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91652.

Green Material 4/25/00 9:37 AM Page 2

DESIGNER

HANDBOOK S TA I N L E S S

STEEL

THE GREEN

M AT E R I A L

Stainless
Steel

The
Value
Option
®
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TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S T H E P R O D U C T I O N C Y C L E O F S TA I N L E S S S T E E L

THE PRODUCTION CYCLE OF
STAINLESS STEEL 1

What is Stainless Steel 1

Stainless Steel Industry 2


SOCIETY HAS BECOME (or ingots) are then reheated and rolled
STAINLESS STEEL – I N C R E A S I N G LY C O N C E R N E D or forged into hot bands (for sheet & strip
THE MATERIAL ITSELF 3 W I T H T H E H E A LT H O F T H E products) or billets (for bar & wire prod-
Criteria For Evaluating The N AT U R A L E N V I R O N M E N T A N D ucts) or plates or structural shapes. Hot
“Greenness” of Stainless Steel 3 T H E R O L E O F M AT E R I A L S I N rolled sheet can then be further processed
Environmental Principles 3 I M PA C T I N G T H E E C O S Y S T E M . by cold rolling into cold rolled sheets and
The recognition of and response to strips. Billets can be either hot rolled fur-
Environmental Management Systems 3
environmental concerns is often called ther into hot rolled bars or rods. Bars can
Materials, Energy, Water Usage 3 “greening.” The “greenness” or quality of be cold finished by turning or machining.
Pollution Prevention 4
environmental performance is leading some Rods can be further processed by drawing
to consider this in materials selection. into wire.
Waste Minimization 4
This designer handbook will attempt to Table 1 shows the classifications of
Recycling 4 outline the numerous environmental con- various stainless steel product forms.
siderations associated with the production, Further information can be found in
Environmental Compliance Evaluations 4
use and recyclability of stainless steel. the Designer Handbooks available from
Participation in Cooperative Environmental evaluation criteria are iden-
Environmental Councils the Specialty Steel Industry of North
tified and the performance of stainless America (SSINA).
and Partnerships 4
steel against these criteria is noted in
Communication of order to assess the “greenness” of stain-
Environmental Activity 4 W H AT I S S TA I N L E S S S T E E L ?
less steel. In order to understand and
Stainless steel is not a single alloy but
Environmental Releases and evaluate stainless steel as a material,
Sustainable Relationship with rather the name applies to a group of
a brief description of the production
the Natural Environment 4 iron based alloys containing a minimum
process is outlined below:
of 10.5% chromium. Other elements such
Health 5 Exhibit 1 (see page 5) illustrates the
as nickel and molybdenum are added and
Publications Available 5
typical process for making a variety of
the chromium content increased to
stainless steel products. The first step is
The Making of Stainless Steel 5 improve corrosion resistance, improve heat-
the selection of “raw material.” This
resisting properties, and/or to improve
Stainless Steel Producers BC consists of recycled stainless steel scrap
fabricating characteristics. There are over
(usually 75 to 85% of the furnace charge)
60 stainless steel grades that were origi-
plus alloying elements such as chromium,
nally recognized by the American Iron and
The information included in this handbook has nickel, molybdenum and others that will
been prepared for the general information of the Steel Institute (AISI). It is the presence
make up the composition of the particular
reader based on information obtained or otherwise of chromium that creates the invisible
type of stainless steel being produced.
available to the Specialty Steel Industry of North surface layer that prevents the rusting
America (SSINA). SSINA and the individual This material is then charged into an
of the iron base by forming a complex
companies it represents have made every effort electric furnace where it is melted. Once
chrome oxide that will not let oxygen
to ensure that information presented is technically liquefied, this charge is then transferred to
correct. However, neither the SSINA nor its member attack the surface.
an AOD (Argon Oxygen Decarburization)
companies warrants the accuracy of the information
vessel, where the carbon content is
contained in this handbook or its suitability for any
general and specific use. The SSINA assumes no reduced and the final chemistry is obtained.
liability or responsibility of any kind in connection The gaseous releases from both of these
with the use of this information. The reader is operations are collected and the dust
advised that the material contained herein should recycled to reclaim the metallic compounds.
not be used or relied on for any specific or general
The liquid stainless is then poured into a
application without first securing competent advice
with respect to its suitability. continuous casting machine (or possibly
into individual ingot molds) where it
solidifies into slabs or ingots. The slabs

S TA I N L E S S S T E E L The Ultimate Renewable Resource


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Three general classifications are used to Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) STAINLESS STEEL
identify stainless steel. They are: to apply to all commercial metals and INDUSTRY
1. Metallurgical structure. alloys. The stainless steel industry is a group
2. The AISI numbering system The various types of stainless steel are of companies that produce or process
(200, 300, 400 series). detailed in a designer handbook, Design stainless steel products. Most belong
Guidelines for the Selection and Use of to the Specialty Steel Industry of North
3. The Unified Numbering System, which
Stainless Steel, available from the SSINA. America (SSINA), a trade association
was developed by the American Society
based in Washington, DC. A listing of
for Testing Materials (ASTM) and the
member companies is contained on the
back cover of this handbook.

Table 1 C L A S S I F I C AT I O N O F S TA I N L E S S S T E E L P R O D U C T F O R M S *

ITEM DESCRIPTION DIMENSIONS


Thickness Width Diameter or Size
Sheet Coil and cut lengths: under 0.1875" (4.76mm) 24.000" (609.6mm) and over —
Hot Rolled No. 1
Cold Rolled No. 2D, 2B, under 0.1875" (4.76mm) 24.000" (609.6mm) and over
Bright Annealed, TR
Polished No. 3, 4, 6, 7 & 8 under 0.1875" (4.76mm) 24.000" (609.6mm) and over
Strip Coils and cut lengths: under 0.1875" (4.76mm) under 24.000" (609.6mm) —
Hot Rolled No. 1
Cold Rolled No. 2D, 2B, under 0.1875" (4.76mm) under 24.000" (609.6mm)
Bright Annealed, TR
Polished No. 3, 4, 6, 7 & 8 under 0.1875" (4.76mm) under 24.000" (609.6mm)
Plate Coils and cut lengths: 0.1875" (4.76mm) and over over 10.000" (254mm) —
Hot Rolled, annealed & pickled
Polished available for 0.1875" (4.76mm) and over over 10.000" (254mm)
special applications
Bar Straight lengths: — — 0.250" (6.35mm)
Hot finished rounds, squares, and over
octagons and hexagons
Hot finished flats 0.125" (3.18mm) and over 0.250" (6.35mm) to —
10.000" (254mm)
Cold finished rounds, squares, — — 0.062" (1.59mm)
octagons and hexagons and over
Cold finished flats — 0.375" (9.53mm) and over —
Rod Hot Rolled coils may be annealed — — 0.200" (5.54mm)
and/or descaled and over
Wire Cold finishes only: — — 0.500" (12.7mm)
Rounds, squares, octagons and under
and hexagons
Flat wire (coils only) 0.010" (0.254mm) to 0.062" (1.59mm) to
under 0.185" (4.76mm) under 0.375" (9.53mm)
Pipe & Several different classifications with differing specifications are available. 2
Tube For information on standard sizes, consult your local Steel Service Center or the SSINA.
Extrusions Not considered “standard” shapes, but available.
Currently limited in size to approximately 6.50" (165.1mm) diameter circle, or structural to 5.00" (127mm) diameter.
* Ingots, Slabs, Hot Bands, Angles and Rolled Shapes are also available
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S TA I N L E S S S T E E L – T H E M AT E R I A L I T S E L F

C R I T E R I A F O R E VA L U AT I N G growth. To fulfill this long-standing com- 3 M A T E R I A L S , E N E R G Y,


THE “GREENNESS” OF mitment, SSINA has adopted the following WAT E R U S A G E
S TA I N L E S S S T E E L guiding principles: The environmental impact of the use of raw
A wide variety of criteria exists that can •Develop and integrate environmental materials, energy, and water in the produc-
be used to evaluate the environmental programs into corporate policies and tion of stainless steel is outlined below:
performance of stainless steel, as procedures. RAW MATERIAL : Recycled stainless steel or
shown below. •Manage raw materials, byproducts, other alloy scrap containing the basic
co-products, and wastes in compliance elements that will form stainless steel
Criteria for Evaluating the Greenness
with applicable federal, state, and local after melting in the electric furnace.
of Stainless Steel
environmental laws and regulations. Scrap is inspected for quality, content,
1. Environmental Principles
• Consider environmental impacts when and radiation as it enters the facilities.
2. Environmental Management Systems
evaluating new projects, technologies, NOTE: Stainless steel is 100% recyclable
3. Materials, Energy, Water Usage and manufacturing processes. and all available stainless steel scrap is
4. Pollution Prevention • Promote the conservation of natural collected for recycling both from within
5. Waste Minimization resources, pollution prevention and the plant itself and from customers and
6. Recycling minimization, and the legitimate fabricators after a useful life in the mar-
recycling and reuse of materials in ketplace. Stainless steel does not require
7. Environmental Compliance Evaluations
manufacturing processes. a surface coating that can deteriorate to
8. Participation in Cooperative
• Encourage the research and develop- possibly pollute the environment.
Environmental Councils and
ment of improved manufacturing and ALLOYING ELEMENTS : Generally consist
Partnerships
environmental technologies and the of ferro-chrome and ferro-nickel that are
9. Communication of Environmental mined and refined before being delivered
wider use of long-lasting, recyclable
Activity to the plant site. Environmental considera-
specialty steel products.
10. Environmental Releases and tions for these products can be obtained
• Foster employee awareness of their
Sustainable Relationship with the from the International Chromium
environmental responsibilities within
Natural Environment Development Association and the Nickel
corporate policies.
• Respond appropriately to community Development Institute.
1 E N V I R O N M E N TA L and customer information requests. SL AG : A byproduct of the electric furnace
PRINCIPLES melting operation. It is collected, metals
It is necessary to guide many corporate reclaimed, and the aggregate produced
2 E N V I R O N M E N TA L
environmental actions. Therefore, for reuse or supply to other industries for
MANAGEMENT
developing an environmental policy is use, such as road bed material.
SYSTEMS
one of the most important components ENERGY : The electric furnaces that are
Commitment from top management is
of environment management. Many of used to melt the raw materials are state-
critical for the success of environmental
the producers of stainless steel in North of-the-art with computer controls to
management efforts. SSINA member com-
America have such a policy. Additionally, ensure the efficient use of electric power.
panies have established an Environmental
the SSINA has a statement of environ- Many companies contract with the utility
Affairs Department analogous to the
mental principles. These principles are companies to use off-peak power and/or to
marketing and finance departments, or
consistent and similar to the environmental level power usage in high demand periods.
designated individuals, which address
policy of individual companies. WATER USAGE : Water is used mainly as
environmental issues and interact with
SSINA member companies are commit- a cooling medium. Applications include
business units in the corporation and
ted to operating their facilities in compli- use of a heat exchange medium for non-
regulatory agencies to assure compliance
ance with applicable federal, state and contact cooling process during hot rolling
with environmental regulations.
local environmental laws and regulations, and in the “pickling” (acid wash) treat-
the promotion of environmentally and ment after rolling. Many companies
scientifically-sound and cost-effective recycle most of their cooling waters up
corporate and public policies, while simul- to 100 times prior to discharge.
3
taneously fostering continued economic

S TA I N L E S S S T E E L Excellence in Product Stewardship


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4 POLLUTION the long life of stainless steel products projects, and partners in spill response
PREVENTION contributes to resource minimization, activities. They provide technical assis-
AIR EMISSIONS : The air emissions from since new resources are not needed tance upon request. Member companies
the electric furnaces and AOD vessel are as often to replace corroded or failed in Pennsylvania have collectively been
collected via a series of ductwork and products. Stainless steel is collected by awarded the “Pennsylvania Governor
hoods, then routed to a high efficiency metal scrap dealers all around the world Award for Environmental Excellence,”
fabric filter (bag house) where the solid and sent back to the melt shop for use receiving five awards in the past ten years.
particles are collected and processed for in producing new stainless steel. The
metals recovery. The air emissions from stainless steel that is processed in the 9 C O M M U N I C AT I O N
acid pickling are collected and routed to a electric furnace is of the same quality O F E N V I R O N M E N TA L
fume scrubber to remove the acid mists. as the original and is not “downgraded” ACTIVITY
Many acid pickling operations include as is the case with some other so-called
A measure of an organization’s commit-
chemical fume scrubbers for a greater recycled materials.
ment to the environment is its level of
level of removal. communications. Member companies
WATER TREATMENT : All plant water is 7 E N V I R O N M E N TA L have various levels of mechanisms to
collected and passed through a treatment COMPLIANCE communicate environmental information
facility. Wastewater is generated from E VA L U AT I O N S to others. Typical examples include:
many different sources. Waters are treated Environmental compliance evaluations employee newspapers, environmental
and re-used to the maximum extent feasi- involve examining the procedures and training for employees, web pages, press
ble through the use of clarification and practices to see if they meet legal and releases, disclosure statements in 10K
filtration equipment that meets best avail- internal requirements for good environ- forms, annual reports, environmental
able technology standards. Acid metering mental practice. The member companies reports, SSINA publications, presentations
equipment and acid recovery equipment of the SSINA use such practices. to schools, chambers of commerce,
are utilized in the pickling process to Rotary clubs, etc.
minimize waste and recover used acid. 8 PA R T I C I PAT I O N
I N C O O P E R AT I V E 10 E N V I R O N M E N T A L
5 WA S T E M I N I M I Z AT I O N E N V I R O N M E N TA L RELEASES AND
Wherever possible, minimization of waste COUNCILS AND S U S TA I N A B L E
is a major objective in the stainless steel PA R T N E R S H I P S R E L AT I O N S H I P
industry. All discarded pieces of product The stainless steel industry is involved W I T H T H E N AT U R A L
(such as the tail ends and edge trims) with various governmental and environ- ENVIRONMENT
are collected and segregated by type and mental councils and partnerships. The One of the most commonly used indica-
returned to the electric furnace as recycled industry and one member company was tors of environmental performance is the
in-house scrap. Packaging usually consists a participating member in a task force amount of hazardous and waste material
of wrapping paper, steel bands, and wooden named the Common Sense Initiative. The released. The specialty steel industry gen-
cradles, all of which can and are recycled mission of the task force, chaired by the erates hazardous electric furnace dust and
to reduce solid waste generation. Administrator of the U.S. Environmental waste pickle liquor. One hundred percent
Protection Agency, was to streamline regu- of the industry’s electric furnace dust is
6 RECYCLING lations. Also, most member companies recycled for metals recovery purposes and
were participants in the federal 33/50 therefore not discharged into the environ-
As mentioned in the section on waste
Program. This voluntary program reduced ment. Most companies operate acid recov-
minimization all stainless steel products
the release and transfer of 17 targeted ery units to minimize generation of waste
are 100% recyclable and have value even
chemicals nationally by 50% based on pickle liquor. All companies either recycle
after a very long life as capital goods
1994 TRI data. Member companies also or treat waste pickle liquor, rendering it
or consumer products. Products like fast
participate at the local levels by involve- non-hazardous prior to disposal.
food equipment, automotive exhaust
ment in programs such as River Sweep,
systems, kitchen sinks, boat shafting,
various watershed associations, pollution
aircraft parts, building roofs, etc., can all
prevention roundtables, Boy Scouts,
be fully recycled after a useful life. In fact 4
regional air quality partnerships, county
picnics, leadership rolls in LEPC (Local
Emergency Planning Commission), Wild
Turkey Federation, Ducks Unlimited, pri-
vate game reserves, wetlands recovery
T H E M A K I N G A N D R E C Y C L I N G O F S TA I N L E S S S T E E L

H E A LT H A B D

A study by EUROFER (European ALLOYS and STEEL SCRAP to INGOTS to SOAKING to BLOOM / BILLETS to
Confederation of Iron and Steel to ELECTRIC FURNACE PIT to BLOOMING / I L U STRUCTURAL SHAPES /
Industries) published in January AOD VESSEL to SL ABBING MILL BAR / WIRERODS / WIRE
1999 entitled “Manufacture, MOLTEN STAINLESS or or
Processing and Use of Stainless STEEL C E

Steel: A Review of the Health Effects” to CONTINUOUS to SL ABS to HOT ROLLED


CONCLUDED : CASTING SHEET AND STRIP to
1. Stainless steels themselves do not COLD MILL/SENDZIMIR MILL
cause adverse effects on health to COLD ROLLED SHEET /
and so do not need to be classified STRIP / PL ATE
as hazardous to health. or SL ABS to PL ATES
2. There is no indication from the
available data that the manufac- D
ture of stainless steel adversely
affects the health of workers.
B
3. The grinding and cutting of stain-
less steel do not appear to cause
any adverse health effects.
4. The welding of stainless steel does
not cause any stainless-steel- C

specific increase in the risk of lung A1


cancer over and above the
increased risk from any steel
welding. E

P U B L I C AT I O N S
AVA I L A B L E
“Full Life Cycle of Stainless Steel –
The Right Material for our
Environment”
Published by the SSINA
Minimization of waste is Stainless steel products
“Manufacture, Processing, and Use
a major objective in the are 100% recyclable
of Stainless Steel: A Review of the
stainless steel industry. and have value even
Health Effects”
All discarded pieces of after a very long life as
Published by EUROFER (January 1999) product (such as the tail capital goods or consumer
R E C Y C L Eends and edge trims) are products. Stainless steel
collected and segregated products can be fully
by type and returned to recycled after a useful life.
the electric furnace as
recycled in-house scrap.

S TA I N L E S S S T E E L 100% Recyclable
R
R EE C
CYYC
C LL EE
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F F
to END USES

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CYYC
C LL E
E RECYCLE