You are on page 1of 9

Res. Agr. Eng.

Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91

Improving performance parameters of combustion

engine for racing purposes

T. Polonec, I. Janoško

Department of Transport and Handling, Technical Faculty, Slovak University

of Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic


Polonec T., Janoško I., 2014. Improving performance parameters of combustion engine for racing purposes.
Res. Agr. Eng., 60: 83–91.

Mechanical parts of stock engine have a performance reserve which could be utilized when the engine is used under
the race conditions. Especially normal turbocharged engines have their performance parameters designed to drive in
traffic, where a good flexibility, reliability, fuel consumption and a long service life is required. It is possible to utilize
the whole power of the engine, when changing or modifying some of its external parts and achieve better performance
parameters without modifying or changing internal engine components. Performed changes must be realized thought-
fully and on the admittable level, so the engine and other drive train components would not be damaged. In our study
we design several changes of external parts of engine which have a significant impact on the improvement of engine
performance parameters. Their contribution has been verified in practice by an engine dynamometer.

Keywords: engine; performance parameters; turbocharger; roller dynamometer

It is generally known that the engine perfor- – decrease of intake air temperature (behind tur-
mance is substantially dependent on the amount of bocharger),
air (oxygen), which enters to the combustion cham- – reduction of mechanical and airflow losses,
ber. Turbocharged engines are using turbochargers – optimization of intake and exhaust manifolds,
or compressors to increase the amount of induced – optimization of combustion processes by sophis-
air. The most commonly used charging system tur- ticated motor-management.
bocharger powered by kinetic energy of exhaust The purpose is to design the best solutions to
gases (Ferenc 2004; Sloboda et al. 2008; Čupera, improve the performance of normal supercharged
Šmerda 2010; Hromádko et al. 2010;). engine, to improve acceleration of the vehicle as
There are several ways to increase power of tur- much as possible, to verify these modifications by
bocharged engine: measurements on roller dynamometer, to assess
– increase of engine displacement, their contribution and propose other solutions to
– increase of turbocharger’s boost pressure and airflow, achieve even better results.

Supported by the Scientific Grant Agency VEGA of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic and Slovak Academy of
Sciences, Grant No. 1/0857/12 and by the Scientific Grant Agency KEGA of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic
and Slovak Academy of Sciences, Grant No. 044SPU-4/2014.

Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91 Res. Agr. Eng.

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. Measured vehicle (a) Fiat 127A and engine (b) Lancia 2,0 16V Turbo

MATERIAL AND METHODS compressor maps we have chosen the best turbo-
charger Turbo Tech 103 (Honeywell International
Measured vehicle. Performance measurement Inc., Morris Township, USA).
was done on a special prototype vehicle designed
for a drag race (Janoško, Polonec 2011). The base Airflow needed to achieve the performance
of the vehicle was bodywork of Fiat 127A (Fiat Auto target:
S.p.A., Torino, Italy). As the power unit Lancia 2.0 Qv = Pm × λ × SpSB
16V Turbo engine was used, which was placed in the
vehicle across, front of rear axle (Fig. 1).
Qv – airflow (kg/min)
The vehicle was two-door hatchback, with frame-
Pm – performance target (kW)
less steel body. Total weight of vehicle without driver
λ – air/fuel ratio (–)
was 830 kg.
SpSB – brake specific fuel consumption (kg/kW·min)
A powerful engine from Lancia Thema, made by
Fiat Auto S.p.A., Italy was used. It was petrol engine Required absolute manifold pressure to achieve
with charging by turbocharger. Displacement of en- performance target:
gine was 1,995 cm3 (bore: 84 mm, stroke: 90 mm). Qv × R × (255.6 +TP )
Engine had 4 cylinders in-line block with 16 valve pABS = (2)
DOHC head. Compression ratio is 8:1. Max. pow- ηVOL × ×Vm
er of stock engine was 147 kW at 5,500 min–1 and where:
torque 298 Nm at 3,750 min–1. pABS – required absolute manifold pressure (kPa)
Fuel delivery was provided by simultaneously Qv – airflow (kg/min)
multi point port fuel injection, controlled by elec- R – gas constant
tronic control unit Bosch LE2 – Jetronic (Robert Tp – intake manifold temperature (°C)
Bosch GmbH, Gerlingen, Germany). Ignition was ηVOL – volumetric efficiency (–)
fully electronic, “wasted-spark” type, controlled by n – engine speed (min–1)
electronic control unit Magneti Marelli MED 601E Vm – engine displacement (cm3)
(Magneti Marelli S.p.A., Corbetta, Italy).
Calculation of suitable turbocharger. In the Compressor discharge pressure:
calculations of suitable turbocharger we took ac- p2C = pABS + ΔpSTR (3)
count of future application of the vehicle in races where:
and we defined a max. engine power to 300 kW at p2C – compressor discharge pressure (kPa)
6,000 min–1. The best turbocharger for the intended pABS – absolute manifold pressure (kPa)
use of vehicle was calculated using the following re- ΔpSTR – pressure loss between the compressor and the
lations (Estill 2008). Substituting the results into manifold (determined to 14 kPa)

Res. Agr. Eng. Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91

4.5 Fig. 2. Compressor map of Garrett

GT3076R turbocharger
p2C/p1C – pressure ratio of inlet and
outlet of turbocharger






0 4.5 9.1 11.3 15.9 20.4 27.2
Corrected airflow (kg/min)

Compressor inlet pressure: quirements and the expected use of the vehicle for
p1C = pATM − ΔpSTR.S (4) racing purpose.

where: Calculation of theoretical injectors fuel flow:

p1C – compressor inlet pressure (kPa) Q
QP = V × ρ P (6)
pATM – ambient air pressure (at sea level) (kPa) λN
ΔpSTR.S – pressure loss in air filter and piping (determine where:
to 7 kPa) QP – flow of fuel (kg/min)
Pressure ratio: Qv – flow of air (kg/min)
p2C λN – numerical value of lambda (–)
∏ TD = ρP – fuel density (kg/m3)
p1C (5)
ΠTD – pressure ratio Because of lower heat stress of injectors we cal-
p1C – compressor inlet pressure (kPa) culated with approximately 80% duty cycle. Con-
p2C – compressor discharge pressure (kPa) sidering this duty cycle RC Racing injectors with
fuel flow 750 cm3/min were chosen (at 300 kPa fuel
Based on calculations of operating parameters pressure).
and substituting them into various compressor Calculation of heat ratios in the intercooler
maps we chose a Garrett GT3076R turbocharger (Estill 2008).
(Honeywell International Inc., Morris Township, (ΔT1 − ΔT2 ) ÷ F
W =U ×S×
USA). As seen on the compressor map (Fig. 2), this ⎛ ΔT ⎞ (7)
ln ⎜ 1 ⎟
turbocharger is the most suited to performance re- ⎝ ΔT2 ⎠

Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91 Res. Agr. Eng.

(a) F (b)

Tin Tex

P T2

Fig. 3. Heat diagram of correction factor F (a) and intercooler temperature scheme of inlet/outlet flow (b)
F – correction factor (–); P – temperature ratio (–); T1 – outside (cooling) air temperature on inlet (°C); T2 – outside (cooling)
air temperature on outlet (°C); Tin – compressed air temperature on inlet (°C); Tex – compressed air temperature on outlet (°C)

where: Tex −Tin

W – total transfer of heat energy (J) T1 −Tin (8)
U – heat transfer coefficient (W/m2·K)
T1 −T2 (9)
S – heat transfer surface (m2) R=
ΔT1 – difference between intercooler input air tempera- Tex −Tin
ture and temperature of cooling air behind inter- where:
cooler (Tin – T2) (°C) P, R – temperature ratios
ΔT2 – difference between output air temperature from Tex – compressed air temperature on outlet (°C)
intercooler and temperature of cooling air in Tin – compressed air temperature on inlet (°C)
front of intercooler (Tex – T1) (°C) T1 – outside (cooling) air temperature on inlet (°C)
F – correction factor T2 – outside (cooling) air temperature on outlet (°C)

Determination of the correction factor F. Cor- Calculating the amount of lost or received heat
rection factor F, taking into account the unequal on one side of exchanger:
distribution of heat at exchanger area, could be W = Qm × C P × ΔT (10)
read from the diagram according to the calculated
values of temperature ratios of P and R (Fig. 4). For where:
calculation of temperature ratios P and R we need W – heat energy transfer (J)
to know temperature of compressed air (Tin, Tex) Qm – mass airflow (kg/min)
and cooling air (T1, T2) on the inlets and outlets of Cp – heat capacity of air (J/K·mol)
the intercooler (Fig. 3). ΔT – difference of input and output temperatures (K)



Fig. 4. Airflow through the intercooler

T1 – outside (cooling) air temperature on inlet;
Tin T2 – outside (cooling) air temperature on out-
let; Tin – compressed air temperature on inlet;
Tex – compressed air temperature on outlet

Res. Agr. Eng. Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION – intake manifold replaced by shorter type from

Lancia Kappa,
Performed engine modifications – throttle body replaced by bigger one with inter-
nal diameter 73 mm,
The engine power can be measured by the dy- – stock exhaust manifold replaced by custom steel
namometer directly or through the power take-off manifold with pipes with diameter 42 mm,
shaft, or possibly on a roller bench or by the road- – boost pressure controlled by electronic control
board test (Semetko, Janoško 2005). After per- unit with solenoid valve.
formance measurement of stock engine the follow-
ing modifications were made:
Stage 1:
– turbocharger replaced by more powerful type The measurements were performed on the roll-
Garrett GT3076R, with rotor on ball bearings, er dynamometer MAHA LPS 3000 PKW 4 × 4
– injectors replaced by more powerful (RC Racing; (MAHA Maschinenbau Haldenwang GmbH & Co.
RC Engineering, Inc., Higgins Court Torrance, KG, Haldenwang, Germany) (Fig. 5).
USA) with fuel flow 750 cm3.min (at fuel pres- Parameters of dynamometer MAHA LPS
sure 300 kPa), 3,000 PKW:
– shortened exhaust system, removed mufflers, – max. measurable output: 520 kW (4 × 4 version),
– modified of sensing airflow by electronic control – max. measurable torque: 1,000 Nm,
unit, – accuracy: +/– 2%,
– intercooler placed in the box enabling cooling by – conversion of measured parameters according to
ice, technical norms.
– boost pressure controlled by manual boost con-
Procedure of measuring power and torque
Stage 2: on dynamometer
– stock electronic control units replaced by fully
programmable unit VEMS ver. 3.6 (Acmv LLC, The vehicle will start to gradually speed up to
Wilmington, USA), 50 km/h, on penultimate gear. Then depress accel-
– intercooler replaced by “water to air type” with erator pedal to maximum and watch the course of
cooling by circulated water, performance on monitor up to reach a max. engine

Fig. 5. Positioning vehicle on

dynamometer MAHA LPS
3,000 PKW

Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91 Res. Agr. Eng.

239.0 375

191.2 300
P (kW)

M (Nm)
143.4 225

95.6 150

47.8 75

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
n (min–1)

Performance data External data

Corrected power Pnorm 142.3 kW Air temperature 15.5°C
Engine power Pmot 141.6 kW Aspirated air temperature 19.1°C
Wheels power Pkolo 107.7 kW Relative air humidity 55.4%
Power losses Pztráty 34.6 kW Air pressure 1,008.0 hPa
Torque Mnorm 292.5 Nm Vapour pressure 9.8 hPa
3,905 min
Max. torque at n Oil temperature 16°C
126.1 km/h
6,120 min–1
Max. rpm Fuel temperature –
197.6 km/h

Fig. 6. Measurement of power and torque before engine modifications

speed. When max. speed is reached, the techni- However, the measured values of power and torque
cian pushes the clutch pedal and simultaneously were not significantly different from the manufac-
releases accelerator pedal. The wheels are left free turer’s values. Max. measured power [adjusted ac-
to catch up to 0 km/h. Dynamometer now records cording to DIN 70020 (1993)] was 142.3 kW and
power loss. The waveform of power, torque and torque was 292.5 Nm (Fig. 6).
losses are saved to the memory of dynamometer.

Measurement No. 2 – First level

Measurement No. 1 – Stock engine of modifications

First measurement was used to determine the The second measurement was performed after the
initial state. Engine with stock technical specifica- “Stage 1” of engine modifications (see “Performed
tions without any performance modifications was engine modifications” section). Conditions of meas-
installed in vehicle. Intake air temperature (in front urement were almost unchanged. According to the
of air filter) according to the testing laboratory was testing laboratory intake air temperature (in front
19.1°C, relative humidity 55.4% and atmospheric of air filter) was 18°C, relative humidity was 56.6%
pressure 1,008 hPa. and the atmospheric pressure was 1,007.9 hPa. In-
During the verification measurements slightly tercooler was cooled by ice with the temperature of
lower max. values, than those declared by manu- approx. 0°C. As it is seen on the graph of the sec-
facturer were recorded, but this was attributable to ond measurement (Fig. 7), the recorded power was
higher mileage and therefore wear of the engine. 210.2 kW and the torque was 400.3 Nm. An increase

Res. Agr. Eng. Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91

367.8 500

294.2 400
P (kW)

M (Nm)
220.7 300

147.1 200

73.6 100

0 0
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
n (min–1)

Performance data External data

Corrected power Pnorm 210.2 kW Air temperature 15.5°C
Engine power Pmot 209.5 kW Aspirated air temperature 19.1°C
Wheels power Pkolo 171.1 kW Relative air humidity 55.4%
Power losses Pztráty 38.4 kW Air pressure 1,008.0 hPa
Torque Mnorm 400.3 Nm Vapour pressure 9.8 hPa
4,130 min
Max. torque at n Oil temperature 16°C
133.4 km/h1
6,330 min–1
Max. rpm Fuel temperature –
204.5 km/h

Fig. 7. Measurement of power and torque after “Stage 1” engine modifications

of performance over the first measurement was tronic control unit, we were able to control the boost
67.9 kW and an increase of torque was 107.8 Nm. level with electronic control unit and solenoid valve.
This increase of power and torque was affected Max. boost pressure was now set to 1.6 bar, but be-
mainly by mechanical modifications of external cause we wanted to protect transmission system
parts of engine, exchange of turbocharger with a against high torque peaks, boost pressure was in-
more powerful one and an increase of intercooler creased slowly from 1 bar (at approx. 4,000 rpm) to
cooling efficiency. 1.6 bar at max. engine speed. This allowed driver to
utilize engine max. power and torque in high revolu-
tions, which is very useful in race conditions.
Measurement No. 3 – Second level Max. measured power (adjusted according to
of modifications DIN 70020 (1993)) was 310.7 kW and torque was
457.9 Nm. Increase of performance over the previ-
The third measurement was performed after ous (Stage 1) measurement was 100.5 kW and in-
“Stage 2” engine modifications (see “Performed en- crease of torque was 57.6 Nm. But more interesting is
gine modifications” section). According to the test- the increase of max. power over stock engine, which
ing laboratory intake air temperature (in front of air was 168.4 kW and for max. torque it was 165.4 Nm.
filter) was 22.3°C, relative humidity was 33.7% and In percentage, it is an increase of more than 118% of
atmospheric pressure was 982.4 hPa. As it is shown max. power and more than 56% of max. torque.
in the graph of the third measurement (Fig. 8), there This increase of power and torque mechani-
is one more shape (grey colour), which shows the cal modifications of intake and exhaust system,
boost pressure level. Since using new engine elec- exchange of intercooler and also exchange of the

Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91 Res. Agr. Eng.

367.8 500

294.2 400
P (kW)

M (Nm)
220.7 300

147.1 200

73.6 100

0 0
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
n (min–1)

Performance data External data

Corrected power Pnorm 310.7 kW Air temperature 20.5°C
Engine power Pmot 300.1 kW Aspirated air temperature 22.3°C
Wheels power Pkolo 256.3 kW Relative air humidity 33.7%
Power losses Pztráty 43.8 kW Air pressure 982.4 hPa
Torque Mnorm 457.9 Nm Vapour pressure 8.1 hPa
6,470 min–1 Oil temperature 19°C
Max. torque at n
202.8 km/h1 Fuel temperature –
6,495 min
Max. rpm Manifold air pressure (hPa)
203.6 km/h

Fig. 8. Measurement of power and torque after “Stage 2” engine modifications

Fig. 9. Modifying and logging data in programme VemsTune

Res. Agr. Eng. Vol. 60, 2014, No. 3: 83–91

stock electronic control units by fully programma- power up to 300 kW and engine is currently reaching
ble unit, allow us to optimise all necessary control more than 310 kW, we reached our goal. The manu-
parameters of ignition timing and fuel injection. facturer recommended this type of turbocharger also
for engines with power more than 400 kW, but if we
want to maintain the reliability at this high perfor-
Tuning of electronic control unit mance level, it will be necessary to exchange all in-
ternal components of engine by stronger, high quality
At the first and second measurements, engine forged parts in future. Next step must be modification
was controlled by stock control units only with of the transmission system and clutch, because now
modified airflow sensing system for adjusting the these parts are on their performance peaks.
correct air/fuel ratio at all driving conditions. To achieve higher performance parameters of the
Before measurement No. 3, we installed new, engine in future, it will be necessary to set up boost
fully programmable electronic control unit VEMS. pressure of turbocharger to higher level, upgrade
This unit allowed us to modify all necessary data camshafts and also to upgrade the fuel system.
to tune up main control parameters of the engine.
Modification of the parameters is possible in real References
time, without stopping the engine or disconnecting
control unit. Tuning was done in the official com- Čupera J., Šmerda T., 2010. Influence of engine power and
puter programme VemsTune (Acmv LLC, Wilm- shifting mode on energy-performance parameters of trac-
ington, USA), which allowed us to change engine tor’s set. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 56: 47–52.
management parameters and also to log actual data DIN 70020, 1993. Straßenfahrzeuge; Kraftfahrzeugbau; Be-
from all engine sensors (Fig. 9). griffe von Abmessungen. Berlin, DIN Deutsches Institut
für Normung e. V.
Estill J., 2008. Heat exchanger theory and intercoolers.
CONCLUSION Available at
This paper presents some options and method- Ferenc B., 2004. Spalovací motory – karburátory a vstřikování
ology for upgrading the turbocharging and fuel paliva. [Combustion engines – carburettors and fuel injec-
injection system to increase engine power, which tion.] 1st Ed. Prague, Computer Press.
can also be used (with some modifications) in oth- Hromádko J., Hromádko J., Hönig V., Miler P., 2011.
er types of turbocharged transport and agriculture Spalovací motory. [Combustion Engines.] Prague, Grada
vehicles to increase their dynamical parameters or Publishing.
working efficiency. Janoško I., Polonec T., 2011. Design of prototype vehicle for
From the measured values it can be seen what drag racing. In : Proceedings from XLII. International Student
benefits to an increase of the engine performance Scientific Conference: Recent Advances in Agriculture, Me-
parameters modifications of engine components chanical Engineering and Waste Policy. May 3–4, 2011, Nitra.
performed. During the measurements, we found an Semetko J., Janoško I., 2005. Zisťovanie parametrov traktorov
increase of the max. engine power, compared to the [Determination of Tractor΄s Parameters.] Nitra, ES SPU.
serial status, up to 168 kW and max. torque up to Sloboda A., Ferencey V., Hlavňa V., Tkáč Z. et al., 2008.
165 Nm. This increase is mainly due to an exchange Konštrukcia kolesových a pásových vozidiel. [Construction
of turbocharger for a more powerful one, optimising of Wheeled and Tracked Vehicles.] Košice, Vienala.
thus intake and exhaust manifolds and optimising
the fuel and ignition system for new engine setup. Received for publication May 22, 2012
Since we designed the turbocharger to be able to Accepted after corrections September 20, 2012
supply the necessary amount of air to the engine

Corresponding auhtor:

Doc. Ing. Ivan Janoško, CSc., Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Technical Faculty,
Department of Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
phone: + 421 37 641 4114, e-mail: