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AFST 2100 Test 3 UGA Akindipe

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1. 3 Components of Vulnerability: - Sensitivity (how much impact 17. Culture and Musical Homogeneity: - Culture throughout Africa
a natural system can take) is very different but Musical homogeneity is often quite high
- Risk Exposure (how many threats people and land face) 18. Definition of music in Africa: - Perceived quite differently in
- Coping ability (how well can we manage the threats) Africa than in the West
2. 4 characteristics of Low-resource agriculture: - Climate and - used to describe drumming, dancing, miming, acting, singing,
Weather and sending messages
- Water Availability 19. Deserts, drylands, and savannas: - 40% of Africa's land
- Soil types, topography, and fertility - Desertification (not spread of Sahara) is causing a loss of
- Pests and disease productivity in agriculture and grazing
3. Aerophones: - wind instruments such as flutes, horns, and - Sensitivity: small drought can have a big impact
trumpets - Risk exposure: subsistence farmers
4. African Culture and Gender: African Culture and Gender - Coping ability: some of the poorest countries in world (so
bad)
5. Africanization of European Sports: - boxing was symbol of
- Greatest concentration of animal biomass in the world
urban sophistication (uplift black race, independence, self-
defense, discipline in European way) 20. Dr. Maria Navarro (Ch. 8): Dr. Maria Navarro
- Soccer changed as well 21. Economic Development: Economic Development
6. Africa's environmental contexts: - Deserts, drylands, and 22. Environmental concerns: - Biodiversity Conservation
savannas - Water Scarcity
- Forests - Climate Change
- Farmlands - Poverty and development
- Urban areas - Conflict
- Mining areas 23. Environmental Issues: - Arise at intersection of human
7. Agriculture in Tanzania: - 60% of workforce activities and environmental context
- 40% of food consumption comes from farming - Varies from place to place
- economic key to poverty reduction - Vulnerability approach assesses the threats and costs to
- Agriculture closely related to food security ecosystems and human well-being
8. Average life expectancy compared to rest of world: - Rest of 24. Environmental Issues (King): Environmental Issues (King)
world is around 83 years and Africa is around 52 25. Ethnomusicologists: - people who study music as well as how
9. Birth rate trend and % population under 15: - Birth rate has it affects the culture or how the culture influences the music
been on a steady decline 26. European Partition of Africa: - French (direct rule) and British
- 43% of population in Africa is under 15 (older pop getting (indirect Rule) had largest impact
smaller at 3% but is a slight increase) - Direct rule leads to assimilation
10. Bull-fighting and horse riding: - bull fight in Kenya to promote - Indirect rule appointed local leaders
inter and intra-community relations and local tourism 27. Factors Affecting rural life: - Poverty (trap)
- throw stuff at other people riding horses - Conflict
11. Ch. 10 Africa Health Issues: Ch. 10 Africa Health Issues - Environmental Degradation and Natural disasters
12. Ch. 13 Music and Dance: Ch. 13 Music and Dance - Climate Change
- Health
13. Ch. 14 Sports and Games: Ch. 14 Sports and Games
- Governance
14. Characteristics of small-scale agriculture: - low external input
28. Farmlands: - Soil degradation is problem because of
- low risk
population pressures and low water use efficiency
- dependency on agroecological factors
- Conservation Agriculture to try to get more crop per drop
- complexity and diversity
(increase yield, healthier soils, and local empowerment)
- divided labor
- Foreign companies often take lands and displace African
- land tenure
people
15. Chordophones: - string instruments such as bows - beginning to turn food into fuel
16. Constraints to agricultural development: - Access to markets 29. Fighting with stick games: - called Malso
for products and inputs - try to hit each other with sticks as much as possible
- Impacts of diseases and insects
- Rainfall Variability
- Low levels of cultivated land area
- Management Issues
- Financing inputs
30. Forests: - Deforestation because of population pressures, few 39. How does poverty lead to short-term thinking?: - People
other alternatives, and few laws to prevent it focus on immediate needs rather than planning for the future
- Bushmeat (meat of primates) 40. How many homecoming were in the video?: 3
- Foreign companies often mine in Africa and hurts the
41. How many people rely on the land for everyday necessities
environment while providing very few local benefits
in Africa?: - About two out of every three
31. Four main categories of Instruments: - Idiophones
42. Idiophones: - Most common instrument in Africa
- Membranophones
- produce sound without need of extra materials
- Aerophones
- Shaker or rattle
- Chordophones
43. Impact of colonialism on Africa game and sports: - De-
32. Frequent Myths about African Women: - have no voice
indiginezation of African sports
- have no power
- marriage between indigenous and European sports
- are weak
- European sports led to devaluation of African sports
- are oppressed
- British used schools sports as instruments of socialization
- are in the kitchen all the time
into European sports and way of life (boarding schools)
- are dependent on men
- European governments used ambassadors and missionaries
33. Functions of sports: - educational to institute European form of leisure activities in schools
- physical development of children and youth
44. Integrated Rural Development: - Tried to develop agriculture
- Social interactions of children of different and same age
along with sanitation, education and other needs which caused
groups
little investments to be spread thin
- Entertainment
- Social services expanded more rapidly than we could
34. Games with rhythmic movements and singing: - both sexes support
play ceremonial and non-ceremonial songs - Led to a basic needs approach in '70s
- new songs get invented to reflect culture
45. Is Flora or Alice more traditional?: - Flora
35. Gender and Culture relationship: - Gender expresses, reflects,
46. Jumping Games: - emphasize agility and physical strength
and classifies cultural perceptions which are easily discernible
- nandi and gikuyu jumping
through language
- Gender illustrates cultural experiences of everyday life and 47. Koija Group Ranch in Kenya: - Laikipia Maasai, communally
philosophy of life owned
- gender defines power structures both natural and - VERY little rain
supernatural - trying to restore the dryland

36. Gender Issues (Dainess): - Division of Labor (Some say 48. Membranophones: - drums with parchment heads
women do more work and some say the amount of work is 49. Millennium Development Goals: - There are eight goals that
equal) were created in 2000 to try to eliminate poverty throughout
- Gender discrimination (has to do with socio-cultural factors the world by 2015
resulting from patriarchal system; men own land and women The goals are:
seen as men positions) - Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
- Dowry (Men pay to bride's family furthering that women are - achieve universal primary education
men's property and it is a legal transaction) - gender equality and empower women
- Status of Women (Domestic violence was 60% of murder - reduce child mortality
cases in Zimbabwe in 2006; 50% of women in Tanzania and - improve materal health
71% in Ethiopia in rural areas reported domestic abuse) - Combat diseases
37. Gender issues in Agriculture: - Women are 50% of agriculture - ensure environmental sustainability
labor workforce and produce 60-80% food for consumption - develop global partnership for development
- Men own land and make money decisions 50. Mortality rate under 5: - 124 of every 1,000
- work is divided by age and gender 51. Non-equipment oriented sports: - wrestling (shows physical
38. How does HIV/AIDS affect agriculture?: - Get the disease and strength) (mostly men and boys but some girls as well such as
are unable to work in the fields and get a job Yakurr)
- decline in cattle production - many forms of wrestling
- reduction in land area under cultivation - youth practice wrestling and having fun
- decline in yields 52. Number of countries in Africa: 54
- change in cropping patterns 53. Nutrition: - Optimal nutrition is about getting right amount of
- loss in agricultural skills calories, vitamins, and minerals to maintain healthy body
- Causes lack of time, resources, and labor function. Quantity and Quality are both important.
54. % of Worlds poorest countries in conflict in last 15 years: - 68. Sports as an agent of social development: - basic
80% involvement in sports draws desire to be active in leisure or
55. Pastoralism in Africa: - linked social-ecological system competition
- livestock-based - diplomacy: sports can unite a nation
- subsistence, communal 69. Strategy board games: - develop conceptual skills and
- highly adaptive to drylands numeracy (kalah in Ethiopia
- about 100 million people do this 70. Three major areas of health care status in Africa: - Problems
56. Philosophical Period from 1950-1969: - Defined largely in in health care sector
terms of growth of per capita output (post WWII Marshall - Developmental problems
Plan) - Nature and composition of present state
- Transfer agricultural resources to other industries 71. Throwing Games: - spear throwing mostly by males (most
- Food is key to economic development widespread)
57. Philosophical Period from 1970- early 1980s: - all about - Hoop and stick throwing
growth with equity; including income distribution, employment, - spear and runguishek
and nutrition 72. Two types of malnutrition: - overnutrition and undernutrition
- Rapid growth causes terrible side effects especially social
73. Two types of systems in complex world: - Human systems
turmoil
- Natural systems
- Lack of trickle down economics causes income gaps to
- Can have combination of both
widen
74. Undernutrition: - underlying cause of 3.5 million child deaths
- Integrated rural development
per year
58. Philosophical Period from 2007 to now: - Feed the
- often leads to other diseases
future/partnerships
75. What is African Culture?: - A combination of the African core
59. Philosophical Period from Late 1980s to present: -
values, beliefs, behaviors and traditions as they existed prior
Macroeconomic and policy reform, restructuring, food security
to European contact and as they still exist to this day
emphasis and environmental sustainability
particularly in rural areas and in urban areas of African to
60. Play and Game forms: - variety of movements like dance and some extent
physical activities
76. What is Culture?: - A way of life
- fun based for kids
- sports 77. What is Gender?: - a natural phenomenon referring to human
- leisure activities for kids and adults physiology
- games used to promote child development, enhance social - social construct based on traditional, cultural, historical, and
interaction, and serve as bridge to adulthood political issues
- spiritual aspect evolving without anyone's control
61. Point of clarity: - Culture and gender issues differ by country
- complicated manifestation of evolving facets of human
based on their historical experiences
development
62. Predominant Crops: - Millet and Sorghum in Arid and semi-
78. What is Low-resource Agriculture?: - all you have is your
arid regions due to drought tolerance
time and your work. You have no money to buy any big tools
- Maize in areas with increased rainfall
or machines to help (50% of pop. survives on this)
- Roots, tubers, and plantains are major source of calories in
- 70-80% of people are involved with agriculture (more than
humid lowlands
rest of world)
63. Predominant Livestock: - Camels in Arid
79. What is the estimated amount of food on a grassland?: -
- Cattle in arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, highland
3,000 tons of food per square mile
- goats and sheep in humid lowlands
80. What is the largest ethnic group in Africa?: - Kikuyu
64. Problems with Urban industries: - Could not expand fast
81. What were the three homecomings and where were they
enough to support large work force. People kept moving from
going?: - Alice to the Kikuyu in Kenya
rural to urban areas
- Flora to Arusha in Tanzania
65. Rugby World Cup 1995: - Nelson Mandela used it to unite the
- The Animals were migrating across the grasslands
people of South Africa
82. Why is Alice going home and what is her son's name?: - She
66. Savannah Homecoming Video: Savannah Homecoming Video
is Kikuyu and but she lives in Nairobi and she is pregnant and
67. Sporting culture affected by: - Geography wishes for her children to be born back home because her first
- History son Scott was born there.
- Religion
- Economics
83. Why is Alice not traditional?: - Her children's names
- She wears shoes when back home
- She moved into the city
- She got pregnant without being married
- She gave birth in a hospital
84. Working definition of Gender: - natural concept regarding human physiology and how it permeates different contexts shaped by
traditional, cultural, historical, and political issues which are constantly evolving in light of local and global social development
- gender issues are intertwined with culture and need to be understood in light of specific societal and historical circumstances