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Author(s): M. A. Clements

Source: Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, Vol. 13, No. 2 (Mar., 1982), pp.

136-144

Published by: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

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Journal for Research in Mathematics Education

1982, Vol. 13, No. 2, 136-144

CHILDREN ON WRITTEN

MATHEMATICAL TASKS

M. A. CLEMENTS

Monash University

themselves have often obtained incorrect answers to problems they k

how to do. Further, most of them have at some time advised student

take more care when attempting mathematical problems. But what

careless errors? And which personality and cognitive characteristics

any, tend to be associated with students who make careless errors o

mathematical tasks? This article addresses these two questions.

Recent research by Newman (1977), Casey (1979), Clements (198

Watson (1980), and Clarkson (Note 1) suggests that when schoolchild

attempt standard mathematical pencil-and-paper tasks the number

careless errors they make is about the same as the number of errors due

systematic weaknesses in process skills. However, while there is a la

and growing literature on process skills errors, and especially on er

due to the application of inappropriate or faulty arithmetical proce

(Brown & Burton, 1978; Clement, 1977; Cox, 1975; Davis, McKnig

Parker, & Elrick, 1979; McAloon, 1979), the literature on careless er

is relatively sparse. This, together with the increasing tendency

writers to maintain that most, or perhaps even all, mathematical err

are systematic (see, for example, Brown & Burton, 1978, p. 157; Col

Gay, Glick, & Sharp, 1971, pp. xii-xiii; Davis & McKnight, 1979, p. 1

Ginsburg, 1977, pp. 50-68; Radatz, 1979, p. 170), suggests that there

need for research into careless errors in mathematics. In the present stud

an operational definition of careless errors is provided and used in

investigation into the mathematical errors made by 50 sixth-grade ch

dren.

Method

Students

attending an international primary school in Lae, Papua New Guinea.

This paper was written while the author was on study leave at the Mathematics

Education Centre, Papua New Guinea University of Technology (Lae), between

February and July 1980.

136

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Most of the children's parents were expatriates, from Australia, New

Zealand, or England, and income earners in the families typically held

responsible business or professional positions. All teachers at the school

were expatriates.

Instruments

was given to the children twice, on successive days. This test, construct-

ed by the author, contains 20 numeration items, 8 mathematical space

items, and 8 mathematical language and logic items; it has been used in

large research projects involving children between 9 and 14 years of age,

and the difficulties of the questions are such that a large sample of sixth-

grade children in a study involving over 100 schools in Victoria averaged

26 questions correct out of 36.

Kagan's cognitive style test, Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) (Kagan,

1965), was used in order that impulsive (fast) and reflective (slow)

subjects in the sample might be identified. Responses were timed to the

nearest second, and a record was kept of each response until the correct

answer was given.

Three other tests were used for the purpose of measuring the students'

arithmetical competence, their confidence when attempting mathematical

tasks, and their understanding of mathematical language. The first two of

these tests were constructed by the author; the mathematical language

test was constructed by Jones (see Clements & Lean, Note 2). The

arithmetic test consisted of 25 open-ended calculations involving the four

operations and ranging in difficulty from 27 + 4 to 11 - 1.3. The test

contained no words, only numerals and symbols indicating which numeri-

cal operations were to be used. The mathematical confidence test

contained 20 word problems or arithmetical calculations, together with a

Likert-scale response section which required subjects to indicate, by

placing checks in one of five columns, how confident they were that their

answers were correct. The columns were headed thus:

(b) I think I'm right

(c) I've got a 50-50 chance of being right

(d) I think I'm wrong

(e) I'm certain I'm wrong

(a) response) to -2 (for an (e) response). The mathematical language test

is a pencil-and-paper test containing 17 open-ended questions involving

understanding of comparative terms like more and less and longer and

shorter. The following two questions from the test are typical:

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Question 6: What is 3 more than 6?

Question 10: Anne has 3 less shells than Gertrude. If Anne has 5 shells,

how many shells does Gertrude have?

The difficulty level of the test is such that children in grades 2, 4, and 6 in

the two international primary schools in Lae averaged 9, 13, and 15

questions correct, respectively, out of 17.

Two other variables, which did not require additional testing, were

defined. A student's misplaced confidence was measured from the

responses to the mathematical confidence test: A score of 2 was allocated

whenever a student obtained an incorrect answer to a question but

indicated the certainty of being right; a score of 1, if an incorrect answer

was given and the student thought (but was not certain) the answer was

correct; and 0 in all other cases. Scores obtained for the 20 items on the

mathematical confidence test were summed in order to find misplaced

confidence scores. The other variable was the total time, to the nearest

minute, a student took to complete the MAMP test (first administration

only), the arithmetic test, and the mathematical language test.

Procedure

examiners over a period of 3 days. About 1 week after the MFF testing

was completed the writer administered the four pencil-and-paper tests, as

group tests. This testing occurred on 2 successive mornings-

on the first, the MAMP, mathematical confidence, and mathematical

language tests were given and on the second the arithmetic test was given

and the MAMP test readministered. No time limit was placed on any of

the pencil-and-paper tests, the students being told that they could hand in

their papers as soon as they had finished and thoroughly checked their

work. A careful notation was made of each student's beginning and

ending time so that each one's total time on each test could be calculated.

About 1 week after the pencil-and-paper testing was completed, the

author individually interviewed the students to ascertain, if possible, why

certain errors had been made. The Newman interview technique was used

(Newman, 1977).

In this study careless errors were defined with respect to responses for

the twice-administered MAMP test only. The following procedure was

adopted for identifying careless errors:

questions on one occasion but wrong answers on the other; these students

were interviewed, the Newman method being used to probe the students'

thinking about those questions for which they had given one right and one

wrong response.

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2. If, during the Newman interview, a student once again obtained an

incorrect answer to a question, then the original error was not classified

as careless.

answer to a question without any assistance from the interviewer, the

the error was classified as careless provided further probing did no

suggest the student was unsure whether the answer was right or wrong

As part of the probing procedure the student was shown the two origina

answers and asked which was correct.

Results

correct responses on the MAMP test and the arithmetic and mathematical

language tests. It also shows the means and standard deviations of the

mathematical confidence and misplaced confidence scores, the number of

Table 1

Summary Information and Data

Possible Actual

Test or range range Mean Standard

variable of scores of scores score deviation

MAMP (2) 0-36 12-36 27.8 5.8

Arithmetic 0-25 10-24 17.8 3.8

Mathematical language 0-17 8-17 15.4 2.2

Mathematical confidence -40-+40 + 1-+40 25.0 10.4

Misplaced confidence 0-40 0-13 5.4 3.7

MFF (errors) 0-50 0-13 4.7 2.9

MFF (time) (seconds) 10.2-54.9 23.0 9.3

Total time (minutes) 44-100 61.9 12.7

they made first selections of pictures

row shows the mean and standard d

nearest minute, students took on the

the arithmetic test, and the mathema

Errors

students took the MAMP test. Of these 638 were double errors, that is to

say, students missed on both occasions; the other 265 were single errors,

that is, students got correct answers on one, but not both, occasions.

Although double errors cannot, for the purpose of this paper, be regarded

as careless errors, 76% of these were stable double errors, that is, the

same incorrect answer was given twice.

The Newman interviews revealed that 190 of the 265 single errors were,

in fact, careless errors. Thus, 21% of the 903 errors made on the MAMP

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test were careless. In fact, 122 (64%) of the careless errors occurred the

first time, and 68 (36%) occurred the second time.

Table 2 shows Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients be-

tween the number of careless and double errors and scores for arithmetic,

mathematical language, mathematical confidence, misplaced confidence,

and total time. It also shows the correlations between the proportions of

errors that were careless and the scores for arithmetic, mathematical

language, mathematical confidence, misplaced confidence, and total time.

Table 2

Correlations of Five Variables with Number and

Proportion of Careless Errors, and with

Number of Double Errors (n = 50)

Correlation with ...

Number of Number of Proportion

careless double of careless

Variable errors errors errors

2. Mathematical language -0.36* -0.75** 0.29*

3. Mathematical confidence -0.17 -0.59** 0.31*

4. Misplaced confidence 0.30* 0.47** -0.29*

5. Total time 0.17 0.50** -0.28*

** Indicates p < 0.01.

obtained between the numbers

ance on the arithmetic and ma

ly positive correlations were o

double errors and misplaced c

dence and total time correlate

errors but not with the numb

Thus, students who were we

mathematical language tended

double errors. Such children t

solve mathematical problems,

do problems, their confidence

supported by the high correla

confidence (r = 0.54) and mathematical language and mathematical

confidence (r = 0.70). Table 2 also suggests that students who take less

time on mathematical tasks make fewer errors (although only marginally

fewer careless errors).

Entries in the column in the right-hand side of Table 2 indicate that

moderate, but significantly positive, correlations were obtained between

the proportion of errors that were careless and three of the variables-

arithmetic, mathematical language, and mathematical confidence; also,

significantly negative correlations were obtained with two variables, total

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time and misplaced confidence. This suggests that students who had a

sound grasp of arithmetic and mathematical language, who worked

relatively quickly on mathematical problems, or who believed they knew

how to obtain correct answers, tended to make a higher proportion of

careless errors than slower, less confident, and mathematically weaker

students.

MFF Results

errors and mean time on the MFF test was followed (Kagan, 1965), th

median response time being 22 seconds and the median number of erro

being 5. An impulsive student was defined as an individual who respond

ed on the MFF test in less than 22 seconds on the average but who mad

five or more errors on the 10 test items; a reflective student was defined as

one who took 22 seconds or more to respond but made four or fewer

errors. Using these definitions, 29 of the 50 students were either impulsive

or reflective, 17 being impulsive and 12 reflective.

Table 3 shows the mean number of careless and double errors and th

mean proportion of careless errors made by impulsive and reflecti

students on the two occasions they took the MAMP test. (Note that fo

the purposes of analysis a double error has been counted as two error

Table 3

Mean Number of Careless and Double Errors, and Mean Proportion

of Careless Errors, Made by Impulsive and Reflective Subjects

Subject Mean number of Mean number of Mean proportion

type careless errors double errors of careless errors

Impulsive 4.53 15.88 0.21

(n = 17) (SD = 2.35) (SD = 11.99) (SD = 0.20)

Reflective 3.08 9.00 0.23

(n = 12) (SD = 2.44) (SD = 6.69) (SD = 0.23)

students shown in Table 3 is statistically significant (p

the trend for impulsive students to make more mathem

reflective students is in accord with findings of other

example, Cathcart & Liedtke, 1969). Note that there is

Table 3 that impulsive students make a greater propor

errors than reflective students.

An interesting and surprising observation arising from the present study

is that mean time taken by students to select a picture in Kagan's MFF

test does not correlate significantly with total time on the first MAMP and

the arithmetic and mathematical language tests. Indeed, the Pearson

product-moment correlation coefficient which was obtained was negative

(r = -0.19). Many students who were classified as impulsive on the basis

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of their MFF responses were certainly not impulsive when doing mathe-

matical tests; similarly, many MFF reflective students were not reflective

on mathematical tests.

Discussion

blunt statistical tools have been used. The analysis given has been ma

correlational; therefore, interpretations are fraught with the difficu

that arise with this type of analysis. Sharper correlational procedur

such as partial correlation and multiple regression, have not been u

because neither the sample size nor the design of the study warran

them.

Despite these limitations, the results should be of interest to mathem

ics teachers and researchers concerned with analyzing children's mat

matical errors. The Newman interviews revealed that over 20% of the

errors made on the MAMP test were careless, in the sense that the

students knew how to do the questions and there were no obvious

reasons why they had erred. Recent research using the Newman method

has consistently produced data indicating that between 20% and 40% of

schoolchildren's mathematical errors are careless, and this emphasizes

the need for research into the nature and causes of careless errors.

Casey's (1979) study is the only other study known to the author in

which the question of why children make careless mathematical errors

has been investigated. In Casey's study 3206 errors made by 116 seventh-

grade boys were analyzed, an interview technique being used, and,

according to the analysis, 673 of the errors were what Casey termed

unknown block errors, a category which would include careless errors (in

the sense of the present paper). In a multiple regression analysis, with the

number of unknown block errors as the dependent variable and verbal

I.Q., nonverbal I.Q., reading comprehension, and arithmetical skill

manipulation as independent variables, only 5% of the variance in the

dependent variable was accounted for. This led Casey to conjecture that

unknown block errors were largely noncognitive in origin. The results of

the present study suggest, however, that the number of careless mathe-

matical errors correlates negatively with arithmetical and mathematical

language competence and positively with misplaced mathematical confi-

dence. Perhaps this could be summed up by saying that mathematically

weak students who do not know that they do not know are especially

likely to make careless errors. Data from the present study would also

indicate that such students make even more systematic errors than they

do careless errors.

The use of the proportion of careless errors as a variable in the present

study should be noted. When other variables were correlated with this

variable and with the variable defined by the number of careless errors,

very different patterns emerged. It seems that mathematically competent

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and confident children, who know that they know, tend to make a greater

proportion of careless errors than other children.

Indications from the present study are that the cognitive style variable

MFF will not be of much use in further investigations into mathematical

carelessness. Indeed, the data suggest that many MFF reflective children

are not reflective when attempting mathematical tasks. Similarly, many

MFF impulsive children are not impulsive when placed in a mathematical

context.

This study, and Casey's study, would seem to have opened a Pand

box. Much more needs to be known about the nature, extent, and

of careless errors before we can begin to take effective steps to era

them.

REFERENCE NOTES

fourth annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Austral

Hobart, University of Tasmania, 1980.

2. Clements, M. A., & Lean, G. A. Influences on mathematics learning in commun

schools in Papua New Guinea: Some cross-cultural perspectives (Report no. 1

Mathematics Education Centre, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, 1980

REFERENCES

Brown, J. S., & Burton, R. R. Diagnostic models for procedural bugs in basic mathemat

skills. Cognitive Science, 1978, 2, 155-192.

Casey, D. P. An analysis of errors made by junior secondary pupils on written mathema

tasks. Unpublished master's thesis, Monash University, 1979.

Cathcart, W. G., & Liedtke, W. Reflectiveness/impulsiveness and mathematics achi

ment. Arithmetic Teacher, 1969, 16, 563-567.

Clement, J. Patterns in Joey's comments on arithmetic problems. Journal of Childre

Mathematical Behaviour, 1977, 1 (4), 58-68.

Clements, M. A. Analyzing children's errors on written mathematical tasks. Educat

Studies in Mathematics, 1980, 11 (1), 1-21.

Cole, M., Gay, J., Glick, J. A., & Sharp, D. W. The cultural context of learning

thinking. London: Methuen, 1971.

Cox, L. S. Systematic errors in the four vertical algorithms in normal and handica

populations. Journal for Reseach in Mathematics Education, 1975, 6, 202-220.

Davis, R. B., McKnight, C., Parker, P., & Elrick, D. Analysis of student answers to sig

number arithmetic problems. Journal of Children's Mathematical Behaviour, 1979, 2

114-130.

Davis, R. B., & McKnight, C. Modelling the processes of mathematical thinking. Journal of

Children's Mathematical Behaviour, 1979, 2 (2), 91-112.

Ginsburg, H. The psychology of arithmetic thinking. Journal of Children's Mathematical

Behaviour, 1977, 1 (4), 1-89.

Kagan, J. Impulsive and reflective children: Significance of conceptual tempo. In J. D.

Krumboltz (Ed.), Learning and the education process, pp. 133-161. Chicago: Rand

McNally, 1965.

McAloon, A. Using questions to diagnose and remediate. Arithmetic Teacher, 1979, 27 (3),

44-48.

This content downloaded from 125.164.104.116 on Tue, 27 Feb 2018 23:54:09 UTC

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M. A. Clements & J. Foyster (Eds.), Research in mathematics education in Australia.

Melbourne: Swinburne Press, 1977.

Radatz, H. Error analysis in mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics

Education, 1979, 10, 163-172.

Watson, I. Investigating errors of beginning mathematicians. Educational Studies in

Mathematics, 1980, 11 (3), 319-329.

Program space at the 61st Annual Meeting in Detroit, Michigan, 13-16 April 1983, has

been reserved by the Conventions and Conferences Committee for those interested in

research and its implications for classroom teachers and curriculum builders. Three types of

sessions will be offered: reporting, research analysis and critiques, and implications for

teaching.

Reporting sessions will be short presentations of the findings of previously unreported

research. These sessions will have direct implications for mathematics educators. Research

analysis and critiques sessions will be of longer duration and will deal with recent

developments in the field of research. These sessions should be of interest primarily to those

who are actively engaged in research activities. Implications for teaching sessions will

present an opportunity for researchers to discuss with classroom teachers the findings,

results, and practical implications of a body of research on a currently important issue.

Sessions on implications for teaching will be selected from among submitted proposals as

well as by invitation from the Detroit Program Committee.

Those wishing to be considered for a place on the program must submit seven copies of a

typewritten, double-spaced abstract or proposal not exceeding 1000 words. The following

should be included in the mailing:

1. The name and professional affiliation of the author. If more than one person is involved,

complete information about the anticipated responsibility of each contributor must be

given.

2. The preferred mailing address of the contributor(s).

3. The title of the paper or presentation.

4. An abstract of the paper, or an outline of the presentation, clearly describing the purpose

and significance of the research, the conceptual framework, and the procedures, design,

analysis, findings, and conclusions.

5. A designation as to which of the three types of sessions the proposal is directed.

With each abstract or proposal submitted, the sender should enclose two self-addressed

postcards; one will be used to acknowledge the receipt of the proposal, the other to notify

the sender of the decision of the screening committee.

All materials submitted will be reviewed by persons selected by the NCTM Research

Advisory Committee and the Detroit Program Committee.

All submissions should be sent to Henry S. Kepner, Jr., Department of Curriculum and

Instruction, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201;

they must be postmarked by 1 July 1982.

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