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MBA – SEM – III
Prashant D. Devale : : : : : 9821602706 email@example.com 510932455
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Date of Submission at the Learning Centre: 30-42010
Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB0034– Research Methodology - 3 Credits
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.
1. What do you mean by research? Explain its s i g n i f i c a n c e in social and business sciences. Ans: - Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. The search for facts may be made through either:
Arbitrary (or unscientific) Method: It’s a method of seeking answers to question consists of imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression. E.g. it was believed that the shape of the earth was flat; a big snake swallows sun or moon causing solar or lunar eclipse. It is subjective; the finding will vary from person to person depending on his impression or imagination. It is vague and inaccurate. Or Scientific Method: this is a systematic rational approach to seeking facts. It eliminates the drawbacks of the arbitrary method. It is objective, precise and arrives at conclusions on the basis of verifiable evidences. Therefore, search of facts should be made by scientific method rather than by arbitrary method. Then only we may get verifiable and accurate facts. Hence research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method.
Significance in social and business sciences:According to a famous Hudson Maxim, “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”. It brings out the significance of research, increased amounts of which makes progress possible. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems. Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy, for both the government and business. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. Government budget formulation, for example, depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of the people, and the availability of revenues, which requires research. Research helps to formulate alternative policies, in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives. Thus, research also facilitates the decision making of policy-makers, although in itself it is not a part of research. In the process, research also helps in the proper allocation of a country’s scare resources. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. Collection of statistical information 2
and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profit maximization. Research-consumer: There must be an individual or a group which experiences some difficulty. which are responsible for business decision making. Therefore.Meaning of Research Problem Research really begins when the researcher experiences some difficulty. 1. Social conditions do often shape the preference of investigators in a subtle and imperceptible way. In several ways. More specifically.e. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. operations research. Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. Personal values play an important role in the selection of a topic for research. All these researches are very useful for business and industry. 2. The formulation of the topic into a research problem is. Solving this difficulty is the task of research.. This. What is meant by research problem? And what are the characteristics of a good research problem? Ans: . A problem in simple words is some difficulty experienced by the researcher in a theoretical or practical situation. defines only the range of subject-matter within which the researcher would see and pose a specific problem for research. Market research is refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases.though not a routine task. He visualizes five components of a problem. R. and The prognosis. and knowledge for what it can contribute to solve practical problems. however. really speaking the first step in a scientific enquiry. alternative means for achieving the objectives he desires.L. and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. i. a problem demanding a solution within the subject-are of his discipline. it is concerned with the analyzing the motivations underlying consumer behaviour. This general area of interest. i. It also possesses practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to do something better or in a more efficient manner. production and sales. Ackoffs analysis affords considerable guidance in identifying problem for research. involves various research problems. research in social sciences is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake. Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. Research-consumer’s Objectives: The research-consumer must have available..e. large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by the government these days to undertake this work. Operational research relates to the application of logical. research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows: • • • Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them. market research. Thus. 3 . 2. mathematical. the prediction of future developments Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. or the optimization problems.
Before starting the research. 8. It may take long time for the researcher to say what questions he had been seeking answers to. What is a good problem statement? It is an interrogative statement that asks: what relationship exists between two or more variables? It then further asks questions like: Is A related to B or not? How are A and B related to C? Is A related to B under conditions X and Y? Proposing a statement pertaining to relationship between A and B is called a hypothesis. A research-consumer may have doubts as to which will be the most efficient means in one environment but would have no such doubt in another. Training investigators: That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for. Good research problem having following characteristics 1. Doubt in Regard to Selection of Alternatives: The existence of alternative courses of action in not enough. all data collected are recorded. Verifiable evidence: That is factual observations which other observers can see and check. What is hypothesis? Examine the procedures for testing hypothesis Ans: . Hence. Objectivity: That is free being from all biases and vested interests. or giving exact number or measurement. 7. 2. 5. Data based on casual recollections are generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions. Controlling conditions: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting to examine what happens when that variable is varied. Precision: That is making it as exact as necessary.A hypothesis is an assumption about relations between variables. There must be One or More Environments to which the Difficulty or Problem Pertains: A change in environment may produce or remove a problem. This is the basic technique in all scientific experimentation – allowing one variable to vary while holding all other variables constant. 5. the researcher has a rather general. in order to experience a problem. even confused notion of the problem. the research consumer must have some doubt as to which alternative to select. 3. diffused. Alternative Means to Meet the Objectives: The research-consumer must have available. or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing. Recording: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection. Accuracy: That is describing what really exists.3. It means observation is unaffected by the observer’s values. 4 . It is a tentative explanation of the research problem or a guess about the research outcome. 3. alternative means for achieving the objectives he desires. an adequate statement about the research problem is very important. 4. Systematization: That is attempting to find all the relevant data. 6. Since human memory is fallible. 4. beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he is able to see and accept facts as they are. not as he might wish them to be. This avoids colourful literature and vague meanings.
but when Ha is of the type “whether greater or smaller” then we use a two-tailed test. The factors that affect the level of significance are: • • • • The magnitude of the difference between sample . For instance. The size of the sample. The average score in an aptitude test administered at the national level is 80.Procedure for Testing Hypothesis To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid.. The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated earlier in the context of estimation. say. in practice. means). the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry. either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the null hypothesis or not to accept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to all those steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i. rejection and acceptance of a null hypothesis. Generally. To evaluate a state’s education system. It also indicates whether we should use a tailed test or a two tailed test.e. The choice generally remains between distribution and the t distribution. The state wants to know if there is a significance difference between the local scores and the national scores. Whether the hypothesis is directional or non – directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between. the average score of 100 of the state’s students selected on the random basis was 75. In brief. the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. we use alone tailed test. In such a situation the hypothesis may be state as under: Null hypothesis HO: µ =80 Alternative hypothesis Ha: µ ≠ 80 The formulation of hypothesis is an important step which must be accomplished with due care in accordance with the object and nature of the problem under consideration. Deciding the Distribution to Use After deciding the level of significance. considering the nature of the research problem. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Department wants to test the load bearing capacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons. Selecting a Significant Level The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. in that case he can state his hypothesis as under: Null hypothesis HO: µ =10 tons Alternative hypothesis Ha: µ >10 tons Take another example. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below: Making a Formal Statement The step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (Ho) and also of the alternative hypothesis (Ha). This means that hypothesis should clearly state. If Ha is of the type greater than. 5 . The variability of measurements within samples. Mr.
Where such is the case. then reject the null hypothesis (i. Ans: . Write an essay on the need for research design and explain the principles of experimental designs.e. In case we reject H0 we run a risk of (at most level of significance) committing an error of type I. then we run some risk of committing error type II. accept the alternative hypothesis).Selecting A Random Sample & Computing An Appropriate Value Another step is to select a random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. if the null hypothesis were in fact true. but if the probability is greater then accept the null hypothesis. the significance level. Flow Diagram for Testing Hypothesis 4. the researcher has no idea as to how accurate the results of his study ought to be in order to be useful. the researcher has to 6 . Calculation of the Probability One has then to calculate the probability that the sample result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations. If the calculated probability is equal to smaller than α value in case of one tailed test (and α/2 in case of two-tailed test). draw a sample to furnish empirical data.The need for the methodologically designed research: a. but if we accept H0.In many a research inquiry. Comparing the Probability Yet another step consists in comparing the probability thus calculated with the specified value for α. In other words.
In other words. In general. In a quite few cases he may be in a position to know how much inaccuracy his method of research will produce. In such a situation. to increase the accuracy with which the main effects and interactions can be estimated. blocks are the levels at which we hold an extraneous factors fixed. then we first divide the field into several parts. We can compare the yield of the two parts and draw conclusion on that basis. that is to say. and then each such block is divided into parts equal to the number of treatments. through the application of the principle of randomization. known as blocks. For this purpose we may divide the field into two parts and grow one variety in one part and the other variety in the other part.In many research projects. our results would not be realistic. suppose we are to examine the effect of two varieties of rice. b.The idealized design is concerned with specifying the optimum research procedure that could be followed were there no practical restrictions. The result so obtained will be more reliable in comparison to the conclusion we draw without applying the principle of replication. Thus. grow one variety in half of these parts and the other variety in the remaining parts. For instance if we grow one variety of rice say in the first half of the parts of a field and the other variety is grown in the other half. so that we can measure its contribution to the variability of the data by means of a two-way analysis of variance.. we may assign the variety of rice to be grown in different parts of the field on the basis of some random sampling technique i. against the effect of extraneous factors by randomization. The entire experiment can even be repeated several times for better results. this principle indicates that we should design or plan the ‘experiment in such a way that the variations caused by extraneous factors can all be combined under the general heading of “chance”. Consequently replication does not present any difficulty. By doing so.e. the time consumed in trying to ascertain what the data mean after they have been collected is much greater than the time taken to design a research which yields data whose meaning is known as they are collected. c. we can have a better estimate of the experimental error. is made to vary deliberately over as wide a range as necessary and this needs to be done in such a way that the variability it causes can be measured and hence eliminated from the experimental error. Principle of local control: It is another important principle of experimental designs. we may apply randomization principle and protect ourselves against the effects of extraneous factors. the known source of variability. Principles of Experimental Designs Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs: 1. we first divide the field into several homogeneous parts. However. But if we are to apply the principle of replication to this experiment. 3. This means that we should plan the experiment in a manner that we can perform a two-way analysis of variance. The principle of replication: The experiment should be reaped more than once. If this is so. For example. In other words. each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of one. through the 7 . according to the principle of local control. As such. In brief. when we conduct an experiment. then it is just possible that the soil fertility may be different in the first half in comparison to the other half. 2. the extraneous factor and experimental error.determine how much inaccuracy may be tolerated. in which the total variability of the data is divided into three components attributed to treatments. Under it the extraneous factors. the statistical accuracy of the experiments is increased. The principle of randomization: It provides protection. We can collect the data yield of the two varieties and draw conclusion by comparing the same. but computationally it does. In either case he should design his research if he wants to assure himself of useful results. Then the treatments are randomly assigned to these parts of a block. it should be remembered that replication is introduced in order to increase the precision of a study.
5. opinion polls. advantages and limitations of secondary data. interviewing.V. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data. Yet. They include: socio economic surveys. It is difficult to administer. uses.principle of local control we can eliminate the variability due to extraneous factors from the experimental error. attitudinal surveys. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness.g. Explain the features. Marketing research. for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. brand preference. mailing etc. Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation. leadership studies.Primary Sources of Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. The important methods are 8 .. readership. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. There are various methods of data collection. farm managements studies. viewing surveys. Ans: . But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. business management studies etc. a schedule is used for interviewing. It is time consuming 3. 4. Distinguish between primary and secondary of data collection. Advantage of Primary Data • • • • It is original source of data It is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. Extensive research study is based of primary data Disadvantage of Primary Data 1. In this case. primary data have to be gathered. the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs. radio listening and T. It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. Primary data is expensive to obtain 2. a tool is an instruments used for the method. Which is the best way of collecting the data for research “Primary or secondary”? Support your answer. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. inadequate or obsolete. For example. In such cases where the available data are inappropriate.. Methods of Collecting Primary Data Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities..
Reports of Government Departments. First. Both the form and the content of secondary sources are shaped by others. personnel records. (c) mail survey.. and the like. Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations. Clearly. (b) interviewing. Second. Statistical statement. annual reports and financial statements of companies.. ILO. Reports of the National sample survey Organization. some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. but also unpublished records.g. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e. etc. volume of business etc. Financial Analysis of companies. accounting and financial records. Features of Secondary Sources Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials. statistical reports of 9 . IMF. secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. published by the NABARD. Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks. inventory records etc. census reports . may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. they have certain common characteristics. they are readymade and readily available. the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole. they consist of data which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification.. WHO. Such studies as securities Market Behavior. depend primarily on secondary data. Second. World Bank. Year books. the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages. their coverage of villages. this is a feature which can limit the research value of secondary sources.(a) observation. Finally. (e) simulation and (f) projective technique. and so on. Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters. First. sociological studies on crimes. Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks. For example. and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them. Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose.g. minutes of meetings. Reports of trade associations. register of members. their capital structure. (d) experimentation. publications of international organizations such as UNO. e. e. Finally. secondary sources are not limited in time and space. Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered. the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country..g. Use of Secondary Data The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher. secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research may be tested. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports.. That is. historical studies.
For example. most of the unpublished official records and compilations are located in the capital city. 2. Once their source of documents and reports are located. The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different. You have been assigned to conduct a survey on the reading habits of the house wives in the middle class family. and no new figures will be available for another ten years. Thus. Censes Reports etc. and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places. serve as major data sources for such research studies. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data.Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. Even if the location of the source is known. Describe interview method of collecting data. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. and time periods may also be different. Even the tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided. 4. 3. Advantages of Secondary Data Secondary sources have some advantages: 1. Ans:. Finally. Secondary data. 4. 6. the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support. Disadvantages of Secondary Data The use of a secondary data has its own limitations. information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. Design a suitable questionnaire consisting of 20 questions you propose to use in the survey. because of time lag in producing them. initiated for obtaining 10 . 1. report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises. the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. The researcher need not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected. The available data may not be as accurate as desired. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected. 3. the most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. 5. thanks to Xeroxing facilities. Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. collection of data is just matter of desk work. State the conditions under which it is considered most suitable. units of measure may not match. population census data are published tow or three years later after compilation.government departments. 2. For example. if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print.
Moreover. Interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally: The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-to-face basis. The extent of his success as an interviewer is very largely dependent upon his insight and skill in dealing with varying socio-physiological situations. Although interview is usually a conversation between two persons. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. The implication of this feature is that the interviewer cannot apply unvarying standardized technique. Were you a big reader growing up? 11 . therefore. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. Where the area covered for the survey is a compact. values. One should not also argue or dispute. be tactful and be alert to such reactions of the respondents as lameexcuse.. the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. It can also be conducted with a group of persons. Information furnished by the respondent in the interview is recorded by the investigator. and then interviewing is required. Interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange: Interview is a conversation with a specific purpose. such as family members. It involves not only conversation. he should realize that his respondents are under no obligations to extend response. facial expressions and pauses. Interviewing is not a standardized process: Like that of a chemical technician. viz. it is rather a flexible psychological process. facial expression and intonation. gestures. but also learning from the respondent’s gesture. and deal with them suitably. reluctance or indifference. The Relationship between the Participants is a Transitory one: It has a fixed beginning and termination points. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs. The Questionnaire:1. The respondent reacts to the interviewer’s appearance. The interview proper is a fleeting. Interview is an inter-actionable process: The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each other. and his environment. obtaining information relevant to a study. How old were you when you learned how to read? 2. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain features. As far as possible. personal interview is feasible. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. beliefs past experience and future intentions. This poses a problem of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation. depending on the requirements of the study. Hence. because he is dealing with respondents with varying motives and diverse perceptions. momentary experience for them. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. suspicion. or a group of children or a group of customers. When qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out fully.information relevant to a specific study. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. it need not be limited to a single respondent. behaviour. because interview can be conducted over the telephone also. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions. They are: The Participants: The interviewer and the respondent – are strangers. One should. One should rather maintain an impartial and objective attitude. the investigator has to get him introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner. attitudes.
What’s the longest you’ve gone without reading? 20. how many hours a week do you spend reading? 18. 6. Sci-fi. I-low do you get hold of the books? Do you buy them at a bookstore. how many hooks do you read a month? 9. What was the last hook you checked out from the library? 17. or romance?) 5. Are there any books that left a big impression on you as a kid? 4. What do you typically wear when you read? 8. Why do you read? 12 . or do you use the library? 10.3. DC) you sometimes read more than one hook at the time? 19. Top 5 favorite authors. At what point do you give up on a hook? 12. visit an online store1 borrow from a friend or family member. Paperback or hardcover? 11. Favorite genres? (Do you read mainly fiction or non-fiction?)Do you have a soft spot for honor. on average. 7. On average. Best reading-related memory? 14. What was the last book(s) you bought? 16. Top 5 favorite books. Worst reading-related memory? 15. How do you find about new hooks and authors? 13.
focus groups. die data gives insufficient evidence to make any conclusion. In some versions of statistical hypothesis testing (such as developed by Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson). This alternative may or may not he the logical negation of the null hypothesis. or that there is no difference between a treatment and the control. though alternative hypotheses are standardly used today. employees. major search engine search results may be sent by email to researchers by services such as (3oogle Alerts. die null hypothesis could be true. Write short notes on the following. 13 . darn collection method and selection of subjects. If the data appears very improbable (usually defined as a type of darn that should be observed less than 5% of the time) then the experimenter concludes that the null hypothesis is false. In this case. (a) Null Hypothesis (b) What is exploratory research? (c) What is Random Sampling? (d) Rank Order Correlation Ans: (a) a null hypothesis is a hypothesis (within the frequentist context of statistical hypothesis testing) that might be falsified using a test of observed data. The term was originally coined by English geneticist and statistician Ronald Fisher. case studies or pilot studies.MBA Semester 4 MB0034– Research Methodology . management or competitors. (b) Exploratory research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution.3 Credits Assignment Set.. If the data looks reasonable under the null hypothesis. The use of alternative hypotheses was not part of Ronald Fisher’s formulation of statistical hypothesis testing. comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as Google Trends. 1. Answer all the questions. the null hypothesis is tested against an alternative hypothesis. or it could still be false. and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews. collecting darn. such as that there is no relationship between two quantities. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data.g. exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. projective methods. or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. and Web sites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature: E. then no conclusion is made. The null hypothesis typically proposes a general or default position. RSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information. Such a test works by formulating a null hypothesis. Given its fundamental nature.2 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. and calculating a measure of how probable that data was assuming the null hypothesis were true.
mathematical theory is available to assess the sampling error. A random sample is one chosen by a method involving an unpredictable component. or if the sample is large enough for the central limit theorem to take effect. confidence intervals may be calculated.The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves. ‘how” and “when” something occurs. such as ranks. Prefatory Items • Title page • Declaration • Certificates • Preface/ acknowledgements • Table of contents • 1_ist of tables • 1_ist of graphs/ figures! Charts • Abstract or synopsis II. (c) A sample is a subject chosen from a population for investigation. This can take the form of a standard error. arid N is the number of subjects. estimates obtained from random samples can be accompanied by measures of the uncertainty associated with the estimate. The sample usually will not be completely representative of the population from which it was drawn— this random variation in the results is known as sampling error.” Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large. Random sampling can also refer to taking a number of independent observations from the same probability distribution. (d) When we are dealing with data at the ordinal level. D refers to the difference between subjects ranks on the two variables. Ans: The format of a research report is given below: I. Elaborate the format of a research report touching briefly on the mechanics of writing. we must use a measure of correlation that is designed to handle ordinal data. or the Greek letter rho The formula for the Spearman Correlation Coefficient IS: Where 6 is a constant (it is always used in the formula). it cannot tell us how often” or “how many. 2. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the “why”. without involving any real population. A probability sample is one in which each item has a known probability of being in the sample. In the case of random samples. The Symbol for the Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient is r sub s. but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Body of the Report • Introduction • Theoretical background of the topic • Statement of the problem • Review of literature • The scope of the study • The objectives of the study • Hypothesis to be tested 14 . Thus. The Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient was developed by Spearman to use with this type of data.
Summary report is meant for lay audience i. Reference. It provides a systematic knowledge on problems and issues analyzed. Research report is a narrative and authoritative document on the outcome of a research effort It represents highly specific information for a clearly designated audience. In popular report the reader is less interested in the methodological details. conclusions and recommendation III. Research abstract is a short summary of technical report. The purpose of the research report is to communicate to interested persons the methodology’ and the results of the study in such a manner as to enable them to understand the research process and to determine its validity. methods and techniques used for collecting and analyzing data. It serves as a basic reference material for future use..• Definition of the concepts • Models if any • Design ot the study • Methodology • Method of data collection • Sources of data • Sampling plan • Data collection instruments • Field work • Data processing and analysis plan • Overview of the report • Imitation of the study • Result: finding and discussions • Summary. An interim report in such case can narrate what has been done so far and what was its outcome. It covers all the aspects of the research process. It is written in nontechnical. 15 . In a technical report a comprehensive full report of the research process and its outcome. It is prepared by a doctoral student on the eve of submitting his thesis. Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. simple language with pictorial charts it just contains objectives. findings and conclusions and recommendations. findings and its implications. but more interested in the findings of the study. 3. A research article must be clearly written in concise and unambiguous language. It is a means for judging the quality of research project. It presents a summary of the findings of that part of analysis which has been completed. Research article is designed for publication in a professional journal. It is a means for evaluating researcher’s competency. It is a short report of two to three pages. Discuss the importance of case study method. the general pubic.e. vIawria1 • Bibliography • Appendix • Copies of data collection instruments • Technical details on sampling plan • Complex tables • Glossary of new terms used. It serves as a means for presenting the problem studied.
and problems. Helen Simons. This introduction to case study research draws upon their work and proposes su’ steps that should be used: • Determine and define the research questions • Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques • Prepare to collect the data • Collect data in the field • Evaluate and analyze the data • Prepare the report Step 1. 1984. providing wide ranging possibilities for questions and adding complexity to the case study. The literature review.asis for the application of ideas and extension of methods. Some dismiss case study research as useful only as an exploratory tool. Reports on case studies from many disciplines arc widely available in the literature. Yin defines the case study research method as an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context. and early determination of the potential audience for the final report guide how the study will be designed. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques 16 . social. Researcher Robert K. conducted. Researchers have used the case study research method for many years across a variety of disciplines. and in which multiple sources of evidence arc used (Yin. Critics of the case study method believe that the study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability or generality of findings. and personal issues. issues. non-profit organizations. a person. The research object in a case study is often a program. Determine and Define the Research Questions The first step in case study research is to establish a firm research focus to which the researcher can refer over the course of study of a complex phenomenon or object The researcher establishes the focus of the study by forming questions about the situation or problem to he studied and determining a purpose for the study. in particular. historical. Yet researchers continue to use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and crafted studies of real-life situations.Ans: Case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. Stake. This paper explains how to use the case study method and then applies the method to an example case study project designed to examine how one set of users. definition of the purpose of the case study. or a group of people. Careful definition of the questions at the start pinpoints where to look for evidence and helps determine the methods of analysis to be used in the study. The study examines the issue of whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. This review establishes what research has been previously conducted and leads to refined1 insightful questions about the problem.” The questions are targeted to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-Literature review. and Robert K Yin have written about case study research and suggested techniques for organizing and conducting the research successfully. Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. Each object is likely to he intricately connected to political. p. and publicly reported. Social scientists. an entity. The researcher investigates the object of the case study in depth using a variety of data gathering methods to produce evidence that leads to understanding of the case and answers the research questions. when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident. Step 2. 23). make use of an electronic community network. Others feel that the intense exposure to study of the case biases the findings. have made wide usc of this qualitative research method to examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the l. Case study research generally answers one or more questions which begin with “how” or “why.
in formers that can be referenced and sorted so that converging lines of inquiry and patterns can be uncovered. identify key people. or other parameters. documentation review. Researchers carefully observe the object of the case study and identify causal factors associated with the observed phenomenon. Tools to collect data can include surveys. guidelines for collection of documents. establish clear protocols and procedures in advance of investigator field work. but a case study can include more than one unit of embedded analysis. and teaches investigators how to properly apply the techniques being used in the study. Researchers prepare databases to assist with categorizing. For example. Data gathered is normally largely qualitative. Exemplary case studies carefully select cases and carefully examine the choices available from among many research tools available in order to increase the validity of the study. Each case conclusions can then he used as information contributing to the whole study. Investigators need to be good listeners who can hear exactly the words being used by those interviewed. The program also trains investigators to understand how the gathering of data using multiple techniques strengthens the study by providing opportunities for triangulation during the analysis phase of the study. but each case remains a single case. Qualifications for investigators also include being able to ask good questions and interpret answers. A useful step in the selection process is to repeatedly refer back to the purpose of the study in order to focus attention on where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer die research questions posed. This type of case study involves two levels of analysis and increases the complexity and amount of data to be gathered and analyzed. a case study may involve study of a single industry and a firm participating in that industry. observation. Investigators need to understand the purpose of the study and grasp the issues and must be open to contrary finding Investigators must also be aware that they are going into the world of real human being who may be threatened or unsure of what the case study will bring. and guidelines for field procedures to be used.During the design phase of case study research. sorting. Careful discrimination at the point of selection also helps erect boundaries around the case. terminology. The investigator training program covers the basic concepts of the study. the researcher determines what approaches to use in selecting single or multiple real1ife cases to examine in depth and which instruments and data gathering approaches to use. Renegotiation of arrangements with the objects of the study or addition of questions to interviews may be necessary as the study 17 . A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and techniques in the data gathering process. Exemplary case studies prepare good training programs for investigators. Selecting multiple or single cases is a key element. of data in a documented and systematic fashion. and actively seek opportunities to revisit and revise the research design in order to address and add to the original set of research questions. The researcher must determine whether to study cases which are unique in some way or cases which are considered typical and may also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions. After investigators are trained. and even the collection of physical artefacts. V/hen using multiple cases. Collect Data in the Field The researcher must collect and store multiple sources of evidence comprehensively and systematically. and methods. The researcher determines in advance what evidence to gather and what analysis techniques to use with the data to answer die research questions. Good investigators review documents looking for facts. Researchers need to anticipate key problems and evenrs. storing. including time deadlines. and conduct a pilot study in advance of moving into the field in order to remove obvious barriers and problems. Investigators need to be flexible in real-life situations and not feel threatened by unexpected change. processes. each case is treated as a single case. missed appointments. hut also read between the lines and pursue collaborative evidence elsewhere when that seems appropriate. interviews. The program covers protocols for case study research. a variety of size parameters. prepare letters of introduction1 establish rules for confidentiality. and retrieving data for analysis. formats for narrative reporting and field notes. but it may also be quantitative. or lack of office space. 4. the final advance preparation step is to select a pilot site and conduct a pilot test using each data gathering method so that problematic areas can be uncovered and corrected.
but the researcher documents. When the multiple observations converge. Field notes should be kept separate from the data being collected and stored for analysis. provides researchers with opportunities to triangulate data in order to strengthen the research findings and conclusions. The researcher may enter some data into a database and physically store other data. creating flow charts or other displays. keeps investigators from reaching premature conclusions by requiring that investigators look at the data in many different ways. Researchers categorize. and conduct cross-checks of facts and discrepancies in accounts. they are documented systematically. The case study method. deeper probing of the differences is necessary to identify the cause or source of conflict In all cases. the cross-case search tot patterns. stories. and giving special attention to conflicting propositions. Case study research is flexible. 18 . with its use of multiple data collection methods and analysis techniques. tabulate. pose questions. Case studies present data in very publicly accessible ways and may lead the reader to apply the experience in his or her own real-life situation. Researchers use the quantitative data that has been collected to corroborate and support the qualitative data which is most useful for understanding the rationale or theory underlying relationships. The goal of die written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys a vicarious experience to the reader. the researcher treats the evidence fairly to produce analytic conclusions answering the original ‘how” and “why” research questions. Cross-case analysis divides the data by type across all cases investigated. allowing the reader to question and examine the study and reach an understanding independent of the researcher. One researcher then examines the data of that type thoroughly. and illustrations which can be used in later reports. the researcher remains open to new opportunities and insights. ‘When a pattern from one data type is corroborated by the evidence from another. repeat interviews may he necessary to gather additional data to verify key observations or check a fact Specific techniques include placing information into arrays. Researchers pay particular attention to displaying sufficient evidence to gain the readers confidence that all avenues have been explored. clearly communicating die boundaries of the case. and tabulating frequency of events. Prepare the report Exemplary case studies report the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into one that can be understood. Step 6. on the other hand cause the researcher to use more deeply Another technique. or give an early signal that a pattern is emerging. hut when changes are made. They may warn of impending bias because of the detailed exposure of the client to special attention. They assist in determining whether or not die inquiry needs to be reformulated or redefined based on what is being observed. Exemplary case studies will deliberately sort the data in many different ways to expose or create new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to disconfirm the analysis. Field notes record feelings and intuitive hunches.progresses. short. confidence in the findings increases. Conflicting perceptions. The tactics used in analysis force researchers to move beyond initial impressions to improve the likelihood of accurate and reliable findings. and recombine data to address the initial propositions or purpose of the study. Another technique is to use multiple investigators to gain the advantage provided when a variety of perspectives and insights examine the data and the patterns. Maintaining the relationship between the issue and the evidence is mandatory. and cross-references all evidence so that it can be efficiently recalled for sorting and examination over the course of the study. creating matrices of categories. classifies. Exemplary case studies use field notes and databases to categorize and reference data so that it is readily available for subsequent reinterpretation. ‘When evidence conflicts. the finding is stronger. and document the work in progress. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data The researcher examines raw data using many interpretations in order to find linkages between the research object and the outcomes with reference to the original research questions. Focused. Throughout the evaluation and analysis process. they record testimonies.
.and so on. It should be placed above the body of the table. agriculture. frequency distribution and class intervals determination Ans: . Based on the comments. It should be clear and conscious. The tile should represent a succinct description of the contents of the table. 2.3 . Principles of Table Construction There are certain generally accepted principles of rules relating to construction of tables. wherever applicable. Every table should have a title. The captions (or column headings) should be clear and brief. Give the importance of frequency tables and discuss the principles of table construction. They give a visual Picture of relationships between variables and categories. The researcher uses representative audience groups to review and comment on the draft document. Tables in reports of government on population. they facilitate summation of item and the detection of errors and omissions and provide a basis for computations.. It is important to make a distinction between the general purpose tables and specific tables. 2. 4.2.Frequency tables provide a ‘4shorthanj” summary o data. The table numbers should run in Consecutive serial order. are of general purpose type. They represent extensive repositories and statistical information. 1. The importance of presenting statistical data in tabular form needs no emphasis. Alternatively tables in chapter 1 be numbered as 1. The general purpose tables arc primary or reference tables designed to include large amount of source data in convenient and accessible form. the researcher rewrites and makes revisions. 1. Special purpose tables are found in monographs. 3. research reports and articles and reused as instruments of analysis. 19 . They are: 1.1. Body-head: Headings of all columns or main captions and their sub-captions. 2. • Source. industries etc. The number can be centered above the tide. Some researchers report the case study as a story. Tables facilitate comprehending masses of data at a glance.2. Some case study researchers suggest that the document review audience include a journalist and some suggest that the documents should be reviewed by the participants in the study. During the report preparation process. Components of a Table The major components of a table are: A Heading: (a) Table Number (b) Tide of the Table (c) Designation of units B Body 1. in chapter 2 as 2. wherever applicable.. The special purpose tables are analytical or derivate ones that demonstrate significant relationships in the data or the results of statistical analysis. In research.1. we are primarily concerned with special purpose. Field/body: The cells in rows and columns.. 2. C Notations: • Footnotes. Sub-head. researchers critically examine the document looking for ways the report is incomplete. Heading of all rows or blocks of stub items 1. A number facilitating easy reference should identify every table.Techniques for composing the report can include handling each case as a separate chapter or treating the case as a chronological recounting. they conserve space and reduce explanations and descriptions to a minimum. vital statistics.
Columns and rows that are to be compared with one another should be brought closed together. Numerical categories are usually arranged in descending order of magnitude. 16. Totals of rows should be placed at the extreme right column and totals of columns at the bottom. A discrete variable can have a series of specified values with no possibility of values between these points. the Continuous variables being stated in some discrete unit size according to the needs of a particular situation. Examples of continuous variable are age. A distinction is usually made between continuous and discrete variables. 17. The arrangement of the categories in a table may he chronological. Tables should not exceed the page size by photo stating. with the top facing the left margin or binding of the script. Class Intervals: Ordinarily. it is necessary to determine the number of class intervals to be used and the size of the class intervals. geographical. accurate and simple as possible. Decimal points and “plus” or “minus” signs should be in perfect alignment. 13. Miscellaneous and exceptions items are generally placed in the last row of the table. weight. 5. business. In constructing this table. A continuous variable has an unlimited number of possible values between the lowest and highest with no gaps or breaks. In order to emphasize the relative significance of certain categories. 9. different kinds of type. rather than by such expressions as “the table above” or the following table”. This means that a table’s length is more than its width. A more appropriate procedure is to place special purpose tables in the text and primary tables. temperature etc. Depending on the nature of the data and the number of arises being studied. The table should be made as logical. in an appendix. This practice has the disadvantages of inconveniencing the reader who wants to study the tabulated data as the text is read. Where tables should be placed in research report or thesis? Some writers place both special purpose and general purpose tables in an appendix and refer to them in the text by numbers. Frequency Distribution and Class Interval Variables that are classified according to magnitude or size are often arranged in the form of a frequency table. 1200cc) In practice. 12. Examples of discrete variables are gender of persons (male/female) occupation (salaried. 10. alphabetical or according to magnitude. Lines are always drawn at the top and bottom of the table and below the captions. Any explanatory footnotes concerning the table itself are placed directly beneath the table and in order to obviate any possible confusion with the textual footnotes such reference symbols as the asterisk (*) DAGGER (+) and the like may be used. clear. au variables arc treated as discrete units. 15. For example. The columns may be numbered to facilitate reference.4. Each value of a discrete variable is distinct and separate. 20 . Text references should identify tables by number. Tables those are too wide for the page may be turned sidewise. The units of measurement under each heading must always be indicated. length is described in discrete units of millimeters or a tenth of an inch. After noting the highest and lower values and the feature of the data. 1000cc. All column figures should be properly aligned. 6. 8. 14. if needed at all. If the data in a series of tables have been obtained from different sources it 15 ordinarily advisable to indicate the specific sources in a place just below the table. spacing and identifications can be used. 11. 7. Usually lines separate columns from one another. Usually the larger number of items is listed vertically. the number of class intervals may not be less than 5 not more than 15. Abbreviations should be avoided whenever possible and ditto marks should not be used in a table. the number of intervals can be easily determined. profession) car size (8OOcc.
025 is in each tail of the distribution of your test statistic. YOU can select one of three alternative hypotheses. and Type II (n): fail to reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false In systems theory an additional type III error is often defined: Type III (8): asking the wrong question and using the wrong null hypothesis. If your test statistic is symmetrically distributed. Write short notes on the following: (a) Type I error and type II error. the pvalue presented is (almost always) for a two-tailed test But how do you choose which test? Is the p-value appropriate for your test? And. For example. If you are using a significance level of 0.5 and the midpoint of class interval 1-25 would be 13. Jerzy Neyman (18941981) and Egon Pearson (18951980). For example. regardless of the direction of the relationship you hypothesize. a regression or some other kind of test. (b) One tailed and two tailed test (c) Selecting the significance level Ans: (a) In statistics. This means that . if it is not. the midpoint of an interval 1-20 is 10. namely: Type I (z): reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true. you are testing for the possili1iry of the relationship in both directions. ‘When using a two-tailed test. remarking that “in testing hypotheses two considerations must be kept in view. YOU are given a p-value somewhere in die ouut. the intervals should represent common and convenient numerical divisions such as 5 or 10. the terms type I error (also.05. discussed the problems associated with “deciding whether or not a particular sample may be judged as likely to have been randomly drawn from a certain population” (1928/1967. it is desirable to have class intervals of uniform size. both eminent statisticians. an ANOVA. rather than odd division such as 3 to 7. a two-tailed test allots half of your alpha to testing the statistical significance in one direction and half of your alpha to testing statistical significance in the other direction. the use of intervals of 1-20. Two of these correspond to one-tailed tests and one corresponds to a two-tailed test However. it is routine work to count the number of cases that fall in each interval. how can you calculate the correct p-value for your test given the p-value in your output? (1. Class intervals must be clearly designated in a frequency table in such a way as to obviate any possibility of misinterpretation of confusion. error. we may wish to compare the mean of a sample to a given value x using a test. 5. they elaborated on these two sources of error. Every class interval has a mid point For example. In 1928. (2) the test must be so devised that it will reject the hypothesis tested when it is likely to be false. 20-50. 21-50. miss rate or a false negative) are used to describe possible errors made in a statistical decision process. The intervals should neither be too small nor too large. and identified “o sources of error”. to present the age group of a population. A two-tailed test will test both it the 21 . This may be presented as 1-20. false alarm rate (FAR) or false positive) and type IL error (i error. Once class intervals are determined. (1) we must be able to reduce the chance of rejecting a true hypothesis to as low a value as desired. 1). In 1930. p. Our null hypothesis is that the mean is equal to x.) What is a two-tailed test? First let’s start with the meaning of a two-tailed test.” ‘When you conduct a test of statistical significance. ‘Whenever possible. and 50 and above would be confusing. and above 50. whether it is from a correlation.For many types of data.
Karl Pearson’s Co-Efficient of Correlation is denoted by symbol r. let’s discuss the meaning of a one-tailed test If you are using a significance level of .05. means). in practice. When using a one. Our null hypothesis is that the mean is equal to x. The one-tailed test provides more power to detect an effect in one direction by not testing the effect in the other direction. What is a one-tailed test? Next. • ‘Whether the hypothesis is directional or non — directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between.5% or bottom 2. A one-tailed test will test either if the mean is significantly greater than x or if the mean is significantly less than x. This means that . Karl Pearson developed the correlation from the covariance between two sets of variables. • The variability of measurements within samples. • The size of the sample. a one-tailed test allots all of your alpha to testing the statistical significance in the one direction of interest. Explain Karl Pearson Co-efficient of correlation. but not both. the mean is significantly greater than or less than x if the test statistic is in the top 5% of us probability distribution or bottom 5% of its probability distribution. Let’s return to our example comparing the mean of a sample to a given value x using a t-test.05 is in one tail of the distribution of your test statistic. Then.05. either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. 6. The mean is considered significantly different from x if the test statistic is in the top 2. Generally. The formula for obtaining Karl Pearson’s Co-Efficient of Correlation Is: 22 . say. In brief. resulting in a p-value less than 0. depending on the chosen tail.tailed test.5% of its probability distribution. Calculate Karl Pearson coefficient for the following data: X(heigh 174 175 176 177 178 182 183 186 189 193 tcm) Y(weigh 61 65 67 68 72 74 80 87 92 95 tkg) Ans: Karl Pearson’s Co-Efficient of Correlation: Karl Pearson’s Co-Efficient of Correlation is a mathematical method for measuring correlation. resulting in a p-value less than 0. 05. you are testing for the possibility of the relationship in one direction and completely disregarding the possibility of a relationship in the other direction.mean is significantly greater than x and if the mean significantly less than x. (c) Selecting a Significant Level: The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. The factors that affect the level of significance are: • The magnitude of the difference between sample . the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry.
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