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# A single effect evaporator is used to concentrate 7kg/s of a solution from 10

## to 50% solids. Steam is available at 205kN/m2 and evaporation takes place at

13.5kN/m2. If the overall coefficient of heat transfer is 3kW/m2K, estimate
the heating surface required an the amount of steam used if the feed to the
evaporator is at 294K and the condensate leaves the heating space at 352.7K.
the specific heats of 10 and 50% solutions are 3.76 and 3.14kJ/kgK,
respectively

## ANS 6.47 kg/s , 68.8m2

If crushing rolls, 1m diameter are set so that the crushing surfaces are
12.5mm apart and the angle of nip is 31O, what is the maximum size of particle
which should be fed to the rolls? If the actual capacity of the machine is
12% of the theoretical, calculate the throughput in kg/s when running at 2Hz
if the working face of the rolls is 0.4m long and the bulk density of the
feed is 2500kg/m3

## Energy is added to a piston-cylinder arrangement, and the piston is withdrawn

in such a way that the quantity PV remains constant. The initial pressure and
volume are 200kPa and 2m3, respectively. If the final pressure is 100kPa,
calculate the work done by the gas on the piston.

Ans. W= 277kJ

A boiler is fired with a coal containing 76%C and 8.1% ash, burnt under
conditions such that elimination of combustible matter from the refuse is
complete. The air enters the furnace at 90F and s 80% saturated with water
vapour at this temp. the S and N is negligible. The flue gases go to the
stack at 1atm and 640F. the ave flue gas analysis shows 12.6%CO2, 6.2% O2,
and 1%CO. Calc the ff

## % net hydrogen in the coal

% xs air
Ultimate analysis of coal
Ft3 of wet flue gas per pound coal fired
Ft3 of wet air per pound coal fired

## Hot oil is to be cooled in a double-tube counter-flow heat exchanger. The

copper inner tubes have a diameter of 2cm and negligible thickness. The inner
diameter of the outer tube (the shell) is 3cm. water flows through the tube
at a rate of 0.5kg/s, and the oil through the shell at a rate of 0.8kg/s.
taking the average temperatures of the water and the oil to be 45C and 80C,
respectively, determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of this heat
exchanger.
Ans. U= 74.5 W/m2 C

A pump draws a solution of specific gravity 1.84 from a storage tank through
a 3in.(75mm) schedule 40 steel pipe. The efficiency of the pump is 60%. The
velocity in the suction line is 3ft/s(0.91m/s). the pump discharges through a
2in (50mm) schedule 40 pipe to an overhead tank. The end of the discharge
pipe is 50ft (15.2m) above the level of the solution in the feed tank.
Friction losses in the entire piping system are 10ft-lbf/lbm (29.9J/kg). what
pressure must the pump develop? What is the power delivered to the fluid by
the pump?

## Ans. Press= 330kN/m2, Power= 2.42kW

Steam and water flow through a 75mm i.d pipe at flworates 0.05 and 1.5kg/s
respectively. If the mean temperature and pressure are 330K and 120kN/m2,
what is the pressure drop per unit length of pipe assuming adiabatic
conditions?

## Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is held at a constant temperature

of 293K. the total pressure of air is 1.01325x10^5 Pa and the temperature is
293K. water evaporates and diffuses through the air in the tube and the
diffusion path is 0.1524m long. Calculate the rate of evaporation at steady
state. The diffusivity of water vapour at 293K and 1atm pressure in 0.25x10^-
4 m2/s. assume that the system is isothermal.

## At present we have 90% conversion of a liquid feed ( n=1, CAO= 10mol/liter)

to our plug flow reactor with recycle of product (R=2). If we shut off the
recycle stream, by how much will this lower the processing rate of our feed
to the same 90% conversion?

## Ans. vo2= 1.8vo1

The frictionless piston has a mass of 16kg. heat is added until the
temperature reaches 400C. if the initial quality is 20%, find a.) the initial
pressure, b.) the mass of water c.) the quality when the piston hits the
stops, d.) the final pressure, e.) the work done on the piston
Ans. a.) P=120kPa b.) 0.001373kg c.) 32% d.) 0.686MPa e.) 28.3J

A wet solid is dried from 40 to 8% moisture in 20ks. If the critical and the
equilibrium moisture contents are 15 and 4% respectively, how long will it
take to dry the solid to 5% moisture under the same conditions? All moisture
contents are on a dry basis

## 0.6m3/s of gas is to be dried from a dew point of 294K to a dew point of

277.5K. how much water must be removed and what will be the volume of the gas
after drying?

## Vapour pressure of water at 294K= 2.5kN/m2,Vapour pressure of water at

277.5K= 0.85kN/m2

Ans. Water removed= 0.00708 kg/s, volume of gas= 0.591 m3/s at STP

A cyclone separator, 0.3m in diameter and 1.2m long, has a circular inlet
75mm in diameter and an outlet of the same size. If the gas enters at a
velocity of 1.5m/s, at what particle size will the theoretical cut occur?
The viscosity of air is 0.018mNs/m2, the density of air is 1.3kg/m3 and the
density of the particles is 2700kg/m3.

Ans. D= 2.17μm

## A mixture of water and ethyl alcohol containing 0.16mol fraction alcohol is

continuously distilled in a plate fractionating column to give a product
containing 0.77 mol fract ion alcohol and waste of 0.02 mol fraction
alcohol. It is proposed to withdraw 25% of the alcohol in the entering stream
as side stream containing 0.5 mol fraction of alcohol.

## Ammonia gas is diffusing at a constant rate through a layer of stagnant air

1mm thick. Conditions are such that the gas contains 50% by volume ammonia at
one boundary of the stagnant layer. The ammonia diffusing to the other
boundary is quickly absorbed and the concentration is negligible at that
plane. The temperature is 295K and the pressure atmospheric, and under these
conditions the diffusivity of ammonia in air is 1.8x10^-5 m2/s. Estimate the
rate of diffusion of ammonia throughthe layer.

## The heat required when 1kmol of MgSO4-7H2O is dissolved isothermally at 291K

in a large mass of water is 13.3MJ. What is the heat of crystallization per
unit mass of the salt?

Ans. 53.9kJ/kg

## A viscous solution containing particles with a density ρ= 1461 kg/m3 is to be

clarified by centrifugation. The solution density ρ= 801kg/m3, and its
viscosity is 100cp. The centrifuge has a bowl with r2= 0.02225m, r1=
0.00716m, and height = 0.1970m. Calculate the critical particle diameter of
the largest particles in the exit stream if N= 23000 rpm and the flowrate is
0.002832 m3/h. Ans. Dpc=0.746μm

Steam expands isentropically through a turbine from 6MPa and 600C to 10kPa.
Calculate the power output if the mass flux is 2kg/s

Ans. w= 2774kW

Estimate the heat loss per square meter of surface through a brick wall 0.5m
thick when the inner surface is at 400K and the outside surface is at 300K.
the thermal conductivity of the brick may be taken as 0.7W/mK.

## Ans. 140 W/m2

A gas analyzes 60% methane and 40% ethylene by volume. It is desired to store
12.3 kg of this gas mixture in a cylinder having a capacity of 5.14 x 10 -2 m3
at a maximum temperature of 45°C. Calculate the pressure inside the cylinder
by
(a) assuming that the mixture obeys the ideal gas laws;
(b) using the compressibility factor determined by the pseudo critical point
method.

## Ans. a.) P= 30400kPa b.) P= 26000kPa

A 25mm diameter copper sphere and a 25mm copper cube are both heated in a
furnace to 650C(923K). they are then annealed in air at 95C( 368K). if the
external heat transfer coefficient h=75W/m2K in both cases, what is the
temperature of the sphere and of the cube at the end of 5mins?

Ans. T= 208 C

## A 5lb block of copper at 200F is submerged in 10lbm of water at 50F, and

after a period of time, equilibrium is established. If the container is
insulated, calculate the entropy change of the universe.

Ans. s= 0.0167Btu/R

A contact sulfuric acid plant produces 98.0 % sulfuric acid, by absorbing SO3
into a 97.3
% sulfuric acid solution. A gas containing 8.00 % SO3 (remainder inerts)
enters the SO3
absorption tower at the rate of 28 lb mol per hour. 98.5 % of the SO3 is
absorbed in this tower.
97.3 % sulfuric acid is introduced into the top of the tower and 95.9 %
sulfuric acid from another
part of the process is used as make - up acid. The flow sheet is given in the
figure with all of the
known data on it.
Calculate the
a. Tons/day of 95.9 % H2SO4 make-up acid solution required.
b. Tons/day of 97.3 % H2SO4 solution introduced into the top of the tower.
c. Tons/day of 98 % H2SO4 solution produced.

## Ans. a.) 2060lb b.) 6470lb c.) 2240lb

Ammonia is absorbed in water from a mixture with air using a column operating
at 1bar and 295K. The resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying
entirely within the gas phase. At a point in the column, the partial pressure
of the ammonia is 7kN/m2. The back pressure at the water interface is
negligible and the resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying in a
stationary gas film 1mm thick. If the diffusivity of ammonia in air is
2.36x10^-5 m2/s, what is the transfer rate per unit area at that point in the
column? How would the rate of transfer be affected if the ammonia air mixture
were compressed to double the pressure?

## One kg of steam with a quality of 20% is heated at a constant pressure of

200kPa until the temperature reaches 400C. calculate work done by the steam.

Ans.W= 274.2kJ

## Two hundred cubic centimeters of an acetone-water mixture that contains 10%wt

acetone is mixed with 400cm3 of chloroform at 25C, and the phases are then
allowed to settle. What percentage of the acetone is transferred from the
water to the chloroform?

Ans. %= 86.1%

## Oil is to be extracted from meal by means of benzene using a continuous

counter current extractor. The unit is to treat 1000kg of meal(based on
completely exhausted solid) per hour. The untreated meal contains 400kg of
oil and 25kg benzene. The fresh solvent mixture contains 10kg of oil and
655kg of benzene. The exhausted solids are to contain 60kg of unextracted
oil. Experiements carried out under conditions identical with those of the
projected battery show in table. Find (a) he concentration of the strong
solution, or extract; (b) the concentration of the solution adhering to the
extracted solids;(c) the mass of solution leaving with the extracted meal;(d)
the mass of extract;(e) the number of stages required. All quantities are
given on an hourly basis.

## Concentration,kg oil/kg solution solution retained, kg/kg solid

0 0.5
0.1 0.505
0.2 0.515
0.3 0.53
0.4 0.55
0.5 0.571
0.6 0.595
0.7 0.620

Ans. a. ya=0.6, b. xb= 0.118, c. Lb= 507kg/h, d. Va= 583 kg/h, e. N=4 stages

## It is desired to crush 10ton/hr of iron hematite. The size of the feed is

such that 80% passes a 3 in. (76.2mm) screen and 80% of the product is to
pass a 1/8in. (3.175mm) screen. Calculate the gross power required.
Ans. P= 24.1 hp ( 17.96kW)

## Air is contained in an insulated, rigid volume at 20C and 200kPa. A paddle

wheel, inserted in the volume, does 720kJ of work on the air. If the volume
is 2m3, calculate the entropy increase assuming constant specific heats.

Ans. S= 1.851kJ/K

A power utility company desired to use the hot groundwater from a hot spring
to power a heat engine. If the groundwater is at 95C, estimate the maximum
power output if a mass flux of 0.2kg/s is possible. The atmosphere is at 20C.

Ans. W= 12.8kW

## A solution of 500kg of Na2SO4 in 2500 kg H2O is cooled from 333K to 283K in

an agitated mild steel vessel of mass 750kg. At 283K, the solubility of the
anhydrous salt is 8.9kg/100kg H2O water and the stable crystalline phase is
Na2SO4-10H2O. At 291K, the heat of solution is -78.5 MJ/kmol and the heat
capacities of the solution and mil steel are 3.6 and 0.5kJ/kg K respectively.
If, during cooling, 2% of the water initially present is lost by evaporation,
estimate the heat which must be removed.

Ans. q= 615,000kJ

The vapour pressures of n-heptane and toluene at 373K are 106 and 73.7kN/m2
respectively. What are the mole fractions of n-heptane in the vapour and in
the liquid phase at 373K if the total pressure is 101.3kN/m2?

## A bed consists of uniform spherical particles of diameter 3mm and density

4200kg/m3. What will be the minimum fluidising velocity in a liquid of
viscosity 3mNs/m2 and density 1100kg/m3?

Ans. v= 36.4mm/s

## An air tank with a volume of 20m3 is pressurized to 10MPa. The tank

eventually reaches room temperature of 25C. if the air is allowed to escape
with no heat transfer until P= 200kPa, determine the mass of air remaining in
the tank and the final temperature of air in the tank.

## A double pipe (shell-and tube) heat exchanger is constructed of a stainless

steel (k=15.1W/mC) inner tube diameter Di= 1.5cm and outer diameter Do= 1.9m
and an outer shell of inner diameter 3.2cm. the convection heat transfer
coefficient is given to be hi= 800W/m2C on the inner surface of the tube and
ho= 1200W/m2C on the outer surface. For a fouling factor of Rf,i= 0.0004
m2C/W on the tube side and Rf,o= 0.0001 m2C/W on the shell side, determine
a.) the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger per unit length and b.) the
overall heat transfer coefficients, Ui and Uo based on the inner and outer
surface areas of the tube, respectively.
Ans. Uo= 315, Ui=399

Calculate the relative volatility for benzene-toluene system at 85C and 105C.

## Glaubers salt, Na2SO4-10H2O, is to be produced in a Swenson-Walker

crystallizer by cooling to 290K a solution of anhydrous Na2SO4 which
saturates between 300K and 290K. If the cooling water enters and leaves the
unit at 280K an 290K, and evaporation is negligible, how many sections of
crystallizer, each 3m long, will be required to process 0.25kg/s of the
product? The solubilities of anhydrous Na2SO4 water are 40 and 14kg/100kg H2O
at 300K and 290K, the mean heat capacity of the liquor is 3.8kJ/kgK and the
heat of crystallization is 230kJ/kg. For the crystallizer, the available heat
transfer area is 3m2/m length, the overall coefficient of the transfer is
0.15kW/m2K.

## Ans. 6 sections of every 3m length

You are asked to measure the rate at which waste gases are being discharged
from a stack. The gases entering contain 2.1 % carbon dioxide. Pure carbon
dioxide is introduced into the bottom of the stack at a measured rate of 4.0
lb per minute. You measure the discharge of gases leaving the stack, and find
the concentration of carbon dioxide is 3.2 %. Calculate the rate of flow, in
lb mol/minute, of the entering waste gases.

## In the extraction acid from an aqueous solution with benzene in a packed

column of height 1.4m and of cross-sectional area 0.0045m2, the
concentrations measured at the inlet and outlet of the column are shown:

## Acid concentration in inlet water phase: Cw2= 0.690kmol/m3

Acid concentration in outlet water phase: Cw1= 0.685kmol/m3
Flowrate of benzene phase: 5.7cm3/s
Inlet benzene phase concentration: Cb1= 0.004kmol/m3
Outlet benzene phase concentration: Cb2= 0.0115kmol/m3
Equilibrium relationship: Cb*/Cw* = 0.0247

## The elementary liquid-phase reaction A+2B= R (k1 forward,k2 backward) with

the rate equation

## -rA= - 0.5rB= (12.5 liter2/mol2-min)CACB2-1.5min-1CR [mol/liter-min]

Is to take place in a 6-liter steady state mixed flow reactor. Two feed
streams, one containing 2.8mol A/liter and the other containing 1.6mol
B/liter, are to be introduced at equal volumetric flow rates into the
reactor, and 75% conversion of limiting component is desired. What should be
the flow rate of each stream? Assume a constant density throughout

## Ans. vo= 2 L/min (1L/ min each)

What will be the concentration of oxygen dissolved in water at 298K when the
solution is in equilibrium with air at 1atm total pressure?

## 1 Mg (1 ton) of dry mass of a non-porous solid is dried under constant drying

conditions with air at a velocity of 0.75m/s. the area of surface drying is
55m2. If the initial rate of drying is 0.3g/m2 s, how long will it take to
dry the material from 0.15 to 0.025 kg water/kg dry solid? The critical
moisture content of the material may be taken as 0.125kg water/kg dry solid.
If the air velocity were increased to 4m/s, what would be the anticipated
saving time if surface-evaporation controlled?

## Water is contained in a rigid vessel of 5m3 at a quality of 0.8 and a

pressure of 2MPa. If the pressure is educed to 400kPa by cooling the vessel,
find the final mass of vapour and mass of liquid.

## What is the yield of sodium acetate crystals obtainable from a vacuum

crystallizer operating at 1.33 kN/m2 when it is supplied with 0.56kg/s of
a40% aqueous solution of the salt at 353K? The boiling point elevation of the
solution is 11.5K

Data:

## Solubility of sodium acetate at 290.7K = 0.539kg/kg H2O

Ans. Y= 0.183kg/s

## A frictionless piston is used to provide a constant pressure of 400kPa in a

cylinder containing steam originally at 200C with a volume of 2m3. Calculate
the final temperature if 3500J of heat is added.

## A carnot engine delivers 100kW of power by operating between temperature

reservoirs at 100C and 1000C. calculate the entropy change of each reservoirs
and the net entropy change of the two reservoirs after 20mins of operation.

## Ans. s= -0.1 kJ/K

A flat-blade turbine agitator with disk having six blades is installed in a
tank. The tank diameter is 1.83m, the turbine diameter is 0.61m, Dt= H, and
the width is 0.122m. The tank contains four baffles each having a width of
0.15m. The turbine is operated at 90rpm and the liquid in the tank has a
viscosity of 10cp and a density of 929 kg/m.

## a.) Calculate the required kW of the mixer

b.) For the same conditions, except for the solution having a
viscosity of 100,000 cp, calculate the power required in kW.

## A three-stage evaporator is fed with 1.25kg/s of a liquor which is

concentrated from 10 to 40% solids by mass. The heat transfer coefficients
may be taken as 3.1, 2.5, and 1.7 kW/m2K, respectively, in each effect.
forward feed is used in each case and the values of U are the same for the
two systems. The boiling point in the third effect is 325K and the liquor has
no boiling point rise. Calculate the steam flow at 170kN/m2 and the
temperature distribution in the three effects, if

## a.) The feed is at 294K

b.) The feed is at 355K

## Ans. A.S= 0.472 kg/s B. S= 0.331 kg/s

A vessel divided into two parts by a partition, contains 4mol nitrogen gas at
75C and 30bar on one side and 2.5mol of argon gas at 130C and 20bar on the
other. If the partition is removed and the gases mix adiabatically and
completely, what is the change in entropy? Assume nitrogen to be an ideal gas
with Cv= 5/2R and argon to be an ideal gas with Cv=3/2R

## A reaction is to be carried out in an agitated vessel. Pilot plant

experiments were performed under fully turbulent conditions in a tank 0.6m in
diameter, fitted with baffles and provided with a flat-bladed turbine. It was
found that the satisfactory mixing was obtained at a rotor speed of 4Hz, when
the power consumption was 0.15kW and the Reynolds number 160,00. What should
be the rotor speed in order to retain the same mixing performance if the
linear scale of equipment is increased 6 times? What will be the power
consumption and the Reynolds number?

Ans. N2= 0.66 Hz, P=5.25kW, Re2= 950,000 if n=1, N2= 1.21 Hz, P=32.4kW, Re2=
1,740,00 if n=2/3,

## For producing an oil-water emulsion, two portable three-bladed propeller

mixers are available; a 0.5m diameter impeller rotating at 1 Hz and a 0.35m
impeller rotating at 2Hz. Assuming turbulent conditions prevail, which unit
will have the lower power consumption?
Ans P1/P2= 0.743

In leaching operation, the rate at which solute goes into solution is given
by an equation of the form:

𝑑𝑀
= 𝑘(𝑐𝑠 − 𝑐) 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
𝑑𝑡

## Where M kg is the amount of solute dissolving in t s,k m3/s is a constant and

cs and c are the saturation and bulk concentrations of the solute
respectively in kg/m3. In a pilot test on a vessel 1m3 in volume, 75%
saturation was attained in 10s. If 300 kg of a solid containing 28% by mass
of a water soluble solid is agitated with 100m3 of water, how long will it
take for all solute to dissolve assuming conditions are the same as in the
pilot unit? Water is saturated with the solute at a concentration of 2.5kg/m3

Ans. t= 297s

## Prepared cottonseed containing 35% of extractable oil are fed to a continuous

counter current extractor of the intermittent drainage type using hexane as
the solvent. The extractor consists of ten sections and the section
efficiency is 50%. The entrainment, assumed constant, is 1kg solution/kg
solids. What will be the oil concentration in the outflowing solvent if the
extractable oil content is to be reduced by 0.5% by mass?

Ans. 27.8%

## An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536kg/h of a 20% solution of NaOH in

water entering at 60C to a product of 50% solids. The pressure of the
saturated steam used is 172.4kPa and the pressure in the vapour space of the
evaporator is 11.7kPa. the overall heat transfer coefficient is 1560W/m2K.
calculate the team used, the steam economy and the heating surface area in
m2.

1000rpm.

## a.) Calculate the centrifugal force developed in terms of gravity

forces
b.) Compare this force to that for a bowl with a radius of 0.203m
rotating at the same rpm.

## A feed solution of 2268kg at 327.6K containing 48.2kg MgSO4/100kg total water

is cooled to 293.2K, where MgSO4-7H2O crystals are removed. The solubility of
the salt is 35.5kg/100kg H2O. The average heat capacity of the feed solution
can be assumed as 2.93kJ/kg-K. The heat of solution at 291.2K is -13.31x10^3
kJ/kmol MgSO4-7H2O. Calculate the yield of crystals and determine the heat,
assuming no water is evaporated.
Ans. C= 616.9 kg, S= 1651.1 kg solution, q= -261912kJ

A salt solution weighing 10000kg with 30% Na2CO3 is cooled to 293K. The salt
crystallizes as the decahydrate. What will be the yield of Na2CO3-10H2O
crystals if the solubility is 21.5kg anhydrous Na2CO3/100kg H2O? Do the ff:

## a.) Assume no water is evaporated

b.) Assume that 3% of the total weight of the solution is lost by
evaporation of water in cooling.

## ANS.a.) C= 6370 kg Na2CO2-10H2O, S=3630kg solution, b.) C= 6630 kg Na2CO2-

10H2O, S=3070kg solution

The air in a circular cylinder is heated until the spring is compressed 50mm.
find the work done by the air on the frictionless piston. The spring is
initially unstretched.

## Ans. Wtotal= 66.94J

A mixture of ammonia and air is scrubbed in a plate column with fresh water.
If the ammonia concentration is reduced from 5% to 0.01%, and the water and
air rates are 0.65 and 0.4kg/m2s, how many theoretical plates required? The
equilibrium relationship may be written as Y=X.

Ans. 6 plates

## At 293K, a supersaturated solution of sucrose contains 2.45kg sucrose/kg H2O.

If the equilibrium saturation value is 2.04kg/kg H2O, what is the
supersaturation ratio in terms of kg/kg H2O and kg/kg solution?

## Ans. S= 1.2, S= 1.06

A piston cylinder arrangement contains 2kg steam originally at 200C and 90%
quality. The volume triples while the temperature is held constant. Calculate
the heat that must be transferred and the final pressure.

## A rigid volume contains 6ft3 of steam originally at a pressure and a

temperature of 900F. estimate the final temperature if 800Btu of heat is
Ans. T2= 1512F

## What is the theoretical yield of crystals which may be obtained by cooling a

solution containing 1000kg of sodium sulphate in 5000kg H2O to 283K? The
solubility of sodium sulphate at 283K is 9kg/100kg H2O and the deposited
crystals will consist of the deca-hydrate. It may be assumed that 2% of the
water will be lost by evaporation during cooling.

## Ans. Y= 1432 kg Na2SO4-10H2O

Steam leaves the boiler of a single steam power cycle at 4000kPa and 600C. it
exits the turbine at 20kPa as saturated steam. It then exits the condenser as
saturated water. Determine the thermal efficiency if there is no loss in
pressure through the condenser and the boiler.

## A completely evacuated, insulated, rigid tank with a volume of 300ft3 is

filled with a steam line transporting steam at 800F and 500psia. Determine
a.) the temperature of steam in the tank when its pressure is 500psia and b.)
the mass of the steam that flows into the tank

## An ethanol-water solution in the form of a stagnant film 2mm thick at 293K is

in contact at one surface with an organic solvent in which ethanol is soluble
and water is insoluble. Hence, Nb= 0. At point 1 the concentration of ethanol
is 16.8 wt% and the solution density is ρ1= 972.8kg/m3. At point 2 the
concentration of ethanol is 6.8 wt% and ρ2= 988.1kg/m3. The diffusivity of
ethanol is 0.740 x10^-9 m2/s. Calculate the steady state flux, N.

## In a packed column, operating at approximately atmospheric pressure and 295K,

a 10% ammonia-air mixture is scrubbed with water and the concentration of
ammonia is reduced to 0.1%. IF the whole of the resistance to mass transfer
may be regarded as lying within the laminar film on the gas side of the gas-
liquid interface, derive from first principles an expression for the rate of
absorption at any position in the column. At some intermediate point where
the ammonia concentration in the gas phase has been reduced to 5%, the
partial pressure of ammonia in equilibrium with the aqueous is 66kPa and the
transfer rate is 10^-3 kmol/m2 s. What is the thickness of the hypothetical
gas film if the diffusivity of ammonia in air is o,24cm2/s?

Ans. z= 0.043mm

## A mixture of He and N2 gas is contained in a pipe at 298K and 1atm total

pressure which is constant throughout. At one end of the pipe at point 1 the
partial pressure pa1 of He is 0.6atm and at the other end 0.2m pa2= 0.2atm.
Calculate the flux of He at steady state if D AB of the He-N2 mixture is
0.687x10^-4 m2/s.
ANS. J= 5.63x10^-6 kgmol/ m2 s, J= 5.63x10^-7 gmol/ cm2 s

Air at 1bar and 298.15K is compressed to 5bar and 298.15K by two different
mechanically reversible processes.

## a.) Cooling at constant pressure followed by heating at constant

volume
b.) Heating at constant volume followed by cooling at constant
pressure

Calculate the heat and work requirements and ΔU and ΔH of the air for each
pair. The ff heat capacities for air may be assumed

## Cv= 20.78 J/molK Cp= 29.1

Ans. a.) Q= -1983J, W= 1983J, ΔU=0, ΔH=0 b.) ΔU= ΔH =0, Q= -9915J, W= 9915J

## A simple rectifying column consists of a tube arranged vertically and

supplied at the bottom with mixture of benzene and toluene as vapour. At the
top a condenser returns some of the product as reflux which flows in a thin
film down the inner wall of the tube. The tube is insulated and heat losses
can be neglected. At one point in the column the vapour contains 70% mol
benzene and the adjacent liquid reflux contains 59% mol benzene. The
temperature at this point is 365K. Assuming the diffusional resistance to
vapour transfer to the equivalent to the diffusional resistance of a stagnant
vapour layer 0.2mm thick, calculate the rate of interchange of benzene and
toluene between vapour and liquid. The molar latent heats of the two
materials can be taken as equal. The vapour pressure of toluene at 365K is
54kN/m2 and the diffusivity of the vapors is 0.051cm2/s

## Seven pounds of N2 at 120°F are stored in a cylinder having a volume of 0.75

ft3. Calculate the pressure in atmospheres in the cylinder
(a) assuming N2 to be an ideal gas
(b) assuming the pressure of N2 can be predicted by van der Waal's equation
(c) using the compressibility factor method
(d) using the Redlich-Kwong equation of state.

## Ans. a.) P=141atm(2074psia) b.) 2046psi(139atm) c.) 151atm d.) 144atm

The homogenous gas decomposition of phosphine 4PH3 (g) = P4 (g) + 6H2 proceeds at
649C with the first order rate –rPH3 = (10/hr)CPH3. What size of plug flow
reactor operating at 649C and 460kPa can produce 80% conversion of a feed
consisting of 40mol of pure phosphine per hour?

Ans. V= 148L

## A stream of aqueous monomer A (1mol/liter, 4 liter/min) enters a 2-liter

mixed flow reactor, is radiated therein and polymerization as follows: A = R=
S= T…in the exit stream CA= 0.01 mol/liter, and for a particular reaction
product W, CW= 0.0002mol/liter. Find the rate of reaction of A and the rate
of formation of W.
Ans. ra= 1.98, rw= 0.0004

## A quartz mixrure having the analysis shown. Is screened through a standrad

10-mesh screen. The cumulative analysis of overlow and underflow are given.
Calc the mass ratio of the overflow and underflow to feed and the overall
effectiveness of the screen.

4 4.699 0 0

## Ans. D/F= 0.420, B/F=0.58, Effectiveness= 0.699

A material is crushed in a blake jaw crusher such that the average size of
particle is reduced from 50mm to 10mm, with the composition of energy of
13kW/(kg/s). What will be the consumption of energy needed to crush the same
material of average size 75mm to average size of 25mm:

## a.) Assuming Rittingers Law applies

b.) Assuming Kick’s Law applies

Which of these results would be regarded s being more reliable and why?

## ANS. E= 4.33kJ/kg, E= 8.88kJ/kg, The size range involved by be considered as

that for coarse crushing and, because Kick’s law more closely relates the
energy required to effect elastic deformation before fracture occurs, this
would be taken as given the more reliable result.

## Sand with a mean particle diameter of 0.2mm is to be conveyed in water

flowing at 0.5kg/s in a 25mm internal diameter horizontal pipe 100m long.
Assuming fully suspended flow, what is the maximum amount of sand which may
be transported in this way if the head developed by the pump is limited to
300kN/m2? The terminal falling velocity of the sand particles in water may be
taken as 0.0239m/s.

Ans. G= 0.56kg/s

A gas mixture at 1atm pressure abs containing air and CO2 is contacted in a
single stage mixer continuously with pure water at 293K. the two exit gas and
liquid streams reach equilibrium. The inlet gas flow rate is 100kgmol/hr,
with a mole fraction of CO2 of ya2= 0.2. The liquid flow rate entering is
300kgmol water/hr. Calculate the amounts and composition of the two outlet
phases. Assume that water does not vaporize to the gas phase.
Ans x= 1.41x 10^-4, y= 0.2, L= 300, V=100

An acetone-air mixture containing 0.015 mol fraction of acetone has the mol
fraction reduced to 1% of this value by countercurrent absorption of water in
a packed tower. The gas flowrate is 1kg/m2s of air and the water enters at
1.6kg/m2s. For this system, Henrys law holds an y= 1.75x, where y is the mol
fraction of acetone in the vapour in equilibrium with a mol fraction x in the
liquid. How many overall transfer units are required?

## Estimate the heat transfer coefficient for natural convection from a

horizontal pipe 0.15m diameter, with a surface temperature of 400K to air at
294K.

## An oil containing 2.55 mol% of a hydrocarbon is stripped by running the oil

down a column up which live steam is passed, so that 4kmol of steam are used
100kmol of oil is stripped. Determine the number of theoretical plates
required to reduce the hydrocarbon content to 0.05mol%, assuming that the oil
is non volatile. The vapour-liquid relation of the hydrocarbon in the oil is
given by y= 33x, where y is the mol fraction in the vapour and x the mol
fraction in the liquid. The temperature is maintained constant by internal
heating, so that steam does not condense in the tower

Ans. 8 plates

## A refrigerator is rated at a COP of 4. The refrigerated spaces that it cools

requires a peak cooling rate of 30,000kJ/h .what size electrical motor (rated
in hp) is required for the refrigerator?

## Gypsum (plaster of Paris : CaSO4. 2H2O) is produced by the reaction of

calcium carbonate and sulfuric acid. A certain lime stone analyzes: CaCO3
96.89 %; MgCO3 1.41 %; inerts 1.70 %. For 5 metric tons of limestone reacted
completely, determine:
a. kg of anhydrous gypsum (CaSO4) produced.
b. kg of sulfuric acid solution (98 wt%) required.
c. kg of carbon dioxide produced.

Ans. a.) 6600kg CaSO4 b.) 4920kg H2SO4 solution c.) 2165kg CO2

## A paraffin hydrocarbon of molecular weight 114kg/kmol at 373K, is to be

separated from a mixture with a non-volatile organic compound of molecular
weight 135kg/kmol by stripping with steam. The liquor contains 8% of the
paraffin by mass and this is to be reduced to 0.08% using an upward flow of
steam saturated at 373K. if three times the minimum amount of steam is used,
how many theoretical stages will be required? The vapour pressure of the
paraffin at 373K is 53kN/m2 and the process takes place at atmospheric
pressure.
Ans. 4 plates

## A furnace is constructed with 0.2m of firebrick, 0.1m insulating brick, and

0.2m of building brick. The inside temperature is 1200K and the outside
temperature is 330K. if the thermal conductivities are 1.4, 0.21 and 0.7W/mK,
estimate the heat loss per unit area and the temperature at the junction of
the firebrick and the insulating brick. Firerick-> insulating brick->
ordinary brick

## Ans. Q/A=961 W/m2, T2= 1063K

Predict the Hg, HL, and Kya for absorption of NH3 from water in a dilute
solution in a packed tower with 25.4mm Raschig rings at 303K and 101.32kPa
pressure. The flow rates are Gx= 2.543 kg/m2s and Gy= 0.339 kg/m2s

## Acetone is to be recovered from a 5% acetone-air mixture by scrubbing with

water in a tower using countercurrent flow. The liquid rate is 0.85kg/m2s and
the gas rate is 0.5kg/m2s/

## The overall absorption coefficient KGa may be taken as 1.5x10^-4 kmol/m3s

(kN/m2) and the gas film resistance controls the process.

## What height of tower is required to remove 98% of the acetone? The

equilibrium data:

## Mol fraction acetone in gas 0.0099 0.0196 0.0361 0.04

Mol fraction acetone in liquid 0.0076 0.0156 0.0306
0.0333

Ans. H= 6.27m

## A single effect evaporator is used to concentrate 0.075kg/s of a 10% caustic

soda liquor to 30%. The unit employs forced circulation in which the liquor
is pumped through the vertical tubes of the calandria which are 32mm o.d. by
28mm i.d and 1.2m long. Steam is supplied at 394K, dry and saturated, and the
boiling point rise of the 30% solution is 15degK. If the overall heat
transfer coefficient is 1.75kW/m2K, how many tubes should be used, and what
material of construction would be specified for the evaporator? The latent
heat of vaporization under these conditions is 2270kJ/kg

## A slurry containing 5kg of water/kg of solids is to be thickened to a sludge

containing 1.5kg of water/ kg solids in a continuous operation.
The slurry yielded the following data:
Concentration(kg water/kg solids) 5 4.2 3.7 3.1 2.5
Rate of sedimentation(mm/s) 0.2 0.12 0.094 0.07 0.05
Calculate the minimum area of thickener required to effect the separation of
a flow of 1.33kg/s of solids

Ans. A= 31.2m2
Calculate the Z and V for ethylene at 25C and 12bar by the following
equations

## a.) Truncated virial equation with B= -140cm3/mol, C= 7200cm6/mol

b.) The truncated virial equation with a value of B from generalized
Pitzer correlation
c.) The redlich/kwong
d.) The soave/redlich/kwong
e.) The peng/robinson

Ans. a.) 1919 cm3/mol, Z= 0.929 b.) 1924, 0.932 c) 1916.5, 0.928 d.) 1918,
0.928 e.) 1900.6, 0.92

## A slurry containing 5kg of water/kg of solids is to be thickened to a sludge

containing 1.5kg of water/ kg solids in a continuous operation. Laboratory
tests using 5 diff. concentrations of the slurry yielded the following
results:
Concentration(kg water/kg solids) 5 4.2 3.7 3.1 2.5
Rate of sedimentation(mm/s) 0.17 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.042
Calculate the minimum area of thickener required to effect the separation of
a flow of 0.6kg/s of solids
Ans. A=16.5m2

## Calculate the setting velocity of glass spheres having a diameter of 1.554x10-

4 m in water at 293.2K. the slurry contains 60%wt solids. The density of the

## Ans. v=1.525x10^-3 m/s

Vapour at the dew point and 101.32kPa containing a mole fraction of 0.4
benzene and 0.6 toluene and 100kgmol total is contacted with 110kgmol of a
liquid at the boiling point containing a mole fraction of 0.3 benzene and 0.7
toluene. The two streams are contacted in a single stage, and the outlet
streams leave in equilibrium with each other. Assume constant molal overflow.
Calculate the amounts and compositions of the exit streams.

## An insulated 4m3 evacuated tank is connected to a 4MPa 600C steam line. A

valve is opened and the steam fills the tank. Estimate the final temperature
of the steam in the tank and the final mass of the steam in the tank.

## Ans. T= 812.8C, m= 32.15kg

A sample of the slurry had previously been tested with a leaf filter of
0.05m2 filtering surface using a vacuum giving a pressure difference of
71.3kN/m2. The volume of filtrate collected in the first 300s was 250cm3 and
after a further 300s, an additional 150cm3 was collected. It may be assumed
that the cake is incompressible and that the cloth resistance is the same in
the leaf as in the filter press.

## Ans. V= 0.062m3, amount of water= 0.004m3

Salt solution at 293K is fed at the rate of 6.3kg/s to a forwardfeed triple
effect evaporator and is concentrated from 2% to 10% of solids. Saturated
steam at 170kN/m2 is introduced into the calandria of the first effect and a
pressure of 34kN/m2 is maintained in the last effect. If the heat transfer
coefficients in the three effects are 1.7, 1.4, and 1.1 kW/m2K, respectively,
and the specific heat capacity of the liquid is approximately 4kJ/kgK, what
area is required if each is identical? Condensate may be assumed to leave at
the vapour temperature at each stage, and the effects of boiling point rise
may be neglected. The latent heat of vaporization may be taken as constant
throughout.

Ans. A=218m2

## What is the boiling point of a equimolar mixture of benzene and toluene at

101.3kN/m2?

Ans. 365.1 K

Oil droplets having a diameter of 20μm are to be settled from air at an air
temperature of 37.8C at 101.3kPa pressure. The density of the oil is
900kg/m3. Calculate the terminal settling velocity of the drops.

101.3kN/m2?

Ans 372K

## Calculate the work necessary to compress air in an insulated cylinder from a

volume of 6ft3 to a volume of 1.2ft3. the initial temperature and pressure
are 50F and 30psia, respectively. We will assume that the compression process
is approximated by a quasiequilibrium process, which is acceptable for most
compression processes, and that the process is adiabatic due to the presence
of the insulation.

## A mixture of quartz and galena of a size range from 0.015mm to 0.065mm is to

be separated into two pure fractions using a hindered settling process. What
is the minimum apparent density of the fluid that will give this separation?
The density of galena is 7500kg/m3 and the density of quartz is 2650kg/m3

## Glass particles of 4mm diameter are fluidized by water at a velocity 0.25m/s.

what will be the voidage of the bed?

The density of glass = 2500kg/m3, the density of water = 1000kg/m3, and the
viscosity of water= 1mNs/m2

Ans. e= 0.784
A slurry containing 100kg of whiting of density 3000kg/m3, per m3 water, and
is filtered in a plate and frame press, which takes 900s to dismantle, clean,
and re-assemble. If the cake is incompressible and has a voidage of 0.4, what
is the optimum thickness of cake for a filtration pressure of 1000kN/m2? The
density of the whiting is 3000kg/m3. If the cake is washed at 500kN/m2 and
the total volume of wash water employed is 25% of that of the filtrate, how
is the optimum thickness of the cake affected? The resistance of the filter
medium may be neglected and the viscosity of water is 1mNs/m2. In an
experiment, a pressure difference of 165kN/m2 produced a flow of water of
0.02cm3/s through a centimetre cube of filter cake.

## Two kg of superheated steam at 400C and 600kPa is cooled at constant pressure

by transferring heat from a cylinder until the steam is completely condensed.
The surroundings are at 25C. determine the net entropy change of the universe
due to this process.

## If a centrifuge is 0.9m diameter and rotates at 20Hz, at what speed should a

laboratory centrifuge of 150mm diameter be run if it is to duplicate the
performance of the large unit?

Ans. N= 49Hz

Air is contained in one half of the insulated tank. The other side is
completely evacuated. The membrane is punctured and the air quickly fill the
entire volume. Calculate the specific entropy change of the isolated system.

## 2lb of air compressed from 20 psia to 200psia while maintaining the

temperature constant at 100F. calculate the heat transfer needed to
accomplish this process.

Ans. Q= -176.7Btu

## In a process in which it is used as a solvent, benzene is evaporated into dry

nitrogen. At 297K and 101.3kN/m2, the resulting mixture has a percentage
relative humidity of 60. It is required to recover 80% of the benzene present
by cooling 283K and compressing to a suitable pressure. What should this
pressure be? The vapour pressure of benzene is 12.2kN/m2 at 297K and 6kN/m2
at 283K.

ANS. 392kPa
In a vessel at 101.3kN/m2 and 300K, the percentage relative humidity of the
water vapour in the air is 25. If the partial pressure of water vapour when
air is saturated with vapour at 300K is 3.6kN/m2, calculate:

## a.) The partial pressure of the water vapour in the vessel

b.) The specific volumes of the air and the water vapour
c.) The humidity of the air and the humid volume: and
d.) The percentage humidity

## Ans. a.) 0.9kPa, b.) 154m3/kg:0.857m3/kg c.) 0.0056kg/kg:0.857m3/kg d.)

24.3%

Air containing 0.005kg water/kg dry air is heated to 325K in a dryer and
passed to the lower shelves. It leaves the shelves at 60% humidity and is
reheated to 325K and passed over another set of shelves, again leaving at 60%
humidity. This is again repeated for the third and the fourth sets of
shelves, after which the air leaves the dryer. On the assumption that the
material on each shelf has reached the wet-bulb temperature and that heat
losses from the dryer may be neglected, determine:

## a.) The temperature of the material on each tray

b.) The amount of water removed in kg/s, if 5m3/s moist air leaves
the dryer
c.) The temperature to which the inlet air would have to be raised to
carry out the drying in a single stage

## Ans. a.) 296K,301, 305, 307 b.) 0.144kg/s c.) 370K

Air flows through the supersonic nozzle. The inlet conditions are 7kPa and
420C. the nozzle exit diameter is adjusted such that the exiting velocity is
700m/s. calculate the a.) the exit temperature b.) mass flux c.) the exit
diameter. Assume an adiabatic quasiequilibrium flow. d1= 200mm

## Ans. a.) 255C b.) 0.4423kg/s c.) d2= 212mm

30,000 m3 of coal gas (measured at 289K and 101.3kPa saturated with water
vapor) is compressed to 340kPa pressure, cooled to 289K and the condensed
water is drained off. Subsequently the pressure is reduced to 170kN/m2 and
the gas is distributed at this pressure and at 289K. what is the % humidity
of the gas after this treatment?

## Ans. %Hm= 49.73%

Air travels through the 4x2m test section of a wind tunnel at 20m/s. the gage
pressure in the test section is measured to be -20kPa and the temperature
20C. after the test section, a diffuser leads to a 6m diameter exit pipe.
Estimate the velocity and temperature in the exit pipe.

## Ans. v= 1.55m/s, T= 219C

A rotary counter current dryer is fed with ammonium nitrate containing 5%
moisture at the rate of 1.5kg/s. and discharges the nitrate with 0.2%
moisture. The air enters at 405K and leaves at 355K: the humidity of the
entering air being 0.007kg moisture per kg dry air. The nitrate enters at
294K and leaves at 339K. neglecting radiation losses, calculate the mass of
dry air passing through the dryer and the humidity of the air leaving the
dryer.

## Latent heat of water at 294K= 2450kJ/kg

Specific heat of ammonium nitrate= 1.88kJ/kgK
Specific heat of dry air= 0.99kJ/kgK
Specific heat of water vapour= 2.01kJ/kgK

Ans. Mass of dry air= 6.15kg/s , Humidity outlet air= 0.0188kg/kg dry air

Glass spheres are fluidized by water at a velocity equal to one half of their
terminal falling velocities. Calculate:

## a.) The density of the fluidized bed

b.) The pressure gradient in the bed attributable to the presence of
the particles
The particles are 2mm in a diameter and have a density of 2500kg/m3.
The density and viscosity of water are 1000kg/m3 and 1mNs/m2.

## A liquid with no appreciable elevation of boiling point is concentrated in a

triple effect evaporator. If the temperature of the steam to the first effect
is 395K and vacuum is applied to the third effect so that boiling point is
325K, what are the approximate boiling points in the three effects? The
overall transfer coefficients may be taken as 3.1, 2.3, and 1.1kW/m2 in the
three effects respectively.

## Ans. T1= 381.5K, T2= 363.2K, T3= 325K

A packed counter current water cooling tower using a gas flow rate of
G=1.356kg dry air/s m2 and a water flow rate of L= 1.356kg water/s m2 is to
cool the water from TL2= 43.3C to TL1= 29.4C. the entering air at 29.4C has a
wet bulb temperature of 23.9C. the mass transfer coefficient kGa is estimated
as 1.207x10^-7 kgmol/s m3 Pa and hLa/kGa MB P as 4.187x10^4 J/kgK. Calculate
the height of packed tower z. the tower operates at a pressure of 1.013x10^5
Pa

Ans. z= 6.98m

A wet solid is dried from 25 to 10% moisture under constant drying conditions
in 15ks(4.17h). if the critical and the equilibrium moisture contents are 15
and 5% respectively, how long will it take to dry the solid from 30 to 8%
moisture under the same conditions?

## Ans. t= 6.65hrs (23.9ks)

Six gram of air is contained in the cylinder. The air is heated until the
piston raises 50mm. the spring just touches the piston initially. Calculate
a.) the temperature when the piston leaves the stops and b.) the work done by
the air on the piston

## Nitrogen flows at steady state through a horizontal, insulated pipe with

inside diameter of 38.1mm. a pressure drop results from flow through a
partially opened valve. Just upstream from the valve the pressure is 690kPa,
the temperature is 322.15K and the average velocity is 6.09m/s. if the
pressure just downstream from the valve is 138kPa, what is the temperature?
Assume for nitrogen that PV/T is constant.

## 0.126kg/s of a product containing 4% water is produced in a dryer from a wet

feed containing 42% water on a wet basis. Ambient air at 294K and 40%
relative humidity is heated to 366K in a preheater before entering the dryer
which it leaves at 60% relative humidity. Assuming that dryer operates
adiabatically, what is the amount of air supplied to the preheater and the
heat required in the preheater?

How will these values be affected if the air enters the dryer at 340K and
sufficient heat is supplied with the dryer so that the air leaves also 340K
and again with a relative humidity of 60%?

Ans. air flowrate= 3.76 kg/s, heat = 276kW, air flow = 0.786kg/s, heat =
31kW

Determine the maximum pressure increase across the 10hp pump. The inlet
velocity of the water is 30ft/s.

## Ans .P2-P1= 238.3psi

In a single stage leaching of soybean oil from flaked soybeans with hexane,
100kg of soybeans containing 20% wt oil is leached with 100kg of fresh hexane
solvent. The value of N for the slurry underflow is essentially constant at
1.5kg insoluble solid/kg solution retained. Calculate the amounts and
compositions of the overflow V1 and the underflow slurry L1 leaving the
stage.

## ANS. xA1= yA1= 0.167, L1= 53.33 kg, V1= 66.67kg

an electric motor under steady load draws 9.7A at 110V, it delivers 0.93kW of
mechanical energy. The temperature of the surroundings is 300K. what is the
total rate of entropy generation in W/K?

## What are the diameter and height of a hyperbolic natural-draught cooling

tower handling 4810kg/s water with the following temperature conditions:
Water entering the tower= 301K
Water leaving the tower= 294K
Air:dry bulb= 287K
Wet bulb= 284K

## it is desired to extract the oil from halibut livers by continuous counter

current multiple-contact extraction with ethyl ether. The quantity of
solution retained by the granulated livers has been determined experimentally
as a function of the composition of the solution as follows.

## Pounds liver oil in 1lb solution, pounds of solution

retained by 1lb oil-free liver

## 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5,0.6,0.65,0.7,0.72

0.205,0.242,0.286,0.339,0.405,0.489,0.6,0.672,0.765, 0.810

## Liquid A decomposes by first-order kinetics, and in a batch reactor 50% of A

is converted in a 5-minute run. How much longer would it take to reach 75%
conversion? Repeat for second order kinetics.

## Ans. t= 10min, t=15mins

Consider a feed CAO= 100, CBO=200, CiO= 100 to a steady-flow reactor. The
isothermal gas-phase reaction is A+ 3B = 6R

## Ans. Cb= 40, Xa=0.5, Xb=0.75

A homogenous gas reaction A=3R has a reported rate at 21.5C

## -rA = 10-2CA0.5 [mol/liter-sec]

Find the space time needed for 80% conversion of a 50% A-50% inert feed to a
plug flow reactor operating at 215C and 5atm (CAO= 0.0625mol/liter)

## The kinetics of the aqueous-phase decomposition of A is investigated in two

mixed flow reactors in series, the second having twice the volume of the
first reactor. At steady state with a feed concentration of 1mol A/liter and
mean residence time of 96sec in the first reactor, the concentration in the
first reactor is 0.5mol A/liter and in the second is 0.25mol A/liter. Find
the kinetic equation for the decomposition.

## Ans. –rA=(1.25 liter/mol-min)CA2

An open bowl, 0.3m in diameter, contains water at 350K, evaporating into the
atmosphere. If the air currents are sufficiently strong to remove the water
vapour as it is formed and if the resistance to its mass transfer is
equivalent to that of a 1mm layer for conditions of molecular diffusion, what
will be the rate of cooling due to evaporation? The water can be considered
as well mixed and the water equivalent of the system is equal to 10kg. the
diffusivity of water vapour in air may be taken as 0.2cm2/s and the kilogram
molecular volume at NTP as 22.4m3.

## In a packed column, operating at approximately atmospheric pressure and 295K,

a 10% ammonia-air mixture is scrubbed with water and the concentration of
ammonia is reduced to 0.1%. if the whole of the resistance to mass transfer
may be regarded as lying within a thin laminar film on the gas-liquid
interface, derive from first principles an expression for the rate of
absorption at any position in the column. At some intermediate point where
the ammonia concentration in the gas phase has been reduced to 5%, the
partial pressure of ammonia in equilibrium with aqueous solution is 660N/m2
and the transfer rate is 10^-3kmol/m2 s. what is the thickness of the
hypothetical gas film if the diffusivity of ammonia in air is 0.24cm2/s?

Ans. t= 0.043mm

Determine the molar volume of n-butane at 510K and 25bar by each of the ff

## a.) The ideal gas

b.) The generalized compressibility factor correlation
c.) The generalized virial-coefficient

## Ans. a.) 1.691m3/kmol b.) 1.48 c.) 1.4891

A simple rectifying column consists of a tube arranged vertically and
supplied at the bottom with a mixture of benzene and toluene as vapour. At
the top a condenser returns some of the product as a reflux which flows in a
thin film down the inner wall of the tube. The tube is insulated and heat
losses can be neglected. A some point in the column the vapour contains
70%mol benzene and the adjacent liquid reflux contains 59% mol benzene. The
temperature at this point is 365K. assuming the diffusional resistance to
vapour transfer to be equivalent to the diffusional resistance of a stagnant
vapour layer 0.2mm thick, calculate the rate of interchange of benzene and
toluene between vapour and liquid. The molar latent heats of the two
materials can be taken as equal. The vapour pressure of toluene at 365K is
54kN/m2 and the diffusivity of the vapors is 0.051cm2/s

## A liquor containing 15% solids is concentrated to 55% solids in a double

effect evaporator operating at a pressure in the second effect of 18kN/m2. No
crystals are formed. The flowrate of feed is 2.5kg/s at 375K with a specific
heat capacity of 3.75kJ/kgK. the boiling point rise of the concentrated
liquor is 6degK and the steam fed to the first effect is at 240kN/m2. The
overall heat transfer coefficient in the first and second effects are 1.8 and
0.63 kW/m2, respectively. If the heat transfer area is to be the same in each
effect, what areas should be specified?

Ans. A= 67.5m2

A three blade propeller is used to mix a fluid in the laminar region. The
stirrer is 0.3m diameter and is rotated at 1.5Hz. Due to corrosion, the
propeller has to e replaced by a flat two-bladed paddle, 0.75m in diameter.
If the same motor is used, at what speed should the paddle rotate?

Ans. N= 0.403Hz

Water in a tank flows through an outlet 25m below the water level into a
0.15m diameter horizontal pipe 30m long, with a 90 O elbow at the end leading
to a vertical pipe of the same diameter 15m long. This is connected to a
second 90O elbow which leads to a horizontal pipe of the same diameter, 60m
long, containing a fully open globe valve and discharging to atmosphere 10m
below the level of the water in the tank. Taking e/d= 0.01 and the viscosity
of water as 1mNs/m2, what is the initial rate of discharge?

## Ans initial rate of discharge= 55kg/s

A hydraulic jump occurs during the flow discharging from a tank into an open
channel under a gate so that the liquid initially travelling at a velocity of
1.5m/s with a depth of 75mm. calculate the corresponding velocity and the
liquid depth after the jump.

## Ans. D2=152mm, v1=0.74m/s

A flow of 50m3/s methane, measure at 288K and 101.3 kN/m2, has to be
delivered along a 0.6m diameter line, 3km long with a relative roughness of
0.0001, linking a compressor and a processing unit. The methane is to be
discharged at the plant at 288K and 170kN/m2 and it leaves the compressor at
297K. what pressure must be developed at the compressor in order in order to
achieve this flowrate?

## Water flows through an orifice of 35mm diameter situated in a 75mm diameter

pipe, at a rate of 300cm3/s. what will be the difference in level on a water
manometer connected across the meter? The viscosity of water is 1mNs/m2?

## A nonconducting container filled with 25kg water at 293.15K is fitted with a

stirrer, which is made to turn by gravity acting on a weight of mass 35kg.
the weight falls slowly through a distance of 5m in driving the stirrer.
Assuming that all work done on the weight is transferred to the water and
that the local acceleration of gravity is 9.8m/s2, determine

## a.) The amount of work done on the water

b.) The internal-energy change of the water
c.) The final temperature of the water
d.) The amount of heat that must be removed from the water to return
to its initial temp
e.) The total energy change of the universe

## Ans. W= 1.715kJ, E= 1.715kJ, t2= 20.01 C, Q= -1.715kJ, E=0

A rotameter tube is 0.3m long with an internal diameter of 25mm at the top
and 20mm at the bottom. The diameter of the float is 20mm, its density is
4800kg/m3 and its volume is 6cm3. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.7,
what is the flowrate of water when the float is halfway up the tube?

## A centrifugal pump is required to circulate a liquid of density 800kg/m3 and

viscosity 0.5x10^-3 Ns/m2 from the reboiler of a distillation column though a
vaporisor at the rate of 0.004m3/s, and to introduce the superheated vapour
above the vapour space in the reboiler which contains a 0.07m depth of
liquid. If smooth-bore 5mm diameter pipe is to be used, the pressure of
vapour in the reboiler is 1kN/m2 and the Net Positive Suction Head required
by the pump is 2m of liquid, what is the minimum height required between the
liquid level in the reboiler and the pump?

## Ans. ho= 2+ 0.0304l

Calculate the view factor, F21 and the net radiation transfer between two
black surfaces, a rectangle 2m by 1m (area A1) at 1500K and a disc 1m in
diameter (area A2) at 750K, if the view factor, F12= 0.25. Ans. F21= 0.637,
Q12= 135kW
An agitated tank with a standard Rushton impeller is required to disperse gas
in a solution properties similar to those of water. The tank will be 3m
diameter. (1m diameter impeller). A power level of 0.8kW/m3 is chosen.
Assuming fully turbulent conditions and that the presence of the gas does not
significantly affect the relation between the Power and Reynolds number:

## a.) What power will be required by the impeller?

b.) At what speed should the impeller be driven?
c.) If a small pilot scale tank 0.3m diameter is to be constructed
to test the process, at what speed should the impeller driven?

## A single-acting compressor supplies 0.1m3/s of air measured at 273K and 101.3

kN/m2 which is compressed to 380kN/m2 from 101.3kN/m2. If the suction
temperature is 289K, the stroke is 0.25m, and the speed is 4Hz, what is the
cylinder diameter? Assuming the cylinder clearance is 4% and the compression
and re-expansion are isentropic (ϒ = 1.4), what are the theoretical power
requirements for the compression?

## In order to extract acetic acid from a dilute aqueous solution with

isopropyl ether, the two immiscible phases are passed countercurrently
through a packed column 3m in length and 75mm in diameter. It is found that,
if 0.5kg/m2 s of the pure ether is used to extract 0.25kg/m2s of 4% acid by
mass, then the ether phase leaves the column with a concentration of 1% acid
by mass. Calculate:

## a.) The number of overall transfer units based on the raffinate

phase, and
b.) The overall extraction coefficient based on the raffinate phase

The equilibrium relationship is given by: (kg acid/kg ether)= 0.3 (kg acid/kg
water)

## A batch of 1500kg of saturated potassium chloride solution is cooled from

360K to 290K in an unagitated tank. If the solubilities of KCl are 53 and
34kg/kg H2O at 360 and 290K and water losses due to evaporation may be
neglected, what is the yield of crystals?

Ans. Y= 186kg

## In a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with horizontal tubes 25mm external

diameter and 22mm internal diameter, benzene is condensed on the outside of
the tubes by means of water flowing the tubes at the rate of 0.03m3/s. if the
water enters at 290K and leaves at 300K and the heat transfer coefficient on
the water side is 850W/m2K, what total length of tubing will be required?

## Ans. total length= 526m

A single effect evaporator operates at 13kN/m2. What will be the heating
surface necessary to concentrate 1.25kg/s of 10% caustic soda to 41%,
assuming a value of the overall heat transfer coefficient U of 1.25kW/m2K,
using steam at 390K? the heating surface is 1.2m below the liquid level. The
boiling point rise of solution is 30degK, the feed temperature is 291K, the
specific heat capacity of the feed is 4kJ/kgK, the specific heat capacity of
the product is 3.26kJ/kgK and the density of the boiling liquid is 1390kg/m3

Ans. A= 106.6 m2

Tests are made on the extraction of acetic acid from a dilute aqueous
solution by means of a ketone in a small spray tower of diameter 46mm and
effective height of 1090mm with the aqueous phase run into the top of the
tower. The ketone enters free from acid at the rate of 0.0014m3/sm2, and
leaves with an acid concentration of 0.38kkmol/m3. The concentration in the
aqueous phase falls from 1.19 to 0.82 kmol/m3. Calculate the overall
extraction coefficient on the concentrations in the ketone phase, and the
height of the corresponding overall transfer unit. The equilibrium conditions
are expressed by: (concentration of acid in ketone phase)= 0.548
(concentration of acid in aqueous phase)

## Ans. K= 0.00138/s , Hoe= 1.02m

Two parallel gray planes which are very large having emissivities of e1=0.8
and e2= 0.7 and surface 1 is at 1100F and surface 2 at 600F. use English and
SI units for the following

## a.) What is the net radiation from 1 to 2?

b.) If the surfaces are both black, what is the net radiation?

## Ans. q= 15010 W/m2, q= 25110 W/m2

A counter-flow double pipe heat exchanger is to heat water from 20C to 80C at
a rate of 1.2kg/s. the inner tube is thin-walled and has a diameter of 1.5cm.
if the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is 640W/m2C,
determine the length of the heat exchanger required to achieve the desired
heating.

Ans. L= 108m

## Electrically heated carbide elements 10mm in diameter and 0.5m long,

radiating essentially s black bodies, are to be used in the construction of a
heater in which thermal radiation from the surroundings is negligible. If the
surface temperature of the carbide is limited to 1750K, how many elements are
required to provide a radiated output of 500kW?

Ans. N= 59.8= 60

## Estimate the convective heat-transfer coefficient for convective heat loss

from a horizontal 10cm diameter steam pipe. The surface temperature of the
uninsulated pipe is 130C, and the air temperature is 30C. Ans. h= 6.5 W/m2 C
A steel ball having a radius of 1in. (25.4mm) is at uniform temperature of
800F(699.9K). it is suddenly plunged into a medium whose temperature is held
constant at 250F(394.3K). assuming convective coefficient of h= 2 btu/hr-
ft2-F (11.36 W/m2K), calculate the temperature of the ball after 1h (3600s).
the average physical properties are k= 25 btu/h-ft-F (43.3W/mK), ρ= 490
lbm/ft3 (7849kg/m3) and cp=0.11 btu/lbm-F (0.4606 kJ/kgK). Use SI and English
units. Calculate the total amount of heat removed up to time t=3600s.

## A heat exchanger is required to cool 20kg/s of water from 360K to 340K by

means of 25kg/s water entering at 300K. if the overall coefficient of heat
transfer is constant at 2kW/m2K, calculate the surface area required in a a.)
countercurrent concentric tube exchanger, and b) co-current flow concentric
tube exchanger.

## An empirical equation for calculating the inside heat transfer coefficient,

hi, for the turbulent flow of liquids in a pipe is given by:
hi = (0.023*G0.8*K0.67*Cp0.33)/(D0.2*μ0.47)

## where hi = heat transfer coefficient, Btu/(hr)(ft)2(°F)

G = mass velocity of the liquid, lbm/(hr)(ft)2
K = thermal conductivity of the liquid, Btu/(hr)(ft)(°F)
Cp = heat capacity of the liquid, Btu/(lbm)(°F)
m = Viscosity of the liquid, lbm/(ft)(hr)
D = inside diameter of the pipe, (ft)

## a. Verify if the equation is dimensionally consistent.

b. What will be the value of the constant, given as 0.023, if all the
variables in the equation are inserted in SI units and hi is in SI units.

## Ans. a.) the equation is dimensionally consistent b.) the constant is

dimensionless: a change in units of the equation parameters will not have any
effect on the value of this constant.

## In an air-conditioning system, 1 kg/s air at 350K and 10% humidity is mixed

with 5kg/s air at 300K and 30% humidity. What is the enthalpy, humidity, and
temperature of the resultant stream?

## The specific heat capacity of toluene is given by following equation

Cp =20.869 + 5.293x10-2T where Cp is in Btu/lbmol-F and T is in F
Express the equation in cal/gmol-K with T in K.

solution result?
How many liters?

## Ans. total mass= 1787g, V= 1923cm3

The synthesis of ammonia proceeds according to the following reaction
N2 + 3 H2 -----> 2 NH3
In a given plant, 4202 lb of nitrogen and 1046 lb of hydrogen are fed to the
synthesis reactor per hour. Production of pure ammonia from this reactor is
3060 lb per hour.
a. What is the limiting reactant.
b. What is the percent excess reactant.
c. What is the percent conversion obtained (based on the limiting reactant).
Ans. a.) N2 is limiting reactant b.) 16.2% c.) 60%

## A solution containing 23% by mass of sodium phosphate is cooled from 313 to

298K in a Swenson-Walker crystallizer to form crystals of Na3PO4-12H2O. The
solubility of Na3PO4 at 298K is 15.5kg/kg H2O, and the required product rate
of crystals is 0.063kg/s. The mean heat capacity of the solution is 3.2kJ/kg
K and the heat of crystallization is 146.5kJ/kg. If cooling water enters and
leaves t 288 and 293K, and the overall coefficient of heat transfer is
140W/m2K, what is the length of crystallizer?

Ans. L= 9.2m

## Steam in the condenser of a power plant is to be condensed at a temperature

of 30C with cooling water from a nearby lake, which enters the tubes of the
condenser at 14C and leaves at 22C. the surface area of the tubes is 45m2,
and the overall heat transfer coefficient is 2100W/m2C. determine the mass
flow rate of the cooling water needed and the rate of condensation of the
steam in the condenser.

## A theoretical water gas w/c is an equimolal mixture of CO and H2 is burned w/

30%xs air, but w/ only 90% of the CO being converted to CO2 and 95% of the H2
to H2O. Calc the Orsat Analysis of flue gas.

## A forwardfeed double effect vertical evaporator, with equal heating areas in

each effect, is fed with 5kg/s of a liquor of specific heat capacity of
4.18kJ/kgK, and with no boiling point rise, so that 50% of the feed liquor is
evaporated. The overall heat transfer coefficient in the second effect is 75%
of that in the first effect. Steam is fed at 395K and the boiling point in
the second effect is 373K. the feed is heated by n external heater to the
boiling point in the first effect. It is decided to bleed off 0.25kg/s of
vapour from the vapour line to the second effect for use in another process.
If the feed is still heated to the boiling point of the first effect by
external means, what will be the change in steam consumption of the
evaporator unit? For the purpose of calculation, the latent heat of the
vapors and of the steam may be taken as 2230kJ/kg.

## Ans. S2-S1 = 0.12 kg/s

For a flat-blade turbine with a disk and six blades, the given conditions and
sizes are Dt1= 1.83m, Da1=0.61m, W1= 0.122m, J1= 0.15m, N1= 90rpm, density=
929kg/m3, and μ= 0.01 Pa-s. It is desired to scale up these results for
vessel whose volume is 3 times as large. Do this for the ff process.

## a.) Where equal rate of mass transfer is desired

b.) Where equal liquid motion is needed

## Ans. a.) N2= 1.175Hz, P= 3.977kW b.) N2= 1.04Hz, P= 2.757kW

In a paper mill two steam chests are to be operated in parallel. Each has a
volumetric capacity of 1000 cu.ft and each contains 18,000 lb of steam and
liquid water. The first chests registers a pressure of 200 psia, but owing to
an error, it is connected to the second when the pressure in the latter is 75
psia. What will be the pressure in the system after equilibrium has been
attained. It may be assumed that no heat is exchanged with the surroundings,
and no water exits to the surroundings.

Ans. P= 129psia

A furnace is fired with coal of the ff analysis: 60%C, 14%H, 16%O, 10% ash.
The proximate analysis is 40%FC, 41%VCM, 9%moisture and 10%ash. The refuse
has the ff analysis: 40% FC, 60%ash. 18200 ft3 of wet air at a total press of
750mmHg and a temp of 70F, with a partial press of water of 10mmHg, is
supplied per 100lb of coal fired. The total press of the hot wet flue gas is
750mmHg. The ratio of mol CO2/mol CO is 4:1.

%xs air
Orsat analysis
Partial press of water vapour in hot wet flue gas

## Ans. 20.25%, 8.21%CO2 6.06%O2, 112.3mmHg

The combustion gases from industrial furnace using a hydrocarbon fuel and dry
air enter the stack at normal barometric press and 375F and have the ff orsat
analysis 12.2%CO2, 3.1%O2, 1.2%CO, and 83.5% N2. Det.
The % xs air
Volume of gases entering the stack, ft3/ lb C
Dew point of stack gases
The atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the fuel
The moles of stack gas per atom of carbon burnt

## Four kg of water is placed in an enclosed volume of 1m3. Heat is added until

the temperature is 150C. find the a.)pressure b.) the mass of vapour c.) the
volume of the vapour

## An automobile tire with a volume of 0.6m3 is inflated to a gauge pressure of

200kPa. Calculate the mass of air in the tire if the temperature is 20C.

Ans. m= 2.14kg
An MSMPR crystallizer operates with a steady nucleation rate of n O= 10^13/m4,
a growth rate, Gd= 10^-8 m/s and a mixed-product removal rate,
based on clear liquor of 0.00017m3/s. The volume of the vessel, again based
on clear liquor, is 4m3, the crystal density is 2660kg/m3 and the volumetric
shape factor is 0.7. Det

## a.) The solids content in the crystallizer

b.) The crystal production rate
c.) The % of nuclei removed in the discharge by the time they have
grown to 100μm.
d.) The liquor flowrate which passes through a trap which removes 90%
of the original nuclei by the time they have grown to 100 μm.

Ans. a.) cs= 343kg/m3, b.) rate= 0.058kg/s c.) 34% d.) Qf= 0.00075m3/s

## The oxidation of ethylene to produce ethylene oxide proceeds according to the

equation
2C2H4 + O2 = 2C2H4O
The feed to a reactor contains 100kmol C2H4 and 100 kmol O2.
a.) Which reactant is limiting?
b.) What is the percentage excess of the other reactant?
c.) If the reaction proceeds to completion, how much of the excess
reactant will be left: how much C2H4O will be formed: and what is the
extent of reaction?
d.) If the reaction proceeds to a point where the fractional
conversion of the limiting reactant is 50%, how much of each reactant
and products is present at the end, and what is the extent of reaction?
e.) If the reaction proceeds to a point where 60kmol of O2 is left,
what is the fractional conversion of C2H4? The fractional conversion of
O2? The extent of reaction?

Ans. a.) C2H4 b.) 100% c.) 50kmol O2, 100kmol C2H4O, 50kmol d.) 50kmol C2H4,
75kmol O2, 50kmol C2H4O, 25kmol e.) 0.8, 0.4, 40kmol

## Consider the following pair of reactions:

A = 2B (desired)
A= C (undesired)
Suppose 100mol of A is fed to a batch reactor and the final product contains
10mol of A, 160mol of B and 10mol of C. calculate
a.) The fractional conversion of A
b.) The percentage yield of B
c.) The selectivity of B relative to C
d.) The extents of the first and second reactions

Ans. a.) 0.9 b.) 80% c.) 16mol B/mol C d.) 80mol, 10mol

## Determine the volume change when 1kg of saturated water is completely

vaporized at a pressure of a.) 1kPa, b.)100kPa c.) 10,000kPa

## Ans. a.) 129.2 m3/kg b.) 1.693m3/kg c.) 0.01658m3/kg

An evaporator, working at atmospheric pressure, is to concentrate a solution
from 5% to 20% solids at the rate of 1.25kg/s. the solution, which has a
specific heat capacity of 4.18kJ/kgK, is fed to the evaporator at 295K and
boils at 380K. dry saturated steam at 240kN/m2 is fed to the calandria, and
the condensate leaves at the temperature of the condensing stream. If the
heat transfer coefficient is 2.3 kW/m2K, what is the required area of heat
transfer surface and how much steam is required? The latent heat of
vaporization of the solution may be taken s being equal to that of water.

## A stream of air at 100C and 5260mmHg contains 10% water by volume

a.) Calculate the dew point and degrees of superheat of the air
b.) Calculate the percentage of the vapour that condenses and the
final composition of the gas phase if the air is cooled to 80C at
constant pressure
c.) Calculate the percentage condensation and the final gas-phase
composition if, instead of being cooled, the air is compressed
isothermally to 8500mmHg

## Ans. Tdp= 90C, 10C superheat, 35% condensation, 12% condensation

Calculate the flux and the rate of removal of urea at steady state in g/h
from blood in a cuprophane(cellophane) membrane dialyzer at 37C. the membrane
is 0.025mm thick and has an area of 2m2. The mass- transfer coefficient on
the blood is estimated as kc1= 1.25x10^-5 m/s and that on the aqueous side is
3.33x10^-5 m/s. the permeability of the membrane is 8.73x10^-6 m/s. the
concentration of urea in the blood is 0.02g urea/100mL and that in dialyzing
fluid will be assumed as 0.

## A liquid containing dilute solute A at a concentration c1= 3x10^-2kgmol/m3 is

flowing rapidly by a membrane of thickness L= 3x10^-5m. the distribution
coefficient K’= 1.5 and DAB= 7x10^-11 m2/s in the membrane. The solute
diffuses through the membrane and its concentration on the other side is c2=
0.5x10^-2 kgmol/m3. The mass-transfer coefficient kc1 is large and can be
considered as infinite and kc2= 2.02 x10^-5 m/s.

## a.) Derive the equation to calculate the steady-state flux Na

b.) Calculate the flux and the concentration at the membrane
interfaces.

Ans. (b). Na= 7.458 x 10^-8 kmol/s m2, conc at interphase= 1.304x10^-2
kmol/m3

## 10Mg of a solution containing 0.3kg Na2CO3/kg solution is cooled slowly to

293K to form crystals of Na2CO3-10H2O. What is the yield of crystals if the
solubility of Na2CO3 at 293K is 21.5kg/kg H2O and during cooling 3% of the
original solution is lost by evaporation?

Ans. C= 6536 kg
Tests on a small scale tank 0.3m diameter(Rushton impeller, diameter 0.1m)
have shown that a blending process between two miscible liquids (aqueous
solutions, properties approximately the same as water,μ= 1mNs/m2, ρ=
1000kg/m3) is satisfactorily completed after 1min. using an impeller speed of
250 rpm. It is decided to scale up the process to a tank of 2.5m diameter
using the criterion of constant tip-speed.

## a.) What speed should be chosen for the larger impeller?

b.) What power will be required?
c.) What will be the blend time in the large tank?

## Ans. N= 0.5Hz, 30 rev/min, (Coulson, N= 0.346Hz, 20.8rev/min), (Coulson, P=

9.8W), t= 1.15min

The temperature in the atmosphere near the surface of the earth (up to an
elevation of 10,000m) can be approximated by T(z)= 15- 0.00651z OC. determine
the pressure at an elevation of 3000m if at z=0, P= 101kPa.

## Saturated water occupies a volume of 1.2m3. heat is added until it is

completely vaporized. If the pressure is held constant at 600kPa, calculate
the final volume.

Ans. V= 344.4 m3

## A 110mm-diameter cylinder contains 100cm3 of water at 60C. a 50kg piston sits

on top of the water. If the heat is added until the temperature is 200C, find
the work done.

Ans. W= 21.5 kJ

## Gas from a petroleum distillation column has a concentration of H2S reduced

from 0.03 (kmol H2S/kmol of inert hydrocarbon gas) to 1% of this value by
scrubbing with a triethanolamine-water solvent in a countercurrent tower,
operating at 300K and atmospheric pressure. The equilibrium relation for the
solution may be taken as Y= 2X.

The solvent enters the tower free of H2S and leaves containing 0.013kmol of
H2S/kmol of solvent. If the flow on inert gas is 0.015kmol/m2s of tower cross
section, calculate:

## a.) The height of the absorber necessary, and

b.) The number of transfer units NoG required

## The overall coefficient for absorption KGa may be taken as 0.04kmol/m3s of

tower volume (unit driving force Y)

## Ans. height = 7.79, Nog = 20.7m

Steam enters a throttling valve at 8000kPa and 300C and leaves at a pressure
of 1600kPa. Determine the final temperature and specific volume of the steam.

## Ans. T= 201.4C, v= 0.1232m3/kg

Determine the heat transfer necessary to increase the pressure of 70% quality
steam from 200 to 800kPa, maintaining the volume constant at 2m3. Assume a
quasiequilibrium process.

Ans. Q= 5629 kJ

## A granular material containing 40% moisture is fed to a countercurrent rotary

dryer at a temperature of 295K and is withdrawn at 305K, containing 5%
moisture. The air supplied, which contains 0.006kg water vapour/kg dry air,
enters at 385K and leaves at 310K. the dryer handles 0.125kg/s wet stock.

Assuming that radiation losses amount to 20kJ/kg dry air used, determine the
mass flowrate of dry air supplied to the dryer and the humidity of the exit
air. The latent heat of water vapour at 295K=2449kJ/kg, specific heat
capacity of dried material=0.88kJ/kgK, the specific heat capacity of dry
air=1kJ/kgK, and the specific heat capacity of water vapour =2.01kJ/kgK

## Ans. air flowrate= 2.07kg/s, humidity= 0.0284kg/kg DA

Determine the number of theoretical plates required and the plate from which
the side stream should be withdrawn if the feed is liquor at its boiling
point and a reflux ratio of 2 is used.

## Ans. Theoretical plates = 8, feed plate = 4th from the top

Stem enters a turbine at 4000kPa and 500C and leaves at exit. For an inlet
velocity of 200m/s calculate the turbine power output. A.) neglect any heat
transfer and kinetic energy change.

Input (v1= 200m/s, P1=4000kPa, T1= 500C, d1=50mm) output( d2= 250mm, P2=
80kPa, x2=1)

## Ans. Power= 3.542 MW

Liquid sodium, flowing at 100kg/s, enters a heat exchanger at 450C and exits
at 350C. the specific heat of sodium is 1.25kJ/kgC. Water enters at 5000kPa
and 20C. determine the minimum mass flux of the water so that the water does
not completely vaporize. Neglect the pressure drop through the exchanger.
Also, calculate the rate of heat transfer.

## The air in the cylinder of an air compressor is compressed from 100kPa to

10MPa. Estimate the final temperature and the work required if the air is
initially at 100C.

Ans. W= -729kJ/ kg
Nitrogen at 100C and 600kPa expands in such a way that it can be approximated
by a polytropic process with n= 1.2. Calculate the work and the heat transfer
if the final pressure is 100kPa.

## The pressure of 200kg/s of water is to be increased by 4MPa. The water enters

through a 20cm diameter pipe and exits through a 12cm diameter pipe.
Calculate the minimum hp required to operate the pump.

Ans. W= 1109 hp

Material is fed to a dryer at the rate of 0.3kg/s and the moisture removed is
35% of the wet charge. The stock enters and leaves the dryer at 324K. the air
temperature falls from 341 to 310K, its humidity rising from 0.01 to 0.02
kg/kg. calculate the heat loss to the surroundings.

## Latent heat of water vapour at 324K= 2430kJ/kg

Specific heat of dry air= 0.99kJ/kgK
Specific heat of water vapour= 2.01kJ/kgK

## A single-effect evaporator with a heating area of 10m2 is used to concentrate

NaOH solution at 0.38kg/s from 10% to 33.3% by mass. The feed enters at 338K
its specific heat capacity is 3.2kJ/kgK. the pressure in the vapour space is
13.5kN/m2 and 0.3kg/s is used from a supply at 375K. Calulate

## a.) The apparent overall heat transfer coefficient

b.) The corrected for boiling point rise
c.) The corrected if the depth of liquid is 1.5m

## A hydroturbine operates on a stream in which 100kg/s water flows. Estimate

the maximum power if the turbine is in a dam with a distance of 40m from the
surface of the reservoir to the surface of the backwater.

## Ammonia gas is diffusing at a constant rate through a layer of stagnant air

1mm thick. Conditions are such that the gas contains 50% by volume ammonia at
one boundary of the stagnant layer. The ammonia diffusing to the other
boundary is quickly absorbed and the concentration is negligible at that
plane. The temperature is 295K and the pressure atmospheric, and under these
conditions the diffusivity of ammonia in air is 1.8x10^-5 m2/s. estimate the
rate of diffusion of ammonia through the layer.

## Ans. 5.15x10^-4 kmol/m2 s

Steam with a mass flux of 600lbm/min exits a turbine as saturated steam at
2psia and passes through a condenser. What mass flux of cooling water is
needed if the steam is to exit the condenser as saturated liquid and the
cooling water is allowed a 15F temperature rise?

## A carnot engine operates between two temperature reservoirs maintained at

200C and 20C, respectively. If the desired output of the engine is 15kW.
Determine the heat transfer from the high temperature reservoir and the heat
transfer to the low temperature reservoir.

## A refrigeration unit is cooling a space to -5C by rejecting energy to the

atmosphere at 20C. it is desired to reduce the temperature in the
refrigerated space to -25C. Calculate the minimum percentage increase in work
required by assuming a carnot refrigerator, for the same amount of energy
removed.

## A carnot heat engine produces 10hp by transferring energy between two

reservoirs at 40F and 212F. calculate the rate of heat transfer from the high
temperature reservoir.

## Ans. Qh= 99410 btu /hr

A heat engine operates on a carnot cycle with an efficiency of 75%. What COP
would a refrigerator operating on the same cycle have? The low temperature is
0C.

## Seeds, containing 20% by mass of oil, are extracted in a countercurrent

plant, and 90% of the oil is recovered in a solution containing 50% by mass
oil. If the seeds are extracted with fresh solvent 1kg is removed in the
underflow in association with every 2kg of insoluble matter, how many idea
staged are required?

Ans. N= 5 thickeners

## A heat pump is proposed in which 50F groundwater is used to heat a house to

70F. the groundwater is to experience a temperature drop of 12F, and the
house requires 75,000 Btu/hr. calculate the minimum mass flux of the
groundwater and the minimum hp required.

## Ans. m=6014 lb/ hr, W=2830 btu/hr

Steam is contained in a rigid container at an initial pressure of 100psia and
600F. the pressure is reduced to 10psia by removing energy via heat transfer.
Calculate the entropy change and the heat transfer.

## After a combustion process in a cylinder, the pressure is 1200kPa and the

temperature is 350C. the gases are expanded to 140kPa with a reversible
adiabatic process. Calculate the work done by the gases, assuming they can be
approximated by air with constant specific heats.

Ans. W= 205kJ/kg

## A preheater is used to preheat water in a power plant cycle. The superheated

steam is at a temperature of 250C and the entering water is subcooled at
45C. all pressures are 600kPa. Calculate the rate of entropy production.
Flowrate steam= 0.5kg/s, flowrate cool water= 4kg/s.

Ans. s= 0.639kW/K

## Two kg of air is heated at constant pressure of 200kPa to 500C. Calculate the

entropy change if the initial volume is 0.8m3.

## Ans. s= 2.040 kJ/K

A piston allows air to expand from 6MPa to 200kPa. The initial volume and
temperature are 500cm3 and 800C. if the temperature is held constant,
calculate the heat transfer and the entropy change.

## Ans. s= 9.51 J/K

Air expands from 200 to 1000cm3 in a cylinder while the pressure is held
constant at 600kPa. If the initial temperature is 20C, calculate the heat
transfer assuming.

Ans. Q= 1.672kJ

## Water is maintained at a constant pressure of 400kPa while the temperature

changes from 20C to 400C. Calculate the heat transfer and the entropy change.

Ans. s= 7.603kJ/kg K

Over a 30m length of a 150mm vacuum line carrying air at 295K, the pressure
falls from 0.4kN/m2 to 0.13kN/m2. If the relative roughness e/d is 0.003 what
is the approximate flowrate?

## Ans. G/A= 0.41 kg/m2 s

Five ice cubes (each 1.2in3) at 0F are placed in a 16-oz glass of water at
60F. Calculate the final equilibrium temperature and the net entropy change,
assuming an insulated glass.

## Ans. s= 0. 0.00311 Btu/R

A slurry is filtered in a plate and frame press containing 12 frames, each
0.3m square and 25mm thick. During the first 180s the pressure difference for
filtration is slowly raised to the final value of 400kN/m2 and during this
period,, the rate of filtration is maintained constant. After the initial
period, filtration is carried out at constant pressure and the cakes are
completely formed in a further 900s. the cakes are then washed with a
pressure difference of 275kN/m2 for 600s using thorough washing. What is the
volume of filtrate collected per cycle and how much wash water is used?

A steam turbine accepts 2kg/s of steam at 6MPa and 600C and exhausts
saturated steam at 20kPa while producing 2000kW of work. If the surroundings
are at 30C and the flow is steady, calculate the rate of entropy production.

Ans. s= 1.8kW/K

A rigid tank is sealed when the temperature is 0C. on a hot day the
temperature in the tank reaches 50C. if a small hole is drilled in the tank,
estimate the velocity of the escaping air.

Ans. v= 173.8m/s

## A mixture is composed of 2mol CO2 and 4mol N2. It is compressed adiabatically

in a cylinder from 100kPa and20C to 2MPa. Assuming constant specific heats,
calculate a.) initial temperature b.) the work required c.) the change in
entropy

## Ans. a.) T= 367C b.) -48.9MJ c.) s= -0.00184 kJ/kgK

Calculate the internal energy and enthalpy changes that occur when air is
changed from an initial state of 277K and 10bar, where its molar volume is
2.28m3/kmol to a final state of 333K and 1atm. Assume for air that PV/t is
constant and that Cv= 21 and Cp= 29.3 kJ/kmolK

## It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1mol% acetone

in air in a countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower
is 30kgmol/hr and the total inlet pure water flow to be used to absorb
acetone is 90kgmol H2O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and
a total pressure of 101.3kPa. the equilibrium relation for the acetone in the
gas-liquid is y= 2.53x. Determine the number of theoretical stages required
for this separation.

## Ans. 5.2 theoretical stages

Water at 366.65 is pumped from a storage tank at the rate of 3.15x10^-1 m3/s.
the motor for the pump supplies work at the rate of 1.5kW. the water goes
through a heat exchanger, giving up heat at the rate of 700kW, and is
delivered to a second storage tank at an elevation 15m above the first tank.
What is the temperature of the water delivered to the second tank?

Ans. T= 311.35K
Water at 301.15K flows in a straight horizontal pipe in which there is no
exchange of either heat or work with the surroundings. Its velocity is 14m/s
in a pipe with an internal diameter of 2.5cm until it flows into a section
where the pipe diameter abruptly increases. What is the temperature change of
the water if the downstream diameter is 3.8cm? if it is 7.5cm? what is
maximum temp change for an enlargement in the pipe?

## Ans. deltaT= 0.019C, deltaT= 0.023C, deltaT= 0.023C

Ammonia is absorbed in water from a mixture with air using a column operating
at 1bar and 295K. the resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying
entirely within the gas phase. At a point in the column, the partial pressure
of the ammonia is 7kN/m2. The back pressure at the water interface is
negligible and the resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying in a
stationary gas film 1mm thick. If the diffusivity of ammonia in air is
2.36x10^-5 m2/s, what is the transfer rate per unit area at that point in the
column? How would the rate of transfer be affected if the ammonia air mixture
were compressed to double the pressure?

Ans. Na= 6.97x10^-5 kmol/m2 s, mass transfer rate remains the same.

Fifty kmol per hour of air is compressed from P1= 1.2bar to P2= 6 bar in a
steady-flow compressor. Delivered mechanical power is 98.8kW. temperatures
and velocities are: T1=300K, v1= 10m/s, T2= 520K, v2= 3.5m/s.

Estimate the rate of heat transfer from the compressor. Assume for air that
Cp=7/2R and that enthalpy is independent of pressure..

Ans. Q= -9.904kW

0.125m3 at 50C?

## a.) The ideal gas equation

b.) Redlich/kwong
c.) A generalized equation

## A mixture of 75% H2 and 25% N2 (molar basis) is contained in a tank at 800atm

and -70C. Estimate the specific volume of the mixture in L/mol using Kay’s
rule

## Ans. 0.0387 L/mol

A liquid containing four components A,B,C and D with 0.3 mol fraction each of
A, B and C is to be continuously fractionated to give a top product of 0.9mol
fraction A and 0.1mol fraction B. the bottoms are to contain not more than
0.5mol fraction A. Estimate the minimum reflux ratio required for the
separation, if the relative volatility of A to B is 2. Ans. 2.71
For acetone 20C and 1bar: β= 1.487x10^-3 K^-1 , k= 62x10^-6bar, V= 1.287x10^-
3 m3/kg. find

## a.) The value of (dP/dT)p

b.) The pressure generated when acetone is heated at constant volume
from 20C and 1bar to 30C
c.) The volume when acetone is changed from 20C and 1bar to 0C
and10bar

## Given that the latent heat of vaporization of water at 100C is 2257kJ/kg,

estimate the latent heat at 300K?

## Ans. 1371 kJ/kg

The rate of flow of water in a 150mm diameter pipe is measured with a venture
meter with a 50mm diameter throat. When the pressure drop over the converging
section is 121mm of water, the flowrate is 2.91kg/s. what is the coefficient
for the converging cone of the meter at this flowrate?

## A 40kg steel casting (Cp-0.5kJ/kgK) at a temperature of 450C is quenched in

150kg of oil(Cp= 2.5kJ/kgK) at 25C. if there are no heat losses, what is the
change in entropy of a.)the casting b.) the oil c) both considered together?

## Ans. a.) 16.33kJ/K b.) 26.13kJ/K c.) 9.8kJ/K

One mol of an ideal gas Cp=7/2R and Cv= 5/2R, is compressed adiabatically in
a piston cylinder device from 2bar and 25C to 7bar. The process is
irreversible and requires 35% more work than a reversible, adiabatic
compression from the same initial state to the same final pressure. What is
the entropy change of the gas?

## one mol of an ideal gas in compressed isothermally but irreversibly at 130C

from 2.5bar to 6.5bar in piston/cylinder device. The work required is 30%
greater than the work reversible, isothermal compression. The heat
transferred from the ga during compression flows to a heat reservoir at 25C.
calculate the entropy changes of the gas, the heat reservoir, and ΔStotal.

## The system acetone(1)/acetonitrile(2)/nitromehtane(3) at 80C and 110kPa has

the overall composition z1= 0.45, z2= 0.35, z3= 0.2. assuimng the Raoults law
is appropriate to this system, determine L,V, x1 ,y1. The vapor pressure of
the pure species at 80C are

## Ans. V= 0.7364mol, L= 0.2636mol, y1= 0.5087, x1= 0.2859

10kmol per hour of air is throttled from upstream conditions of 25C and 10bar
to a downstream pressure of 1.2bar. asssume air to be an ideal gas.

## a.) What is the downstream temperature?

b.) What is the entropy change of the air in J/molK
c.) What is the rate if entropy generation in W/K
d.) If the surroundings are at 20C, what is the lost work?

## Ans. T2= 298.15K, deltaS= 17.628 J/mol K, S= 48.966 W/K, Wlost=5.168x10^3

J/mol

What change in entropy when 0.7m3 of CO2 and 0.3m3 N2, each at 1bar and 25C
blend to form a gas mixture at the same conditions? Assume ideal gases

## 2.27m3/h water at 320K is pumped in a 40mm i.d. pipe through a distance of

150m in a horizontal direction and then up through a vertical height of 10m.
in the pipe there is a control valve for which the friction loss may be taken
as equivalent to 200 pipe diameters and also other pipe fittings equivalent
to 60 pipe diameters. Also in the line is a heat exchanger across which there
is a loss in head of 1.5m of water. If the main pipe has a roughness of
0.2mm, what power must be supplied to the pump if it is 60% efficient?

Ans P= 136.4W

## A distillation column is fed with a mixture of benzene and toluene, in which

the mol fraction of benzene is 0.35. the column is to yield a product in
which the mol fraction of benzene is 0.95, when working with a reflux ratio
of 3.2, and the waste from the column is not to exceed 0.05 mol fraction of
benzene. If the plate efficiency is 60%, estimate the number of plates
required and the position of the feed point.

## Estimate the pressure of nitrogen at a temperature of 220K and a specific

volume of 0.04m3/kg using a.) ideal-gas b.) van der waals c.) RK equation d.)
the compressibility factor

## In a test on a centrifuge, all particles of a mineral of density 2800kg/m3

and size of 5μm, equivalent spherical diameter, were separated from
suspension in water fed at a volumetric throughput rate of 0.25m3/s.
Calculate the value of the capacity factor ∑.

What will be the corresponding size cut for a suspension of coal particles in
oil fed at the rate of 0.04m3/s? the density of coal is 1300kg/m3 and the
density of the oil is 850 kg/m3 and its viscosity is 0.01 Ns/m2.It may be
assumed that Stokes law is applicable.

## Ans. d= 4micrometer (Coulson)/ 12.64 micrometer

Benzene at 100F is pumped through the system at the rate of 40gal/min. the
reservoir is at atmospheric pressure. The gauge pressure at the end of the
discharge line is 50lbf/ in2. The discharge is 10ft and the pump suction 4ft
above the level in the reservoir. The discharge line is 1 ½ in. Schedule40
pipe. The friction in the suction line is known to be 0.5lbf/in2, and that in
the discharge line is 5.5lbf/in2. The mechanical efficiency of the pump is
0.6. the density of benzene is 54lbf/ft3 and its vapour pressure at 100F is
3.8lbf/in2. Calculate a.) the developed head of the pump and b.) the total
power input. C.) if the pump manufacturer specifies a required NPSHR of10ft,
will the pump be suitable for this service?

Ans. a.) ΔH= 159.9ft-lbf, b.) Power= 2.33hp c.) NPSH= 23.77ft

A paddle wheel provides 200kJ of work to the air contained in a 0.2m3 rigid
volume, initially at 400kPa and 40C. determine the entropy change if the
volume is insulated.

Ans. s= 0.4428kJ/K

## Air at 290K is compressed from 101.3kN/m2 to 2065kN/m2 in a two-stage

compressor operating with a mechanical efficiency of 85%. The relation
between the pressure and volume during the compression stroke and expansion
of the clearance gas is PV1.25 =constant. The compression ratio in each of the
two cylinders is the same, and the interstage cooler may be assumed 100%
efficient. If the clearances in the two cylinders are 4% and 5% respectively,
calculate:

## a.) The work of compression per kg of air compressed

b.) The isothermal efficiency
c.) The isentropic efficiency (ϒ= 1.4) and
d.) The ratio of the swept volumes in the two cylinders

## Hydrogen is pumped from a reservoir at 2MN/m2 through a clean horizontal mild

steel pipe 50mm in diameter and 500m long. The downstream pressure is also
2MN/m2 and the pressure of the gas is raised to 2.5MN/m2 by a pump at the
upstream end of the pipe. The conditions of flow are isothermal and the
temperature of the gas is 295K. what is the flowrate and what is the
effective rate of working pump if it operates with an efficiency of 60%?
Viscosity of hydrogen = 0.009mN/m2 at 295K

## Ans. G= 0.2kg/s , Power= 91.4kW

600 liter/s of water at 320K is pumped in a 40mm i.d pipe through a length of
150m in a horizontal direction and up through a vertical height of 10m. in
the pipe there is a control valve which may be taken as equivalent to 200
pipe diameters and other pipe fittings equivalent to 60 pipe diameters. Alson
in the line there is a heat exchanger across which there is a loss in head of
1.5m of water. If the main pipe has a roughness of 0.0002m, what power must
be delivered to the pump if the unit is 60% efficient?

Ans. 128W
A 2–shell passes and 4-tube passes heat exchanger is used to heat glycerine
from 20C to 50C by hot water, which enters the thin-walled 2-cm-diameter
tubes at 80C and leaves 40C. the total length of the tubes in the heat
exchanger is 60m. the convection heat transfer coefficient is 25W/m2C on the
glycerine(shell) side and 160W/m2C on the water (tube) side. Determine the
rate of heat transfer in the heat exchanger a.) before any fouling occurs and
b.) after fouling with a fouling factor of 0.0006m2C/W occurs on the outer
surfaces of the tubes.

## Ans. a.) Q= 1830W , b.) Q= 1805W

A rotary dryer is fed with sand at the rate of 1kg/s. the feed is 50% wet and
the sand is discharged with 3% moisture. The air enters at 380K with an
solute humidity of 0.007kg/kg. the wet sand enters at 294K and leaves at 309K
and the air leaves at 310K. calculate the mass air passing through the dryer
and the humidity of the air leaving the dryer. Allow a radiation loss of
25kJ/kg of dry air

## Latent heat of water at 294K- 2450kJ/kg

Specific heat of sand= 0.88kJ.kgK
Specific heat of dry air= 0.99kJ/kgK
Specific heat of water vapour= 2.01kJ/kgK

Ans. Mass of air = 26.5kg/s, flow of inlet air= 26.7kg/s , Humidity= 0.025
kg/kg DA

Ammonia gas is diffusing through a uniform tube 0.1m long containing N2 gas
at 1.0132x10^5 Pa press and 298K. at point 1, Pa1= 1.013x10^4 Pa and at point
2, Pa2=0.507x10^4 Pa. the diffusivity DAB= 0.23x10^-4 m2/s

## Ans. Ja= 4.7x10^-7 kmol A/m2 s, Jb= 4.7x10^-7 kmol B/m2 s

What is the emissivity of a grey surface, 10m2 in area, which radiates 1000kW
at 1500K? what should be the effect of increasing the temperature to 1600K?

## Ans. e= 0.348, E= 1295kW

A piston cylinder arrangement contains 0.02m3 of air at 50C and 400kPa. Heat
is added in the amount of 50kJ and work is done by a paddle wheel until the
temperature reaches 700C. if the pressure is held constant, how much paddle
wheel work must be added to the air? Assume constant specific heats.

Ans. W= -6.095kJ

Water flows in an open channel across a weir which occupies the full width of
the channel. The length of the weir is 0.5m and the height of water over the
weir is 100mm. what is the volumetric flowrate of water?

Ans. Q= 0.03m3/s
Helium is contained in a 2m3 rigid volume at 50C and 200kPa. Calculate the
heat transfer needed to increase the pressure to 800kPa.

Ans. Q= 1800kJ

One liter per minute of liquid containing A and B(CAO= 0.1mol/L, CBO=
0.01mol/L) flow into a mixed reactor of volume V= 1 liter. The materials
react in a complex manner for which the stoichiometry in unknown. The outlet
stream from the reactor contains A, B and C. ( CAf= 0.02 mol/L, CBf=
0.03mol/L, CCf= 0.04 mol/L). find the rate of reaction of A,B and C for the
conditions within the reactor.

## Carbon dioxide gas enters a water-cooled compressor at the initial conditions

P1= 1.04bar and T1= 10C and is discharged at the final conditions P2= 35.8bar
and T2=93C. the entering CO2 flows through a 100mm diameter pipe with a
velocity of 6m/s and is discharged through a 25mm diameter pipe. The shaft
work supplied to the compressor is 12500kJ/kmol. What is the heat-transfer
rate from the compressor in kW? H1= 714kJ/kg, H2= 768kJ/kg, V1= 0.5774m3/kg,
V2= 0.0175m3/kg

## TiCl4 can be formed by reacting titanium dioxide (TiO2) with hydrochloric

acid. TiO2 is
available as an ore containing 78 % TiO2 and 22 % inerts. The HCl is
available as 45 wt% solution
(the balance is water). The per pass conversion of TiO2 is 75 %. The HCl is
fed into the reactor in
20 % excess based on the reaction. Pure unreacted TiO2 is recycled back to
mix with the TiO2
feed.
TiO2 + 4 HCl -----> TiCl4 + 2H2O
For 1 kg of TiCl4 produced, determine:
a. the kg of TiO2 ore fed.
b. the kg of 45 wt % HCl solution fed.
c. the ratio of recycle stream to fresh TiO2 ore (in kg)

## A turbine accepts superheated steam at 800psia and 1200F and rejects it as

saturated vapour at 2psia. Predict the hp output if the mass flux is
1000lbm/min. also calculate the velocity at the exit. d2= 4ft

## Ans. –Wt= 11970 hp, v= 230ft/s

A liquid reactant stream (1mol/liter) passes through two mixed flow reactors
in a series. The concentration of A in the exit of the first reactor is
0.5mol/liter. Find the concentration in the exit stream of the second
reactor. The reaction is second-order with respect to A and V2/V1= 2

## Ans. Ca2= 0.25 mol/L min

Solid particles having a size of 0.12mm, a shape factor φ of 0.88, and a
density of 1000kg/m3 are to be fluidized using air at 2atm abs and 25C. the
voidage at minimum fluidizing conditions is 0.42.

a.) If the cross section of the empty bed is 0.3m2 and the bed
contains 300kg of solid, calculate the minimum height of the fluidized
bed.
b.) Calculate the pressure drop at minimum fluidizing conditions
c.) Calculate the minimum velocity for fluidization

## Determine the vapour phase compositions of a mixture in equilibrium with a

liquid mixture of 0.5mol fraction benzene and 0.5mol fraction of toluene at
338K. will the liquid vaporized at pressure of 101.3kN/m2?

## Ans. Yb= 0.734, yT= 0.266

Air enters a compressor at atmospheric conditions of 20C and 80kPa and exits
at 800kPa and 200C. Calculate the rate of heat transfer if the power input is
400kW. The air exits at 20m/s through an exit diameter of 10cm.

Ans. Q= -233.4kW

In a pilot scale test using a vessel 1m3 in volume, a solute was leached from
an inert solid and the water was 75% saturated in 100s. if, in a full-scale
unit, 500kg of the inert solid containing, as before, 28% by mass of the
water soluble component, is agitated with 100m2 of water, how long will it
take for all solute to dissolve, assuming conditions are equivalent to those
in the pilot scale vessel? Water is saturated with the solute at a
concentration of 2.5kg/m3?

t= 5906s (98mins)

## In a vegetable-oil refining process, an aqueous phase is being separated from

the oil phase in a centrifuge. The density of the oil is 919.5kg/m3 and that
of the aqueous phase is 980.3kg/m3. The radius r1 for overflow of the light
liquid has been set at 10.16mm and the outlet for the heavy liquid at
10.414mm. Calculate the location of the interface in the centrifuge.

Ans. r2=13.75mm

## A saturated solution containing 1500kg potassium chloride at 360K is cooled

in an open tank to 290K. If the density of the solution is 1200kg/m3, the
solubility of potassium chloride is 53.55kg/100kg H2O at 360K and 34.5 at
290K, calculate:

## a.) The capacity of the tank required

b.) The mass of crystals obtained, neglecting loss of water by evap

## Ans. V= 3.58m3, C= 534 kg

An open bowl, 0.3m in diameter contains water at 350K evaporating into the
atmosphere. If the air currents are sufficiently strong to remove the water
vapour, as it is formed and if the resistance to its mass transfer in air is
equivalent to that of a 1mm layer for conditions of molecular diffusion, what
will be the rate of cooling due to evaporation? The water can be considered
as well mixed and the water equivalent of the system is equal to 10kg. The
diffusivity of water vapour in air may be taken as 0.2cm2/s and the kilogram
molecular volume at NTP as 22.4m3.

## What is the terminal velocity of a spherical steel particle, 0.4mm in

diameter, settling in an oil of density 820kg/m3 and viscosity 10mNs/m2? The
density of steel is 7870 kg/m3/
Ans. v= 0.051m/s

## A packed bed of solid particles of density 2500kg/m3 occupies a depth of 1m

in a vessel of cross sectional area 0.04m2. the mass of solids in the bed is
50kg and the surface volume mean diameter of the particles is 1mm. a liquid
of density 800kg/m3 and viscosity 0.002 Pa s flows upwards through the bed,
which is restrained at its upper surface.

## a.) Calculate the voidage of the bed

b.) Calculate the frictional pressure drop across the bed when the
volume flow rate of liquid is 1.44m3/h

## A 100kg mass drops 3m, resulting in an increased volume in the cylinder of

0.002m3. the weight and the piston maintain a constant gage pressure of
100kPa. Determine the net work done by the gas on the surroundings. Neglect
all friction

## Sulfuric acid of density 1300kg/m3 is flowing through a pipe of 50mm,

internal diameter. Athin-lipped orifice, 10mm in diameter is fitted in the
pipe and the differential pressure shown in a mercury manometer is 0.1m
assuming that the leads to the manometer are filled with the acid, calculate
a.) the massflowrate of acid and b.) the approximate drop in pressure caused
by the orifice in kN/m2. The coefficient of discharge of the orifice may be
taken as 0.61, the density of mercury as 13,550kg/m3 and the density of the
water as 1000kg/m3.

## Water flowing at a rate of 0.02kg/s is heated from 20 to 60C in a horizontal

pipe ( inside diameter= 2.5cm). the inside pipe surface temperature is 90C.
Estimate the convective heat-transfer coefficient if the pipe is 1m long. If
the rate of water flow is raised to 0.2kg/s from 0.02kg/s while all other
conditions are kept the same, calculate the new convective heat-transfer
coefficient. Ans. h= 284 W/m2 C, h= 2355 W/m2 C
Wet material, containing 70% moisture, is to be dried at a rate of 0.15kg/s
in a counter current dryer to give a product containing 5% moisture (both on
wet basis). The drying medium consists of air heated to 373K and containing
water vapour equivalent to a partial pressure of 1kN/m2. The air leaves the
dryer at 313K and 70% saturated. Calculate how much air will be required to
remove the moisture. The vapour pressure of water at 313K may be taken as
7.4kN/m2

## By extraction with kerosene, 2 tons of waxed paper per day is to be dewaxed

in continuous counter current extraction system that contains a number of
ideal stages. The waxed paper contains, by weight, 25% paraffin wax and 75%
paper pulp. The extracted pulp is put through a dryer to evaporate the
kerosene. The pulp, which retains the unextracted wax after evaporation, must
not contain over 0.2lb of wax per 100lb of wax free kerosene. Experiments
show that the pulp retains 2lb kerosene per pound kerosene and wax-free pulp
as it is transferred from cell to cell. The extract from the battery is to
contain 5lb of wax per 100lb of wax-free kerosene. How many stages are
required?

Ans. N= 4 stages

## An ethanol-water solution in the form of a stagnant film 2mm thick at 293K is

in contact at one surface with an organic solvent in which ethanol is soluble
and water is insoluble. Hence, NB=0. At point 1 the concentration of ethanol
is 16.8% wt and the solution density is ρ1= 972.8kg/m3. At point 2 the
concentration of ethanol is 6.8% wt and ρ2= 988.1 kg/m3. The diffusivity of
ethanol is 0.74x10^-9 m2/s. calculate the steady-state flux N.

## The drive shaft in an automobile delivers 100N-m of torque as it rotates at

3000rpm. Calculate the hp delivered.

Ans. 42.1hp

## Assume that CuSO4 -5H2O is to be crystallized in an ideal product-

classifying crystallizer. A 1.4mm product is desired. The growth rate is
estimated to be 0.2microm/s. The geometric constant alpha is 0.2, and the
density of the crystal is 2300kg/hr. A magma consistency of 0.35m3 of
crystals per cubic m of mother liquor is to be used. What is the production
rate, in kg crystals per hr percubic meter of mother liquour, what rate of
nucleation, in number per hour per cubic meter of mother liquor, is needed?

## Ans. production rate= 1656 kg/ hr-m3, 1.312x10^9 nuclei/h-m3

A triple-effect evaporator is fed with 5kg/s of a liquor containing 15%
solids. The concentration in the last effect, which operates at 13.5kN/m2, is
60% solids. If the overall heat transfer coefficients are 2.5, 2 and 1.1
kW/m2K, respectively, and the steam is fed at 388K to the 1st effect,
determine the temperature distribution and the area of heating surface
required in each effect, assuming the calandria are identical. What is the
economy and what is the heat load on the condenser? The feed temperature is
294K and the specific heat capacity of all liquors is 4.18kJ/kgK. if the unit
is run as backward effect system, in which the coefficients are 2.3, 2 and
1.6. determine the new temperatures, the heat economy and the heating surface
required under these conditions.

Ans. forward feed, Economy= 2, Aave= 89m2, T1=369, T2=354, T3=325, Heat load
in condenser= 31.8kW

Backward feed, Economy= 2.3, Aave= 81m2, T1= 369.5K, T2= 349K, T3=
325K