104 views

Uploaded by jantskie

Overall-problems (Day 2)

- 253.6SL3210-1PB21-0UL0_datasheet_en
- Chemical Engg Reviewer
- 03 Liquid Liquid Extraction
- Stoichiometry of Cell Growth and Product Formation
- Chemical Engineering Calculations Reviewer
- Chapter 1 distillation
- Liquid Liquid Extraction
- ChE Reviewer 2014 (PART I)
- letra 21
- Rhodes Solutions Ch6
- Evaporation Crystallization
- day3 part6
- 12 Energy and Energy Balances
- Kawamura
- Chapter 8 ( Principle of Chemical Engineering)1
- Tugas 2 Peristiwa Perpindahan
- Spesifikasi Adapter
- 05987373
- 3.3 Problems on Single Effect Evaporator.docx
- 5

You are on page 1of 52

13.5kN/m2. If the overall coefficient of heat transfer is 3kW/m2K, estimate

the heating surface required an the amount of steam used if the feed to the

evaporator is at 294K and the condensate leaves the heating space at 352.7K.

the specific heats of 10 and 50% solutions are 3.76 and 3.14kJ/kgK,

respectively

If crushing rolls, 1m diameter are set so that the crushing surfaces are

12.5mm apart and the angle of nip is 31O, what is the maximum size of particle

which should be fed to the rolls? If the actual capacity of the machine is

12% of the theoretical, calculate the throughput in kg/s when running at 2Hz

if the working face of the rolls is 0.4m long and the bulk density of the

feed is 2500kg/m3

in such a way that the quantity PV remains constant. The initial pressure and

volume are 200kPa and 2m3, respectively. If the final pressure is 100kPa,

calculate the work done by the gas on the piston.

Ans. W= 277kJ

A boiler is fired with a coal containing 76%C and 8.1% ash, burnt under

conditions such that elimination of combustible matter from the refuse is

complete. The air enters the furnace at 90F and s 80% saturated with water

vapour at this temp. the S and N is negligible. The flue gases go to the

stack at 1atm and 640F. the ave flue gas analysis shows 12.6%CO2, 6.2% O2,

and 1%CO. Calc the ff

% xs air

Ultimate analysis of coal

Ft3 of wet flue gas per pound coal fired

Ft3 of wet air per pound coal fired

copper inner tubes have a diameter of 2cm and negligible thickness. The inner

diameter of the outer tube (the shell) is 3cm. water flows through the tube

at a rate of 0.5kg/s, and the oil through the shell at a rate of 0.8kg/s.

taking the average temperatures of the water and the oil to be 45C and 80C,

respectively, determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of this heat

exchanger.

Ans. U= 74.5 W/m2 C

A pump draws a solution of specific gravity 1.84 from a storage tank through

a 3in.(75mm) schedule 40 steel pipe. The efficiency of the pump is 60%. The

velocity in the suction line is 3ft/s(0.91m/s). the pump discharges through a

2in (50mm) schedule 40 pipe to an overhead tank. The end of the discharge

pipe is 50ft (15.2m) above the level of the solution in the feed tank.

Friction losses in the entire piping system are 10ft-lbf/lbm (29.9J/kg). what

pressure must the pump develop? What is the power delivered to the fluid by

the pump?

Steam and water flow through a 75mm i.d pipe at flworates 0.05 and 1.5kg/s

respectively. If the mean temperature and pressure are 330K and 120kN/m2,

what is the pressure drop per unit length of pipe assuming adiabatic

conditions?

of 293K. the total pressure of air is 1.01325x10^5 Pa and the temperature is

293K. water evaporates and diffuses through the air in the tube and the

diffusion path is 0.1524m long. Calculate the rate of evaporation at steady

state. The diffusivity of water vapour at 293K and 1atm pressure in 0.25x10^-

4 m2/s. assume that the system is isothermal.

to our plug flow reactor with recycle of product (R=2). If we shut off the

recycle stream, by how much will this lower the processing rate of our feed

to the same 90% conversion?

The frictionless piston has a mass of 16kg. heat is added until the

temperature reaches 400C. if the initial quality is 20%, find a.) the initial

pressure, b.) the mass of water c.) the quality when the piston hits the

stops, d.) the final pressure, e.) the work done on the piston

Ans. a.) P=120kPa b.) 0.001373kg c.) 32% d.) 0.686MPa e.) 28.3J

A wet solid is dried from 40 to 8% moisture in 20ks. If the critical and the

equilibrium moisture contents are 15 and 4% respectively, how long will it

take to dry the solid to 5% moisture under the same conditions? All moisture

contents are on a dry basis

277.5K. how much water must be removed and what will be the volume of the gas

after drying?

277.5K= 0.85kN/m2

Ans. Water removed= 0.00708 kg/s, volume of gas= 0.591 m3/s at STP

A cyclone separator, 0.3m in diameter and 1.2m long, has a circular inlet

75mm in diameter and an outlet of the same size. If the gas enters at a

velocity of 1.5m/s, at what particle size will the theoretical cut occur?

The viscosity of air is 0.018mNs/m2, the density of air is 1.3kg/m3 and the

density of the particles is 2700kg/m3.

Ans. D= 2.17μm

continuously distilled in a plate fractionating column to give a product

containing 0.77 mol fract ion alcohol and waste of 0.02 mol fraction

alcohol. It is proposed to withdraw 25% of the alcohol in the entering stream

as side stream containing 0.5 mol fraction of alcohol.

1mm thick. Conditions are such that the gas contains 50% by volume ammonia at

one boundary of the stagnant layer. The ammonia diffusing to the other

boundary is quickly absorbed and the concentration is negligible at that

plane. The temperature is 295K and the pressure atmospheric, and under these

conditions the diffusivity of ammonia in air is 1.8x10^-5 m2/s. Estimate the

rate of diffusion of ammonia throughthe layer.

in a large mass of water is 13.3MJ. What is the heat of crystallization per

unit mass of the salt?

Ans. 53.9kJ/kg

clarified by centrifugation. The solution density ρ= 801kg/m3, and its

viscosity is 100cp. The centrifuge has a bowl with r2= 0.02225m, r1=

0.00716m, and height = 0.1970m. Calculate the critical particle diameter of

the largest particles in the exit stream if N= 23000 rpm and the flowrate is

0.002832 m3/h. Ans. Dpc=0.746μm

Steam expands isentropically through a turbine from 6MPa and 600C to 10kPa.

Calculate the power output if the mass flux is 2kg/s

Ans. w= 2774kW

Estimate the heat loss per square meter of surface through a brick wall 0.5m

thick when the inner surface is at 400K and the outside surface is at 300K.

the thermal conductivity of the brick may be taken as 0.7W/mK.

A gas analyzes 60% methane and 40% ethylene by volume. It is desired to store

12.3 kg of this gas mixture in a cylinder having a capacity of 5.14 x 10 -2 m3

at a maximum temperature of 45°C. Calculate the pressure inside the cylinder

by

(a) assuming that the mixture obeys the ideal gas laws;

(b) using the compressibility factor determined by the pseudo critical point

method.

A 25mm diameter copper sphere and a 25mm copper cube are both heated in a

furnace to 650C(923K). they are then annealed in air at 95C( 368K). if the

external heat transfer coefficient h=75W/m2K in both cases, what is the

temperature of the sphere and of the cube at the end of 5mins?

Ans. T= 208 C

after a period of time, equilibrium is established. If the container is

insulated, calculate the entropy change of the universe.

Ans. s= 0.0167Btu/R

A contact sulfuric acid plant produces 98.0 % sulfuric acid, by absorbing SO3

into a 97.3

% sulfuric acid solution. A gas containing 8.00 % SO3 (remainder inerts)

enters the SO3

absorption tower at the rate of 28 lb mol per hour. 98.5 % of the SO3 is

absorbed in this tower.

97.3 % sulfuric acid is introduced into the top of the tower and 95.9 %

sulfuric acid from another

part of the process is used as make - up acid. The flow sheet is given in the

figure with all of the

known data on it.

Calculate the

a. Tons/day of 95.9 % H2SO4 make-up acid solution required.

b. Tons/day of 97.3 % H2SO4 solution introduced into the top of the tower.

c. Tons/day of 98 % H2SO4 solution produced.

Ammonia is absorbed in water from a mixture with air using a column operating

at 1bar and 295K. The resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying

entirely within the gas phase. At a point in the column, the partial pressure

of the ammonia is 7kN/m2. The back pressure at the water interface is

negligible and the resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying in a

stationary gas film 1mm thick. If the diffusivity of ammonia in air is

2.36x10^-5 m2/s, what is the transfer rate per unit area at that point in the

column? How would the rate of transfer be affected if the ammonia air mixture

were compressed to double the pressure?

200kPa until the temperature reaches 400C. calculate work done by the steam.

Ans.W= 274.2kJ

acetone is mixed with 400cm3 of chloroform at 25C, and the phases are then

allowed to settle. What percentage of the acetone is transferred from the

water to the chloroform?

Ans. %= 86.1%

counter current extractor. The unit is to treat 1000kg of meal(based on

completely exhausted solid) per hour. The untreated meal contains 400kg of

oil and 25kg benzene. The fresh solvent mixture contains 10kg of oil and

655kg of benzene. The exhausted solids are to contain 60kg of unextracted

oil. Experiements carried out under conditions identical with those of the

projected battery show in table. Find (a) he concentration of the strong

solution, or extract; (b) the concentration of the solution adhering to the

extracted solids;(c) the mass of solution leaving with the extracted meal;(d)

the mass of extract;(e) the number of stages required. All quantities are

given on an hourly basis.

0 0.5

0.1 0.505

0.2 0.515

0.3 0.53

0.4 0.55

0.5 0.571

0.6 0.595

0.7 0.620

Ans. a. ya=0.6, b. xb= 0.118, c. Lb= 507kg/h, d. Va= 583 kg/h, e. N=4 stages

such that 80% passes a 3 in. (76.2mm) screen and 80% of the product is to

pass a 1/8in. (3.175mm) screen. Calculate the gross power required.

Ans. P= 24.1 hp ( 17.96kW)

wheel, inserted in the volume, does 720kJ of work on the air. If the volume

is 2m3, calculate the entropy increase assuming constant specific heats.

Ans. S= 1.851kJ/K

A power utility company desired to use the hot groundwater from a hot spring

to power a heat engine. If the groundwater is at 95C, estimate the maximum

power output if a mass flux of 0.2kg/s is possible. The atmosphere is at 20C.

Ans. W= 12.8kW

an agitated mild steel vessel of mass 750kg. At 283K, the solubility of the

anhydrous salt is 8.9kg/100kg H2O water and the stable crystalline phase is

Na2SO4-10H2O. At 291K, the heat of solution is -78.5 MJ/kmol and the heat

capacities of the solution and mil steel are 3.6 and 0.5kJ/kg K respectively.

If, during cooling, 2% of the water initially present is lost by evaporation,

estimate the heat which must be removed.

Ans. q= 615,000kJ

The vapour pressures of n-heptane and toluene at 373K are 106 and 73.7kN/m2

respectively. What are the mole fractions of n-heptane in the vapour and in

the liquid phase at 373K if the total pressure is 101.3kN/m2?

4200kg/m3. What will be the minimum fluidising velocity in a liquid of

viscosity 3mNs/m2 and density 1100kg/m3?

Ans. v= 36.4mm/s

eventually reaches room temperature of 25C. if the air is allowed to escape

with no heat transfer until P= 200kPa, determine the mass of air remaining in

the tank and the final temperature of air in the tank.

steel (k=15.1W/mC) inner tube diameter Di= 1.5cm and outer diameter Do= 1.9m

and an outer shell of inner diameter 3.2cm. the convection heat transfer

coefficient is given to be hi= 800W/m2C on the inner surface of the tube and

ho= 1200W/m2C on the outer surface. For a fouling factor of Rf,i= 0.0004

m2C/W on the tube side and Rf,o= 0.0001 m2C/W on the shell side, determine

a.) the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger per unit length and b.) the

overall heat transfer coefficients, Ui and Uo based on the inner and outer

surface areas of the tube, respectively.

Ans. Uo= 315, Ui=399

Calculate the relative volatility for benzene-toluene system at 85C and 105C.

crystallizer by cooling to 290K a solution of anhydrous Na2SO4 which

saturates between 300K and 290K. If the cooling water enters and leaves the

unit at 280K an 290K, and evaporation is negligible, how many sections of

crystallizer, each 3m long, will be required to process 0.25kg/s of the

product? The solubilities of anhydrous Na2SO4 water are 40 and 14kg/100kg H2O

at 300K and 290K, the mean heat capacity of the liquor is 3.8kJ/kgK and the

heat of crystallization is 230kJ/kg. For the crystallizer, the available heat

transfer area is 3m2/m length, the overall coefficient of the transfer is

0.15kW/m2K.

You are asked to measure the rate at which waste gases are being discharged

from a stack. The gases entering contain 2.1 % carbon dioxide. Pure carbon

dioxide is introduced into the bottom of the stack at a measured rate of 4.0

lb per minute. You measure the discharge of gases leaving the stack, and find

the concentration of carbon dioxide is 3.2 %. Calculate the rate of flow, in

lb mol/minute, of the entering waste gases.

column of height 1.4m and of cross-sectional area 0.0045m2, the

concentrations measured at the inlet and outlet of the column are shown:

Acid concentration in outlet water phase: Cw1= 0.685kmol/m3

Flowrate of benzene phase: 5.7cm3/s

Inlet benzene phase concentration: Cb1= 0.004kmol/m3

Outlet benzene phase concentration: Cb2= 0.0115kmol/m3

Equilibrium relationship: Cb*/Cw* = 0.0247

the rate equation

Is to take place in a 6-liter steady state mixed flow reactor. Two feed

streams, one containing 2.8mol A/liter and the other containing 1.6mol

B/liter, are to be introduced at equal volumetric flow rates into the

reactor, and 75% conversion of limiting component is desired. What should be

the flow rate of each stream? Assume a constant density throughout

What will be the concentration of oxygen dissolved in water at 298K when the

solution is in equilibrium with air at 1atm total pressure?

conditions with air at a velocity of 0.75m/s. the area of surface drying is

55m2. If the initial rate of drying is 0.3g/m2 s, how long will it take to

dry the material from 0.15 to 0.025 kg water/kg dry solid? The critical

moisture content of the material may be taken as 0.125kg water/kg dry solid.

If the air velocity were increased to 4m/s, what would be the anticipated

saving time if surface-evaporation controlled?

pressure of 2MPa. If the pressure is educed to 400kPa by cooling the vessel,

find the final mass of vapour and mass of liquid.

crystallizer operating at 1.33 kN/m2 when it is supplied with 0.56kg/s of

a40% aqueous solution of the salt at 353K? The boiling point elevation of the

solution is 11.5K

Data:

Ans. Y= 0.183kg/s

cylinder containing steam originally at 200C with a volume of 2m3. Calculate

the final temperature if 3500J of heat is added.

reservoirs at 100C and 1000C. calculate the entropy change of each reservoirs

and the net entropy change of the two reservoirs after 20mins of operation.

A flat-blade turbine agitator with disk having six blades is installed in a

tank. The tank diameter is 1.83m, the turbine diameter is 0.61m, Dt= H, and

the width is 0.122m. The tank contains four baffles each having a width of

0.15m. The turbine is operated at 90rpm and the liquid in the tank has a

viscosity of 10cp and a density of 929 kg/m.

b.) For the same conditions, except for the solution having a

viscosity of 100,000 cp, calculate the power required in kW.

concentrated from 10 to 40% solids by mass. The heat transfer coefficients

may be taken as 3.1, 2.5, and 1.7 kW/m2K, respectively, in each effect.

forward feed is used in each case and the values of U are the same for the

two systems. The boiling point in the third effect is 325K and the liquor has

no boiling point rise. Calculate the steam flow at 170kN/m2 and the

temperature distribution in the three effects, if

b.) The feed is at 355K

A vessel divided into two parts by a partition, contains 4mol nitrogen gas at

75C and 30bar on one side and 2.5mol of argon gas at 130C and 20bar on the

other. If the partition is removed and the gases mix adiabatically and

completely, what is the change in entropy? Assume nitrogen to be an ideal gas

with Cv= 5/2R and argon to be an ideal gas with Cv=3/2R

experiments were performed under fully turbulent conditions in a tank 0.6m in

diameter, fitted with baffles and provided with a flat-bladed turbine. It was

found that the satisfactory mixing was obtained at a rotor speed of 4Hz, when

the power consumption was 0.15kW and the Reynolds number 160,00. What should

be the rotor speed in order to retain the same mixing performance if the

linear scale of equipment is increased 6 times? What will be the power

consumption and the Reynolds number?

Ans. N2= 0.66 Hz, P=5.25kW, Re2= 950,000 if n=1, N2= 1.21 Hz, P=32.4kW, Re2=

1,740,00 if n=2/3,

mixers are available; a 0.5m diameter impeller rotating at 1 Hz and a 0.35m

impeller rotating at 2Hz. Assuming turbulent conditions prevail, which unit

will have the lower power consumption?

Ans P1/P2= 0.743

In leaching operation, the rate at which solute goes into solution is given

by an equation of the form:

𝑑𝑀

= 𝑘(𝑐𝑠 − 𝑐) 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

𝑑𝑡

cs and c are the saturation and bulk concentrations of the solute

respectively in kg/m3. In a pilot test on a vessel 1m3 in volume, 75%

saturation was attained in 10s. If 300 kg of a solid containing 28% by mass

of a water soluble solid is agitated with 100m3 of water, how long will it

take for all solute to dissolve assuming conditions are the same as in the

pilot unit? Water is saturated with the solute at a concentration of 2.5kg/m3

Ans. t= 297s

counter current extractor of the intermittent drainage type using hexane as

the solvent. The extractor consists of ten sections and the section

efficiency is 50%. The entrainment, assumed constant, is 1kg solution/kg

solids. What will be the oil concentration in the outflowing solvent if the

extractable oil content is to be reduced by 0.5% by mass?

Ans. 27.8%

water entering at 60C to a product of 50% solids. The pressure of the

saturated steam used is 172.4kPa and the pressure in the vapour space of the

evaporator is 11.7kPa. the overall heat transfer coefficient is 1560W/m2K.

calculate the team used, the steam economy and the heating surface area in

m2.

1000rpm.

forces

b.) Compare this force to that for a bowl with a radius of 0.203m

rotating at the same rpm.

is cooled to 293.2K, where MgSO4-7H2O crystals are removed. The solubility of

the salt is 35.5kg/100kg H2O. The average heat capacity of the feed solution

can be assumed as 2.93kJ/kg-K. The heat of solution at 291.2K is -13.31x10^3

kJ/kmol MgSO4-7H2O. Calculate the yield of crystals and determine the heat,

assuming no water is evaporated.

Ans. C= 616.9 kg, S= 1651.1 kg solution, q= -261912kJ

A salt solution weighing 10000kg with 30% Na2CO3 is cooled to 293K. The salt

crystallizes as the decahydrate. What will be the yield of Na2CO3-10H2O

crystals if the solubility is 21.5kg anhydrous Na2CO3/100kg H2O? Do the ff:

b.) Assume that 3% of the total weight of the solution is lost by

evaporation of water in cooling.

10H2O, S=3070kg solution

The air in a circular cylinder is heated until the spring is compressed 50mm.

find the work done by the air on the frictionless piston. The spring is

initially unstretched.

A mixture of ammonia and air is scrubbed in a plate column with fresh water.

If the ammonia concentration is reduced from 5% to 0.01%, and the water and

air rates are 0.65 and 0.4kg/m2s, how many theoretical plates required? The

equilibrium relationship may be written as Y=X.

Ans. 6 plates

If the equilibrium saturation value is 2.04kg/kg H2O, what is the

supersaturation ratio in terms of kg/kg H2O and kg/kg solution?

A piston cylinder arrangement contains 2kg steam originally at 200C and 90%

quality. The volume triples while the temperature is held constant. Calculate

the heat that must be transferred and the final pressure.

temperature of 900F. estimate the final temperature if 800Btu of heat is

added.

Ans. T2= 1512F

solution containing 1000kg of sodium sulphate in 5000kg H2O to 283K? The

solubility of sodium sulphate at 283K is 9kg/100kg H2O and the deposited

crystals will consist of the deca-hydrate. It may be assumed that 2% of the

water will be lost by evaporation during cooling.

Steam leaves the boiler of a single steam power cycle at 4000kPa and 600C. it

exits the turbine at 20kPa as saturated steam. It then exits the condenser as

saturated water. Determine the thermal efficiency if there is no loss in

pressure through the condenser and the boiler.

filled with a steam line transporting steam at 800F and 500psia. Determine

a.) the temperature of steam in the tank when its pressure is 500psia and b.)

the mass of the steam that flows into the tank

in contact at one surface with an organic solvent in which ethanol is soluble

and water is insoluble. Hence, Nb= 0. At point 1 the concentration of ethanol

is 16.8 wt% and the solution density is ρ1= 972.8kg/m3. At point 2 the

concentration of ethanol is 6.8 wt% and ρ2= 988.1kg/m3. The diffusivity of

ethanol is 0.740 x10^-9 m2/s. Calculate the steady state flux, N.

a 10% ammonia-air mixture is scrubbed with water and the concentration of

ammonia is reduced to 0.1%. IF the whole of the resistance to mass transfer

may be regarded as lying within the laminar film on the gas side of the gas-

liquid interface, derive from first principles an expression for the rate of

absorption at any position in the column. At some intermediate point where

the ammonia concentration in the gas phase has been reduced to 5%, the

partial pressure of ammonia in equilibrium with the aqueous is 66kPa and the

transfer rate is 10^-3 kmol/m2 s. What is the thickness of the hypothetical

gas film if the diffusivity of ammonia in air is o,24cm2/s?

Ans. z= 0.043mm

pressure which is constant throughout. At one end of the pipe at point 1 the

partial pressure pa1 of He is 0.6atm and at the other end 0.2m pa2= 0.2atm.

Calculate the flux of He at steady state if D AB of the He-N2 mixture is

0.687x10^-4 m2/s.

ANS. J= 5.63x10^-6 kgmol/ m2 s, J= 5.63x10^-7 gmol/ cm2 s

Air at 1bar and 298.15K is compressed to 5bar and 298.15K by two different

mechanically reversible processes.

volume

b.) Heating at constant volume followed by cooling at constant

pressure

Calculate the heat and work requirements and ΔU and ΔH of the air for each

pair. The ff heat capacities for air may be assumed

Ans. a.) Q= -1983J, W= 1983J, ΔU=0, ΔH=0 b.) ΔU= ΔH =0, Q= -9915J, W= 9915J

supplied at the bottom with mixture of benzene and toluene as vapour. At the

top a condenser returns some of the product as reflux which flows in a thin

film down the inner wall of the tube. The tube is insulated and heat losses

can be neglected. At one point in the column the vapour contains 70% mol

benzene and the adjacent liquid reflux contains 59% mol benzene. The

temperature at this point is 365K. Assuming the diffusional resistance to

vapour transfer to the equivalent to the diffusional resistance of a stagnant

vapour layer 0.2mm thick, calculate the rate of interchange of benzene and

toluene between vapour and liquid. The molar latent heats of the two

materials can be taken as equal. The vapour pressure of toluene at 365K is

54kN/m2 and the diffusivity of the vapors is 0.051cm2/s

ft3. Calculate the pressure in atmospheres in the cylinder

(a) assuming N2 to be an ideal gas

(b) assuming the pressure of N2 can be predicted by van der Waal's equation

(c) using the compressibility factor method

(d) using the Redlich-Kwong equation of state.

The homogenous gas decomposition of phosphine 4PH3 (g) = P4 (g) + 6H2 proceeds at

649C with the first order rate –rPH3 = (10/hr)CPH3. What size of plug flow

reactor operating at 649C and 460kPa can produce 80% conversion of a feed

consisting of 40mol of pure phosphine per hour?

Ans. V= 148L

mixed flow reactor, is radiated therein and polymerization as follows: A = R=

S= T…in the exit stream CA= 0.01 mol/liter, and for a particular reaction

product W, CW= 0.0002mol/liter. Find the rate of reaction of A and the rate

of formation of W.

Ans. ra= 1.98, rw= 0.0004

10-mesh screen. The cumulative analysis of overlow and underflow are given.

Calc the mass ratio of the overflow and underflow to feed and the overall

effectiveness of the screen.

4 4.699 0 0

A material is crushed in a blake jaw crusher such that the average size of

particle is reduced from 50mm to 10mm, with the composition of energy of

13kW/(kg/s). What will be the consumption of energy needed to crush the same

material of average size 75mm to average size of 25mm:

b.) Assuming Kick’s Law applies

Which of these results would be regarded s being more reliable and why?

that for coarse crushing and, because Kick’s law more closely relates the

energy required to effect elastic deformation before fracture occurs, this

would be taken as given the more reliable result.

flowing at 0.5kg/s in a 25mm internal diameter horizontal pipe 100m long.

Assuming fully suspended flow, what is the maximum amount of sand which may

be transported in this way if the head developed by the pump is limited to

300kN/m2? The terminal falling velocity of the sand particles in water may be

taken as 0.0239m/s.

Ans. G= 0.56kg/s

A gas mixture at 1atm pressure abs containing air and CO2 is contacted in a

single stage mixer continuously with pure water at 293K. the two exit gas and

liquid streams reach equilibrium. The inlet gas flow rate is 100kgmol/hr,

with a mole fraction of CO2 of ya2= 0.2. The liquid flow rate entering is

300kgmol water/hr. Calculate the amounts and composition of the two outlet

phases. Assume that water does not vaporize to the gas phase.

Ans x= 1.41x 10^-4, y= 0.2, L= 300, V=100

An acetone-air mixture containing 0.015 mol fraction of acetone has the mol

fraction reduced to 1% of this value by countercurrent absorption of water in

a packed tower. The gas flowrate is 1kg/m2s of air and the water enters at

1.6kg/m2s. For this system, Henrys law holds an y= 1.75x, where y is the mol

fraction of acetone in the vapour in equilibrium with a mol fraction x in the

liquid. How many overall transfer units are required?

horizontal pipe 0.15m diameter, with a surface temperature of 400K to air at

294K.

down a column up which live steam is passed, so that 4kmol of steam are used

100kmol of oil is stripped. Determine the number of theoretical plates

required to reduce the hydrocarbon content to 0.05mol%, assuming that the oil

is non volatile. The vapour-liquid relation of the hydrocarbon in the oil is

given by y= 33x, where y is the mol fraction in the vapour and x the mol

fraction in the liquid. The temperature is maintained constant by internal

heating, so that steam does not condense in the tower

Ans. 8 plates

requires a peak cooling rate of 30,000kJ/h .what size electrical motor (rated

in hp) is required for the refrigerator?

calcium carbonate and sulfuric acid. A certain lime stone analyzes: CaCO3

96.89 %; MgCO3 1.41 %; inerts 1.70 %. For 5 metric tons of limestone reacted

completely, determine:

a. kg of anhydrous gypsum (CaSO4) produced.

b. kg of sulfuric acid solution (98 wt%) required.

c. kg of carbon dioxide produced.

Ans. a.) 6600kg CaSO4 b.) 4920kg H2SO4 solution c.) 2165kg CO2

separated from a mixture with a non-volatile organic compound of molecular

weight 135kg/kmol by stripping with steam. The liquor contains 8% of the

paraffin by mass and this is to be reduced to 0.08% using an upward flow of

steam saturated at 373K. if three times the minimum amount of steam is used,

how many theoretical stages will be required? The vapour pressure of the

paraffin at 373K is 53kN/m2 and the process takes place at atmospheric

pressure.

Ans. 4 plates

0.2m of building brick. The inside temperature is 1200K and the outside

temperature is 330K. if the thermal conductivities are 1.4, 0.21 and 0.7W/mK,

estimate the heat loss per unit area and the temperature at the junction of

the firebrick and the insulating brick. Firerick-> insulating brick->

ordinary brick

Predict the Hg, HL, and Kya for absorption of NH3 from water in a dilute

solution in a packed tower with 25.4mm Raschig rings at 303K and 101.32kPa

pressure. The flow rates are Gx= 2.543 kg/m2s and Gy= 0.339 kg/m2s

water in a tower using countercurrent flow. The liquid rate is 0.85kg/m2s and

the gas rate is 0.5kg/m2s/

(kN/m2) and the gas film resistance controls the process.

equilibrium data:

Mol fraction acetone in liquid 0.0076 0.0156 0.0306

0.0333

Ans. H= 6.27m

soda liquor to 30%. The unit employs forced circulation in which the liquor

is pumped through the vertical tubes of the calandria which are 32mm o.d. by

28mm i.d and 1.2m long. Steam is supplied at 394K, dry and saturated, and the

boiling point rise of the 30% solution is 15degK. If the overall heat

transfer coefficient is 1.75kW/m2K, how many tubes should be used, and what

material of construction would be specified for the evaporator? The latent

heat of vaporization under these conditions is 2270kJ/kg

containing 1.5kg of water/ kg solids in a continuous operation.

The slurry yielded the following data:

Concentration(kg water/kg solids) 5 4.2 3.7 3.1 2.5

Rate of sedimentation(mm/s) 0.2 0.12 0.094 0.07 0.05

Calculate the minimum area of thickener required to effect the separation of

a flow of 1.33kg/s of solids

Ans. A= 31.2m2

Calculate the Z and V for ethylene at 25C and 12bar by the following

equations

b.) The truncated virial equation with a value of B from generalized

Pitzer correlation

c.) The redlich/kwong

d.) The soave/redlich/kwong

e.) The peng/robinson

Ans. a.) 1919 cm3/mol, Z= 0.929 b.) 1924, 0.932 c) 1916.5, 0.928 d.) 1918,

0.928 e.) 1900.6, 0.92

containing 1.5kg of water/ kg solids in a continuous operation. Laboratory

tests using 5 diff. concentrations of the slurry yielded the following

results:

Concentration(kg water/kg solids) 5 4.2 3.7 3.1 2.5

Rate of sedimentation(mm/s) 0.17 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.042

Calculate the minimum area of thickener required to effect the separation of

a flow of 0.6kg/s of solids

Ans. A=16.5m2

4 m in water at 293.2K. the slurry contains 60%wt solids. The density of the

Vapour at the dew point and 101.32kPa containing a mole fraction of 0.4

benzene and 0.6 toluene and 100kgmol total is contacted with 110kgmol of a

liquid at the boiling point containing a mole fraction of 0.3 benzene and 0.7

toluene. The two streams are contacted in a single stage, and the outlet

streams leave in equilibrium with each other. Assume constant molal overflow.

Calculate the amounts and compositions of the exit streams.

valve is opened and the steam fills the tank. Estimate the final temperature

of the steam in the tank and the final mass of the steam in the tank.

A sample of the slurry had previously been tested with a leaf filter of

0.05m2 filtering surface using a vacuum giving a pressure difference of

71.3kN/m2. The volume of filtrate collected in the first 300s was 250cm3 and

after a further 300s, an additional 150cm3 was collected. It may be assumed

that the cake is incompressible and that the cloth resistance is the same in

the leaf as in the filter press.

Salt solution at 293K is fed at the rate of 6.3kg/s to a forwardfeed triple

effect evaporator and is concentrated from 2% to 10% of solids. Saturated

steam at 170kN/m2 is introduced into the calandria of the first effect and a

pressure of 34kN/m2 is maintained in the last effect. If the heat transfer

coefficients in the three effects are 1.7, 1.4, and 1.1 kW/m2K, respectively,

and the specific heat capacity of the liquid is approximately 4kJ/kgK, what

area is required if each is identical? Condensate may be assumed to leave at

the vapour temperature at each stage, and the effects of boiling point rise

may be neglected. The latent heat of vaporization may be taken as constant

throughout.

Ans. A=218m2

101.3kN/m2?

Ans. 365.1 K

Oil droplets having a diameter of 20μm are to be settled from air at an air

temperature of 37.8C at 101.3kPa pressure. The density of the oil is

900kg/m3. Calculate the terminal settling velocity of the drops.

101.3kN/m2?

Ans 372K

volume of 6ft3 to a volume of 1.2ft3. the initial temperature and pressure

are 50F and 30psia, respectively. We will assume that the compression process

is approximated by a quasiequilibrium process, which is acceptable for most

compression processes, and that the process is adiabatic due to the presence

of the insulation.

be separated into two pure fractions using a hindered settling process. What

is the minimum apparent density of the fluid that will give this separation?

The density of galena is 7500kg/m3 and the density of quartz is 2650kg/m3

what will be the voidage of the bed?

The density of glass = 2500kg/m3, the density of water = 1000kg/m3, and the

viscosity of water= 1mNs/m2

Ans. e= 0.784

A slurry containing 100kg of whiting of density 3000kg/m3, per m3 water, and

is filtered in a plate and frame press, which takes 900s to dismantle, clean,

and re-assemble. If the cake is incompressible and has a voidage of 0.4, what

is the optimum thickness of cake for a filtration pressure of 1000kN/m2? The

density of the whiting is 3000kg/m3. If the cake is washed at 500kN/m2 and

the total volume of wash water employed is 25% of that of the filtrate, how

is the optimum thickness of the cake affected? The resistance of the filter

medium may be neglected and the viscosity of water is 1mNs/m2. In an

experiment, a pressure difference of 165kN/m2 produced a flow of water of

0.02cm3/s through a centimetre cube of filter cake.

by transferring heat from a cylinder until the steam is completely condensed.

The surroundings are at 25C. determine the net entropy change of the universe

due to this process.

laboratory centrifuge of 150mm diameter be run if it is to duplicate the

performance of the large unit?

Ans. N= 49Hz

Air is contained in one half of the insulated tank. The other side is

completely evacuated. The membrane is punctured and the air quickly fill the

entire volume. Calculate the specific entropy change of the isolated system.

temperature constant at 100F. calculate the heat transfer needed to

accomplish this process.

Ans. Q= -176.7Btu

nitrogen. At 297K and 101.3kN/m2, the resulting mixture has a percentage

relative humidity of 60. It is required to recover 80% of the benzene present

by cooling 283K and compressing to a suitable pressure. What should this

pressure be? The vapour pressure of benzene is 12.2kN/m2 at 297K and 6kN/m2

at 283K.

ANS. 392kPa

In a vessel at 101.3kN/m2 and 300K, the percentage relative humidity of the

water vapour in the air is 25. If the partial pressure of water vapour when

air is saturated with vapour at 300K is 3.6kN/m2, calculate:

b.) The specific volumes of the air and the water vapour

c.) The humidity of the air and the humid volume: and

d.) The percentage humidity

24.3%

Air containing 0.005kg water/kg dry air is heated to 325K in a dryer and

passed to the lower shelves. It leaves the shelves at 60% humidity and is

reheated to 325K and passed over another set of shelves, again leaving at 60%

humidity. This is again repeated for the third and the fourth sets of

shelves, after which the air leaves the dryer. On the assumption that the

material on each shelf has reached the wet-bulb temperature and that heat

losses from the dryer may be neglected, determine:

b.) The amount of water removed in kg/s, if 5m3/s moist air leaves

the dryer

c.) The temperature to which the inlet air would have to be raised to

carry out the drying in a single stage

Air flows through the supersonic nozzle. The inlet conditions are 7kPa and

420C. the nozzle exit diameter is adjusted such that the exiting velocity is

700m/s. calculate the a.) the exit temperature b.) mass flux c.) the exit

diameter. Assume an adiabatic quasiequilibrium flow. d1= 200mm

30,000 m3 of coal gas (measured at 289K and 101.3kPa saturated with water

vapor) is compressed to 340kPa pressure, cooled to 289K and the condensed

water is drained off. Subsequently the pressure is reduced to 170kN/m2 and

the gas is distributed at this pressure and at 289K. what is the % humidity

of the gas after this treatment?

Air travels through the 4x2m test section of a wind tunnel at 20m/s. the gage

pressure in the test section is measured to be -20kPa and the temperature

20C. after the test section, a diffuser leads to a 6m diameter exit pipe.

Estimate the velocity and temperature in the exit pipe.

A rotary counter current dryer is fed with ammonium nitrate containing 5%

moisture at the rate of 1.5kg/s. and discharges the nitrate with 0.2%

moisture. The air enters at 405K and leaves at 355K: the humidity of the

entering air being 0.007kg moisture per kg dry air. The nitrate enters at

294K and leaves at 339K. neglecting radiation losses, calculate the mass of

dry air passing through the dryer and the humidity of the air leaving the

dryer.

Specific heat of ammonium nitrate= 1.88kJ/kgK

Specific heat of dry air= 0.99kJ/kgK

Specific heat of water vapour= 2.01kJ/kgK

Ans. Mass of dry air= 6.15kg/s , Humidity outlet air= 0.0188kg/kg dry air

Glass spheres are fluidized by water at a velocity equal to one half of their

terminal falling velocities. Calculate:

b.) The pressure gradient in the bed attributable to the presence of

the particles

The particles are 2mm in a diameter and have a density of 2500kg/m3.

The density and viscosity of water are 1000kg/m3 and 1mNs/m2.

triple effect evaporator. If the temperature of the steam to the first effect

is 395K and vacuum is applied to the third effect so that boiling point is

325K, what are the approximate boiling points in the three effects? The

overall transfer coefficients may be taken as 3.1, 2.3, and 1.1kW/m2 in the

three effects respectively.

A packed counter current water cooling tower using a gas flow rate of

G=1.356kg dry air/s m2 and a water flow rate of L= 1.356kg water/s m2 is to

cool the water from TL2= 43.3C to TL1= 29.4C. the entering air at 29.4C has a

wet bulb temperature of 23.9C. the mass transfer coefficient kGa is estimated

as 1.207x10^-7 kgmol/s m3 Pa and hLa/kGa MB P as 4.187x10^4 J/kgK. Calculate

the height of packed tower z. the tower operates at a pressure of 1.013x10^5

Pa

Ans. z= 6.98m

A wet solid is dried from 25 to 10% moisture under constant drying conditions

in 15ks(4.17h). if the critical and the equilibrium moisture contents are 15

and 5% respectively, how long will it take to dry the solid from 30 to 8%

moisture under the same conditions?

Six gram of air is contained in the cylinder. The air is heated until the

piston raises 50mm. the spring just touches the piston initially. Calculate

a.) the temperature when the piston leaves the stops and b.) the work done by

the air on the piston

inside diameter of 38.1mm. a pressure drop results from flow through a

partially opened valve. Just upstream from the valve the pressure is 690kPa,

the temperature is 322.15K and the average velocity is 6.09m/s. if the

pressure just downstream from the valve is 138kPa, what is the temperature?

Assume for nitrogen that PV/T is constant.

feed containing 42% water on a wet basis. Ambient air at 294K and 40%

relative humidity is heated to 366K in a preheater before entering the dryer

which it leaves at 60% relative humidity. Assuming that dryer operates

adiabatically, what is the amount of air supplied to the preheater and the

heat required in the preheater?

How will these values be affected if the air enters the dryer at 340K and

sufficient heat is supplied with the dryer so that the air leaves also 340K

and again with a relative humidity of 60%?

Ans. air flowrate= 3.76 kg/s, heat = 276kW, air flow = 0.786kg/s, heat =

31kW

Determine the maximum pressure increase across the 10hp pump. The inlet

velocity of the water is 30ft/s.

In a single stage leaching of soybean oil from flaked soybeans with hexane,

100kg of soybeans containing 20% wt oil is leached with 100kg of fresh hexane

solvent. The value of N for the slurry underflow is essentially constant at

1.5kg insoluble solid/kg solution retained. Calculate the amounts and

compositions of the overflow V1 and the underflow slurry L1 leaving the

stage.

an electric motor under steady load draws 9.7A at 110V, it delivers 0.93kW of

mechanical energy. The temperature of the surroundings is 300K. what is the

total rate of entropy generation in W/K?

tower handling 4810kg/s water with the following temperature conditions:

Water entering the tower= 301K

Water leaving the tower= 294K

Air:dry bulb= 287K

Wet bulb= 284K

current multiple-contact extraction with ethyl ether. The quantity of

solution retained by the granulated livers has been determined experimentally

as a function of the composition of the solution as follows.

retained by 1lb oil-free liver

0.205,0.242,0.286,0.339,0.405,0.489,0.6,0.672,0.765, 0.810

is converted in a 5-minute run. How much longer would it take to reach 75%

conversion? Repeat for second order kinetics.

Consider a feed CAO= 100, CBO=200, CiO= 100 to a steady-flow reactor. The

isothermal gas-phase reaction is A+ 3B = 6R

A homogenous gas reaction A=3R has a reported rate at 21.5C

Find the space time needed for 80% conversion of a 50% A-50% inert feed to a

plug flow reactor operating at 215C and 5atm (CAO= 0.0625mol/liter)

mixed flow reactors in series, the second having twice the volume of the

first reactor. At steady state with a feed concentration of 1mol A/liter and

mean residence time of 96sec in the first reactor, the concentration in the

first reactor is 0.5mol A/liter and in the second is 0.25mol A/liter. Find

the kinetic equation for the decomposition.

An open bowl, 0.3m in diameter, contains water at 350K, evaporating into the

atmosphere. If the air currents are sufficiently strong to remove the water

vapour as it is formed and if the resistance to its mass transfer is

equivalent to that of a 1mm layer for conditions of molecular diffusion, what

will be the rate of cooling due to evaporation? The water can be considered

as well mixed and the water equivalent of the system is equal to 10kg. the

diffusivity of water vapour in air may be taken as 0.2cm2/s and the kilogram

molecular volume at NTP as 22.4m3.

a 10% ammonia-air mixture is scrubbed with water and the concentration of

ammonia is reduced to 0.1%. if the whole of the resistance to mass transfer

may be regarded as lying within a thin laminar film on the gas-liquid

interface, derive from first principles an expression for the rate of

absorption at any position in the column. At some intermediate point where

the ammonia concentration in the gas phase has been reduced to 5%, the

partial pressure of ammonia in equilibrium with aqueous solution is 660N/m2

and the transfer rate is 10^-3kmol/m2 s. what is the thickness of the

hypothetical gas film if the diffusivity of ammonia in air is 0.24cm2/s?

Ans. t= 0.043mm

Determine the molar volume of n-butane at 510K and 25bar by each of the ff

b.) The generalized compressibility factor correlation

c.) The generalized virial-coefficient

A simple rectifying column consists of a tube arranged vertically and

supplied at the bottom with a mixture of benzene and toluene as vapour. At

the top a condenser returns some of the product as a reflux which flows in a

thin film down the inner wall of the tube. The tube is insulated and heat

losses can be neglected. A some point in the column the vapour contains

70%mol benzene and the adjacent liquid reflux contains 59% mol benzene. The

temperature at this point is 365K. assuming the diffusional resistance to

vapour transfer to be equivalent to the diffusional resistance of a stagnant

vapour layer 0.2mm thick, calculate the rate of interchange of benzene and

toluene between vapour and liquid. The molar latent heats of the two

materials can be taken as equal. The vapour pressure of toluene at 365K is

54kN/m2 and the diffusivity of the vapors is 0.051cm2/s

effect evaporator operating at a pressure in the second effect of 18kN/m2. No

crystals are formed. The flowrate of feed is 2.5kg/s at 375K with a specific

heat capacity of 3.75kJ/kgK. the boiling point rise of the concentrated

liquor is 6degK and the steam fed to the first effect is at 240kN/m2. The

overall heat transfer coefficient in the first and second effects are 1.8 and

0.63 kW/m2, respectively. If the heat transfer area is to be the same in each

effect, what areas should be specified?

Ans. A= 67.5m2

A three blade propeller is used to mix a fluid in the laminar region. The

stirrer is 0.3m diameter and is rotated at 1.5Hz. Due to corrosion, the

propeller has to e replaced by a flat two-bladed paddle, 0.75m in diameter.

If the same motor is used, at what speed should the paddle rotate?

Ans. N= 0.403Hz

Water in a tank flows through an outlet 25m below the water level into a

0.15m diameter horizontal pipe 30m long, with a 90 O elbow at the end leading

to a vertical pipe of the same diameter 15m long. This is connected to a

second 90O elbow which leads to a horizontal pipe of the same diameter, 60m

long, containing a fully open globe valve and discharging to atmosphere 10m

below the level of the water in the tank. Taking e/d= 0.01 and the viscosity

of water as 1mNs/m2, what is the initial rate of discharge?

A hydraulic jump occurs during the flow discharging from a tank into an open

channel under a gate so that the liquid initially travelling at a velocity of

1.5m/s with a depth of 75mm. calculate the corresponding velocity and the

liquid depth after the jump.

A flow of 50m3/s methane, measure at 288K and 101.3 kN/m2, has to be

delivered along a 0.6m diameter line, 3km long with a relative roughness of

0.0001, linking a compressor and a processing unit. The methane is to be

discharged at the plant at 288K and 170kN/m2 and it leaves the compressor at

297K. what pressure must be developed at the compressor in order in order to

achieve this flowrate?

pipe, at a rate of 300cm3/s. what will be the difference in level on a water

manometer connected across the meter? The viscosity of water is 1mNs/m2?

stirrer, which is made to turn by gravity acting on a weight of mass 35kg.

the weight falls slowly through a distance of 5m in driving the stirrer.

Assuming that all work done on the weight is transferred to the water and

that the local acceleration of gravity is 9.8m/s2, determine

b.) The internal-energy change of the water

c.) The final temperature of the water

d.) The amount of heat that must be removed from the water to return

to its initial temp

e.) The total energy change of the universe

A rotameter tube is 0.3m long with an internal diameter of 25mm at the top

and 20mm at the bottom. The diameter of the float is 20mm, its density is

4800kg/m3 and its volume is 6cm3. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.7,

what is the flowrate of water when the float is halfway up the tube?

viscosity 0.5x10^-3 Ns/m2 from the reboiler of a distillation column though a

vaporisor at the rate of 0.004m3/s, and to introduce the superheated vapour

above the vapour space in the reboiler which contains a 0.07m depth of

liquid. If smooth-bore 5mm diameter pipe is to be used, the pressure of

vapour in the reboiler is 1kN/m2 and the Net Positive Suction Head required

by the pump is 2m of liquid, what is the minimum height required between the

liquid level in the reboiler and the pump?

Calculate the view factor, F21 and the net radiation transfer between two

black surfaces, a rectangle 2m by 1m (area A1) at 1500K and a disc 1m in

diameter (area A2) at 750K, if the view factor, F12= 0.25. Ans. F21= 0.637,

Q12= 135kW

An agitated tank with a standard Rushton impeller is required to disperse gas

in a solution properties similar to those of water. The tank will be 3m

diameter. (1m diameter impeller). A power level of 0.8kW/m3 is chosen.

Assuming fully turbulent conditions and that the presence of the gas does not

significantly affect the relation between the Power and Reynolds number:

b.) At what speed should the impeller be driven?

c.) If a small pilot scale tank 0.3m diameter is to be constructed

to test the process, at what speed should the impeller driven?

kN/m2 which is compressed to 380kN/m2 from 101.3kN/m2. If the suction

temperature is 289K, the stroke is 0.25m, and the speed is 4Hz, what is the

cylinder diameter? Assuming the cylinder clearance is 4% and the compression

and re-expansion are isentropic (ϒ = 1.4), what are the theoretical power

requirements for the compression?

isopropyl ether, the two immiscible phases are passed countercurrently

through a packed column 3m in length and 75mm in diameter. It is found that,

if 0.5kg/m2 s of the pure ether is used to extract 0.25kg/m2s of 4% acid by

mass, then the ether phase leaves the column with a concentration of 1% acid

by mass. Calculate:

phase, and

b.) The overall extraction coefficient based on the raffinate phase

The equilibrium relationship is given by: (kg acid/kg ether)= 0.3 (kg acid/kg

water)

360K to 290K in an unagitated tank. If the solubilities of KCl are 53 and

34kg/kg H2O at 360 and 290K and water losses due to evaporation may be

neglected, what is the yield of crystals?

Ans. Y= 186kg

diameter and 22mm internal diameter, benzene is condensed on the outside of

the tubes by means of water flowing the tubes at the rate of 0.03m3/s. if the

water enters at 290K and leaves at 300K and the heat transfer coefficient on

the water side is 850W/m2K, what total length of tubing will be required?

A single effect evaporator operates at 13kN/m2. What will be the heating

surface necessary to concentrate 1.25kg/s of 10% caustic soda to 41%,

assuming a value of the overall heat transfer coefficient U of 1.25kW/m2K,

using steam at 390K? the heating surface is 1.2m below the liquid level. The

boiling point rise of solution is 30degK, the feed temperature is 291K, the

specific heat capacity of the feed is 4kJ/kgK, the specific heat capacity of

the product is 3.26kJ/kgK and the density of the boiling liquid is 1390kg/m3

Ans. A= 106.6 m2

Tests are made on the extraction of acetic acid from a dilute aqueous

solution by means of a ketone in a small spray tower of diameter 46mm and

effective height of 1090mm with the aqueous phase run into the top of the

tower. The ketone enters free from acid at the rate of 0.0014m3/sm2, and

leaves with an acid concentration of 0.38kkmol/m3. The concentration in the

aqueous phase falls from 1.19 to 0.82 kmol/m3. Calculate the overall

extraction coefficient on the concentrations in the ketone phase, and the

height of the corresponding overall transfer unit. The equilibrium conditions

are expressed by: (concentration of acid in ketone phase)= 0.548

(concentration of acid in aqueous phase)

Two parallel gray planes which are very large having emissivities of e1=0.8

and e2= 0.7 and surface 1 is at 1100F and surface 2 at 600F. use English and

SI units for the following

b.) If the surfaces are both black, what is the net radiation?

A counter-flow double pipe heat exchanger is to heat water from 20C to 80C at

a rate of 1.2kg/s. the inner tube is thin-walled and has a diameter of 1.5cm.

if the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is 640W/m2C,

determine the length of the heat exchanger required to achieve the desired

heating.

Ans. L= 108m

radiating essentially s black bodies, are to be used in the construction of a

heater in which thermal radiation from the surroundings is negligible. If the

surface temperature of the carbide is limited to 1750K, how many elements are

required to provide a radiated output of 500kW?

Ans. N= 59.8= 60

from a horizontal 10cm diameter steam pipe. The surface temperature of the

uninsulated pipe is 130C, and the air temperature is 30C. Ans. h= 6.5 W/m2 C

A steel ball having a radius of 1in. (25.4mm) is at uniform temperature of

800F(699.9K). it is suddenly plunged into a medium whose temperature is held

constant at 250F(394.3K). assuming convective coefficient of h= 2 btu/hr-

ft2-F (11.36 W/m2K), calculate the temperature of the ball after 1h (3600s).

the average physical properties are k= 25 btu/h-ft-F (43.3W/mK), ρ= 490

lbm/ft3 (7849kg/m3) and cp=0.11 btu/lbm-F (0.4606 kJ/kgK). Use SI and English

units. Calculate the total amount of heat removed up to time t=3600s.

means of 25kg/s water entering at 300K. if the overall coefficient of heat

transfer is constant at 2kW/m2K, calculate the surface area required in a a.)

countercurrent concentric tube exchanger, and b) co-current flow concentric

tube exchanger.

hi, for the turbulent flow of liquids in a pipe is given by:

hi = (0.023*G0.8*K0.67*Cp0.33)/(D0.2*μ0.47)

G = mass velocity of the liquid, lbm/(hr)(ft)2

K = thermal conductivity of the liquid, Btu/(hr)(ft)(°F)

Cp = heat capacity of the liquid, Btu/(lbm)(°F)

m = Viscosity of the liquid, lbm/(ft)(hr)

D = inside diameter of the pipe, (ft)

b. What will be the value of the constant, given as 0.023, if all the

variables in the equation are inserted in SI units and hi is in SI units.

dimensionless: a change in units of the equation parameters will not have any

effect on the value of this constant.

with 5kg/s air at 300K and 30% humidity. What is the enthalpy, humidity, and

temperature of the resultant stream?

Cp =20.869 + 5.293x10-2T where Cp is in Btu/lbmol-F and T is in F

Express the equation in cal/gmol-K with T in K.

solution result?

How many liters?

The synthesis of ammonia proceeds according to the following reaction

N2 + 3 H2 -----> 2 NH3

In a given plant, 4202 lb of nitrogen and 1046 lb of hydrogen are fed to the

synthesis reactor per hour. Production of pure ammonia from this reactor is

3060 lb per hour.

a. What is the limiting reactant.

b. What is the percent excess reactant.

c. What is the percent conversion obtained (based on the limiting reactant).

Ans. a.) N2 is limiting reactant b.) 16.2% c.) 60%

298K in a Swenson-Walker crystallizer to form crystals of Na3PO4-12H2O. The

solubility of Na3PO4 at 298K is 15.5kg/kg H2O, and the required product rate

of crystals is 0.063kg/s. The mean heat capacity of the solution is 3.2kJ/kg

K and the heat of crystallization is 146.5kJ/kg. If cooling water enters and

leaves t 288 and 293K, and the overall coefficient of heat transfer is

140W/m2K, what is the length of crystallizer?

Ans. L= 9.2m

of 30C with cooling water from a nearby lake, which enters the tubes of the

condenser at 14C and leaves at 22C. the surface area of the tubes is 45m2,

and the overall heat transfer coefficient is 2100W/m2C. determine the mass

flow rate of the cooling water needed and the rate of condensation of the

steam in the condenser.

30%xs air, but w/ only 90% of the CO being converted to CO2 and 95% of the H2

to H2O. Calc the Orsat Analysis of flue gas.

each effect, is fed with 5kg/s of a liquor of specific heat capacity of

4.18kJ/kgK, and with no boiling point rise, so that 50% of the feed liquor is

evaporated. The overall heat transfer coefficient in the second effect is 75%

of that in the first effect. Steam is fed at 395K and the boiling point in

the second effect is 373K. the feed is heated by n external heater to the

boiling point in the first effect. It is decided to bleed off 0.25kg/s of

vapour from the vapour line to the second effect for use in another process.

If the feed is still heated to the boiling point of the first effect by

external means, what will be the change in steam consumption of the

evaporator unit? For the purpose of calculation, the latent heat of the

vapors and of the steam may be taken as 2230kJ/kg.

For a flat-blade turbine with a disk and six blades, the given conditions and

sizes are Dt1= 1.83m, Da1=0.61m, W1= 0.122m, J1= 0.15m, N1= 90rpm, density=

929kg/m3, and μ= 0.01 Pa-s. It is desired to scale up these results for

vessel whose volume is 3 times as large. Do this for the ff process.

b.) Where equal liquid motion is needed

In a paper mill two steam chests are to be operated in parallel. Each has a

volumetric capacity of 1000 cu.ft and each contains 18,000 lb of steam and

liquid water. The first chests registers a pressure of 200 psia, but owing to

an error, it is connected to the second when the pressure in the latter is 75

psia. What will be the pressure in the system after equilibrium has been

attained. It may be assumed that no heat is exchanged with the surroundings,

and no water exits to the surroundings.

Ans. P= 129psia

A furnace is fired with coal of the ff analysis: 60%C, 14%H, 16%O, 10% ash.

The proximate analysis is 40%FC, 41%VCM, 9%moisture and 10%ash. The refuse

has the ff analysis: 40% FC, 60%ash. 18200 ft3 of wet air at a total press of

750mmHg and a temp of 70F, with a partial press of water of 10mmHg, is

supplied per 100lb of coal fired. The total press of the hot wet flue gas is

750mmHg. The ratio of mol CO2/mol CO is 4:1.

%xs air

Orsat analysis

Partial press of water vapour in hot wet flue gas

The combustion gases from industrial furnace using a hydrocarbon fuel and dry

air enter the stack at normal barometric press and 375F and have the ff orsat

analysis 12.2%CO2, 3.1%O2, 1.2%CO, and 83.5% N2. Det.

The % xs air

Volume of gases entering the stack, ft3/ lb C

Dew point of stack gases

The atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the fuel

The moles of stack gas per atom of carbon burnt

the temperature is 150C. find the a.)pressure b.) the mass of vapour c.) the

volume of the vapour

200kPa. Calculate the mass of air in the tire if the temperature is 20C.

Ans. m= 2.14kg

An MSMPR crystallizer operates with a steady nucleation rate of n O= 10^13/m4,

a growth rate, Gd= 10^-8 m/s and a mixed-product removal rate,

based on clear liquor of 0.00017m3/s. The volume of the vessel, again based

on clear liquor, is 4m3, the crystal density is 2660kg/m3 and the volumetric

shape factor is 0.7. Det

b.) The crystal production rate

c.) The % of nuclei removed in the discharge by the time they have

grown to 100μm.

d.) The liquor flowrate which passes through a trap which removes 90%

of the original nuclei by the time they have grown to 100 μm.

Ans. a.) cs= 343kg/m3, b.) rate= 0.058kg/s c.) 34% d.) Qf= 0.00075m3/s

equation

2C2H4 + O2 = 2C2H4O

The feed to a reactor contains 100kmol C2H4 and 100 kmol O2.

a.) Which reactant is limiting?

b.) What is the percentage excess of the other reactant?

c.) If the reaction proceeds to completion, how much of the excess

reactant will be left: how much C2H4O will be formed: and what is the

extent of reaction?

d.) If the reaction proceeds to a point where the fractional

conversion of the limiting reactant is 50%, how much of each reactant

and products is present at the end, and what is the extent of reaction?

e.) If the reaction proceeds to a point where 60kmol of O2 is left,

what is the fractional conversion of C2H4? The fractional conversion of

O2? The extent of reaction?

Ans. a.) C2H4 b.) 100% c.) 50kmol O2, 100kmol C2H4O, 50kmol d.) 50kmol C2H4,

75kmol O2, 50kmol C2H4O, 25kmol e.) 0.8, 0.4, 40kmol

A = 2B (desired)

A= C (undesired)

Suppose 100mol of A is fed to a batch reactor and the final product contains

10mol of A, 160mol of B and 10mol of C. calculate

a.) The fractional conversion of A

b.) The percentage yield of B

c.) The selectivity of B relative to C

d.) The extents of the first and second reactions

Ans. a.) 0.9 b.) 80% c.) 16mol B/mol C d.) 80mol, 10mol

vaporized at a pressure of a.) 1kPa, b.)100kPa c.) 10,000kPa

An evaporator, working at atmospheric pressure, is to concentrate a solution

from 5% to 20% solids at the rate of 1.25kg/s. the solution, which has a

specific heat capacity of 4.18kJ/kgK, is fed to the evaporator at 295K and

boils at 380K. dry saturated steam at 240kN/m2 is fed to the calandria, and

the condensate leaves at the temperature of the condensing stream. If the

heat transfer coefficient is 2.3 kW/m2K, what is the required area of heat

transfer surface and how much steam is required? The latent heat of

vaporization of the solution may be taken s being equal to that of water.

a.) Calculate the dew point and degrees of superheat of the air

b.) Calculate the percentage of the vapour that condenses and the

final composition of the gas phase if the air is cooled to 80C at

constant pressure

c.) Calculate the percentage condensation and the final gas-phase

composition if, instead of being cooled, the air is compressed

isothermally to 8500mmHg

Calculate the flux and the rate of removal of urea at steady state in g/h

from blood in a cuprophane(cellophane) membrane dialyzer at 37C. the membrane

is 0.025mm thick and has an area of 2m2. The mass- transfer coefficient on

the blood is estimated as kc1= 1.25x10^-5 m/s and that on the aqueous side is

3.33x10^-5 m/s. the permeability of the membrane is 8.73x10^-6 m/s. the

concentration of urea in the blood is 0.02g urea/100mL and that in dialyzing

fluid will be assumed as 0.

flowing rapidly by a membrane of thickness L= 3x10^-5m. the distribution

coefficient K’= 1.5 and DAB= 7x10^-11 m2/s in the membrane. The solute

diffuses through the membrane and its concentration on the other side is c2=

0.5x10^-2 kgmol/m3. The mass-transfer coefficient kc1 is large and can be

considered as infinite and kc2= 2.02 x10^-5 m/s.

b.) Calculate the flux and the concentration at the membrane

interfaces.

Ans. (b). Na= 7.458 x 10^-8 kmol/s m2, conc at interphase= 1.304x10^-2

kmol/m3

293K to form crystals of Na2CO3-10H2O. What is the yield of crystals if the

solubility of Na2CO3 at 293K is 21.5kg/kg H2O and during cooling 3% of the

original solution is lost by evaporation?

Ans. C= 6536 kg

Tests on a small scale tank 0.3m diameter(Rushton impeller, diameter 0.1m)

have shown that a blending process between two miscible liquids (aqueous

solutions, properties approximately the same as water,μ= 1mNs/m2, ρ=

1000kg/m3) is satisfactorily completed after 1min. using an impeller speed of

250 rpm. It is decided to scale up the process to a tank of 2.5m diameter

using the criterion of constant tip-speed.

b.) What power will be required?

c.) What will be the blend time in the large tank?

9.8W), t= 1.15min

The temperature in the atmosphere near the surface of the earth (up to an

elevation of 10,000m) can be approximated by T(z)= 15- 0.00651z OC. determine

the pressure at an elevation of 3000m if at z=0, P= 101kPa.

completely vaporized. If the pressure is held constant at 600kPa, calculate

the final volume.

Ans. V= 344.4 m3

on top of the water. If the heat is added until the temperature is 200C, find

the work done.

Ans. W= 21.5 kJ

from 0.03 (kmol H2S/kmol of inert hydrocarbon gas) to 1% of this value by

scrubbing with a triethanolamine-water solvent in a countercurrent tower,

operating at 300K and atmospheric pressure. The equilibrium relation for the

solution may be taken as Y= 2X.

The solvent enters the tower free of H2S and leaves containing 0.013kmol of

H2S/kmol of solvent. If the flow on inert gas is 0.015kmol/m2s of tower cross

section, calculate:

b.) The number of transfer units NoG required

tower volume (unit driving force Y)

Steam enters a throttling valve at 8000kPa and 300C and leaves at a pressure

of 1600kPa. Determine the final temperature and specific volume of the steam.

Determine the heat transfer necessary to increase the pressure of 70% quality

steam from 200 to 800kPa, maintaining the volume constant at 2m3. Assume a

quasiequilibrium process.

Ans. Q= 5629 kJ

dryer at a temperature of 295K and is withdrawn at 305K, containing 5%

moisture. The air supplied, which contains 0.006kg water vapour/kg dry air,

enters at 385K and leaves at 310K. the dryer handles 0.125kg/s wet stock.

Assuming that radiation losses amount to 20kJ/kg dry air used, determine the

mass flowrate of dry air supplied to the dryer and the humidity of the exit

air. The latent heat of water vapour at 295K=2449kJ/kg, specific heat

capacity of dried material=0.88kJ/kgK, the specific heat capacity of dry

air=1kJ/kgK, and the specific heat capacity of water vapour =2.01kJ/kgK

Determine the number of theoretical plates required and the plate from which

the side stream should be withdrawn if the feed is liquor at its boiling

point and a reflux ratio of 2 is used.

Stem enters a turbine at 4000kPa and 500C and leaves at exit. For an inlet

velocity of 200m/s calculate the turbine power output. A.) neglect any heat

transfer and kinetic energy change.

Input (v1= 200m/s, P1=4000kPa, T1= 500C, d1=50mm) output( d2= 250mm, P2=

80kPa, x2=1)

Liquid sodium, flowing at 100kg/s, enters a heat exchanger at 450C and exits

at 350C. the specific heat of sodium is 1.25kJ/kgC. Water enters at 5000kPa

and 20C. determine the minimum mass flux of the water so that the water does

not completely vaporize. Neglect the pressure drop through the exchanger.

Also, calculate the rate of heat transfer.

10MPa. Estimate the final temperature and the work required if the air is

initially at 100C.

Ans. W= -729kJ/ kg

Nitrogen at 100C and 600kPa expands in such a way that it can be approximated

by a polytropic process with n= 1.2. Calculate the work and the heat transfer

if the final pressure is 100kPa.

through a 20cm diameter pipe and exits through a 12cm diameter pipe.

Calculate the minimum hp required to operate the pump.

Ans. W= 1109 hp

Material is fed to a dryer at the rate of 0.3kg/s and the moisture removed is

35% of the wet charge. The stock enters and leaves the dryer at 324K. the air

temperature falls from 341 to 310K, its humidity rising from 0.01 to 0.02

kg/kg. calculate the heat loss to the surroundings.

Specific heat of dry air= 0.99kJ/kgK

Specific heat of water vapour= 2.01kJ/kgK

NaOH solution at 0.38kg/s from 10% to 33.3% by mass. The feed enters at 338K

its specific heat capacity is 3.2kJ/kgK. the pressure in the vapour space is

13.5kN/m2 and 0.3kg/s is used from a supply at 375K. Calulate

b.) The corrected for boiling point rise

c.) The corrected if the depth of liquid is 1.5m

the maximum power if the turbine is in a dam with a distance of 40m from the

surface of the reservoir to the surface of the backwater.

1mm thick. Conditions are such that the gas contains 50% by volume ammonia at

one boundary of the stagnant layer. The ammonia diffusing to the other

boundary is quickly absorbed and the concentration is negligible at that

plane. The temperature is 295K and the pressure atmospheric, and under these

conditions the diffusivity of ammonia in air is 1.8x10^-5 m2/s. estimate the

rate of diffusion of ammonia through the layer.

Steam with a mass flux of 600lbm/min exits a turbine as saturated steam at

2psia and passes through a condenser. What mass flux of cooling water is

needed if the steam is to exit the condenser as saturated liquid and the

cooling water is allowed a 15F temperature rise?

200C and 20C, respectively. If the desired output of the engine is 15kW.

Determine the heat transfer from the high temperature reservoir and the heat

transfer to the low temperature reservoir.

atmosphere at 20C. it is desired to reduce the temperature in the

refrigerated space to -25C. Calculate the minimum percentage increase in work

required by assuming a carnot refrigerator, for the same amount of energy

removed.

reservoirs at 40F and 212F. calculate the rate of heat transfer from the high

temperature reservoir.

A heat engine operates on a carnot cycle with an efficiency of 75%. What COP

would a refrigerator operating on the same cycle have? The low temperature is

0C.

plant, and 90% of the oil is recovered in a solution containing 50% by mass

oil. If the seeds are extracted with fresh solvent 1kg is removed in the

underflow in association with every 2kg of insoluble matter, how many idea

staged are required?

Ans. N= 5 thickeners

70F. the groundwater is to experience a temperature drop of 12F, and the

house requires 75,000 Btu/hr. calculate the minimum mass flux of the

groundwater and the minimum hp required.

Steam is contained in a rigid container at an initial pressure of 100psia and

600F. the pressure is reduced to 10psia by removing energy via heat transfer.

Calculate the entropy change and the heat transfer.

temperature is 350C. the gases are expanded to 140kPa with a reversible

adiabatic process. Calculate the work done by the gases, assuming they can be

approximated by air with constant specific heats.

Ans. W= 205kJ/kg

steam is at a temperature of 250C and the entering water is subcooled at

45C. all pressures are 600kPa. Calculate the rate of entropy production.

Flowrate steam= 0.5kg/s, flowrate cool water= 4kg/s.

Ans. s= 0.639kW/K

entropy change if the initial volume is 0.8m3.

A piston allows air to expand from 6MPa to 200kPa. The initial volume and

temperature are 500cm3 and 800C. if the temperature is held constant,

calculate the heat transfer and the entropy change.

Air expands from 200 to 1000cm3 in a cylinder while the pressure is held

constant at 600kPa. If the initial temperature is 20C, calculate the heat

transfer assuming.

Ans. Q= 1.672kJ

changes from 20C to 400C. Calculate the heat transfer and the entropy change.

Ans. s= 7.603kJ/kg K

Over a 30m length of a 150mm vacuum line carrying air at 295K, the pressure

falls from 0.4kN/m2 to 0.13kN/m2. If the relative roughness e/d is 0.003 what

is the approximate flowrate?

Five ice cubes (each 1.2in3) at 0F are placed in a 16-oz glass of water at

60F. Calculate the final equilibrium temperature and the net entropy change,

assuming an insulated glass.

A slurry is filtered in a plate and frame press containing 12 frames, each

0.3m square and 25mm thick. During the first 180s the pressure difference for

filtration is slowly raised to the final value of 400kN/m2 and during this

period,, the rate of filtration is maintained constant. After the initial

period, filtration is carried out at constant pressure and the cakes are

completely formed in a further 900s. the cakes are then washed with a

pressure difference of 275kN/m2 for 600s using thorough washing. What is the

volume of filtrate collected per cycle and how much wash water is used?

A steam turbine accepts 2kg/s of steam at 6MPa and 600C and exhausts

saturated steam at 20kPa while producing 2000kW of work. If the surroundings

are at 30C and the flow is steady, calculate the rate of entropy production.

Ans. s= 1.8kW/K

A rigid tank is sealed when the temperature is 0C. on a hot day the

temperature in the tank reaches 50C. if a small hole is drilled in the tank,

estimate the velocity of the escaping air.

Ans. v= 173.8m/s

in a cylinder from 100kPa and20C to 2MPa. Assuming constant specific heats,

calculate a.) initial temperature b.) the work required c.) the change in

entropy

Calculate the internal energy and enthalpy changes that occur when air is

changed from an initial state of 277K and 10bar, where its molar volume is

2.28m3/kmol to a final state of 333K and 1atm. Assume for air that PV/t is

constant and that Cv= 21 and Cp= 29.3 kJ/kmolK

in air in a countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower

is 30kgmol/hr and the total inlet pure water flow to be used to absorb

acetone is 90kgmol H2O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and

a total pressure of 101.3kPa. the equilibrium relation for the acetone in the

gas-liquid is y= 2.53x. Determine the number of theoretical stages required

for this separation.

Water at 366.65 is pumped from a storage tank at the rate of 3.15x10^-1 m3/s.

the motor for the pump supplies work at the rate of 1.5kW. the water goes

through a heat exchanger, giving up heat at the rate of 700kW, and is

delivered to a second storage tank at an elevation 15m above the first tank.

What is the temperature of the water delivered to the second tank?

Ans. T= 311.35K

Water at 301.15K flows in a straight horizontal pipe in which there is no

exchange of either heat or work with the surroundings. Its velocity is 14m/s

in a pipe with an internal diameter of 2.5cm until it flows into a section

where the pipe diameter abruptly increases. What is the temperature change of

the water if the downstream diameter is 3.8cm? if it is 7.5cm? what is

maximum temp change for an enlargement in the pipe?

Ammonia is absorbed in water from a mixture with air using a column operating

at 1bar and 295K. the resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying

entirely within the gas phase. At a point in the column, the partial pressure

of the ammonia is 7kN/m2. The back pressure at the water interface is

negligible and the resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying in a

stationary gas film 1mm thick. If the diffusivity of ammonia in air is

2.36x10^-5 m2/s, what is the transfer rate per unit area at that point in the

column? How would the rate of transfer be affected if the ammonia air mixture

were compressed to double the pressure?

Ans. Na= 6.97x10^-5 kmol/m2 s, mass transfer rate remains the same.

Fifty kmol per hour of air is compressed from P1= 1.2bar to P2= 6 bar in a

steady-flow compressor. Delivered mechanical power is 98.8kW. temperatures

and velocities are: T1=300K, v1= 10m/s, T2= 520K, v2= 3.5m/s.

Estimate the rate of heat transfer from the compressor. Assume for air that

Cp=7/2R and that enthalpy is independent of pressure..

Ans. Q= -9.904kW

0.125m3 at 50C?

b.) Redlich/kwong

c.) A generalized equation

and -70C. Estimate the specific volume of the mixture in L/mol using Kay’s

rule

A liquid containing four components A,B,C and D with 0.3 mol fraction each of

A, B and C is to be continuously fractionated to give a top product of 0.9mol

fraction A and 0.1mol fraction B. the bottoms are to contain not more than

0.5mol fraction A. Estimate the minimum reflux ratio required for the

separation, if the relative volatility of A to B is 2. Ans. 2.71

For acetone 20C and 1bar: β= 1.487x10^-3 K^-1 , k= 62x10^-6bar, V= 1.287x10^-

3 m3/kg. find

b.) The pressure generated when acetone is heated at constant volume

from 20C and 1bar to 30C

c.) The volume when acetone is changed from 20C and 1bar to 0C

and10bar

estimate the latent heat at 300K?

The rate of flow of water in a 150mm diameter pipe is measured with a venture

meter with a 50mm diameter throat. When the pressure drop over the converging

section is 121mm of water, the flowrate is 2.91kg/s. what is the coefficient

for the converging cone of the meter at this flowrate?

150kg of oil(Cp= 2.5kJ/kgK) at 25C. if there are no heat losses, what is the

change in entropy of a.)the casting b.) the oil c) both considered together?

One mol of an ideal gas Cp=7/2R and Cv= 5/2R, is compressed adiabatically in

a piston cylinder device from 2bar and 25C to 7bar. The process is

irreversible and requires 35% more work than a reversible, adiabatic

compression from the same initial state to the same final pressure. What is

the entropy change of the gas?

from 2.5bar to 6.5bar in piston/cylinder device. The work required is 30%

greater than the work reversible, isothermal compression. The heat

transferred from the ga during compression flows to a heat reservoir at 25C.

calculate the entropy changes of the gas, the heat reservoir, and ΔStotal.

the overall composition z1= 0.45, z2= 0.35, z3= 0.2. assuimng the Raoults law

is appropriate to this system, determine L,V, x1 ,y1. The vapor pressure of

the pure species at 80C are

10kmol per hour of air is throttled from upstream conditions of 25C and 10bar

to a downstream pressure of 1.2bar. asssume air to be an ideal gas.

b.) What is the entropy change of the air in J/molK

c.) What is the rate if entropy generation in W/K

d.) If the surroundings are at 20C, what is the lost work?

J/mol

What change in entropy when 0.7m3 of CO2 and 0.3m3 N2, each at 1bar and 25C

blend to form a gas mixture at the same conditions? Assume ideal gases

150m in a horizontal direction and then up through a vertical height of 10m.

in the pipe there is a control valve for which the friction loss may be taken

as equivalent to 200 pipe diameters and also other pipe fittings equivalent

to 60 pipe diameters. Also in the line is a heat exchanger across which there

is a loss in head of 1.5m of water. If the main pipe has a roughness of

0.2mm, what power must be supplied to the pump if it is 60% efficient?

Ans P= 136.4W

the mol fraction of benzene is 0.35. the column is to yield a product in

which the mol fraction of benzene is 0.95, when working with a reflux ratio

of 3.2, and the waste from the column is not to exceed 0.05 mol fraction of

benzene. If the plate efficiency is 60%, estimate the number of plates

required and the position of the feed point.

volume of 0.04m3/kg using a.) ideal-gas b.) van der waals c.) RK equation d.)

the compressibility factor

and size of 5μm, equivalent spherical diameter, were separated from

suspension in water fed at a volumetric throughput rate of 0.25m3/s.

Calculate the value of the capacity factor ∑.

What will be the corresponding size cut for a suspension of coal particles in

oil fed at the rate of 0.04m3/s? the density of coal is 1300kg/m3 and the

density of the oil is 850 kg/m3 and its viscosity is 0.01 Ns/m2.It may be

assumed that Stokes law is applicable.

Benzene at 100F is pumped through the system at the rate of 40gal/min. the

reservoir is at atmospheric pressure. The gauge pressure at the end of the

discharge line is 50lbf/ in2. The discharge is 10ft and the pump suction 4ft

above the level in the reservoir. The discharge line is 1 ½ in. Schedule40

pipe. The friction in the suction line is known to be 0.5lbf/in2, and that in

the discharge line is 5.5lbf/in2. The mechanical efficiency of the pump is

0.6. the density of benzene is 54lbf/ft3 and its vapour pressure at 100F is

3.8lbf/in2. Calculate a.) the developed head of the pump and b.) the total

power input. C.) if the pump manufacturer specifies a required NPSHR of10ft,

will the pump be suitable for this service?

Ans. a.) ΔH= 159.9ft-lbf, b.) Power= 2.33hp c.) NPSH= 23.77ft

A paddle wheel provides 200kJ of work to the air contained in a 0.2m3 rigid

volume, initially at 400kPa and 40C. determine the entropy change if the

volume is insulated.

Ans. s= 0.4428kJ/K

compressor operating with a mechanical efficiency of 85%. The relation

between the pressure and volume during the compression stroke and expansion

of the clearance gas is PV1.25 =constant. The compression ratio in each of the

two cylinders is the same, and the interstage cooler may be assumed 100%

efficient. If the clearances in the two cylinders are 4% and 5% respectively,

calculate:

b.) The isothermal efficiency

c.) The isentropic efficiency (ϒ= 1.4) and

d.) The ratio of the swept volumes in the two cylinders

steel pipe 50mm in diameter and 500m long. The downstream pressure is also

2MN/m2 and the pressure of the gas is raised to 2.5MN/m2 by a pump at the

upstream end of the pipe. The conditions of flow are isothermal and the

temperature of the gas is 295K. what is the flowrate and what is the

effective rate of working pump if it operates with an efficiency of 60%?

Viscosity of hydrogen = 0.009mN/m2 at 295K

600 liter/s of water at 320K is pumped in a 40mm i.d pipe through a length of

150m in a horizontal direction and up through a vertical height of 10m. in

the pipe there is a control valve which may be taken as equivalent to 200

pipe diameters and other pipe fittings equivalent to 60 pipe diameters. Alson

in the line there is a heat exchanger across which there is a loss in head of

1.5m of water. If the main pipe has a roughness of 0.0002m, what power must

be delivered to the pump if the unit is 60% efficient?

Ans. 128W

A 2–shell passes and 4-tube passes heat exchanger is used to heat glycerine

from 20C to 50C by hot water, which enters the thin-walled 2-cm-diameter

tubes at 80C and leaves 40C. the total length of the tubes in the heat

exchanger is 60m. the convection heat transfer coefficient is 25W/m2C on the

glycerine(shell) side and 160W/m2C on the water (tube) side. Determine the

rate of heat transfer in the heat exchanger a.) before any fouling occurs and

b.) after fouling with a fouling factor of 0.0006m2C/W occurs on the outer

surfaces of the tubes.

A rotary dryer is fed with sand at the rate of 1kg/s. the feed is 50% wet and

the sand is discharged with 3% moisture. The air enters at 380K with an

solute humidity of 0.007kg/kg. the wet sand enters at 294K and leaves at 309K

and the air leaves at 310K. calculate the mass air passing through the dryer

and the humidity of the air leaving the dryer. Allow a radiation loss of

25kJ/kg of dry air

Specific heat of sand= 0.88kJ.kgK

Specific heat of dry air= 0.99kJ/kgK

Specific heat of water vapour= 2.01kJ/kgK

Ans. Mass of air = 26.5kg/s, flow of inlet air= 26.7kg/s , Humidity= 0.025

kg/kg DA

Ammonia gas is diffusing through a uniform tube 0.1m long containing N2 gas

at 1.0132x10^5 Pa press and 298K. at point 1, Pa1= 1.013x10^4 Pa and at point

2, Pa2=0.507x10^4 Pa. the diffusivity DAB= 0.23x10^-4 m2/s

What is the emissivity of a grey surface, 10m2 in area, which radiates 1000kW

at 1500K? what should be the effect of increasing the temperature to 1600K?

A piston cylinder arrangement contains 0.02m3 of air at 50C and 400kPa. Heat

is added in the amount of 50kJ and work is done by a paddle wheel until the

temperature reaches 700C. if the pressure is held constant, how much paddle

wheel work must be added to the air? Assume constant specific heats.

Ans. W= -6.095kJ

Water flows in an open channel across a weir which occupies the full width of

the channel. The length of the weir is 0.5m and the height of water over the

weir is 100mm. what is the volumetric flowrate of water?

Ans. Q= 0.03m3/s

Helium is contained in a 2m3 rigid volume at 50C and 200kPa. Calculate the

heat transfer needed to increase the pressure to 800kPa.

Ans. Q= 1800kJ

One liter per minute of liquid containing A and B(CAO= 0.1mol/L, CBO=

0.01mol/L) flow into a mixed reactor of volume V= 1 liter. The materials

react in a complex manner for which the stoichiometry in unknown. The outlet

stream from the reactor contains A, B and C. ( CAf= 0.02 mol/L, CBf=

0.03mol/L, CCf= 0.04 mol/L). find the rate of reaction of A,B and C for the

conditions within the reactor.

P1= 1.04bar and T1= 10C and is discharged at the final conditions P2= 35.8bar

and T2=93C. the entering CO2 flows through a 100mm diameter pipe with a

velocity of 6m/s and is discharged through a 25mm diameter pipe. The shaft

work supplied to the compressor is 12500kJ/kmol. What is the heat-transfer

rate from the compressor in kW? H1= 714kJ/kg, H2= 768kJ/kg, V1= 0.5774m3/kg,

V2= 0.0175m3/kg

acid. TiO2 is

available as an ore containing 78 % TiO2 and 22 % inerts. The HCl is

available as 45 wt% solution

(the balance is water). The per pass conversion of TiO2 is 75 %. The HCl is

fed into the reactor in

20 % excess based on the reaction. Pure unreacted TiO2 is recycled back to

mix with the TiO2

feed.

TiO2 + 4 HCl -----> TiCl4 + 2H2O

For 1 kg of TiCl4 produced, determine:

a. the kg of TiO2 ore fed.

b. the kg of 45 wt % HCl solution fed.

c. the ratio of recycle stream to fresh TiO2 ore (in kg)

saturated vapour at 2psia. Predict the hp output if the mass flux is

1000lbm/min. also calculate the velocity at the exit. d2= 4ft

A liquid reactant stream (1mol/liter) passes through two mixed flow reactors

in a series. The concentration of A in the exit of the first reactor is

0.5mol/liter. Find the concentration in the exit stream of the second

reactor. The reaction is second-order with respect to A and V2/V1= 2

Solid particles having a size of 0.12mm, a shape factor φ of 0.88, and a

density of 1000kg/m3 are to be fluidized using air at 2atm abs and 25C. the

voidage at minimum fluidizing conditions is 0.42.

a.) If the cross section of the empty bed is 0.3m2 and the bed

contains 300kg of solid, calculate the minimum height of the fluidized

bed.

b.) Calculate the pressure drop at minimum fluidizing conditions

c.) Calculate the minimum velocity for fluidization

liquid mixture of 0.5mol fraction benzene and 0.5mol fraction of toluene at

338K. will the liquid vaporized at pressure of 101.3kN/m2?

Air enters a compressor at atmospheric conditions of 20C and 80kPa and exits

at 800kPa and 200C. Calculate the rate of heat transfer if the power input is

400kW. The air exits at 20m/s through an exit diameter of 10cm.

Ans. Q= -233.4kW

In a pilot scale test using a vessel 1m3 in volume, a solute was leached from

an inert solid and the water was 75% saturated in 100s. if, in a full-scale

unit, 500kg of the inert solid containing, as before, 28% by mass of the

water soluble component, is agitated with 100m2 of water, how long will it

take for all solute to dissolve, assuming conditions are equivalent to those

in the pilot scale vessel? Water is saturated with the solute at a

concentration of 2.5kg/m3?

t= 5906s (98mins)

the oil phase in a centrifuge. The density of the oil is 919.5kg/m3 and that

of the aqueous phase is 980.3kg/m3. The radius r1 for overflow of the light

liquid has been set at 10.16mm and the outlet for the heavy liquid at

10.414mm. Calculate the location of the interface in the centrifuge.

Ans. r2=13.75mm

in an open tank to 290K. If the density of the solution is 1200kg/m3, the

solubility of potassium chloride is 53.55kg/100kg H2O at 360K and 34.5 at

290K, calculate:

b.) The mass of crystals obtained, neglecting loss of water by evap

An open bowl, 0.3m in diameter contains water at 350K evaporating into the

atmosphere. If the air currents are sufficiently strong to remove the water

vapour, as it is formed and if the resistance to its mass transfer in air is

equivalent to that of a 1mm layer for conditions of molecular diffusion, what

will be the rate of cooling due to evaporation? The water can be considered

as well mixed and the water equivalent of the system is equal to 10kg. The

diffusivity of water vapour in air may be taken as 0.2cm2/s and the kilogram

molecular volume at NTP as 22.4m3.

diameter, settling in an oil of density 820kg/m3 and viscosity 10mNs/m2? The

density of steel is 7870 kg/m3/

Ans. v= 0.051m/s

in a vessel of cross sectional area 0.04m2. the mass of solids in the bed is

50kg and the surface volume mean diameter of the particles is 1mm. a liquid

of density 800kg/m3 and viscosity 0.002 Pa s flows upwards through the bed,

which is restrained at its upper surface.

b.) Calculate the frictional pressure drop across the bed when the

volume flow rate of liquid is 1.44m3/h

0.002m3. the weight and the piston maintain a constant gage pressure of

100kPa. Determine the net work done by the gas on the surroundings. Neglect

all friction

internal diameter. Athin-lipped orifice, 10mm in diameter is fitted in the

pipe and the differential pressure shown in a mercury manometer is 0.1m

assuming that the leads to the manometer are filled with the acid, calculate

a.) the massflowrate of acid and b.) the approximate drop in pressure caused

by the orifice in kN/m2. The coefficient of discharge of the orifice may be

taken as 0.61, the density of mercury as 13,550kg/m3 and the density of the

water as 1000kg/m3.

pipe ( inside diameter= 2.5cm). the inside pipe surface temperature is 90C.

Estimate the convective heat-transfer coefficient if the pipe is 1m long. If

the rate of water flow is raised to 0.2kg/s from 0.02kg/s while all other

conditions are kept the same, calculate the new convective heat-transfer

coefficient. Ans. h= 284 W/m2 C, h= 2355 W/m2 C

Wet material, containing 70% moisture, is to be dried at a rate of 0.15kg/s

in a counter current dryer to give a product containing 5% moisture (both on

wet basis). The drying medium consists of air heated to 373K and containing

water vapour equivalent to a partial pressure of 1kN/m2. The air leaves the

dryer at 313K and 70% saturated. Calculate how much air will be required to

remove the moisture. The vapour pressure of water at 313K may be taken as

7.4kN/m2

in continuous counter current extraction system that contains a number of

ideal stages. The waxed paper contains, by weight, 25% paraffin wax and 75%

paper pulp. The extracted pulp is put through a dryer to evaporate the

kerosene. The pulp, which retains the unextracted wax after evaporation, must

not contain over 0.2lb of wax per 100lb of wax free kerosene. Experiments

show that the pulp retains 2lb kerosene per pound kerosene and wax-free pulp

as it is transferred from cell to cell. The extract from the battery is to

contain 5lb of wax per 100lb of wax-free kerosene. How many stages are

required?

Ans. N= 4 stages

in contact at one surface with an organic solvent in which ethanol is soluble

and water is insoluble. Hence, NB=0. At point 1 the concentration of ethanol

is 16.8% wt and the solution density is ρ1= 972.8kg/m3. At point 2 the

concentration of ethanol is 6.8% wt and ρ2= 988.1 kg/m3. The diffusivity of

ethanol is 0.74x10^-9 m2/s. calculate the steady-state flux N.

3000rpm. Calculate the hp delivered.

Ans. 42.1hp

classifying crystallizer. A 1.4mm product is desired. The growth rate is

estimated to be 0.2microm/s. The geometric constant alpha is 0.2, and the

density of the crystal is 2300kg/hr. A magma consistency of 0.35m3 of

crystals per cubic m of mother liquor is to be used. What is the production

rate, in kg crystals per hr percubic meter of mother liquour, what rate of

nucleation, in number per hour per cubic meter of mother liquor, is needed?

A triple-effect evaporator is fed with 5kg/s of a liquor containing 15%

solids. The concentration in the last effect, which operates at 13.5kN/m2, is

60% solids. If the overall heat transfer coefficients are 2.5, 2 and 1.1

kW/m2K, respectively, and the steam is fed at 388K to the 1st effect,

determine the temperature distribution and the area of heating surface

required in each effect, assuming the calandria are identical. What is the

economy and what is the heat load on the condenser? The feed temperature is

294K and the specific heat capacity of all liquors is 4.18kJ/kgK. if the unit

is run as backward effect system, in which the coefficients are 2.3, 2 and

1.6. determine the new temperatures, the heat economy and the heating surface

required under these conditions.

Ans. forward feed, Economy= 2, Aave= 89m2, T1=369, T2=354, T3=325, Heat load

in condenser= 31.8kW

Backward feed, Economy= 2.3, Aave= 81m2, T1= 369.5K, T2= 349K, T3=

325K

- 253.6SL3210-1PB21-0UL0_datasheet_enUploaded byAnonymous CHjPyXec
- Chemical Engg ReviewerUploaded byJasonTenebroso
- 03 Liquid Liquid ExtractionUploaded byChelsea Martinez
- Stoichiometry of Cell Growth and Product FormationUploaded bymneilg
- Chemical Engineering Calculations ReviewerUploaded byjantskie
- Chapter 1 distillationUploaded bySiti Nurshahira
- Liquid Liquid ExtractionUploaded byArrianne Jaye Mata
- ChE Reviewer 2014 (PART I)Uploaded byjantskie
- letra 21Uploaded bygerman
- Rhodes Solutions Ch6Uploaded byJoson Chai
- Evaporation CrystallizationUploaded byFren R.
- day3 part6Uploaded byMhelvene
- 12 Energy and Energy BalancesUploaded byShams Uzzoha
- KawamuraUploaded bymasteriraga
- Chapter 8 ( Principle of Chemical Engineering)1Uploaded byEdmark Sienes Icalina
- Tugas 2 Peristiwa PerpindahanUploaded byRizqi Pandu Sudarmawan
- Spesifikasi AdapterUploaded byNikkoSimamora
- 05987373Uploaded byMuhammad Awais
- 3.3 Problems on Single Effect Evaporator.docxUploaded byRobert Johnson
- 5Uploaded byMSKID
- Intro to EvaporatorUploaded byMXR-3
- Experiment 12Uploaded byflakomusic
- Control of Gaseous Emissions Chapter 7_final.pdfUploaded byVinod Kumar
- Microclimate for MuseumUploaded byRz
- form_eUploaded byExe Exe
- CG DarwinUploaded bynhanngtho
- Numerical modelling of hygrothermal response in building envelopesUploaded bymaleshevac
- Aprilaire HumidifiersUploaded byPamela Alford
- Water Activity paper 22Feb05.pdfUploaded byrom009
- Flow Power of ExchangerUploaded bymuhd.qasim

- Wrd Ot Activated Sludge Process 445196 7Uploaded byGRIFITH
- SAG CURVEUploaded byjantskie
- Industrial GasesUploaded byjantskie
- Gas Power CyclesUploaded byjantskie
- 02-Toxicology, Nov. 21, 2017_2.pdfUploaded byjantskie
- VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEER : STATICSUploaded byRidwan Saputra
- 2.5 FALL PROTECTION.pptxUploaded byjantskie
- Pulp and Paper Industry.pptUploaded byjantskie
- Statics Jul 6,2018Uploaded byjantskie
- day3 part6Uploaded byMhelvene
- Optimization CalculusUploaded byjantskie
- Projectiles and StuffsUploaded byjantskie
- Phychem Jul 6,2018Uploaded byjantskie
- Thermodyanamics SolUploaded byjantskie
- 03-Industrial Hygiene, Nov. 29 & Dec. 05, 2017Uploaded byjantskie
- 04-Coagulation & Flocculation, Dec. 07, 2017Uploaded byjantskie
- 05-Air Pollution Atm. Dispersion, Jan 09. 2018Uploaded byjantskie
- Wrd Ot Activated Sludge Process 445196 7Uploaded byjantskie
- Lecture4 Streeter PhelpsUploaded byjantskie
- Streeter PhelpsUploaded byjantskie
- Flowrate EqualizationUploaded byjantskie
- water.pdfUploaded byMukul Choudhury
- Pulp and Paper IndustryUploaded byjantskie
- 06 Wastewater MicrobiologyUploaded byjantskie
- 05-FOG-removal-Jan.-04.-2018Uploaded byjantskie
- Atmospheric StabilityUploaded byjantskie
- 03-Pre-treatment-Neutralization, Nov. 23, 2017Uploaded byjantskie
- Quiz #4,#5,& #6, Air Pollutant Dispersion, Feb. 01, 2018Uploaded byjantskie
- 02-Industrial Wastewater Flow Equalization, Nov. 14, 2017 (Final Dec. 02)Uploaded byjantskie

- VMP 250 Materials 1812 BrazilUploaded bySyumara Queiroz de Paiva
- API Procedure for Inspection of Chemical Cargo by InspectorsUploaded bydassi99
- apchapt1Uploaded byAmanda Clay
- 201412081130-NABL-122-05-doc.pdfUploaded bymahesh
- Medidor CoriolisUploaded byPaul Lazo
- Scho0309bpqz e eUploaded byAbhijit Parmar
- Chemistry 1411Uploaded byAliciaTorres
- Physical Science Skill and Practice SheetsUploaded byjosieA_123
- Project Standards and Specifications Piping Systems Rev01Uploaded bywahajshafi
- Gas Dynamics and Jet PropulsionUploaded byArul Sankaran
- Alternate to Ghat-ki-guni by Construction of Tunnel in Jhalana Hills JaipurUploaded byDevendra Sharma
- 10.1.1.172Uploaded byCarlos Orozco
- KOESTER Systembrochure Crack Repair and Crack Injection SystemsUploaded byHussein Beqai
- Static and Acoustic Characteristics of Various Compressive Strength Concrete CompositesUploaded byjournal
- Asphalt Mix DesignUploaded byBiplab Banerjee
- Standards.xlsUploaded byhtutswe
- b. Science-8 e PhyscisUploaded bysarithav
- Froth Density at HP.pdfUploaded bysurefooted1
- CE Model 278 UGC DensitometerUploaded byWong Lee See
- Pitot Tube StandartUploaded bydesrytandi
- 149Uploaded bySiddu Rh
- Stabilization of Soil using Chemical AdditivesUploaded byGRD Journals
- Introductio2Uploaded byNhut Nguyen
- Gearless TransmissionUploaded byVaibhav Soni
- BC Instructions Fall 2013Uploaded byPaulo Pires
- 10.1177@0954405414567522Uploaded byMomo Pierre
- Fluid Properties - Density & Surface TensionUploaded byStephen Mirdo
- lee model.pdfUploaded byNavneet Suman
- E3106 Set AUploaded byJagdeep Rahul
- ALS Geochemistry Service Schedule 2015 USDUploaded bySrikanth Jutru