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ﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﻪǪߧ˨˲Ǫ

اﻧﺘﻘﺎل اﳊﺮارة

ﺟﲈل ﻣﺎﻧﻊ.د

Ministry of Higher Education

And

Scientific Research

University Of Technology

Chemical Engineering Department

Heat Transfer

Third Year

By

Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

2008-2009

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

University of Technology

Chemical Engineering Department Third Year B.S.Syllabus

Heat Transfer

Units: 7

Theoretical: 3 hr/week

Tutorial: 1 hr/week

Practical: 2 hr/week

1. Modes of Heat Transfer:

Conduction, Convection and Radiation .

(2 hrs)

2. Steady State Heat Conduction in One Dimension:

Plane wall, radial systems, heat source systems. Boundary surrounded

by fluids. Overall heat transfer coefficient. Extended surface,

conduction-convection systems, fins.

(24 hrs)

3. Principles of Convection:

Transport equations. Fluid mechanism aspect of convection. Laminar

boundary layer. Thermal boundary layer. Empirical and practical

relations for pipe and tube flow. Flow normal to single and tube

banks.

(18 hrs)

4. Heat Exchangers:

Various types and their general characteristics. Fouling factor. Heat

exchangers mean temperature differences. Co-current and counter-

current flow.

(12 hrs)

5. Shell and Tube Exchangers:

Types and various specifications. Design calculations by conventional

and by effectiveness (NTU) methods. Optimum design calculation.

(6 hrs)

6. Condensation and Boiling Heat Transfer:

Condensation of single vapors. Design calculations for condenser,

condenser-subcooler and superheated condenser.

(9 hrs)

7. Radiation and Furnace design:

Radiation properties, shape factor, heat exchange for non black bodies,

parallel planes, shields, gas tradition, boiler.

(9 hrs)

1

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

Temperature as a function of time, lumped capacity system, quenching

of small bodies, heating of tank reactor.

(10 hrs)

2

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

transfer problems, we often makes the mistake of interchangeably using

the terms heat and temperature. Actually, there is a distinct difference

between the two.

molecules of a substance. It is a relative measure of how hot or cold a

substance is and can be used to predict the direction of heat transfer. The

usual symbol for temperature is T. The scales for measuring temperature

in SI units are the Celsius a Kelvin temperature scales.

as heat occurs at the molecular level as a result of a temperature

difference. The usual symbol for heat is (q). Common units for measuring

heat are the Joule and calorie in the SI system.

“Energy in transit due to temperature difference.”

1.1 Difference Between Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer

Thermodynamics tells us:

• How much heat is transferred (Q).

• How much work is done (W).

• Final state of the system.

Heat transfer tells us:

• How (with what modes) (q) is transferred.

• At what rate (q) is transferred.

• Temperature distribution inside the body.

3

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

• Conduction: An energy transfer across a system boundary due to a

temperature difference by the mechanism of inter-molecular

interactions. Conduction needs matter and does not require any bulk

motion of matter.

X

A

T1

T2

q

dT

q = − kA Fourier's Law

dx

Where

q: Heat transfer rate ,J/sec,W

k: Thermal conductivity,W/m.Co,W/m.k

A: Cross sectional area in direction of heat flow. (m2)

T: Temperature, Co, k

X: Thickness ,m

∂T

: Temperature gradient in the direction of the heat flow, Co/m

∂x

4

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

thermodynamics will be satisfied, i.e., heat must flow downhill on the

temperature scale.

temperature difference by the combined mechanisms of intermolecular

interactions and bulk transport. Convection needs fluid matter.

Velocity U∞

T∞

Profile Temp.

Profile

Fluid

Flow

Tw

cooling:

q = h A (Tw -T∞) Newton's law

Where:

q: Heat transfer rate, J/sec,W

h: Heat Transfer coefficient,W/m2.Co,W/m2.k

A: Surface area from which convection is occurring, (m2)

Tw: Temperature of surface ,Co, k

T∞: Temperature of fluid, Co,

5

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

Convection:

Forced convection

Free convection Gases: 2 - 25

Liquid: 50 – 100

Liquid: 50 -20,000

electromagnetic radiation that arises due to the temperature of the

body.

When two bodies exchange heat by radiation, the net heat exchange is

then proportional to the difference in (T4).Thus

(

q = σA T14 − T24 ) Maxwell's law

Where

q: Heat transfer rate, J/sec, W

σ: Stefan Boltzmann constant = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2 k4

A: Surface area,m2

T1: Absolute temperature of surface, (k)

T2: Absolute temperature of surroundings, (k)

6

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

introduce another factor into Maxwell's law, called the emissivity (ε),

which relates the radiation of the (gray) surface to that of an ideal

black surface. In addition ,we must take into account the fact that not

all the radiation leaving one surface will reach the other surface since

electromagnetic radiation travels in straight lines and some will be lost

to the surrounding .so that

(

q = σ A ε aCos θ T14 − T24 )

Where

ε: Surface Emissivity 0 < ε,a,Cosθ < 1

a: Absorptivity

property of a material. From the State Postulate given in

thermodynamics, it may be recalled that thermodynamic properties of

pure substances are functions of two independent thermodynamic

intensive properties, say temperature and pressure. Thermal

conductivity of real gases is largely independent of pressure and may

be considered a function of temperature alone. For solids and liquids,

properties are largely independent of pressure and depend on

temperature alone.

k = k (T)

7

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

Copper 401

Silver 429

Gold 317

Aluminum 237

Steel 60.5

Limestone 2.15

Bakelite 1.4

Water 0.613

Air 0.0263

magnitude of thermal conductivity for various materials. The background

for this comes from the introductory Chemistry courses. Molecules of

various materials gain energy through various mechanisms. Gases

exhibit energy through the kinetic energy of the molecule. Energy is

gained or lost through collusions of gaseous molecules as they travel

through the medium.

Solids, being are much more stationary, cannot effectively

transfer energy through these same mechanisms. Instead, solids may

exhibit energy through vibration or rotation of the nucleus. Another

important mechanism in which materials maintain energy is by shifting

electrons into higher orbital rings. In the case of electrical conductors the

electrons are weakly bonded to the molecule and can drift from one

molecule to another transporting their energy with them. This is an

especially effective transport mechanism, so that materials which are

excellent electrical conductors are excellent thermal conductors.

8

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

Example 1.1:

One face of a copper plate (3cm) thick is maintained at (400Co), and the

other face maintained at (100Co).How much heat is transferred through

the plate? Given thermal conductivity of copper is (370 W/m.Co)

Solution

q dT

= −k Fourier's law

A dx

Integrating gives

q ∆T − (370)(100 − 400 )

= −k = = 2

A ∆X (

3 * 10 − 2

3

)

.7 MW/m

Example 1.2:

Air at (20Co) blows over a hot plate (50 by 75 cm) maintained at

(250Co).The convection heat transfer coefficient is (25 W/m2.

Co).Calculate the heat transfer, neglected heat transfer by radiation

Solution

q = hA ( TW − T ∞ ) Newton's law

q = (25 )(0 . 5 ∗ 0 . 75 )(250 − 20 ) = 2 . 1 kW

9

Heat Transfer Third Year Dr.Jamal Al-Rubeai

&

Assist lecturer Abbas J.Sultan

Example 1.3:

Assuming that the plate in Example 1.2 is made of carbon steel(1%) 2 cm

thick and that (300W)is lost from the plate surface by radiation, calculate

the inside plate temperature Given thermal conductivity of carbon

steel(1%) is (43 W/m.Co).

Solution

The heat conducted through the plate must be equal to the sum of

convection and radiation heat losses.

qConduction=qConvection + qRadiation

− kA

∆T

∆x

(

= hA(Tw − T∞ ) + σA T14 − T24 )

∆T

− kA = 2.156 ∗ 103 + 300

∆x

T1 − 250 =

(2456)(0.02) = 3.05

(0.5)(0.75)(43)

T1 = 3.05 + 250 = 253.05C o

10

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