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Hippocrates

Hippocrates of Kos (/hɪˈpɒkrətiːz/; Greek: Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος Hippokrátēs ho


Hippocrates of Kos
Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of
the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), who is considered one of the most
outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father
of Medicine"[1] in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder
of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized
medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields
with which it had traditionally been associated (theurgy and philosophy), thus
establishing medicine as a profession.[2][3]

However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of


Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates himself were often
commingled; thus very little is known about what Hippocrates actually thought,
wrote, and did. Hippocrates is commonly portrayed as the paragon of the ancient
physician, and credited with coining theHippocratic Oath, which is still relevant and
in use today. He is also credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of
clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, and
prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other
A conventionalized image in a
works.[2][4]
Roman "portrait" bust (19th-century
engraving)
Born c. 460 BC
Contents Kos, Ancient Greece
Biography Died c. 370 BC
Hippocratic theory (aged c. 90)
Crisis Larissa, Ancient
Professionalism Greece
Direct contributions to medicine Occupation Physician
Hippocratic Corpus
Era Classical Greece
Hippocratic Oath
Title The Father of Western
Legacy
Image Medicine
Legends
Genealogy
Namesakes
See also
Notes
References
Further reading
External links

Biography
Historians agree that Hippocrates was born around the year 460 BC
on the Greek island of Kos; other biographical information, however,
is likely to be untrue.[5]

Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek physician,[6] was


Hippocrates' first biographer and is the source of most personal
information about him. Later biographies are in the Suda of the 10th
century AD, and in the works of John Tzetzes, , Aristotle's "Politics",
which date from the 4th century BC.[7]

Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician, Asklepieion on Kos
and his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane. The two sons of
Hippocrates, Thessalus and Draco, and his son-in-law, Polybus, were
his students. According to Galen, a later physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a
son named Hippocrates (Hippocrates III and IV).[8][9]

Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather (Hippocrates I), and studied other subjects with
Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates was probably trained at the asklepieion of Kos, and took lessons from the Thracian physician
Herodicus of Selymbria. Plato mentions Hippocrates in two of his dialogues: in Protagoras, Plato describes Hippocrates as
"Hippocrates of Kos, the Asclepiad";[10][11] while in Phaedrus, Plato suggests that "Hippocrates the Asclepiad" thought that a
complete knowledge of the nature of the body was necessary for medicine.[12] Hippocrates taught and practiced medicine throughout
his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly, Thrace, and the Sea of Marmara. Several different accounts of his death exist. He died,
[9]
probably in Larissa, at the age of 83, 85 or 90, though some say he lived to be well over 100.

Hippocratic theory
Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were
It is thus with regard
caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods.[13][14][15][16] Hippocrates
was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying philosophy and medicine.[13]
He separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that
“ to the disease called
Sacred: it appears to
me to be nowise
disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of more divine nor
environmental factors, diet, and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of
more sacred than
other diseases, but
a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. However, Hippocrates
has a natural cause
did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be from the originates
incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism.[14][15][16] like other affections.
Men regard its
Ancient Greek schools of medicine were split (into the Knidian and Koan) on how to nature and cause as


deal with disease. The Knidian school of medicine focused on diagnosis. Medicine divine from
at the time of Hippocrates knew almost nothing of human anatomy and physiology ignorance and
because of the Greek taboo forbidding the dissection of humans. The Knidian school wonder....
consequently failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of — Hippocrates, On the Sacred Disease
symptoms.[17] The Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater success by
applying general diagnoses and passive treatments. Its focus was on patient care and prognosis, not diagnosis. It could effectively
[18][19]
treat diseases and allowed for a great development in clinical practice.

Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of modern medicine. Now, the physician focuses on specific
diagnosis and specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian school. This shift in medical thought since
Hippocrates' day has caused serious criticism over the past two millennia, with the passivity of Hippocratic treatment being the
subject of particularly strong denunciations; for example, the French doctor M. S. Houdart called the Hippocratic treatment a
"meditation upon death".[20]
Crisis
Another important concept in Hippocratic medicine was that of a crisis, a point in the progression of disease at which either the
illness would begin to triumph and the patient would succumb to death, or the opposite would occur and natural processes would
make the patient recover. After a crisis, a relapse might follow, and then another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises
tend to occur on critical days, which were supposed to be a fixed time after the contraction of a disease. If a crisis occurred on a day
far from a critical day, a relapse might be expected. Galen believed that this idea originated with Hippocrates, though it is possible
that it predated him.[21]

Hippocratic medicine was humble and passive. The therapeutic


approach was based on "the healing power of nature" ("vis
medicatrix naturae" in Latin). According to this doctrine, the body
contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and
heal itself (physis).[22] Hippocratic therapy focused on simply easing
this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed "rest and
immobilization [were] of capital importance."[23] In general, the
Hippocratic medicine was very kind to the patient; treatment was
gentle, and emphasized keeping the patient clean and sterile. For Illustration of a Hippocratic bench, date unknown
example, only clean water or wine were ever used on wounds,
though "dry" treatment was preferable. Soothing balms were
sometimes employed.[24]

Hippocrates was reluctant to administer drugs and engage in specialized treatment that might prove to be wrongly chosen;
generalized therapy followed a generalized diagnosis.[24][25] Generalized treatments he prescribed include fasting and the
consumption of a mix of honey and vinegar. Hippocrates once said that "to eat when you are sick, is to feed your sickness." However,
potent drugs were used on certain occasions.[26] This passive approach was very successful in treating relatively simple ailments such
as broken bones which requiredtraction to stretch the skeletal system and relieve pressure on the injured area. The Hippocratic bench
and other devices were used to this end.

One of the strengths of Hippocratic medicine was its emphasis on prognosis. At Hippocrates' time, medicinal therapy was quite
immature, and often the best thing that physicians could do was to evaluate an illness and predict its likely progression based upon
data collected in detailed case histories.[16][27]

Professionalism
Hippocratic medicine was notable for its strict professionalism, discipline, and
rigorous practice.[29] The Hippocratic work On the Physician recommends that
physicians always be well-kempt, honest, calm, understanding, and serious. The
Hippocratic physician paid careful attention to all aspects of his practice: he
followed detailed specifications for, "lighting, personnel, instruments, positioning of
the patient, and techniques of bandaging and splinting" in the ancient operating
room.[30] He even kept his fingernails to a precise length.[31]

The Hippocratic School gave importance to the clinical doctrines of observation and
documentation. These doctrines dictate that physicians record their findings and
A number of ancient Greek surgical
their medicinal methods in a very clear and objective manner, so that these records
tools. On the left is a trephine; on the
may be passed down and employed by other physicians.[9] Hippocrates made right, a set of scalpels. Hippocratic
careful, regular note of many symptoms including complexion, pulse, fever, pains, medicine made good use of these
movement, and excretions.[27] He is said to have measured a patient's pulse when tools.[28]
taking a case history to discover whether the patient was lying.[32] Hippocrates

[33]
extended clinical observations into family history and environment.[33] "To him medicine owes the art of clinical inspection and
observation."[16] For this reason, he may more properly be termed as the "Father of Medicine".
[34]

Direct contributions to medicine


Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical
conditions.[35] He is given credit for the first description of clubbing of the fingers,
an important diagnostic sign in chronic lung disease, lung cancer and cyanotic heart
disease. For this reason, clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as "Hippocratic
fingers".[36] Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe Hippocratic face in
Prognosis. Shakespeare famously alludes to this description when writing of
Falstaff's death in Act II, Scene iii. ofHenry V.[37][38]
Clubbing of fingers in a patient with
Hippocrates began to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, Eisenmenger's syndrome; first
and use terms such as, "exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and described by Hippocrates, clubbing is
also known as "Hippocratic fingers".
convalescence."[27][39] Another of Hippocrates' major contributions may be found in
his descriptions of the symptomatology, physical findings, surgical treatment and
prognosis of thoracic empyema, i.e. suppuration of the lining of the chest cavity. His teachings remain relevant to present-day
students of pulmonary medicine and surgery.[40] Hippocrates was the first documentedchest surgeon and his findings and techniques,
[40]
while crude, such as the use of lead pipes to drain chest wall abscess, are still valid.

The Hippocratic school of medicine described well the ailments of the human rectum and the treatment thereof, despite the school's
poor theory of medicine. Hemorrhoids, for instance, though believed to be caused by an excess of bile and phlegm, were treated by
Hippocratic physicians in relatively advanced ways.[41][42] Cautery and excision are described in the Hippocratic Corpus, in addition
to the preferred methods: ligating the hemorrhoids and drying them with a hot iron. Other treatments such as applying various salves
are suggested as well.[43][44] Today, "treatment [for hemorrhoids] still includes burning, strangling, and excising."[41] Also, some of
the fundamental concepts ofproctoscopy outlined in the Corpus are still in use.[41][42] For example, the uses of the rectal speculum, a
common medical device, are discussed in the Hippocratic Corpus.[42] This constitutes the earliest recorded reference to
endoscopy.[45][46] Hippocrates often used lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise to treat diseases such as diabetes, what is
today called lifestyle medicine. He is often quoted with "Let food be your medicine, and medicine be your food" and "Walking is
man's best medicine",[47] however the quote "Let food be your medicine" appears to be a misquotation and its exact origin remains
unknown.[48]

Hippocratic Corpus
The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum) is a collection of around seventy early medical works collected in
Alexandrian Greece.[49] It is written in Ionic Greek. The question of whether Hippocrates himself was the author of any of the
treatises in the corpus has not been conclusively answered,[50] but current debate revolves around only a few of the treatises seen as
potentially by him. Because of the variety of subjects, writing styles and apparent date of construction, the Hippocratic Corpus could
not have been written by one person (Ermerins numbers the authors at nineteen).[26] The corpus came to be known by his name
because of his fame, possibly all medical works were classified under 'Hippocrates' by a librarian in Alexandria.[10][30][51] The
[52]
volumes were probably produced by his students and followers.

The Hippocratic Corpus contains textbooks, lectures, research, notes and philosophical essays on various subjects in medicine, in no
particular order.[50][53] These works were written for different audiences, both specialists and laymen, and were sometimes written
from opposing viewpoints; significant contradictions can be found between works in the Corpus.[54] Notable among the treatises of
the Corpus are The Hippocratic Oath; The Book of Prognostics; On Regimen in Acute Diseases; Aphorisms; On Airs, Waters and
Places; Instruments of Reduction; On The Sacred Disease; etc.[26]

Hippocratic Oath
The Hippocratic Oath, a seminal document on the ethics of medical practice, was
attributed to Hippocrates in antiquity although new information shows it may have
been written after his death. This is probably the most famous document of the
Hippocratic Corpus. Recently the authenticity of the document's author has come
under scrutiny. While the Oath is rarely used in its original form today, it serves as a
foundation for other, similar oaths and laws that define good medical practice and
morals. Such derivatives are regularly taken today by medical graduates about to
enter medical practice.[10][55][56]

Legacy
Hippocrates is widely considered to be the "Father of Medicine".[52] His
contributions revolutionized the practice of medicine; but after his death the
advancement stalled.[57] So revered was Hippocrates that his teachings were largely
taken as too great to be improved upon and no significant advancements of his
methods were made for a long time.[10][23] The centuries after Hippocrates' death
A 12th-century Byzantine manuscript
were marked as much by retrograde movement as by further advancement. For
of the Oath in the form of across
instance, "after the Hippocratic period, the practice of taking clinical case-histories
died out," according toFielding Garrison.[58]

After Hippocrates, the next significant physician wasGalen, a Greek who lived from
AD 129 to AD 200. Galen perpetuated Hippocratic medicine, moving both forward
and backward.[59] In the Middle Ages, the Islamic world adopted Hippocratic
methods and developed new medical technologies.[60] After the European
Renaissance, Hippocratic methods were revived in western Europe and even further
expanded in the 19th century. Notable among those who employed Hippocrates'
rigorous clinical techniques were Thomas Sydenham, William Heberden, Jean-
Martin Charcot and William Osler. Henri Huchard, a French physician, said that
Mural painting showingGalen and [61]
these revivals make up "the whole history of internal medicine."
Hippocrates. 12th century;Anagni,
Italy
Image
According to Aristotle's testimony, Hippocrates was known as "The Great
Hippocrates".[62] Concerning his disposition, Hippocrates was first portrayed as a
"kind, dignified, old country doctor" and later as "stern and forbidding".[10] He is
certainly considered wise, of very great intellect and especially as very practical.
Francis Adams describes him as "strictly the physician of experience and common
sense."[17]

His image as the wise, old doctor is reinforced by busts of him, which wear large
beards on a wrinkled face. Many physicians of the time wore their hair in the style of
Jove and Asklepius. Accordingly, the busts of Hippocrates that have been found
could be only altered versions of portraits of these deities.[57] Hippocrates and the
beliefs that he embodied are considered medical ideals. Fielding Garrison, an
authority on medical history, stated, "He is, above all, the exemplar of that flexible,
critical, well-poised attitude of mind, ever on the lookout for sources of error, which
is the very essence of the scientific spirit."[61] "His figure... stands for all time as that
of the ideal physician," according to A Short History of Medicine, inspiring the
Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens,
medical profession since his death.[63] 1638
Legends
The Travels of Sir John Mandeville reports (incorrectly) that Hippocrates was the ruler of the islands of "Kos and Lango" [sic], and
recounts a legend about Hippocrates' daughter. She was transformed into a hundred-foot long dragon by the goddess Diana, and is the
"lady of the manor" of an old castle. She emerges three times a year, and will be turned back into a woman if a knight kisses her,
making the knight into her consort and ruler of the islands. Various knights try, but flee when they see the hideous dragon; they die
soon thereafter. This is a version of the legend ofMelusine.[64]

Genealogy
Hippocrates' legendary genealogy traces his paternal heritage directly to Asklepius and his maternal ancestry to Heracles.[26]
According to Tzetzes'sChiliades, the ahnentafel of Hippocrates II is:[65]

1. Hippocrates II. "The Father of Medicine"


2. Heraclides
4. Hippocrates I.
8. Gnosidicus
16. Nebrus
32. Sostratus III.
64. Theodorus II.
128. Sostratus, II.
256. Thedorus
512. Cleomyttades
1024. Crisamis
2048. Dardanus An mosaic of Hippocrates on the
4096. Sostratus floor of the Asclepieion of Kos, with
8192. Hippolochus Asklepius in the middle, 2nd-3rd
century
16384. Podalirius
32768. Asklepius

Namesakes
Some clinical symptoms and signs have been named after
Hippocrates as he is believed to be the first person to describe those.
Hippocratic face is the change produced in the countenance by death,
or long sickness, excessive evacuations, excessive hunger, and the
like. Clubbing, a deformity of the fingers and fingernails, is also
known as Hippocratic fingers. Hippocratic succussion is the internal
splashing noise of hydropneumothorax or pyopneumothorax. Statue of Hippocrates in front of theMayne Medical
Hippocratic bench (a device which uses tension to aid in setting School in Brisbane
bones) and Hippocratic cap-shaped bandage are two devices named
after Hippocrates.[66] Hippocratic Corpus and Hippocratic Oath are
also his namesakes. The drink hypocras is also believed to be invented by Hippocrates. Risus sardonicus, a sustained spasming of the
face muscles may also be termed the Hippocratic Smile. The most severe form of hair loss and baldness is called the Hippocratic
form.[67]

In the modern age, a lunar crater has been named Hippocrates. The Hippocratic Museum, a museum on the Greek island of Kos is
dedicated to him. The Hippocrates Projectis a program of the New York University Medical Center to enhance education through use
of technology. Project Hippocrates (an acronym of "HIgh PerfOrmance Computing for Robot-AssisTEd Surgery") is an effort of the
Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science and Shadyside Medical Center, "to develop advanced planning, simulation, and
execution technologies for the next generation of computer-assisted surgical robots."[68] Both the Canadian Hippocratic Registry and
American Hippocratic Registry are organizations of physicians who uphold the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath as
inviolable through changing social times.

See also
Hippocrates Prize for Poetry and Medicine

Notes
1. "Hippocrates" (https://www.webcitation.org/5kwKKh4qP?url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576397/Hippo
crates.html). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. 2006. Archived fromthe original (http://e
ncarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576397/Hippocrates.html)on 2009-10-31.
2. Garrison 1966, pp. 92–93
3. Nuland 1988, p. 5
4. Garrison 1966, p. 96
5. Nuland 1988, p. 4
6. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia 2006
7. Aristotle. "Politics Book VII" (http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.7.seven.html)
. Internet Classics Archive.
8. Adams 1891, p. 19
9. Margotta 1968, p. 66
10. Martí-Ibáñez 1961, pp. 86–87
11. Plato 380 B.C.
12. Plato 360 B.C. 270c
13. Adams 1891, p. 4
14. Jones 1868, p. 11
15. Nuland 1988, pp. 8–9
16. Garrison 1966, pp. 93–94
17. Adams 1891, p. 15
18. Margotta 1968, p. 67
19. Leff & Leff 1956, p. 51
20. Jones 1868, pp. 12–13
21. Jones 1868, pp. 46,48,59
22. Garrison 1966, p. 99
23. Margotta 1968, p. 73
24. Garrison 1966, p. 98
25. Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 35
26. Encyclopædia Britannica 1911
27. Garrison 1966, p. 97
28. Adams 1891, p. 17
29. Garrison 1966
30. Margotta 1968, p. 64
31. Rutkow 1993, pp. 24–25
32. Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 88
33. Margotta 1968, p. 68
34. Leff & Leff 1956, p. 45
35. Starr, Michelle (18 December 2017)."Ancient Poo Is The First-Ever Confirmation Hippocrates W as Right About
Parasites" (https://www.sciencealert.com/hippocrates-worms-confirmed-ancient-greek-faeces). Science Alert.
Retrieved 18 February 2018.
36. Schwartz, Richards & Goyal 2006
37. Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 40
38. Margotta 1968, p. 70
39. Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 90
40. Major 1965
41. Jóhannsson 2005, p. 11
42. Jani 2005, pp. 24–25
43. Jóhannsson 2005, p. 12
44. Mann 2002, pp. 1, 173
45. Shah 2002, p. 645
46. NCEPOD 2004, p. 4
47. Chishti, Hakim (1988).The Traditional Healer's Handbook. Vermont: Healing Arts Press. p. 11.ISBN 0892814381.
48. Cardenas, Diana (2013)."Let not thy food be confused with thy medicine: The Hippocratic misquotation"
(https://ww
w.researchgate.net/publication/258099432_Let_not_thy_food_be_confused_with_thy_medicine_The_Hippocratic_mi
squotation). e-SPEN Journal.
49. Iniesta, Ivan (20 April 2011), "Hippocratic Corpus",BMJ, 342: d688, doi:10.1136/bmj.d688 (https://doi.org/10.1136%
2Fbmj.d688)
50. Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 27
51. Smith, Wesley D. (2002). "The Hippocratic Tradition" (https://web.archive.org/web/20171018190846/http://www .biusa
nte.parisdescartes.fr/ressources/pdf/medicina-hippo2.pdf)(PDF). Archived from the original (http://www.biusante.pari
sdescartes.fr/ressources/pdf/medicina-hippo2.pdf)(PDF) on 2017-10-18. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
52. Hanson 2006
53. Rutkow 1993, p. 23
54. Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 28
55. Jones 1868, p. 217
56. Buqrat Aur Uski Tasaneef by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Tibbia College Magazine, Aligarh Muslim University,
Aligarh, India, 1966, p. 56-62.
57. Garrison 1966, p. 100
58. Garrison 1966, p. 95
59. Jones 1868, p. 35
60. Leff & Leff 1956, p. 102
61. Garrison 1966, p. 94
62. Jones 1868, p. 38
63. Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 29
64. Anthony Bale, trans., The Book of Marvels and Travels, Oxford 2012, ISBN 0199600600, p. 15 (https://books.google.
com/books?id=KqonpxzxlFoC&pg=PA15) and footnote
65. Adams 1891
66. Fishchenko & Khimich 1986
67. "The dilemma of balding solve by father of medicine Hippocrates". Healthy Hair Highlights News. 15 August 2011.
68. Project Hippocrates 1995

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Hippocrates (2006) [400 B.C.],On the Sacred Disease, Internet Classics
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Further reading
Adams, Francis (translator) (1891) (1994) [1891],Works by Hippocrates, The Internet Classics Archive: Daniel C.
Stevenson, Web Atomics © 1994–2000.
Coulter, Harris L (1975), Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought: The Patterns Emerge:
Hippocrates to Paracelsus, 1, Washington, DC: Weehawken Book
Craik, Elizabeth M. (ed., trans., comm.),The Hippocratic Treatise On glands (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2009) (Studies in
ancient medicine, 36).
Di Benedetto, Vincenzo (1986), Il medico e la malattia. La scienza di Ippocrate , Turin: Einaudi
Edelstein, Ludwig (1943),The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press
Goldberg, Herbert S. (1963),Hippocrates, Father of Medicine, New York: Franklin Watts
Heidel, William Arthur (1941),Hippocratic Medicine: Its Spirit and Method, New York: Columbia University Press
Hippocrates (1990), Smith, Wesley D, ed., Pseudepigraphic writings : letters, embassy , speech from the altar,
decree, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 90-04-09290-0
Jouanna, Jacques (1999),Hippocrates, M. B. DeBevoise, trans, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,ISBN 0-
8018-5907-7
Jori, Alberto (1996), Medicina e medici nell'antica Grecia. Saggio sul 'Perì téchnes' ippocratico , Bologna (Italy): il
Mulino.
Kalopothakes, M. D. (1857),An essay on Hippocrates, Philadelphia: King and Baird Printers.
Langholf, Volker (1990), Medical theories in Hippocrates : early texts and the "Epidemics" , Berlin: de Gruyter,
ISBN 978-3-11-011956-5
Levine, Edwin Burton (1971),Hippocrates, New York: Twayne
Lopez, Francesco (2004),Il pensiero olistico di Ippocrate. Percorsi di ragionamento e testimonianze. ol. V I, Cosenza
(Italy): Edizioni Pubblisfera,ISBN 978-88-88358-35-2.
Moon, Robert Oswald (1923),Hippocrates and His Successors in Relation to the Philosophy of Their ime, T New
York: Longmans, Green and Co
Petersen, William F. (1946), Hippocratic Wisdom for Him Who Wishes to Pursue Properly the Science of Medicine: A
Modern Appreciation of Ancient Scientific Achievement , Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas
Phillips, E.D. (1973), Aspects of Greek Medicine, New York: St. Martin's Press
Pliny the Elder, Natural History: Book XXIX., translated by John Bostock. See original text in Perseus program.
Sargent, II, Frederick (1982),Hippocratic heritage : a history of ideas about weather and human health , New York:
Pergamon Press, ISBN 0-08-028790-5
Smith, Wesley D. (1979), Hippocratic Tradition, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-1209-9
Temkin, Owsei (1991), Hippocrates in a world of pagans and Christians , Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
ISBN 0-8018-4090-2 online free to borrow

External links
Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article:Hippocrates
The Harvard Classics Volume 38 with "The Oath of Hippocrates", project gutenberg
Hippocrates collection, full works in English, atThe Virtual Library
Works by Hippocrates at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Hippocrates entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Works by or about Hippocratesin libraries (WorldCat catalog)
First printed editions of the Hippocratic Collectionat the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Médecine of Paris (BIUM)
studies and digitized texts by theBIUM (Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de médecine et d'odontologie, Paris) see its
digital library Medic@.
Wesley D. Smith. Hippocrates. Free full-text article from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Last accessed 24 April
2012.

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