cryptocurrencies to price volatility, Similar announcements were issued by
These processes metamorphose a crypto fraud, money laundering, tax evasion, Uganda’s Central Bank during the Africa

28 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

Blockchain Conference in Kampala in Legal cases, triggered by central bank
May this year and so is Kenya’s Central prohibitions involving virtual currencies,
Bank in December, 2015. have only now started to appear before
Bank of Uganda Governor, Prof the courts. The banning of trading in
Emmanuel Tumusiime- Mutebile cryptocurrencies from mainstream financial
said blockchain technology lacks the systems does not seem to be practical and
necessary prerequisites to work as effective. Such prohibitions force consumers
a currency and that people who sell to use black market trading avenues or
cryptocurrencies risk being burned when simply resort to peer-to-peer (P2P) digital
the bubble eventually bursts. trading platforms.
He cautioned that no cryptocurrency
can match the legality of a national How South Africa is handling the
currency adding that the technology can issue
only succeed in the presence of a legal
provision to give a currency status to a The South African Reserve Bank
crypto. (SARB) has taken a very pragmatic
“Cryptocurrencies perform only two approach. While the SARB does not
functions. First, they allow payments officially recognise cryptocurrencies
especially cross-border payments to be Emmanuel Tumusiime- Mutebile as ‘money’ but as ‘cyber-tokens’, it is
made anonymously there by facilitating considered as one of the pioneers in
illicit transactions such as money against RBZ and ruled, inter alia, that Africa over the use of cryptocurrencies.
laundering and financing of crime,” “The ban issued by the respondents [RBZ] SARB has preferred to adopt a more
Mutibile said. against the applicant [Golix], directing cautious but pragmatic approach to
“Second, cryptocurrencies offer it to cease its operations, shut down its ensure that the use of cryptocurrencies
an avenue for speculation. However, cryptocurrencies exchange business and complies with relevant financial
unlike many other assets which attract ordering the closure of its bank accounts surveillance and exchange-control
speculators such as gold or equities, with its bankers, be and is hereby regulations. 
cryptocurrencies have no intrinsic value. suspended…” Already a sizeable number of
Unless cryptocurrencies can command It seems central bank challenges in merchants in South Africa have
worldwide acceptance as a medium of dealing with virtual currencies are not embraced cryptocurrencies and accept
exchange, the demand for them will be only restricted to Africa. India seems Bitcoin for payments. François Groepe,
negligible.” he added. to be faced with similar challenges on Deputy Governor of SARB, was quoted
Other African countries such as how to deal with virtual currencies, just by the online Cryptonews in May as
Morocco (2017) and Algeria (2018) have as Africa is. The Reserve Bank of India saying the central bank has set up a
promulgated laws banning the usage (RBI) in April this year issued an official special unit to review the possibility of
and ownership of virtual currencies. The statement banning financial institutions putting in place crypto-specific policies
Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) and consumers from the use of virtual and regulations.
in May this year issued a notice currencies. The RBI notice read as follows:
warning the public against the use “Reserve Bank of India has repeatedly More stable alternative
of cryptocurrencies and directing all cautioned users, holders and traders of Africans are becoming attracted to
banking institutions in the country not virtual currencies, including Bitcoins, cryptocurrencies not only as speculative
to provide banking services to facilitate regarding various risks associated in investments, but as alternative and
any person or entity in dealing with or dealing with such virtual currencies. In cheaper  payment and settlement
setting up cryptocurrencies. view of the associated risks, it has been methods, conduits for capital
RBZ announced in the same notice that decided that, with immediate effect, investments and options for savings
Bitfinance (trading as Golix) and Styx24, entities regulated by RBI shall not deal and storing value as most African fiat
leading local cryptocurrency exchanges, or provide services to any individual or currencies are very volatile and unstable
were not licensed by it and any person business entities dealing with or settling and do not hold value against major
buying, selling or otherwise transacting in virtual currencies… ” currencies such as the US dollar.
cryptocurrencies, did so at their own risk The Internet and Mobile Association  Technological innovations underlying
and will not have recourse to the central of India (IAMAI) filed a petition with cryptocurrencies such as blockchain
bank. On May 15 Golix was directed by the Indian Supreme Court challenging should be embraced by central banks
RBZ to cease all cryptocurrency exchange the RBI ban on virtual currencies and as they have the potential to improve
operations in Zimbabwe. Golix was in seeking court relief to set it aside. The efficiency in financial services.
the process of rolling out its initial coin court provisionally upheld the RBI ban on Instead of throwing tantrums at
offering (ICO) which sought to raise $32m virtual currencies until a date was set for technological innovations, African
through a token sale. Golix was stopped the hearing of the petition. central banks should be pragmatic
right in its tracks by the RBZ, but didn’t Though the court heard the petition and set up specialised units dedicated
take this threat lying down. in July, it could only listen to limited to researching cryptocurrencies and
Golix filed an urgent chamber arguments, postponing the matter to emerging blockchain and other digital
application with the High Court in September for a full hearing. and artificial intelligence technologies
Zimbabwe challenging the legality of to enable them to come up with
RBZ’s ban on the basis that the central The legal position informed and guided practical policy
bank acted illegally, irrationally and The legal challenge for African central and regulatory interventions that work
unconstitutionally and outside the ambits banks is that their cases may not hold water for Africa.
of administrative law in closing its virtual in courts as there is limited legal precedence
currency exchange. The High Court, and in many countries there are no laws Adopted from African Business Magazine.
on May 24 issued a default judgement that address issues of virtual currencies. Additional reporting by Isaac Khisa.

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 29

Executive Style

‘It is the right time for e-commerce’

What are the reasons We welcome regulation
behind Jumia’s success because we want to

story in Uganda? play in a clean and safe
e have been environment. Regulation
growing should protect the buyer
because of our and the seller. Laws
best prices regarding data protection
in the market. We offer for the consumer are
convenience by delivering coming and we hope
products to customers. We government will ensure
guarantee our products – that whoever goes to the
the quality is good and we internet plays by the rules.
deal in genuine products.
We also allow customers What should consumers
to pay after receiving the expect from Jumia’s black
product and allow them to Friday starting Nov.16 –
return the product in seven Dec.7?
days in case they are not Black Friday is the
comfortable with it. biggest online sale of
the year. We negotiate
What is your assessment of thousands of deals for our
e-commerce in Uganda and customers. We have up
the region at the moment? to 80% discounts on over
E-commerce is on the 1000 products. This is the
upswing evidenced by Ron Kawamara is Jumia Uganda’s new only time that you find the
many companies coming on Chief Executive Officer. He spoke to The best prices in Uganda in a
the market – Uber, Taxify, short period of time. We
SafeBoda and others. This
Independent’s Julius Businge about his negotiate with importers,
is the time for e-commerce strategy and related online developments. manufacturers, distributors
in Uganda. People are to achieve this. We hope to
using technology to get generate Shs17.5bn in terms
convenience. of economic activity during
In the U.S and Europe, turning around fortunes of as a business? that period.
internet business makes up Jumia Uganda? Internet is still expensive
15% of the overall economy I want to make sure that for many of our customers Going forward, what is your
but in Uganda and most we continue to have the best and as a result, many of them reading of e-commerce and
African countries, internet prices, the widest range of find it expensive to reach us Jumia’s business in Uganda?
or e-commerce makes up products and to give our online and we lose on those In the next 5-10 years,
less than 1% of the economy, customers the best experience sales. That is the biggest Jumia will be a household
which means 99% of trade by delivering on time. challenge. name that will be known for
is still happening offline. good quality, best prices and
But the opportunity is here, How positive has been So how should relevant with happiest customers. We
companies are making your business to Uganda’s players go about driving believe internet technology
money, customers are economy? down the cost of the is a great equaliser and can
buying, businesses are selling We employ hundreds of internet? allow us offer people the
and internet is becoming people directly and several I must admit that internet value that people who are not
cheaper and more affordable. indirectly. We have our prices are reducing but not online canot get. E-commerce
This is the good time for business partners – hotels, fast enough. Government is no longer the future, it is
e-commerce. sellers, restaurants who are can help reduce it faster by here with us.
making a lot of revenue investing in infrastructure.
How has a slowing economy through this alternative line There are many people who In executing your roles, what
affected online business in of revenue. For customers, don’t understand that a defines your leadership
recent years? they are able to save money lot of fiber has been laid in traits?
Despite the economy and use savings to do other Kampala and that they can I try to understand people.
being tough, Jumia has been development things. In connect to it. There needs I invest time to understand
growing steadily. Obviously addition, we train young to be an education on the the inner person and through
if the economy was better, leaders – for instance, benefits of using the internet that I am able to get the best
we would even have a more Uber and Taxify managing and how affordable it is out of people. I understand
positive story. We are part directors have all been becoming day-by-day. my team; I know their fears
and partial of the Ugandan trained at Jumia. and I know what it takes to
experience. What is your position on manage them.
How are you dealing with regulating e-commerce in
What is your strategy for the challenges that you face this country?

30 Nov 02 - 08, 2018


Kenya’s fuel dealers told to issue receipts

he Kenya Revenue stations risk penalties for non- officials will be using undercov-
Authority now wants compliance to the requirement er purchase agents to determine
oil marketers to issue which most marketers believe is non-compliant dealers who will
electronic tax register logistically strenuous owing to then face appropriate penalties.
receipts to motorists fuelling at the high number of transactions The dealers, however, said
their stations following the sign- taking place in petrol stations. they should be exempted from
ing of the Finance Bill, which Judith Njagi, the chief man- the hustle since petroleum is a
loaded 8 percent Value Added ager for domestic taxes at KRA highly regulated product whose
Tax on petroleum products, ac- told petroleum dealers during a sales are easy to track through
cording to the country’s media. stakeholder engagement forum the pump and supply chain.
The taxman says petrol in Nairobi that the Authority


Africa gets private sector to spearhead FTA Airtel launches 4G


end of a meeting co-hosted
by the African Export-Import irtel Uganda has put
Bank (Afreximbank) and the on the market a mobile
African Union Commission, telephone it describes
said PAFTRAC would enhance as 4G for its Ugandan
African private sector participa- customers. Officials said the mo-
tion and galvanize the views of bile phone cost is Shs200, 000.
the African private sector, main- The gadget comes with value
streaming them into trade and back to the customer of 15GB of
investment policy making. data amounting to Shs90, 000,
The African Union Commis- a 4G SIM card, one year war-
sioner for Trade and Industry, ranty, 200SMS working for Airtel
Amb. Albert Muchanga, who customers and Shs500 worth of
President Museveni (in a hat )with members of the private sector in Kampala.  COURTESY /PHOTO co-chaired a meeting with Prof. airtime.

Benedict Oramah, the president The company’s Chief Com-
frica’s leading private tion of the African Continental Afreximbank, said PAFTRAC mercial Officer, Amit Kapur,
sector institutions and Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) and was an important stepping- said on Oct.22 that they expect
corporates have estab- enhance African private sec- stone towards the establishment the new mobile gadget to
lished a Pan-African tor participation in trade and of the African Business Council improve people’s lives through
Private Sector Trade and Invest- investment policy formulation, provided for under the AfCFTA e-commerce, education and
ment Committee (PAFTRAC) to including trade negotiations. Framework. Continental free financial inclusion.
serve as an advocacy platform A communique issued in trade is expected to take effect
to support the implementa- Addis Ababa on Oct. 18 at the next year.


Centenary, MasterCard widens payment option Airtel Africa raises US$1.25bn

n Oct. 25, to reduce existing debt
entenary Bank in partnership addresses,” he said. Airtel Af- of about $5 billion and
with MasterCard and M-KO- M-KOPA’s life-changing products rica Ltd, a grow its Africa opera-
PA Solar has unveiled Quick combine lights, mobile phone charg- subsidiary tions.
Response (QR) payment ing, radios, smart phones, TVs and of India’s Bharti Airtel “The transaction
technology to enable customers con- fridges. Ltd, said it raised $1.25 will help us further
veniently pay for the solar services. To connect to M-KOPA and start billion from six global leverage our balance
Centenary Bank’s Managing to build their credit history, custom- investors including sheet and boost our
Director, Fabian Kasi, said the tripar- ers pay a deposit and then small SoftBank Group Corp, capacity to upgrade
tite partnership shall enhancing the daily payments towards electricity Warburg Pincus LLC networks, expand
bank’s efforts towards promoting the that are usually less than what they and Temasek Hold- coverage in different
use of clean and safe energy by its would have spent on kerosene, ings (Private) Ltd. markets and achieve
customers in the various communi- candles and batteries over the same The firm said the rapid growth of Airtel
ties. period of time. fundraising, through Money across our
“The mode of payment is an This comes as data from the Unit- a primary equity issu- operations,” Raghu-
affordable solution for our custom- ed States Agency for International ance, now values the nath Mandava, chief
ers, many of whom live in rural areas Development shows that Uganda telecommunications executive of Bharti
with little or no access to electricity has one of the lowest electrification company at us $4.4 bil- Airtel’s Africa unit,
and other necessities including struc- rates in Africa, at 22 percent as at the lion and will be used said in a statement.
tured financing which this campaign end of last year.

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 31


KQ opens E. African
skies to United States
By Isaac Khisa & Agencies Kenya Airways has dedi-

cated two Dreamliner aircraft
he newly unveiled Ke- to the daily non-stop flights on
nya Airways non-stop the Nairobi to New York route
daily flights between made up of a night flight from
Nairobi and New York Nairobi and a mid-day return
is set to open up the East Afri- flight from New York. The car-
can skies to the United States, rier takes 15 hours to connect
making a milestone develop- the two destinations, down
ment in travel and tourism from 17-28 hours using other
business in the region. carriers with connecting flights
The carrier’s long-awaited through their hubs.
inaugural flight was unveiled This new development
on October 28 at 11: PM a is expected to reduce over-
board 234 passengers, becom- reliance on foreign carriers to
ing the third African carrier to bring US visitors to the Eastern
Kenya’s Foreign Affairs Cabinet Secretary Monica Juma flags off Kenya enter the US skies directly from and Central African states
Airways’ first ever direct flight to New York, USA, at the Jomo Kenyatta their hubs. through their hubs outside the
International Airport on October 29, 2018.   Courtesy Photo. Ethiopian Airlines and South region.
African Airways are the only President Uhuru Kenyatta
other African carriers that have said that the new route will
been granted Category One open up Kenya to the rest of
permit to access the US skies. the world.
RwandAir, which has sub- “These flights are set to pro-
mitted application to directly vide a seamless experience for
fly to the United States, still business and leisure travellers
awaits approval from the US alike. It will allow the world to
Federal Aviation Administra- taste Kenya’s diverse cultures
tion. Kenya Airways first flight and hospitality,” he said.
between JKIA in Nairobi and The carrier, which flies 53
the JF Kennedy International destinations, 45 in Africa,
Airport comes more than a charges Shs 3.3milion return
year since the US Federal ticket for an economy class
Aviation Administration gave and Shs 9.6million for a
Kenya the Category One rating business class between two
in February 2017. destinations.
Airtel Uganda MD VG Somasekhar (2nd R), Buganda Prime Minister,
Peter Mayiga (R) and the Buganda King, Ronald Muwenda Mutebi (L)
hands over a trophy to Ssingo FC for emerging winners of this year’s
Masaza Cup 18 final on October 27. Ssingo FC edged out Buddo FC
during the finals held at Namboole Stadium.   Courtesy Photo.

Weekly share price movement (Oct. 26, 2018)

Security Oct.26 Oct. 10 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 140 125 12
CENT 918 976 5.9
QCL 253 262 3.4
DFCU 849 849 00
EABL 6,644 6,950 4.4
EBL 1,438 1,484 3.0
JHL 15,850 16,981 6.7
KA 426 409 4.2
KCB 1,484 1,469 0.1
NIC 16 16 00
NMG 2,579 2,667 3.2
NVL 350 400 12.5
(L-R) Global Alliance for Banking on Values Executive Director,
Marcos Eguiguren, Centenary Bank MD Fabian Kasi and Prof Chris SBU 33 33 00
Ogbechie former Chairman, Diamond Trust Bank Plc addressing UCHM 24 30 20
journalists during the Global Alliance for Banking on Values UCL 23 23 00
conference at Sheraton Hotel recently.   Courtesy Photo UMEME 347 350 0.9
ALSI -- -- --

32 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

By Agencies

octors need to get better at

having difficult conversa-
tions with dying patients
and not just in their final
days, according to a report
from the Royal College of
It says doctors should talk to people who
could die within 12 months, who may be
frail or terminally ill, and give them choices
over their future care.
But the report says that rarely happens
and doctors should be more proactive.
It recommends involving family, friends
and carers in the conversation too.
The report, `Talking about dying’, gath-
ered the views of patients, trainees and doc-
tors on how to begin conversations about

Sickness and death

the end of someone’s life.
Although doctors say they find these
types of conversations challenging, the
report said it was important they didn’t
“shy away” from them.
It said doctors in all areas of healthcare Doctors ‘need to start early conversation
should engage with a patient who wanted
to talk about dying.
But it shouldn’t be “a one-off, tick-box
with patients about dying’
Linda Magistris set up a charity called the But only a quarter of patients in these Royal College of GPs, said patients should
Good Grief Trust after her husband died categories are given the chance to discuss feel reassured that GPs were “highly-
from cancer. the end of their life with a doctor, the report trained to have sensitive conversations”
She says she was shocked by the way he says, and those with heart failure, dementia with them and their families.
was told the end was close. and frailty are much less likely to be identi- She said: “The entire relationship
“They literally just said you’ve got weeks fied. between GP and patient is based on good
to live, and, sadly, it was done in an envi- Nearly half of all deaths in England hap- communication, and we have a unique role
ronment that wasn’t private. pen in hospital - and 25% of people who die in the NHS of caring for our patients from
“There were five people around the bed, there have been in hospital for more than a when they are born to the end of their lives.
pagers were going off at the same time - it month. “We are pleased that the report highlights
was very chaotic. But surveys suggest hospitals are where this and hope it will help GPs and other
“That was a private moment and a really communication about the end of life is healthcare professionals with their conver-
significant moment for him and it should poorest. sations on these important issues.”
have been done more sensitively.”
How do you talk about dying to someone What should doctors do? ‘Clear conversations’
who is dying?  Ask the patient if they would like to Prof Andrew Goddard, president of the
have the conversation and how much Royal College of Physicians London, said:
Dying of frailty information they want “This is not just about palliative care in
One in three adults admitted to hospital  All healthcare professionals treating the final days but about having a series of
with a serious illness or injury and 80% of patients with chronic conditions or a conversations much earlier after a termi-
care home residents are estimated to be in terminal illness should help plan their nal diagnosis.”
their last year of life. care Prof Dame Jane Dacre, the previous
The General Medical Council says  Start conversations about the future at president of the RCP, said: “Patients value
patients should be considered to be any point - and there doesn’t have to be and benefit from clear conversations
approaching the end of their life if they: a conclusion reached about the end of life.
are likely to die in the next year, have pro-  Use appropriate language with patients “These conversations are difficult, but
gressive, incurable conditions, have other and their families - and involve all the we need to get better at having difficult
conditions and are generally frail, have con- relevant people conversations.”
ditions that could cause death if there was a  The report suggests junior doctors don’t
sudden deterioration, have life-threatening get enough hands-on training talking Source: BBC
acute conditions caused by sudden cata- about dying with real patients.
strophic events. Dr Victoria Tzortziou Brown, from the

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 33


Latest on brain cancer treatment

Why killing the fastest growing cells
may not be the only treatment
By Florian Siebzehnrubl It is these differences between tumour cells Our research shows this to be true for

that we wanted to understand better. faster-dividing cells, but not for slower cells,
rain cancers are fortunately rare which mainly use fats as their source of
tumours in adults. Nevertheless, Feeding on fats and sugars energy. In experimental models, we could
the most common type of brain In a recent study, we compared glioblas- show that withholding sugars affects only
cancer, glioblastoma, is incurable toma cells and how fast they divided. And the faster-dividing cells. Conversely, in
and almost always lethal. Because of the we saw that there were remarkable differ- experiments where we blocked the metabo-
lack of effective therapies, the average sur- ences in the division rate of these tumour lism of slower-dividing cells, their faster
vival with glioblastoma is only 15 months. cells. counterparts continued to grow unchecked.
US senator, John McCain suffered from this This led us to classify glioblastoma cells When we combined treatments to stop both
form of tumour, as did former British MP into faster-dividing and slower-dividing faster and slower dividing cells in experi-
Tessa Jowell, who was outspoken about the cancer cells and we investigated these mental models, we found that this was most
need for more experimental treatments. further. Intuitively, we expected faster- effective to stop the tumours from growing.
Finding new and more effective thera- dividing cells to be more aggressive, as they In our study, we also identified a certain
pies for glioblastoma is very difficult for cause a tumour to grow more rapidly. But transport protein for fatty acids that is spe-
many reasons. Glioblastoma cells can move surprisingly, we found that glioblastoma cific to slower-dividing glioblastoma cells.
far away from the main tumour into the cells that are dividing slower were more An important question arising from our
healthy brain, which makes complete surgi- likely to resist chemotherapy. work is whether this transport protein car-
cal removal of the cancer impossible. These Likewise, slower cells were more likely to ries specific types of fatty acids into these
cancers are typically also very resistant to move away from the main tumour, making tumour cells, and if this can be stopped for
current drugs and radiation therapy. As a them harder to remove surgically. Genetic future therapies of glioblastoma. We used
result, glioblastomas usually regrow after signatures of these slower cells resemble sig- an experimental drug to block this transport
treatment, and these “recurrent” tumours natures of “recurrent” glioblastoma, which protein, which was effective in our models
tend to resist all efforts to treat them and indicates that slower cells may in fact be the in combination with treatments targeting
ultimately cause the patient’s demise. ones that cause tumours to regrow. faster dividing cells.
The so-called “blood-brain barrier” pre- Interestingly, the genetic signatures of It is too early to tell whether this drug
vents many anti-cancer drugs that work “recurrent” glioblastomas and slower divid- could one day be effective in the clinic, but
well in other organs from entering the brain ing glioblastoma cells were similar and based on our findings, it seems a question
in the first place. This severely limits the revealed an increased dependence on fats that is worth exploring.
number of drugs that can be applied. Glio- for energy consumption of these tumours.
blastomas are also very dissimilar between Since the 1920s it has been hypothesised Florian Siebzehnrubl is a Research Fellow,
patients, and no genes are known that are that cancers predominantly rely on a less European Cancer Stem Cell Research
mutated in all glioblastomas. Even within effective way than normal cells of using Institute, Cardiff University
a tumour in a single patient, there are large sugars for their energy support. This is Source:
differences in the tumour cells themselves. known as the Warburg effect.

34 Nov 02 - 08, 2018


What is
artist inspired
by prejudices
around identity

By Dominic Muwanguzi

ach of us is unique. It is im-

possible to judge us outside
of our individuality or using
one yardstick. Still, stereo-
types persist. And these
issues are the inspiration for
Collin Sekajugo’s recent exhibit `What
is beautiful’. He interrogates themes of
personal identity.
Sekajugo is of multi-ethnic back-
ground. His mother is from Rwanda and
father from Masaka in South –western
district of Uganda. He grew up in Kenya
and has lived in Uganda and Rwanda.
Defining his individuality has been a they live in. Ivuka means re-birth in Kinyarwanda
preoccupation for him since attempts by Technically, Sekajugo’s approach is and Ivuka Arts Centre gives youth an
society to define him by his physical looks unconventional, possibly because he is a self opportunity to re-discover themselves and
often fail. He prefers to be defined by his –taught artist, without the rules of formal heal through the arts.
inner person when confronted with the art training. He creates outside the box, is Additionally, the community artist, estab-
question of who he is. innovative and experimental. He integrates lished Weaver Bird ( Ndegeya) Arts Foun-
In his art, Sekajugo seeks to dismiss non-traditional material; especially collages dation, in Masaka, as a platform to develop
prejudices by deploying his body on canvas of synthetic media, in his collage painting. the local community through the arts.
as a central subject and a symbol of a vessel He uses found objects - Kitengi, Kikoyi and So he is quit experienced in relating with
that inhabits the good qualities sometimes denim fabrics. the local community and is always keen
the public misses when they set out to judge The synthetic materials create a familiar- to promote such ideology in his art. This is
someone. What lies beneath our bodies is ity in his art to the audience since most are evident in his series of `Boda-boda helmets
often beautiful but it cannot be revealed used in everyday fashion; on shirts, dresses 2015’ that emphasizes the theme of road
easily, he suggests. Misjudgment often and interior décor. safety and `If Wishes Were Horses 2014’
leads to stereotyping based on, for example, Sekajugo is founder of Ivuka Arts Centre, exhibit that touched on the theme of African
particular tribes. The Banyakore are this Kigali, Rwanda that became internationally migrants to Europe.
(mention stereotype), the Bakiga that, and recognised for its initiative to rebuild the What is beautiful, Sekajugo’s recent solo
the Basoga and Baganda that. These stereo- Rwandan society that had become frag- exhibition is showing at Afriart on 7th,
types are attached to identities of people mented because of the 1994 genocide. He located on 7th Street industrial Area, within
without ascertaining their inner values, defines himself as an “artist with a social the Studios Building.
character and relations with the community conscience.”

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 35

Celebrity charges R15K entrance to her birthday party Lonely man calls
South African social media left shook by the price tag, with police 45,000
influencer Nadia Jaftha was
a hot topic recently after she
many wondering why anyone
would want to pay that kind
times, faces jail
shared a flyer for her upcoming of money to stand or sit at “an
birthday party. She is hosting influencer’s” birthday party. A man who phoned the
the event on Nov. 16 at Saint Following the social media police 45,210 times in just one
Champagne Bar and Lounge uproar, Jaftha took to her Ins- year – that is five times per
in Cape Town, and table prices tagram stories and explained hour every day – might end up
range from R1 500 (Approx. that these are the normal table in jail. The incidents happened
Shs400,000) for a standing table prices and that she’s not the in Bayrampaşa district of
of four, to R15 000 (Approx. club owner. According to Santa, Istanbul in Turkey.
Shs4million) for a sitting table the R15 000 table service charge Şeref Can, a divorced 55-year
of 12 people. Social media was is standard for VVIP. old man, allegedly called
the police line well over 100
times per day between May
Pay in Instagram followers at this restaurant 15, 2017 and May 15, 2018,
Social media promotion has become so important nowadays but never once made any sort
that businesses are offering freebies to anyone with a certain fol- of complaint or asked police
lowing on popular social networks. Matteo and Tomaso Pittarel- assistance. Instead, he only
lo, the owners of the “This Is Not a Sushibar” restaurant in Milan, tried to make conversation
are well aware of the potential of social networks like Instagram, with whoever picked up the
and they’re more than willing to give away some sushi, if it means phone. At one point, police
getting some exposure. At their restaurant, people have the clas- staff became so irritated
sic payment options – cash or card – plus a novel one, paying in by Can’s unusual habit
Instagram followers. The idea is pretty simple, the more followers that they filed a complaint
you have, the more you can eat without having to spend a cent. about him with Istanbul
Angulas – an ultra- There is one catch though. Patrons also have to publish a post on Police’s communications and
expensive food that their Instagram account and tag @thisisnotasishibar and include
the hashtag #thisisnotasushibar. They will only receive their free
electronics department. After
confirming that Can had called
doesn’t even taste good sushi after showing the publish post at the counter. the 115 emergency number a
total of 45,210 times in a year,
Angulas, the Spanish word for investigators charged him with
baby eels is one of Spain’s most obstructing service of public
expensive foods (cost about $1,150 institutions and preventing
(Approx. Shs4.5 million) per kilo, public officials from performing
but no one seems to understand their duty. He faces up to five
why. They hardly have any taste years in jail.
at all, their texture is best described
as slimy and they look like limp
worms on a plate. So why are peo-
ple paying hundreds of euros to eat
angulas at expensive restaurants?
Apparently many people like to act
like snobs every once in a while, so
they pay a premium to enjoy a food
that most people can’t afford.

Chinese city to launch “artificial moon” bright enough to replace streetlights

The ambitious project was announced plans to launch an illumination satellite
at a national mass innovation and entre- referred to as an “artificial moon” that
preneurship event held in Chengdu, a would be eight times as bright as Earth’s
city of 14 million people in China’s south- natural satellite and capable of an area
western province of Sichuan. Wu Chun- with a diameter of 10-80km. The inno-
feng, the chairman of the private space vative satellite has apparently been in
contractor Chengdu Aerospace Science the works since for years, but thanks to
and Technology Microelectronics System the rapid advancement of technology it
Research Institute Co (Casc) revealed should be ready for launch in 2020.

36 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

How safe is
By Agencies are designed to prevent a

collision from occurring
or a car to be in the first place. Stability
considered safe for control is required on all

your car?
passengers, it must new vehicles, and many
be able to perform vehicles now have a
well in accident avoidance reversing camera.
and maximally protect In addition to these
them in case of accidents; mandated technologies,
especially collisions and
roll-overs. This means the
The five factors to consider many automakers are
voluntarily pursuing
car must have effective improved safety by
driving and collision In a collision involving a naturally, typically found in offering features such as
avoidance technologies; large vehicle and a small more expensive vehicles. forward collision warning,
including braking systems, vehicle, the large vehicle automatic emergency
lights, and roof crush wins. It is just the laws of Low center of gravity is braking, lane departure
strength. physics. But remember that better warning and prevention,
Many countries have heavier vehicles also tend to blind-spot warning, and
agencies to measures consume more fuel. By this point, you must rear cross-traffic alert
vehicle safety against be thinking that if a heavier systems.
standards. In South Africa, Newer is better and newer vehicle is safest, Beyond the issues
it is the Automobile During the past 20 years, then it must be a big truck discussed above, you need
Association. Generally, it car companies have made or SUV. However, another to properly maintain your
advisable when considering significant advancements factor in vehicle safety vehicle for optimum safety.
the safety of a car, to check in vehicle architecture that you must consider: Bald tires, broken lights,
out its crash-test rating design. From engineering roll-over resistance, shows dirty windows, and fading
done by a reputable agency crumple zones and crash- that might not be the case. brakes can all contribute to
such as America’s Insurance energy dispersion paths to Rollover accidents can increased likelihood for loss
Institute for Highway employing high-strength happen due to sudden of control and a collision.
Safety (IIHS). and ultra-high-strength steering inputs, sliding on Choosing proper seating
Generally, however, steel in specific areas, wet roads or colliding with and mirror positions is
and in addition to those new cars are much safer another vehicle, pavement, important, too. If you sit
ratings, you can look at than they were a decade or curb. Each of these low and reclined, it is hard
three primary factors to ago. Furthermore, newer situations is different, but to see out. Your side mirrors
determine how safe a car is. vehicles typically include given equal circumstances, should show just a little
These are vehicle weight, safety features that can help a vehicle with a lower bit of your own vehicle
vehicle center of gravity, you to avoid an accident center of gravity is less for orientation purposes.
and safety equipment. in the first place. Vehicle likely to flip over than a Otherwise, they ought to
architecture or structure vehicle with a higher center be positioned for as wide a
Heavier is better is what lies beneath its of gravity. That means the view of your blind spots as
The heavier your vehicle exterior skin. Most vehicles taller a vehicle sits off the is possible.
is, the better it will protect use steel for this structure, ground; the more likely it is Finally, it should go
you in a collision. Crash- though other materials, to roll-over following a loss without saying that driving
test ratings for a given such as aluminum and of control. when you are drunk, high,
vehicle are valid when carbon fiber, may also be Modern vehicles are sleepy, or distracted is a
compared to other vehicles employed. These more increasingly equipped with bad idea. Nothing good
of a similar size and weight. expensive materials are, safety technologies that comes of that.

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Nov 02 - 08, 2018 37

Shifah Musisi: Mixing music and fashion
By Agnes E Nantaba RnB. To create her unique sound, she does But it during her long senior six holiday

her afro-soul with a fusion of African instru- that Musisi began her professional music
hifah Musisi is a fashion designer, ments like addungu (arched harp), akogo journey. Her father, who has since passed
singer, guitarist, and songwriter (thumb piano), drums and more which she on, paid for the studio session to record
with an eye for the unique mixes into her music. Her latest song a song that she had written for her sister
and unusual. Her ‘Ebilowozo’ in which she sings and spouse reflecting how true love comes
music genre; afro- about longing for true love is from a far. It was publicly unveiled on their
soul, is a fusion of quite big. wedding in 2011. This was followed by two
contemporary, In fashion, she con- tough years of attempting to win audience
centrates on urban acceptance and recognition.
African fused “My kind of genre was a bit new to the
together under music audience but I had to keep in there,”
Marisha designs. says Musisi.
And she has big She has since written all her music selec-
dreams. tion with over 12 songs on two albums.
“I refer to After the first album Musisi went
myself as a ahead to work on her second album that
world artiste is still running. About the same time she
because I want embarked on music professionally, Musisi
to be a world also joined Records Fashion School to better
star,” she says. her fashion and design skills. One year into
The bud- school, she opened her first fashion shop.
ding artist says Still, music remains her passion.
her musical gift “Music has surprised me and although
was spotted by it might take long to yield, you just need to
her parents who keep doing what you do and perfect it,” she
encouraged her says, “People love good work and when
to learn musical you have it, they will come to you”.
instruments like She says it is inspired by real life experi-
the guitar along- ences and the environment. She says she
side singing. Her spent her early years of life in Kapeeka-
father was a song Luweero district which she says had beauti-
writer. She was also ful scenery and playing in the neighbor-
encouraged by her hood was her favourite pastime.
best friend at the time, “My mother sent us all to the village to
a pianist. get an experience of the village life and we
Even at school, she would only visit her in Kampala,” she says.
studied music and Musisi is a middle child in a polygamous
excelled. family. She attended Kampala Nursery
School, Greenhill Academy, Kibuli Second-
ary School and Mulama Secondary School
back in the village.
Musisi says she is excited to be
part of Uganda’s music industry
at this time because “every-
one is growing creatively
as opposed to before
where almost every
musician was
treading along
the same

38 Nov 02 - 08, 2018


Shifah Musisi’s Liteside

Any three things that we politics. There are lots you happiest? that I am so passionate

don’t know about you? of beautiful things that Being the first about doing.
am very humble and we can attend to if only Ugandan artiste invited
God fearing. I am we could lessen the time to take part in a big What is your marked
also a fighter who wasted on politics. government project characteristic?
always goes for my in Sudan. I am always I am too kind.
dreams and will never What does being happy on my birthday
stop until I achieve them. powerful mean to you? because it’s an indication What do you most value
You are only powerful of continuity as God adds in your friends?
What is your idea of after self-discovery another year to my life I value the difference
perfect happiness? and reaching a point of and to carry-on. that you can’t find in
Being around people contentment. It takes family.
with positive vibes. I like being contented with Which talent would you
people of positive energy what you have; little or most like to have? Who are your favorite
because everyone is too much. I like to take care writers?
fighting a battle and they of people; especially I don’t read too much
just need someone who On what occasion do children professionally
will encourage them to you lie? either as a nurse or Who is your hero of
push on. So many times; I don’t doctor. I wish I could fiction?
do it in a bad way or become one even if it’s I love how Julia
What is your greatest hurting so much. I have for just a day. Roberts acts and smiles
fear? lied about time many all the way. She is the one
I have acrophobia times but haven’t lied for Where would you most that brings out love so
(extreme fear of heights) things that bite me. like to live? well and affectionately.
There is no place like
What is the trait What do you most home; Uganda is rich, Which historical figure
you most deplore in dislike about your has good people and do you most identify
yourself? appearance? freedom. I like to live in with?
I get angry at the As a young girl, I Uganda, I want to learn from
smallest things. Small or always thought that my Michael Jackson; he
petty things put me off. gap in the teeth wasn’t What is your most always adjusted to
a blessing until it was treasured possession? anything to get where he
What is the trait you cleared when I travelled. My musical wanted to. The difference
most deplore in others? People appreciated me instruments; especially between me and his
Bad vibes; I just like and that has ceased to the guitar. Even in my personality is that I lack
people with good energy. happen. darkest times, it’s there the urge because I am a
to restore my hope. All little reserved but I wish
Which living person do Which living person do my music emanates from I could get to that urge.
you most admire? you most despise? its melody and tones. He never stopped even
I admire my family but I don’t despise. when he became weak.
the person that I have What do you regard
really looked up to is What is the quality you as the lowest depth of What is your greatest
Helen Folasade Adu CBE most like in a woman? misery? regret?
known professionally as God fearing, humble. Rape; I have heard of There are few things I
Sade Adu. I listen to her stories of rape. No one regret about; I feel that I
music and look up to her. What is the quality you should go through such should have done them
most like in a man? an experience because differently or acted a
What is your greatest God fearing, it comes with a lot of different way towards
extravagance? knowledge and trauma and other adverse something.
I like shopping guitars fulfillment of effects.
responsibility How would you like to
What is your current What is your favorite die?
state of mind? What or who is the occupation? At 100 years in my
I am happy greatest love of your Music is just taking sleep. `
life? a little longer to bring
What do you consider I Love my family and in the money than I What is your motto?
the most overrated friends. expected but I will be Stay humble, be motivated
virtue? patient until I get there and be good to all.
Everything to do with When and where were because it is one thing

Nov 02 - 08, 2018 39

Global comment
By Carlos Lopes
Potential of EU-Africa trade
Research suggests for Africa to avoid losses, focus
should be on strengthening AfCFTA and EPAs die

hina’s use of trade and investment represents the bulk of trade with Egypt. most areas, the EPAs will actually hurt
links to expand its influence in Africa’s share of EU trade could intra-African trade, weakening trade
Africa is fueling growing concern increase even further, given the revenues and undermining trade-driven
in some European capitals. But, continent’s impressive economic industrialisation in Africa.
instead of complaining about China’s prospects. In 2000-2010, Africa achieved Some argue that the problem is more
activities, the European Union should be real annual GDP growth of 5.4%; that about timing, because the losses are
deepening its own engagement with the rate held strong at 3.3% in 2010-2015. likely to materialise immediately,
continent. Today, Africa remains the world’s and the possible benefits brought by
In recent years, the EU has been second-fastest-growing region, after increased access to the EU market will
actively seeking to secure new trade emerging and developing Asia. take longer to emerge. Given this, EPA
and investment opportunities around For Europe, Africa’s economic potential proponents argue, a special fund should
the world. As of July 2018, the EU was remains far from tapped. Spending by be established to compensate for some
engaged in negotiations for 21 free-trade households and businesses, estimated at of the short-term losses. But research
agreements. This includes talks initiated $4 trillion in 2015, is projected to reach suggests that the best way for Africa to
in the last seven years with six ASEAN $5.6 trillion by 2025, reflecting 3.5% avoid losses is to focus on strengthening
countries – Indonesia, Philippines, annual growth. Moreover, according the AfCFTA and let the EPAs die.
Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and to the McKinsey Global Institute, To be sure, the EU is also taking
Vietnam – which could pave the way for investment opportunities stemming from steps to help strengthen the AfCFTA. It
a future deal with the entire region. infrastructure demand in Africa will recently announced a sevenfold increase
The EU has also initiated talks with amount to at least $150 billion annually in assistance – from €7 million in 2014-
New Zealand and Australia. And it over the next decade. Africa is also 2017 to €50 million in 2018-2020 – for
recently concluded comprehensive home to strategic natural resources for institutional and technical support, as
free-trade agreements with Armenia, emerging low-carbon industries, and well as for data collection and analysis.
Canada, Japan, and Vietnam, as well as is well positioned to play a key role in But, as African Union leaders
a standalone investment agreement with renewable energy. confirmed at the AU-EU Summit in
China. Africa’s value as a trade and investment Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, last November,
But what about Africa? The continent’s partner is not news to Europe. Over they are eager for the relationship
trade with the EU is already massive: the last five years, the EU has been to mature beyond the traditional
together, African countries represent the negotiating with each of Africa’s sub- dependency model. Though progress
EU’s third-largest trading partner, after regions under the Economic Partnership has been made in this regard, the EU
the United States and China, accounting Agreements (EPAs) framework, with still largely sets the agenda and provides
for nearly 7% of total extra-EU trade the goal of eventually producing a free- financial assistance to implement it.
in goods, including 7% of imports and trade agreement between the EU and the If the EU is to seize the opportunities
8% of exports. And though the EU ran African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of that Africa offers in a way that is
a persistent trade deficit with Africa States. mutually beneficial, it will need to work
in 2000-2014, it ran a €22 billion ($25.5 Yet, so far, only one EPA (with with the continent’s leaders to build
billion) surplus in 2015 and a €22.7 Southern Africa) has been ratified. a new kind of partnership that treats
billion surplus in 2016. Progress on the others has stagnated, African countries as equals. Simply put,
Africa’s trade with the EU is triple that owing largely to a lack of political the new EU-Africa relationship must be
of, say, Canada, which amounted to €94.7 enthusiasm. Africans have serious based on trade, not aid.
billion in 2016. With the Comprehensive concerns about how the EPAs would
Economic and Trade Agreement, annual affect their industrial development and Carlos Lopes is a professor at the Mandela
EU-Canada trade is expected to increase the African Continental Free Trade Area School of Public Governance at the
by at least 8%, or some €12 billion. But (AfCFTA), signed by almost all African University of Cape Town and High
that is still the equivalent of just half the countries last March. Uncertainty arising Representative of the African Union for
EU’s trade volume with Egypt alone. from Brexit has not helped matters. partnerships with Europe post-2020.
Similarly, the EU’s future free-trade African leaders are right to be
agreement with New Zealand agreement concerned. Though the EU claims that Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2018.
could increase bilateral trade by about the EPAs will buttress the AfCFTA,
36%, yet that increase would still amount preliminary research indicates that the
to less than half the volume of goods that trade gains brought by the EPAs, as
the EU now trades with Tunisia. In the negotiated, are likely to be concentrated
case of Australia, the expected increase on a few agricultural products – and to
of around one-third in trade volume exclude the least-developed countries. In

40 Nov 02 - 08, 2018

We tell the story beyond the story.


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