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BIOLOGY PROJECT

2018-19
TOPIC: AIDS AND HIV

BY
MOHAMMAD FARHAN
CLASS-12-A
ROLL NO._____________
INDEX

1. Introduction
2. History of AIDS
3. Causes of AIDS
4. Transmission of AIDS virus
5. Screening test for AIDS
6. Manifestation of AIDS
7. AIDS Treatment
8. Preventions from AIDS
9. Reasons
10.Steps taken to prevent the spreading
of AIDS
11.Observation
12.Problems for patient
13.Hypothesis
14.Conclusion
INTRODUCTION OF HIV AND
AIDS VIRUS

This is Project Report on HIV AIDS. Defnition:


Acquired Immuno Defciency Syndrome. It is a
pandemic disease. AIDS cannot be compared to disease
like malaria and cholera which claim more live in
country currently. It has a greater impact than other
disease. The treatment options are still in the initial
stages and are prohibitively expensive. There are
instances of quacks taking advantage of the situation.
This has compounded the misery of AIDS patients.
AIDS virus is 100 to 140 nm. in diameter and has a
cylindrical core. It is found in blood and semen and to a
lesser extent in milk tears and saliva. It is a retrovirus,
i.e. its genetic material is - RNA (single stranded linear)
which can make a DNA copy of itself with the help of
the reverse transcriptase enzyme. The virus binds
specifcally to a surface receptor on a helper T-cell and
introduce its RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme
into the cells here it multiplies and the release of new
virus destroys the cell. AIDS occurs when the helper T-
cell falls too low to fght the disease.
History of HIV AIDS:

It was frst noticed in USA in 1981. The American


and French scientist independently identifed the AIDS
virus 1984. The virus frst named as HCLV III (Human
cell leukemia virus III). The name (Human cell leukemia
defciency virus) is now preferred. It now seems that
HIV frst passed into human from chimpanzees by
eating butchered chimps. 10% of the people, who get
AIDS virus infection, actually develop full blown AIDS.
Causes of AIDS

The main causes of AIDS is a disorder of cell


mediated immune system of the body. The disorder is
characterized by a reduction in the number of helper. T-
cell which stimulate antibody production by B-cells. This
result in the loss of natural defense against viral
infection.
Transmission of AIDS Virus

It is only transmitted by a direct contact of infected


cells - containing blood of patient to the blood of a
healthy person as in -
1) Sexual intercourse with an infected partner if there is
tissue injury to permit blood contact.
2) Use of contaminated needles and syringes to inject
drugs or vaccines.
3) Use of contaminated razors, needles for boring
pinnae.
4) Transfusion of infected blood or blood product.
5) Organ transplant.
6) Artifcial insemination.
7) Parturition from mother to baby due to rupturing of
blood vessels.

Note: The sexual of transmission account for over 75%


of infections.
AIDS is not a contagious disease. It does not spread by
casual contact, such as handshake, body contact in
crowded places, working or playing together , sharing
clothes , eating food cooked by infected person, using
same toilet, swimming pools. It is also not and ribovirin
seem most promising. A drugs named zide vuidine
prolongs the life of many AIDS patient. However, some
patients AIDS virus have already mutated to zidovudine
resistant forms.
Screening Test of AIDS

AIDS Patient generally have circulating antibodies


which can be detected. In many countries this test is
done as a routine on blood, donor, screening may prove
harmful to victims. Persons found to be HIV positive
become depressed and suicidal and are denied
insurance, evicted from their houses, fred from their
jobs only a small minority of such persons are likely to
develop full blown AIDS. However the infected persons
may spread infection to others.
Today 'ELISA' test is done identify this pandemic
disease (AIDS).
Manifestation of AIDS

It can manifest in two major ways -

i) Maligent tumours in connective tissue


ii) Viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungalin-fection of any
system of the body. There are destruction of WBC'S,
damage to brain, unexplained fever, unexplained loss
of appetite, unexplained loss weight over a short time,
chronic diarrhoea, cough, night sweats, enlargement of
lymph glands, shortness of breath, weakness.

AIDS Treatment
Medical treatment of AIDS consists of:
i) Antiviral therapy against the causative agent
ii) Immuno simulative therapy to increase the number
of resistance - providing cells in the body or both.
However, no specifc treatment has been found so far
and the mortality form AIDS is virtually 100%. A victim
of full blown AIDS dies within 3 years from infection of
many drugs tried, azithmidine transmitted by blood
sucking insects such as mosquitoes, AIDS virus has
been found in urine, tears saliva, breast milk and
vaginal secretions, but is seems not to transmitted by
these fuids unless it gets a cut.

PREVENTIONS FROM AIDS


Following steps may help in controlling this dreaded
disease.

i) People particularly those in high risk group should be


educated about AIDS transmission.
ii) High risk group should refrain from blood donation.
iii) Disposable needles and syringes should be used.
iv) Sexual habits should change immediately.
v) Before receiving blood, ensure that it has been
screened for HIV.
vi) Routine screening may be done in
a) Blood Donors,
b) Organ Donors
c) Donors of semen and growth hormone,
d) Patient receiving haemodialysis
e) Females in high risk group, who are pregnant or
contemplating pregnancy.
Chastity, lifelong monogamy, and a clean needle for
each injection are the only ways to prevents the spread
of AIDS. These measure will succeed only in persons
not already infected.
Major causes & steps to prevent it
Reasons of spreading AIDS among world people
More than 90% of the infected persons are belong to
developing countries.

REASONS: -
(i) Low-level of socio-economic development.
(ii) Low health consciousness and facilities
(iii) A growing unmarried youth population due to
delayed marriage
(iv) High rate of labour migration.
(v) Low level of literacy among high-risk groups.
(vi)High incidence of sexuality transmitted diseases and
reproductive tract infections among men and women.

Steps taken to prevent the


spreading of AIDS:
(i) National AIDS programme of south East Asian
countries are beginning to yield encouraging results.
The 100% condom use programme in Thailand and the
Sonagachi project in Calcutta, a model peer education
programme among sex workers, have helped bring
down AIDS infection and also reduced the incidence of
STD.

(ii) Non-government organizations have brought Baptist


interest litigations against such cases of discrimination
and the courts have pronounced the rights of such
peoples. This has helped alleviate the misery of
afected persons.
OBSERVATION

AIDS immersed as pandemic disease. It is nondurable.


It is more common in developing countries. Now every
day 1000 peoples are going to become HIV infected in
world. This is mainly due to blood transfusion & Sexual
contact. In whole world about 3 crores 30 lakhs people
are HIV +ve & in India 3 lakh 70 thousands are HIV
+ve. The number of HIV +ve persons are higher in
Tamilnadu Bombay, Calcutta and Kerala and Manipur.
PROBLEMS FOR PATIENT

AIDS cause disease of Immune system of body. The HIV


cause damage to T & B cell. Thus this is becoming a
threatening problem of today and of future.

HYPOTHESIS
AIDS is non curable due to its nature of pathogen. It
also damages immune system of the body. Therefore,
any medicine (Antiviral) drugs are not efective against
HIV virus. Ignorance and lack of knowledge about this
disease is the root cause of wide spread of this disease

CONCLUSION
After studying the cause and efects of 'AIDS' from
diferent views, we conclude that it is a pandemic
disease. It is mainly spreading sexually and person of
the age group of 25-45 years are the most afected
group. There are some methods like 'Antiviral Therapy'
and Immuno Stimulative therapy which bring some
hope that even then no specifc treatment has been
found so for and morality form is virtually 100%. So
only prevention in the test medicine care.

BIBILIOGRAPHY

1. Wikipedia
2. Science daily
3. Weekly
4. bioinfo.com
5. zizu.com
JAWAHAR NAVODAY VIDYALAYA
RUDHAULI, BHADURPUR -BASTI

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

CERTIFICATE
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT MOHAMMAD
FARHAN OF CLASS XII‐A HAS SUCESSFULLY
COMPLETED THE RESEARCH ON THE
MENTIONED TOPIC UNDER THE GUIDANCE
OF MRS. VIJAY SHRI [SUBJECT TEACHER]
DURING THE YEAR 2018‐19 IN PARTIAL
FULFILMENT OF PRACTICAL EXAMINATION.

SIGNATURE OF EXTERNAL SIGNATURE OF BIOLOGY


EXAMINER TEACHER
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to
my Biology teacher MRS. VIJAY SRI as well as our
school principal MR who
gave the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project
on the topic " AIDS AND HIV " which also helped
me in doing a lot of research work and I came to know
about so many new things. I am really thankful to them.